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Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS)

ISSN : 2249-8389

Lokāyata Journal of Positive Philosophy Problems in Contemporary Indian Society Volume I, Number 01 April-September, 2011

Chief-Editor: Dr Desh Raj Sirswal

Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS) Milestone Education Society (Regd.),Ward No.06, Pehowa (Kurukshetra)-136128 http://positivephilosophy.webs.com Lokāyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy, Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011


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Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS)

Lokāyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN 2249-8389) Lokāyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy is a bi-annual interdisciplinary journal of the Center for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS) . The name Lokāyata can be traced to Kautilya's Arthashastra, which refers to three ānvīkṣikīs (logical philosophies), Yoga, Samkhya and Lokāyata. Lokāyata here still refers to logical debate (disputatio, "criticism") in general and not to a materialist doctrine in particular. The objectives of the journal are to encourage new thinking on concepts and theoretical frameworks in the disciplines of humanities and social sciences to disseminate such new ideas and research papers (with strong emphasis on modern implications of philosophy) which have broad relevance in society in general and man‘s life in particular. The Centre will publish two issues of the journal every year. Each regular issue of the journal will contain full-length papers, discussions and comments, book reviews, information on new books and other relevant academic information. Each issue will contain about 100 Pages. © Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies, Pehowa (Kurukshetra) Chief- Editor: Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal, Assistant Professor (Philosophy), P.G.Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh (India) Associate Editors: Dr. Sandhya Gupta

Ms Poonama Verma

Language Editors: Ms Vipinjeet Kaur

Mr Raj Kumar

Editorial Advisory Board Prof. K.K. Sharma (Former-Pro-Vice-Chancellor, NEHU, Shillong) Dr Anamika Girdhar ( Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra) Dr.Ranjan Kumar Behera (Dimapur, Nagaland) Fr. V. John Peter (St. Joseph‘s Philosophical College, Nilgiris,TN) Dr Aayam Gupta (Lautoka, Fiji) Dr Geetesh Nirban (Kamala Nehru College, University of Delhi) Dr. Vaishali Dev (Mahamakut Buddhist University,Thailand) Dr Merina Islam (Cachar College, Silchar, Assam) Dr. Narinder Singh (GHSC-10, Chandigarh) Dr Vijay Pal Bhatnagar (Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra)

Declaration: The opinions expressed in the articles of this journal are those of the individual authors, and not necessary of those of CPPIS or the Chief Editor.

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In this issue……………..

PROBLEMS IN CONTEMPORARY INDIAN SOCIETY -C.Devi Meenakshi (04-12)

PROBLEMS IN CONTEMPORARY INDIAN SOCIETY -Ravinderpreet Kaur (13-19)

WOMAN IN 21ST CENTURY:ISSUES AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES -Manju Chauhan (20-25)

PROBLEMS IN CONTEMPORARY INDIAN SOCIETY -Niyati Kumari(26-32)

WOMEN IN 21st CENTURY: ISSUES AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES -Neha Vashishta (33-39)

PHILOSOPHY NEWS IN INDIA (40-47)

CONTRIBUTORS OF THIS ISSUE (48)

………………………………….. Note: The first issue of Lokāyata contains essays of students participated in National Level Essay Competition for Students on the theme ―Problems in Contemporary Indian Society‖ held on September 05, 2011 (Teacher‘s Day) Lokāyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy, Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011


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LokÄ yata: Journal of Positive Philosophy Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011, pp.04-12

PROBLEMS IN CONTEMPORARY INDIAN SOCIETY -C.Devi Meenakshi INTRODUCTION India is indeed incredible for its natural wealth, Unity in Diversity, Monuments, rich biodiversity and remarkable achievements. India is a picture of diversity seen in her people, culture, colourful festivals, dresses and costumes, religions, flora and fauna and varying landscapes. It has made glorious progress in diverse fields since independence. But still there are several problems in the Indian Society hindering the progress of our nation. Issues such as terrorism, caste discrimination, influence of westernization on Indian culture are a few examples of menacing troubles in the present Indian Society. WOMEN IN 21ST CENTURY: ISSUES AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES The status of women has improved a lot in the post Independent India. Women have started enjoying equal status with men. Our society and the nation has started respecting women. Women are occupying high positions and good jobs. Mrs.Prathiba Patil, who is the President of India, Mrs. Meera Kumar,the Speaker of Lok Sabha, Mrs.Nirupama Rao, the Foreign Secretary, Mrs.Kiran Bedi, an ex-IPS Officer and social activist are the living examples bearing testimony to women empowerment. With education and awareness women will have the right knowledge about their freedom and liberties and the courage to fight for their rights. In contrast to the olden days, women of this 21st century question about things encountering their lives as it is well known thata a questioning mind is the source of knowledge

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Women in 21st century are in progressing in accordance with Mahakavi Bharathi‘s vision of modern women. They have turned his dream into a reality. They have turned his dream into a reality. They are playing a significant role in policy making, decision making, planning , governing the nation, implementing policies. Though women are tremendously progressing in one side ,on the other side the ancient outlook has not changed yet. There are still atrocities committed against women. The major issues threatening women include female infanticide, harassment, dowry etc. Girl children are viewed as a burden even by some educated persons and they kill their own child. Dowry is another threatening problem which is a real headache for women. Though dowry deaths have declined, it still prevails in the society. Dowry can be eradicated only if there is a change in the mindset of people. Dowry giving and accepting should be considered as a sin by people. Strict implementation of laws and severe punishments are the need of the hour to control this menace. Women are the victims of harassment since immemorial. They are posed to the threat of harassment from the moment they step out of the home. So they need protection as there are expected dangers in schools, colleges, workplace, outside of home, in buses and trains etc. Women have to tackle these problems by making themselves strong physically as well as mentally. Women should be bold enough and they must learn martial arts like karate, silambam etc. to defend themselves. Even in home women are continuously undermined. One reason for such troubles is the prevalent male dominance in our society. Most of the men treat women as their inferiors and they fail to recognise that women are the other half of the society. They fail to treat them with respect, care and love. A solution to the above problem can be provided by eradicating male dominant mindset from the hearts of the people. Women need to be respected and cared for the welfare of the society. Women are still ignorant and women illiteracy still prevails in the society. Women‘s status will be improved only if illiteracy is completely demolished. Education is the only way which paves way for women empowerment. Women will have the confidence to face challenges only if they are able to stand on their own feet. Ignorance and financial dependence are the sole reasons for women slavery.

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EFFECT OF WESTERNIZATION ON INDIAN CULTURE India is known for her unique and rich culture. But nowadays the young Indians are ignoring the elite culture of our Indian soil. The westernization has silently spread into Indian minds damaging the roots of culture and tradition. They are lured by the attractive but poisonous western culture. In their point of view westernisation is considered to be civilised, modern, and stylish. Amazingly, a true fact is that western people are trying to follow our culture but here the scenario is upside down. Indians have started wearing western dresses which is not suitable for our country‘s cultural as well as climatic conditions. Particularly, Jeans, T shirts which is a craze among Indian teens is not safe and secure for girls. The strength of Indian culture is the bondage among family members. This bondage holds the relationships together and is responsible for connecting and keeping up the relations. The Indian Culture serves as a connecting bridge linking the hearts of the people. The major effect of westernization is that it has lead to an increase in illegal relationships. There is an increase in crime rate particularly against women as there is no control of thoughts. People are lacking in ethics and morality in their actions. Westernization does not adopt any rules and regulations which lead to uncontrollable greed‘s in minds of people. Today, whenever we look at newspapers or TV, one gets the doubt whether we are living in India which is considered to be a land of culture. In this holy land, the crimes against women and children are very high. Indian culture is based on principles of love, care, tolerance and sacrifice. Owing to westernization tolerance among people has reduced. As a result, the divorce rates have increased tremendously thus children become orphans even when the parents are alive. Westernization has protruded its branches even into food. Our ancestors have lived a long life by eating nutritious, healthy Indian foods. But western foods such as pizza,

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burgers and all other fast foods are gaining more importance among youngsters. As a result they are spoiling their own health inviting several illnesses. STUDENTS‘ PARTICIPATION IN SOCIOPOLITICAL ISSUES: Today‘s students are the pillars of tomorrow‘s nation. In accordance to the above words for solving any social or political issue students must be aware and participate in it. Students should possess the right knowledge and awareness to choose and vote the right leader when they grow up. As they grow up to be responsible citizens of tomorrow, they must be aware of their rights and duties towards the nation. Students must think that to bribe and to be bribed is a sin against the nation. Social issues such as dowry, bribery, drug addiction etc. can be tackled only if the students are aware of its ill effects. Major issues such as terrorism, caste fights which pose a serious threat to nation‘s security can be tackled only with the students‘ participation in anti-terroristic thoughts. Only a change in mindset of young minds can bring tremendous effect in solving such huge problems. Students participation in political issues of recent times include Telengana issue, Hindi protest issue etc. Though students have abundant power they must never fall into hands of corrupt politicians. They must think well before acting and utilise their energy in a positive way. Students organise several campaigns and their role in spreading awareness among masses is beyond words. Students organise several blood donation camps, eye donation campaigns, campaigns against reckless driving etc. thus creating awareness about many social issues. Another good example of students‘ support in social issue is Anna Hazare‘s movement against corruption and Black Money. The political issue of framing a strong Lokpal bill is being supported by several students throughout the nation.

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RESERVATION POLICY AS A SOCIO POLITICAL ISSUE Reservation policy has been implemented after independence. Reservation is actually the reason for India‘s position of not becoming a superpower even after 64 long years of Independence. This situation prevails because a nation can prosper only when talents of people are recognised. Moreover reservation policy is giving more importance to caste differences than to talents. It has created a gap among different people. In fact it is the hidden reason for hatedness among different castes of people. People with lower preference hate the people with higher preference. Reservation policy is a curse hindering the progress of the nation. It makes people lazy by awarding less working people in the name of caste. Hence a person is reluctant work to his/her full potential owing to this policy. According to our Constitution it is believed that all are equal in the eyes of the law. But reservation policy creates a state of inequality and difference among people of different castes. It provides opportunities for few people by grabbing the opportunities of others. This is not a fair policy as all must be given equal opportunities. Reservation policy does not reward the most deserving people. It creates a false impression that a person‘s birth (caste) is more important than his/her talents while determining their career. Reservation policy is actually implemented by the politicians for the sake of getting bulk votes. It is actually creating a barrier for the development of the nation. As the chances are given to few people easily in the name of reservation they fail to realise its worth. WILL INDIA EVER LEAVE CASTE DISCRIMINATION IN UPCOMING YEARS India is the only nation where still caste discrimination prevails. It is impossible to avoid caste discrimination unless there is a change in the mindset of people. Caste differences must be eradicated from the roots.

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The social scenario today is in such a way that wherever a person goes, he is questioned about his/her caste and community. Be it admission into a school/college or getting a job. The Government itself asks to give details about caste while filling any application forms. Then how can the caste discrimination are eradicated? Caste discrimination poisons the minds of people and creates hatredness, ego, envy among people. It spoils the mutual understanding and brotherhood feelings thereby shattering the nation‘s unity and integrity. It creates disharmony among people and damages the peace of the nation. Keeping in mind the above consequences we should develop the quality of tolerance and mutual understanding of others feelings. We should not allow the valuable freedom gifted by our noble freedom fighters to get spoilt by the dirty caste discrimination. Possibly India can leave caste discrimination in the upcoming years if people realise that we, the Sons of Bharat Matha should not be separated by the walls of caste, community, religion etc. If we don‘t realise it then our future will be dreadful. India fell into the hands of British only owing to caste discrimination among people. And still this weakness prevails in our society. If this keeps on continuing our nation will again be enslaved by outside forces. DALIT DISCRIMINATION IN INDIAN CULTURE AND SCRIPTURE Dalits have been segregated for a long time particularly in ancient days. They were considered to be untouchables and they were ignored in all possible ways in all walks of life. They were paid meager income and worked heavily. Yet they were treated with inequality. In schools, Dalit students were made to sit on gunny bags and sacks instead of benches. In olden days, the Dalits experienced the cruel practice of two tumbler system. They were denied even their basic rights. They were not allowed to enter into the houses of high class people and they were kept at doorstep. They were not even permitted to walk into the streets of the people of high caste. They were also kept out of religious places and social gatherings.

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They were not permitted to enter into temples and were asked to worship by standing outside the temples. They were not permitted to drink water from a river or pond which is common to all. In those days, even giving water for them to drink was considered to be disgusting. Some people even thought that seeing them when going out of home as a bad omen. Dalits were victims of countless other atrocities. All such discriminations occurred mainly on the basis of caste differences. As the society was dominated by the high class people in those days, they neglected Dalits from the society. As they were illiterate in those days they did not have the courage to revolt against such differences and they silently accepted those cruelties. Then great people like Dr.B.R.Ambedkar fought for their rights which dawned the darkness in their lives. The Government has also taken several steps to improve their status and now they are making a good progress

PHILOSOPHY OF LIBERATION WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO DALITS Our India is a democratic nation which strongly believes in the principles of liberty, equality and fraternity. But still the philosophy of liberation remains just for name sake in the present scenario. Liberty means freedom for all to talk, write and act on their own. But still there are villages in India where people are tied by the chains of slavery and caste discrimination. Even in this information technology era, Dalits are denied their rights and liberty. Honour killing method which prevails in several villages of North India bears a testimony to the above said fact. Honour killing is done for those who perform intercaste marriages. They are not free to choose life of their own. This practice kills not only the people but also crushes their feelings and liberty. In order to ensure liberty to Dalits, The Government is trying in all the possible ways to bring upliftment in their lives by providing reservation in jobs, institutions and assembly poll elections. LokÄ yata: Journal of Positive Philosophy, Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011


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CONCEPT OF PEACE AND GLOBALISATION IN INDIAN CULTURE Basically, India is a peace loving nation. As expected our culture also instigates in promoting peace and globalization. Indian culture promotes brotherhood relationships by celebrating several national as well as religious festivals. It creates a feeling of oneness and harmony among people. The concept of peace is evident form India‘s unique features of Unity in Diversity. It is this quality which keeps the people of such a big nation together always by connecting diverse religions, languages and cultures. Indian culture instills the feelings of sacrifice, tolerance and mutual understanding among Indian hearts thereby promoting peace and harmony not within family, society as well as the entire nation. This same policy is adopted not only within the country but also with its neighbouring nations and the entire world. TEACHER STUDENT RELATIONSHIP: AN INDIAN OUTLOOK In India, Teachers are regarded next to parents and they play a vital role in moulding the future of children. To commemorate the gratitude towards Teachers, we even celebrate every September 5th as the Teachers Day. Truly every little Indian child gets inspired by his/her teacher. Such is the greatness of teachers in Indian society. But, unfortunately, the student teacher relationship in India is not so creditable. Most of the students hesitate to clarity their doubts. The interaction between Teacher and the student is very less i.e. one side communication. The teachers keep on giving lectures about topics and are more concentrated in completing syllabus. This causes the student to be less creative. Some teachers even give severe punishments to students and force studies into their heads. Hence students dread teachers and hate studies ultimately. The student teacher relationship must be improved to produce better results. This can be done if there is a better understanding between students and teachers. The teachers should make the students to understand the concepts clearly. The teachers should kindle the creativity and interest among students. The classes should be made more interactive. This will definitely prove more fruitful. LokÄ yata: Journal of Positive Philosophy, Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011


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THE NEED FOR SPIRITUALISTIC OUTLOOK ON LIFE A spiritualistic outlook on life is essential because it gives peace and confidence to our hearts. Moreover it gives a feeling of being close to the Divineness. It gives a secured feeling as we feel that the Divine Almighty guides our life and always stands by our side. Such a spiritualistic outlook will give calmness and joy to our heart. It will save us from committing sins. It is essential to lead a good and happy life. The help of a spiritual practice lies in the fact that it teaches us to detach from the familiar constellation of 'I' and to form a new relationship with our inner emotional landscape. In relation to thought and feeling, we discover that we carry these energies within us but they are not us. It is a way to begin to separate the wheat from the chaff, the false from the true, so that we can begin to live life in accordance with the deepest and truest principles that our hearts know and that our minds can consent to. These principles come from our sacred humanity and reside in the deepest origins of our being blessed and holy children of God. But today people fail to identify the true spiritual people and fall into the trap of wrong people who misguide them in the name of God. This misguiding can at times create serious consequences in one‘s life. The number of people who cheat people in the name of God have proliferated. CONCLUSION

―Dream, dream, dream. Because it is the dream that gets converted to thoughts and thoughts gets transformed into actions. So let your minds blossom full of elite thoughts.‖ -Dr.A.P.J.Abdul Kalam To realise our dream of becoming a superpower within 2020, the above said problems must be solved. Though it will take some time to solve them, it is definitely possible to eradicate the above issues. It all depends on our hands. So let us join our hands together to solve the above issues and make our nation stand with utmost pride among other nations. Lokāyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy, Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011


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Lokāyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011, pp.13-19 PROBLEMS IN CONTEMPORARY INDIAN SOCIETY -Ravinderpreet Kaur ―I have walked that long road to freedom. I have tried not to falter; I have made missteps along the way, but I have discovered that after climbing a great hill, one only finds that there are many more hills to climb. I have taken here a moment to rest, to look back on the distance I have come. But I can only rest for a moment, for with freedom comes responsibilities, and I dare not linger, for my long walk is not ended. ‖ These historic words of Nelson Mandela's continue to reverberate in our ears decades after they were uttered, for, every country that was once under the yoke of imperialism and colonialism has had to face a similar situation. Our motherland, India, is no exception. Our forefathers had to struggle for nearly a century, face many hardships in order to walk the arduous path to independence. It was no easy task and immense sacrifices were demanded and readily given by the patriotic thousands who wished to breathe the free air, be at par with their subjugators. After all, whose blood is not red? Who does not have a conscience? Who is not desirous of touching the sky? But in our race for materialistic comforts and luxuries, we have allowed ourselves to be swept away by the flood of blind greed. We have retained parochial traditions when they ought to have been discarded, and at the same time, destroyed the aesthetic beauty of our multi-cultural nation. Our founding fathers would be pained, not only to see the tardy pace of progress but also due to the drain of morals and values which has clouded the vision that once promised liberation.........

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Yesterday is history, tomorrow is mystery. But today is a gift. That is why it is called the ―present.‖ In order to evaluate our shortcomings, we must not dwell on the past to a great extent, for it is already dead. What has been done, cannot be undone. Crying over spilt milk will lead us nowhere. The time to introspect and to act, is NOW. Let us begin with the most incendiary issue of gender equality in India; or rather, the absence of it. Inequality between men and women can have many facets, all of which not only depend, but also grow on one another. For instance, women are often not authorized to take decisions in a family, which not only robs them of their right but also has a harmful effect on their own well-being. If women are empowered, then this affects not only their state and well-being, but along with it, that of all those around them-the men and the children. In India, since times immemorial, women have been subjected to utter neglect and disregard. The picture with respect to care and support is equally dismal. As a consequence of this biased attitude, mortality rates of females are much higher than males, quite opposite to what biologists say, and what is observed in North America and the European countries. Another disparaging feature here is that girls have much lesser access to educational facilities. What to say of higher education, even schooling seems to be a distant dream for many of them. This also tends to reduce their employment prospects to nil, which in turn increases their dependence on their husbands when they are married off, which again negates their decision making powers; thereby completing the never-ending vicious circle. It is also still quite common in our society to accept without questioning that while men are naturally the bread winners of the family and thus have to work outside the home, women too can do so if and only if, they can manage to do such work in addition to their household work-which is great in magnitude-and the women are seldom cooperated and helped in this matter. A very appalling and inhuman form of gender inequality manifests itself in the form of domestic and physical violence against women-and it is on the rise by the day. This brutal feature can be observed in poor, illiterate and less developed regions as well as in literate, wealthy and modern ones. Demands for matrimonial settlements, such as dowry, tend to make the problem much worse.

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As has been mentioned before, girls and schools are usually found poles apart. However, the few who are lucky enough to be educated derive benefits of this education in a multitude of fields. It would be apt here to point out the connection between female literacy and fertility, which has been widely observed in many areas of India. Educated women will be clearly unwilling to go on giving birth to one child after another because they have other more significant things to attend to, the prime one of them being their own health. We all express our awe on seeing the Taj Mahal, but how many of us know the cause of Mumtaz Mahal's death? She died during child-birth-and it was her fourteenth child! Much water has since flowed down the Yamuna, but the situation remains pretty much the same in the case of illiterate women. Education also broadens vision and rationality. Needless to say, educated women are also able have their say in family decisions. But an environment in which the mother's own mindset is such that she wishes to have only a son and no daughters may need much more than just school lessons and a job to change the mindset. No less is the need to inform the public about this matter. People need to be made to realize the difference between what is ethically correct or not. Everyone has to be informed and made aware that women need appreciation and not just empty rhetoric and sympathies. Women have the ability to make this world a better place to live in because they form half the population of this world and continuation of life is not possible without them. We need to hunt down and punish those who go in for the malpractice of sex-selective abortion as well as those who encourage it and profit out of it, including women. Policies and laws alone will not help, a complete overhaul of the mindset is the need of the hour. Let us now turn to another aspect-of globalization which is neither a new concept, nor is it a vicious, untamed animal. It is through globalization that the world has been deeply connected; goods, services, people, ideas and technology have been mobilized to a great extent so as to benefit even the remotest region on the surface of the earth. It is through this channel that knowledge is spread across the world. At the same time, we must not ignore the problems of the disadvantaged nations, which are too dependent on another country to voice their concerns or dissent. Globalization and inter-connected economies have great benefits but they can also be the cause for LokÄ yata: Journal of Positive Philosophy, Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011


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many a problem in the absence of well formulated policies. Therefore, we must address these obstacles but should not isolate ourselves from the world for fear of being overridden. Peace is something that has eluded us at times when we needed it the most. As a result, there has been considerable loss of life and property and has also led to moral bankruptcy. This problem too, is of our own making. And it has adopted different forms from time to time, but the repercussions have always been unmistakably the same. Whether external Chinese or Pakistani aggression, or breakdown of internal security, Maoist or Naxalite rebellions, communal riots, terror strikes and bombings, class conflicts, secessionist movements- you name it and we have faced it. And the problem is exacerbated when it is turned into a political tool by unscrupulous individuals. Commoners like you and me are by far, and perhaps, 'the only' sufferers. It is ironic that a country which produced the most vehement preacher of non-violence (Mahatma Gandhi), should be grappling with intense violence and bloodshed. Caste and class divisions have over the years, only intensified and quickened the fragmentation of the Indian society. Support for caste barriers comes not only from old, vested interests, but also from new arenas of privilege, which makes it all the more tough to eradicate this evil from our society. If a family, in addition to being lower caste, is also burdened with poverty, then the problem poses an even harder challenge. Even the violence related with Dalits, Scheduled Castes or Scheduled tribes involves a lot more than their caste. On digging beneath the surface mask of caste, we find many peculiarities. For instance, ―reserved posts‖ often go to well-off and comparatively rich members of the downtrodden castes, while the ones in need of it, are left entirely out of the ambit of such benefits. Amartya Sen gives some illuminating examples of movements against caste divisions in ancient times, which have been recorded in epics and other classical documents and scriptures. In the Mahabharata, Bhrigu tells Bharadvaja that caste divisions relate to differences in physical attributes of different human beings, reflected in skin colour. Bharavaja responds not only by pointing to the considerable variations in skin colour ―within every caste‖ (―if different colours indicate different castes, then Lokāyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy, Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011


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all castes are mixed castes‖), but also by the more profound question: ―We all seem to be affected by desire, anger, fear, sorrow, worry, hunger and labour; how do we have different castes then?‖ The Bhavisya Purana also gives another striking example: ―Since members of all the four castes are children of God, they all belong to the same caste. All human beings have the same father, and children of the same father cannot have different castes.‖ The medieval mystical poets came with their policy of equality and love for all. Kabir and Ravidas are the most outstanding examples. Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Guru of the Sikhs, adopted into the fold of the Khalsa Panth, members of every community and class. The very word ―Khalsa‖ means 'pure', in other words, one whose heart has been purified of baseless distinctions and discriminations and one who can stand for the truth without any trepidation. If the remote past could have had such great visionaries, then the present time appears to consist largely of hordes of blind and ignorant people full of apathy. Far from removing all sorts of discrimination, caste or otherwise, we have only managed to deepen the cleft through blatant misuse of reservation policies. With teeming millions queuing up for coveted and assuring government jobs when unemployment is on the rise, reservation proves to be a very potent tool in the wrong hands. Its benefits have miserably failed to filter down to those who actually need it, but only made its misappropriation much easier for the ―creamy layer‖, thereby increasing the gap between the haves and the have-nots. And we are back to square one. Moreover, discontent breeds further discontent. One group succeeds in securing reservation, others invariably begin to demand the same out of fear of being left behind. And politicians often succumb to such populist demands in the hope of safeguarding their vote bank. Will India ever leave the caste discrimination issue in the upcoming years? That is a question to which there can be no concrete answer, yet. As long as there is caste, there are bound to be differences. And caste is such a deep-rooted entity that it cannot be eradicated by some magical incantation. In fact, people have now begun to describe their identity purely on basis of caste, in order to derive maximum advantage out of it. And liberation, in the true sense of the word, will come only when all man-made divisions-whether caste, colour, creed or gender-

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will be wiped out. This might take a long time in coming, but through concerted efforts, we might be able to quicken its pace. Coming to the issue of Westernization, we ought to be mature enough to realize that Western culture does not pollute us as long as we are sensible to the extent of not blindly aping it for the silly reason that the West dominates the world at present. Some may feel that Indian culture must be preserved from the ―pollution‖ of Western ideas and thoughts. But at the same time there is no reason for shutting out the outside world. Instead, as Amartya Sen puts it, ―we should be opening the doors of communication because no country can live in absolute isolation from the rest of the world. We must be willing and broad minded to enjoy, learn from and adopt ideas, art forms and other positive things from anywhere-within India or abroad. One must take full note of the importance of one's own culture without denying what there is to learn from other cultures.‖ Any approach to addressing the problems in contemporary India is incomplete without taking into account the monster called 'communalism.' Before proceeding, we must know that religion and communalism are two separate terms. Religion by itself is not the cause of conflicts and communalism. Religion can either be perceived as a faith or as an identity. Bipan Chandra, the well known Historian, describes communalism in its true form: ―Communalism is a religion-based sociopolitical identity, the propagators of which believe that the interests of the people belonging to one religion are primarily different from those belonging to other religions.‖ When religion is politicized for narrow, baser interests, it assumes the shape of communalism, which in its extreme level, displays its inhuman and merciless face through communal riots. The Babri Masjid demolition and its aftermath, the anti-Muslim Gujarat riots of 2002, the anti-Sikh riots of 1984 are some examples, the ghosts of which haunt us till date (even though Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Parsis, Jews, Buddhists, Jains had all been living together peacefully for centuries). And our governments adopt the middle pacifist path of appeasing both aggrieved parties so as not to incur the wrath of either; or the investigations are so muddled up to make every conscientious person hang his head in shame. Sometimes it takes decade for the judiciary to announce its decision, thereby denying justice by simply delaying it. Lokāyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy, Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011


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A cursory glance at all these problems may make us feel hopeless because there is a lot that arouses despondency and despair, but giving up will not make the task any easier. Unlike the proverbial pigeon, we simply cannot shut our eyes to the looming threats. We cannot allow ourselves to be drowned in the sea of gloom only because we are faced with too many problems. The level from which we started and the rough terrain that we had to tread since independence was no mean feat. We have come this far and possess the potential to go much further. No doubt we still have ―promises to keep and miles to go‖, but we cannot give up at this crucial hour when we need to give to India what it needs from us as loyal citizens. Every problem comes with an inherent solution; we only need to look for it more carefully and closely. After all, where there is a will, there is a way!!!

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Lokāyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011, pp.20-25

WOMAN IN 21ST CENTURY:ISSUES AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES -Manju Chauhan

INTRODUCTION Woman always have suffered a secondary status with reference to men. They are always a disadvantage in all fields of life. In modern India i.e. in the 21st century, woman has adorned the high office in India including that of the President, Prime Minister, Speaker of Lok Sabha, Leader of opposition, etc. The current President and Speaker of Lok Sabha in India are women, still, woman in India don‘t enjoy basic human rights and their health, education and empowerment stays back. The number of sexual abuses and domestic violence cases throw lights on these facts. ISSUES In Indian society, it is women who have to cook, clean the house, wash clothes, etc. Men just took care of few matters that are to be dealt outside the house. Almost 40% of business school graduates are woman, 26% of doctors and Lawyers are female while 43% of all students in any medical or law schools are females. The Indian social structure has not been much modified by the changes in women‘s condition. Women contribute a higher share of their earning of the family and less likely to spend it on themselves. In rural India only 48.1% of women are literate. Women have extensive work with dual responsibility for farm and house hold production. Women‘s work is getting hard and more time consuming due to eco logical degradation and changing agricultural technologies and practices. Women have an active role and extensive involvement in live stock, production forest resources use and fishery processing. Woman‘s average contribution in Agricultural 55% out of Lokāyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy, Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011


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66% of the total Labour. The rural Indian woman‘s interface with the forests is varying-gathering, wage employment production in farm forestry and management of afforested area in the community plantation. Nature and extent of woman‘s participation in fishery varies across the states. Fish curing, marketing and netmending are the main areas of woman‘s involvement in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. In rural, areas woman make baskets, brooms and ropes. Women constitute 51% of the total employment in forest based small scale enterprises. Now days, the internet is beginning to have a revolutionary effect on the 700 million people who live in villages in India and the charge is being led by woman. A project set up by on the India‘s leading technology institutes has put women in charge of forgoing the way across the digital divide as the proprietors of a fast growing number of internet cafes or kiosk around the sub continent and 80% of these kiosk are run by women. Social and Political movement are reflecting woman‘s political life. These movements have opened the windows of opportunity and some women have been able to take advantage of the opportunity to access political life. But, Gender violence does not permit so. It is a major health issue. This disturbs peace and rules of the society. Woman in India continue to face physical, sexual, emotional and economic violence. Gender violence includes cases like killing women because of inadequate dowry, killing after rape, throwing acid to disfigure a woman‘s face and marrying a woman without her will, etc. These types of crimes can be seen easily in India. According to the 2005 Annual Report of National Crime Records, 1 crime was committed against woman in every 3 minutes. The NCRB recorded a total of 155550 cases of violence against woman. Out of which a very less number of criminals are being punished and most of these criminals were the relatives or any other knowing persons of the victim. NCRB seldom collects the data on offences committed by the armed forces. Many girls are married (according to census 2001) at an early age whereas the legal age of marriage for woman is 18 years. Most of the poor women commit suicide afraid of giving dowry. In Northern India, there is big difference in sex ratio because of female feticide. This difference has increasing every census. The difference in male and female in 1971 was of 2 crore (males were 28 crore and females were 26 crore in number). Similarly in 1981 it was 2 crore (males=35crore and females 33 crore); in 1991 it was 3 crore (males=44crore and Lokāyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy, Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011


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females=41 crore); in 2001 it was 3 crore (males=53 crore and females=50 crore) and in 2011 the difference is 4 crore (males=62 crore and Females=58 crores). The upgiven data showed how the number of women is decreasing in India. This should check before it‘s too late. This condition of woman can be improved only by awaring the people and some steps government should help too. FUTURE PERSPECTIVES In the year 2000, a policy ―Forward Looking Strategies of woman (FLS)‖ was sought. It is initiative at national and international level in economic, social, cultural and legal spheres. It ensures equality, development and peace in respect to the participation and integration of women in all social spheres in the society. Woman‘s organizations were constituted under control of the party. The Mahila Congress and All India Women‘s Federation (CPI). In 1990. National Commission for woman was set up similarly, the National Policy on Education (1986), The National Health Policy (1993) and the National Nutrition Policy (1993) were set up. By following the 73 rd Amendment (Part IX relating to Panchayats was inserted in the constitution to provide for sabha, constitution of Panchayats at village and other levels, direct election to all seats, fixing the tenures for five year for Panchayats and reservation of not less than one third of the seats for woman) the act has brought 1 million elected woman into the political life at the grass roots level and according to another act there are 70 woman in 783 seat legislatures, there were 6 woman in the cabinet. A large proposition of woman participated inviting throughout the country and numerous woman were represented the major parties in the state and national legislatures. Women‘s Rights Movement gained mass support in the latter half of 20th century when the problems related to women continued to confront women in all spheres of life. Today, at the dawn of 21st century the women across the world are placed at advanced position. They are paying need t their inner voice. We have many programmes to develop the women‘s status in India. These are as follows: 1)

Swalambam (Self Employment): It provided training to women to develop a job deserving personality in them in traditional and nontraditional trades. Many woman benefited under the programme in 2002, 2004-05.

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2) 3)

4)

5)

6)

7)

8)

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Gender Development Index (2001-02): It is based on Gender inequality which was incorporated in the Annual Economic Survey. Support training for Employment Programme (STEP) (2003, 2004-05): It provides training, extension, infrastructure, market linkages, etc. Also, the updated skills and new knowledge will be provided. The National Perspective Plan for Woman (NPP), 1988: It provides a democratic and co-operative social structure for woman and for rural development it provides services related to health, legislation, political participation, education, employment, communication and voluntary action. Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) 1999: As depicted from the name it provides the APL (Above Poverty Line) families, income through a mix of bank credit and Government Subsidy. The National Plan of Action for the Girl Child (1991-2000): Under this plan, the evils in the society of female feticide and female infanticide were legally stopped by banning sex determination test. Health Initiative (1992): Maternal and Child Health Programmes (MCH) have become a part of various 5 year plans. (Eight 1992-1997 and Ninth Five Year Plan 1997-2002). Under this, the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Programme (CSSM), initiated in August, 1992 to improve the fields of morality, prevention, and treatment of Anaemia, treatment of maternal complications, etc. The Socio-economic Programme (SEP):- This was for employment and training of poor and needy woman. The one of twelve targets of the tenth five year plan (2002-07) was reduction in poverty ratio. But this programme was failed due to dropping it in the eleventh plan. The eleventh plan has set 6 categories such as income and poverty, education, health, women and children, infrastructure and environment and sustainability. Due to which, the independent SEP declined. Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK), 1993: It concentrates on the women and their economic empowernemnt. RMK is supported by voluntary organizationas, women‘s Development Corporations, Women‘s CoOperative Societies, and Block Samitis under the Swayam Sidha Programme.

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Awarness Generation and Gender Sensitization, 1991: The programme changes the social attitudes towards women and girl child. The media and presses have contributed a lot in this programme by presenting the positive image of woman towards citizen.

There are some other programmes also which promote women‘s status in India such as Swayamsidha; Swa-Shakti; Mahila Samriddhi Yojana MSY), 1993; The Rural women‘s Development and Empowerment Project, (RWDEP) 16th October, 1998; The Mahila Saakhy a Scheme, 1989; Women‘s Vocational Training Programme, 1974; Jawahar Gram Samriddhi Yojana (JGSY) (reserves 30% of employment opportunities for woman); The Indra Awas Yojana(IAY); National Maternity Benefit Scheme (2001-02); and National Old Age Pension Scheme. In recent years, the empowerment of woman has become a central issue in determining the status of women impact of all these laws and plans, the present women are more confident and self-dependent. Government has passed many Laws to empower the women. The Indian Constitution guarantees equal rights to both sexes not to caste. Colour and creed. The following Laws/articles of the constitution make women on par with men: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

(6)

Article 14, guarantees to all equal protection of Laws and equality before law. Article 15(3), makes special provisions for woman, woman requires special treatment due to their nature. Article 16(2), prohibits discrimination on the basis of religion, race, caste, or sex for employment. Article 21, compensates the victims of rape and sexual harassment by awarding the victims of rape. Constitution 73rd Amendment Act, 1992, Article 243 D, reserves a seat for women in every Panchayati and office of chairperson in the Panchayat at village shall be reserved in such a way that the legislature of the State may by law provide. Constitutional 74th Amendment Act, 1992 Article 243T, reserves 30% seats in Municipal Corporation for women.

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Thus, the constitution not only grants euqlity to women but also empowers the State to adopt measures of positive discrimination in favour of women. But, there is something more to be done. Women today need to look in themselves and listen their intuition, to take the right action at the right time; right intention and all their intentions will bear fruits. Sooner than later, some steps should be taken by the Government also It has to be taken some steps for good environment for women workers in slums; for mutation and coordination of some policies and programmes for the women workers; giving grant in aid programmes for improvements of women job seekers in slum areas; Nutrition and Education are basic accessories needed to advance women workers; a closely health kit distribution system has to be developed; the common people should remain alert of crimes related to women and complain should be aware of such cases. Conclusion From the above explanations, it is clear that women are integral part of human society. No ritual was ever complete with the presence of a woman by her man‘s side. When man took on the role of a bread earner, and women took the natural role of a nutritioner; the man started thinking himself a superior to woman as without him there would be no food in the house It is the only, when things went a way beyond the level of to learnance that the woman raised their voiced. The first such wave of ‗feminist‘ movement that caught wide spread imagination in 1960s-1980s. The second wave dealt with the in equalities of laws, as well as perceived cultural inequalities. Women‘s Rights movement gained mass support in the second half of 20th century. By the efforts of the Government and women themselves, today at the dawn of the 21st century, the women across the world are placed at a position of advantage. Now, women today need not to look any where for a perfect role model. She herself can become a role model for others or a source of inspiration.

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Lokāyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011, pp.26-32

PROBLEMS IN CONTEMPORARY INDIAN SOCIETY -Niyati Kumari Every society continues to change with time. The process of shredding the old and accepting the new dispensation creates problem of adjustment. To-day, I‘d say, India is a conglomeration of problems galore, some problems are of an indigenous nature while some others are imported. Some of our problems defy all solutions, at Least for the present; some can be solved but are not allowed to be done so. While still some others can be very simply solved with just a little bit of thinking. Thus, India today is a kaleidoscopic picture of problems a many. Let us first consider some of the indigenous problems, i.e. problems of our own creation. This quality of problems is found in all spheres of our existence, political, social, national and international. On the political side our main problems is that, for the last fifty years India has a continuity of not only a bad Government but, absolute lack of governance. This problem is of an indigenous nature as, riles are ours, Constitution is ours, the rules are ours, and the rulers are ours, yet, there is complete lack of governance. For this misfortune the reasons are not far to seek. The rulers have lost the caliber and character through the last few decades and a decadence of the Government has taken its toll. Besides, the rulers are not only incapable but are also corrupt. All these years, the Government has only meant biting into the public exchequer. Those who are in top positions are busy making money and this has meant the money making spree spread to the lowest level of the working class. So, this problem of our own mailing has resulted in complete decadence of the Government machinery and absolute halt of the Government machinery. There is not a single department of the Government that is not flourishing on double and triple incomes. On the social front we have created havoc for ourselves. In our craze for going the Western way, we have destroyed our biggest social asset of the past ages the family. Lokāyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy, Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011


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India has been known throughout the world for its most lovable institution the family, in which the elders found solace and the children found a fountain of love. In our attempt to modernize we have ourselves dealt a death blow to our institution of family. Elders are no more a part of the family; they are just discarded people to be dispensed with, at the earlier opportunity. While the children of the family, who have always been the apple of the eyes of the elders are now seen languishing in crèches, from the tender age of one year or two years. The commendable strides we have taken in the education and upliftment off women has rendered the little child bereft of love and care of a mother. In society, we already had ills like the system of dowry, sati, treatment of women as slaves, and, with our own hands we have added another evil of the breakup of the family, in our zest to import problems which were never ours. Education of women has undoubtedly given our women more liberty, knowledge and jobs but it has cost us very dear. In this bargain we also created a now, never talked of section in our society, the section of senior citizens. Senior citizens always existed with the younger generation of any given time, but, never were they a problem for the society at any time. On the role and position of senior citizens, a number of debates are being held, and the problem defies all solutions. This is because the problem is alien to us. This problem is also an offshoot of imports from the western world. In our society, the stigma of belonging to the Scheduled Class still remains, though it is an indigenous problem, we have added to its magnitude by our zeal for providing equality for all. The equality never came but the Scheduled Class has become a pampered lot, always on the demanding side and adding to the country‘s problems. This class has become. Such a problem that by being pampered, they have started feeling that, they can ask for anything and get away with it, and if their demands are not met with, they know that they can hold the country to ransom. On the social horizon, our population belies all solutions. Whenever this problem is taken up seriously, it causes hiccups to all and sundry. If this continues, I think by the first decade of the 21st Century we will find it impossible to cope with the multi-crore population. Population explosion in India has led to despotism, illiteracy, hunger, famines, pollution, corruption and so many other challenges and issues. LokÄ yata: Journal of Positive Philosophy, Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011


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Besides this, the society in India is very sharply divided between the Haves and the Have Nots. With all the wealth of the country getting so accumulated in a few hands the rest of the populace find it difficult to even make two ends meet. Such a magnum gap is not visible between Haves and Have Nots anywhere else in the World. On the Economic front, India has numerous problems the very obvious being the distribution of wealth which is too uneven for the feeling of any general progress. We are in debt, our economy is running in deficit and our trade has come down. With these enormous though basic problems to be solved, we have several small ones to be solved. These are not very much less than the magnum problems just mentioned. Our education is shockingly lacking in quality and quantity. The education is lopsided and not at all suitable for the country. This education leads us on to another major problem, one of unemployment in the country. The unemployed youth besides being frustrated create another Herculean problem i.e. of drug addiction, then to producing robbers, and terrorists and smugglers. All these are taken up mostly in place of a job, which they fail to secure. Environmental problems are also posing serious threats towards development of our country. The environmental problems are result of an over industrialization and a lack of control from the government. These problems include massive deforestation, soil erosion, air pollution, water pollution, and electricity shortages. More recently India is combating with inflationary rise in food and oil prices and financial global crises. The poor are dying of hunger and starvation in the absence of food. While the other sections of the society have to forgo large part of their income to meet their food requirements. The government measures to tackle inflation have proved futile. Although India is having bumper food-grain production, yet due to its weak and defective public distribution channels the food is not reaching to the poor and BPL masses. Large sacks of food-grains are rotting and are consumed only by rats and other rodents. Instead of controlling inflation by taking adequate economic measures, the prime minister says that the employees in the private sector like IT are highly paid and they should help reduce inflation by going for lower salaries! One of the most senseless statements I have ever heard, especially coming from a economist. Instead of trying to bring other sections of the society to a higher level as private sector employees, the prime minister is suggesting that the higher level society should go down!. LokÄ yata: Journal of Positive Philosophy, Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011


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Together with these problems at home, we are not too comfortably placed in our relations with our neighbours. Pakistan, an organ from India‘s body only, is forever ready for about with India, with its guns forever targeting India. The greatest threats faced by India today are that of terrorism and Maoism (naxalism). China and Srilanka are also not very much friendly with us. While all other problems faced by the country can be solved by negotiations and corrective measures, terrorism and naxalism are something that has to be dealt hard, for there is no room for negotiations here, since the supporters of these activities are against the very existence of the current form of social and administrative structure in this country respectively. You can‘t negotiate with those who are questioning your very existence! Can you? Despite this the greatest achievement of India is that in spite of its vast diversity and a population of 1/6 of entire humanity, the country has continued to remain intact and strong even after six decades since independence. This is basically because of the democratic structure in the country which has allowed people to express their opinions, providing scope for the existence and rise of regional political parties. If not for the existence of regional parties, and their coming to power, many states in India would have followed violent separatist movements. As I said earlier, India is home to the largest Muslim community in the world after Indonesia. There are more Muslims in India than in Pakistan or Bangladesh, and yet look at the difference. India has not become yet another Iraq or Afghanistan or Pakistan, and the credit for that goes to the Muslims of India themselves. The constitution of India guarantees equality for all, but the governments that have ruled us have always followed divisive politics, which only results in one section of the society benefiting at the cost of others from it, and thereby removing harmony in the society. Government has no business to interfere into the religious life of its citizens, for religion is a personal choice and the policies of the government should in no way affect the citizen‘s life based on his/her religion. Instead of providing hajj subsidies to the Muslims, let the government ensure that every Muslim child in this country gets quality primary education. Instead of dividing the society in the name of reservations and quotas, let the government ensure that all backward class children get free quality primary education, and there by ensure that they can compete based on their own merit, and not based on government courtesy.

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The government of India can insist IITs in India to provide reservations, but if a backward class student wants to study in MIT in US, can the government get a seat for that student with its quota laws? But if the government has ensured quality primary education to this student, he/she would get a seat even in MIT based on their own merit. If the government ensures that Muslims in this country get quality education, and if they get into good jobs, won‘t they be able to go to Hajj with their own money? By providing subsidies to a section of the society, and reservations to another section of the society, the government only wants to ensure that they are permanently dependent on the government for everything, and by doing so the political parties are only creating and maintaining their vote banks. They are not at all interested in the real development of these sections of the society. And this is the biggest tragedy of democracy in India. The biggest problem faced by India today alongside terrorism and naxalism is its incompetent, corrupt political class whose policies are guided by its vote bank politics. A simple calculation of the sum total of all the money spent till to date in Independent India to develop this country would raise a question mark about where has all that money gone?! Ask any common man on the streets of India as to what is their opinion about the politicians in this country, and that would answer it all about the contributions of the political class to the society. If every municipal corporator, every panchayat member, every MLA, every MP, every Minister in the government did their duties properly, India would be a heaven on earth in the next five years. We find some solace in the midst of this storm of problems in our growth of Scientific and Technology fields. However, here also, our progress is held to ransom by the corrupt officials involved in the various projects. We import sophisticated machines only for the people involved in purchases to make some money. These machines lie idle, and are allowed to become junk, we do not have the know, how nor the will to get them to work. This problem I would say we have imported for, if we cannot deal with an item and use it to the optimum we should not at all import it, and then just make it into junk. Above all these problems is India‘s biggest problem, one of the complete bankruptcies of character and morals. This is a problem which is, I feel a mixture of LokÄ yata: Journal of Positive Philosophy, Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011


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the indigenous and the imported problems. It is of our own making to some extent, and the glitter of the West has added fuel to the fire of our ambitions. This country which was once known for its sages is now known as being one of the toppers in corruption. Looking to the medley of problems in India‘s kitty to – day, whether of Indian origin or of quality, we see that India is not in a very enviable position. Most of the problems just discussed I feel are at a stage of defying all solutions. This is because the people who matter have allowed these problems to become magnum. This must have been to their benefit that is why the problems were allowed to grow. Moreover, seeing the typical Indian psyche I feel that since we are not united, no problem can be discussed threadbare and a solution sought. It is not that there are no solutions but it is that we have so many diverse interests that all solutions become impractical – Diverse views with no malleability, problems remain insoluble, and thus the future remains bleak. We can only hope to solve these problems if we forget ourselves and intelligently work together towards the benefit of the Nation only. Only by doing so, from the labyrinth we can seek an oasis of relief and happiness. It will also do a lot of good if, for at least for some time; we stop ogling at the west and try to sincerely improve ourselves. Then, I am sure we will be able to solve even the most insoluble problems. For this goal, we have to sacrifice ourselves, improve ourselves and only think of what is good and relevant for India. Except for technological progress, I do not think we at all need to look at the west, for this peculiar admixture of East and West is converting us into a heap of real nothingness. Let us all tighten our girdles and sit together to solve the basic problems that India has to face. We should not only debate upon them, and forget about them, there should be constant follow up action and monitoring of whatever we do. Our nation, named after one of the greatest kings of ancient India, Bharat, is currently facing more issues than the number of living souls it boasts. If we want to eradicate those issues and push our mighty nation up to the level of the most developed nations in the world, then we have to soak our hands in the mud of the challenges faced by our country and sort them out one by one, getting down ourselves in the gutter of the great Indian crisis and cleaning the country from the internal challenges as well as other external factors such as the US economy. We should be Lokāyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy, Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011


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proud to be an Indian and live, work and die for India. We have to forget our personnel identity in order to see the winds of change. But this is not that easy as it looks like. Everyone will not see themselves as the part of India specially the Youngistaan who just wants to acquire the green card and fly to the US. We have to have a great education system which talks about the glory of India and teaches everyone to respect it. India is still the 'Sone ki chidiya'. But it needs tender care so that it can fly and touch the sky.....

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Lokāyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011, pp.33-39

WOMEN IN 21st CENTURY: ISSUES AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES -Neha Vashishta 21st century is termed as an era in which man has developed many new inventions and has prospered in every field. Many new revolutions have taken place starting from Environmental Revolution, improvement in Science to Digital Revolution. It is sad to say that women today even in 21st century continue to remain a neglected part no doubt she has tried to come a par with men in this race but still continue to remain a neglected one. Let me place my views on this topic which I think need to be dealt with due consideration. INTODUCTION Women are an integral part of human society. But for a woman, there couldn‘t have been any man. She is the mother of mankind. Despite holding such an important and unquestionable position, role of women has been defined by men over millennia. Our Vedas tell us that women held an important place in ancient culture. No ritual was ever complete without the presence of a woman by her man‘s side. All our gods are worshipped alongside their heavenly consorts. There is no dichotomy there. No one questions this. The staunchest of male chauvinist reverentially bows his head to Goddess Lakshmi, or Durga. It is not considered a sign of weakness to bow to female deities. There was a time, as late as the early twentieth century, when women in the west weren‘t allowed to vote, when leading universities like Cambridge and Harvard didn‘t give them equal status (women students went to Radcliffe, not Harvard, and Cambridge didn‘t give out degrees to women students till 1947, though they were allowed to sit for exams!) and when their main role was to be a homemaker. If at all Lokāyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy, Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011


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women entered the work area, it was as factory workers. Factory girls, in fact, were proud of their profession, since they considered themselves emancipated from the drudgery and powerlessness of being a housewife. ISSUES Women everywhere are treated as second class citizens. How did this ‗battle of sexes‘ begin? How did the men win the winning hand? I think that economics had a role to play in the scheme of things. When man took on the role of a bread earner, and woman took the natural role of a nurturer, these roles suited their intended role by the Creator. Man was physically strong, while the woman was inherently strong. Over a period of time the man started believing that his role was superior to that of the woman as without him there would be no food at the table. Woman‘s role was taken as for granted. The physically feeble woman was led to believe this who lied for centuries.

Great thinkers have expressed their views in this respect as, "In childhood a

female must be subject to her father, in youth to her husband, when her lord is dead to her sons; a woman must never be independent.‖ One girl humiliation start before her born at the age when she was in embryo stage lots of the parents kills the fetus after sex test. If parents can‘t do that the baby girl gets lot of negligence after her birth even also girls are kills in few rural areas after the birth. There are still families and neighborhood who frown when a girl child is born. If few parents are not so much cruel then also girls condition not much better few of them neglect girls education compare to boy. In the early age girls earn money for family by doing work. Few parents always feel (this thing is present in urban area also) that girls child are headache and her marriage is the ultimate solution what ever the way giving dowry or not just finding such solution in girls early age(sometimes

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below 18) this is also a one type of humiliation to the girl or an woman may be she has lots of ambition in life but all crumble down in single tremor. Now in case their married life lots of the women get torture due to unable to fulfill the dowry or any other reason. Not always is torture is in high note we all know in India society husband is guardian and always few husband try to dictate her wife and finally wife lose her freedom. Such life is some times can be compare with prisoner in jail but the only difference is they got the punishment of their own guilty but other side another one get same punishment because she born as girl. Thus, women face a lot of problems and though much is said about the upliftment and progress of women, this space is not big enough to talk about problems about women. Female infanticide, eve-teasing, sexual exploitation, sexual harassment, rapes are still common in cities, leave alone villages. There are still many areas where women are not equal rights and are not encouraged to take up education. Dowry practice is still rampant, even thought it has been termed illegal. Women still have to make a lot of sacrifices in every area of their lives. Even the most educated of men feel that a woman should not work after marriage (even though she may be interested in her career) just to pander to his male-ego. Women! Whether they are educated/uneducated face lot of problems. starting from getting hit by husbands(happens when they refuse to budge /listen to what their husbands say) to mothering laws who want their daughter–in-laws to follow rules and regulations they have framed, insulting women‘s parents, sisters, brothers and other relatives in the name of customs and traditions, sister in laws who try to poke their nose and try to control their parents house, brother in laws and father in laws who consider them as mere a servant or bank(working women) and off course parents who get their daughters married off as if they are burden on them. If I explain all then it will be never ending thread but whatever be we have the law to protect the woman from such condition but it can‘t do anything if majority of people in society can‘t change them self so still girl‘s embryo killing is present, still woman are not getting the share of property, still wife get humiliated by her husband.

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In the urban area where so called woman and girls are developed but if you look that society, then also minor humiliation of girl still present there. Like society is very much concern about the dresses of women and girls few people always believe that they should wear traditional Indian dress and try to compel them to wear such dress it's another women humiliation. Not only that few sexual harassment in work place is also present in our society and finally our society is conservative even in urban area also that the reason where few political party‘s member is attacking to the modern women in the name of preserving ‗Indian culture‘ actually it also a humiliation of women. UPLIFTMENT It is only when things went way beyond the level of tolerance that the women raised their voices. The first such voice was heard loud and clear in the early 19th century, when the term ‗women suffragists‘ became a household word in the west. We were a British colony at that time, but women across Europe and United States rose as an entity demanding suffrage, or the right to vote. It is to the credit of these courageous women that today women‘s right to vote is a ‗given‘ in most of the free world, though there are still some countries, mainly in the Middle East that still deny women their universal right to vote. Some countries provide special reservations to women in job opportunities. They also enjoy a certain provision in political institutions of the country. But despite such concessions, ladies produce little results. They are not actively involved in the decision making process, whether at home or office. Although women have maintained a better career track record in the West, very few top companies have female executives. This indirectly exposes the real nature of modern civilization. And in spite of the hue and cry about women‘s rights, the harassment at workplaces is on the rise. Therefore upliftment should not be a mere legislative exercise. It is in fact to teach ‗Her‘ the real value of her own self as an individual. She herself has to discover her own position and honor. From the land of whims and fancies, she has to migrate to the land of action and spiritual awakening. Her upliftment lies inside her, not in the hands of governments and media. She should rise above the status of a mere ‗object Lokāyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy, Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011


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of desire‘ to a respected and honored individual. Material upliftment alone is not sufficient for this. A purified heart also plays a crucial role.

LAWS SUPPORTING WOMEN‘S Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act, 1987 It was a religious funeral practice among some Indian communities in which a recently widowed woman either voluntarily or by use of force and coercion would have immolated herself on her husband‘s funeral pyre. However, it was abolished in 1987 when government of India made an act to abolish it. Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961 Payment of a dowry, gift—often financial, has a long history in many parts of the world. In India, the payment of a dowry was prohibited in 1961 under Indian civil law and subsequently by Sections 304B and 498A of the Indian Penal Code was enacted to make it easier for the wife to seek redress from potential harassment by the husband's family. Dowry laws have come under criticism as they have been misused by women and their families. In India, there are civil laws, criminal laws and special legislative acts against the tradition of Dowry. Someone accused of taking dowry is therefore subject to a multiplicity of legal processes. National Commission for Women Act, 1990 The objective of this Act is to represent the rights of women in India and to provide a voice for their issues and concerns. The subjects of their campaigns have included dowry, politics, religion, equal representation for women in jobs, and the exploitation of women for labor. They have also discussed police abuses against women. The commission regularly publishes a monthly newsletter, Rashtra Mahila in both Hindi and English. Lokāyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy, Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011


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Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 Primarily meant to provide protection to the wife or female live-in partner from domestic violence at the hands of the husband or male live-in partner or his relatives, the law also extends its protection to women who are sisters, widows or mothers. Domestic violence under the act includes actual abuse or the threat of abuse whether physical, sexual, verbal, emotional or economic. Protection of Women against Sexual Harassment Bill, 2007 The Bill defines a work place to include all organizations, and any place visited by an employee during the course of work. It covers every woman at the work place (whether employed or not) except a domestic worker working at home. It defines employer as the person responsible for the management, supervision and control of the work place. FUTURE PERSPECTIVES Some countries are moving towards equality before the law and where all, men and woman, will be free to choose our profession. Though India is a democracy, yet the rights of women are severely curtailed. There are far more men than women in the workplace, and the gap between male and female literacy, though narrowing, is still significant. And yet, constant media attention to the issue of female disempowerment, particularly in the rural areas, ensures that the political class is kept on its toes where women are concerned. Protests, campaigns, media reports, are all methods by which the status of women is constantly highlighted in the public sphere. India is not even close to what the west has achieved in the last fifty years, but freedom of expression, the cornerstone of any democracy, is ensuring that more and more women get their due in society. The growth of the service sector in recent years and the explosive speed of urbanisation has also enhanced the contribution of women to the formal economy and brought it into the limelight. Contrasting to the situation in the Islamic countries. In Saudi Arabia women cannot drive, are not allowed to work where there are men and can only attend segregated schools and universities. There is no concept of equality before law. A woman witness‘s testimony is given half the weight of that of a male witness. In Iran, a LokÄ yata: Journal of Positive Philosophy, Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011


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woman can inherit only half as much as a man and a female victim of an accident are entitled to only half the compensation awarded to a male. All women are required to cover their heads, though they can show their faces. In Pakistan, female literacy rate is only half of the male literacy rate, while, in Afghanistan, it is only one third. Cultural backwardness is closely related to the social status of women. Societies where women have succeeded in becoming empowered have advanced in every field of life, art, culture, literature, science, and economically. These are the societies that do not hesitate to question entrenched shibboleths and succeed in advancing through new discoveries. On the other hand, societies that continue to treat their female population as chattel have nothing new to contribute to the world, and have nothing better to offer to their members than centuries-old regressive practices. CONCLUSION Women work two-thirds of the world‘s working hours, according to the United Nations Millennium Campaign to halve world poverty by the year 2015. The overwhelming majority of the labor that sustains life – growing food, cooking, raising children, caring for the elderly, maintaining a house, hauling water – is done by women, and universally this work is accorded low status and no pay. The ceaseless cycle of labor rarely shows up in economic analyses of a society‘s production and value. Today at the dawn of the 21st century the women across the world are placed at a position of advantage. They are literally on the move. They are paying heed to their inner voice. They are no longer interested in hollow jargon and jingoism. They are finding their individual and collective voice. They are aligned with their conscience, moving ahead with purposeful strides.

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Lokāyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011, pp.40-47

PHILOSOPHY NEWS IN INDIA 1. ICPR Sponsored National Seminar on The Limits of Thought-And Beyond, November 28-29, 2011 organized by Department of Philosophy, Assam University, Silchar (Assam). Last date of submission of abstract: 20 October, 2011. Download the attachment here or follow the link given below: http://www.aus.ac.in/Philosophy_seminar_2011.pdf 2. Essay Competition-Cum-Young Scholar‘s Seminar Indian Council of Philosophical Research invites Young Scholars between the age group of 20-25 Years to participate in an Essay Competition–Cum-Young Scholar Seminar on the theme ―What Makes Gandhi a Mahatma? The competitors adjudged First, Second and Third on the basis of their essays and performance in the seminar will be awarded prizes of Rs. 25,000/-, Rs.20, 000/- and Rs.15,000/- respectively. Essays in Hindi or English of about three thousand words on the theme are to be submitted by 31st October, 2011 along with the proof of date of birth. Essay may be sent to:The Director (P&R), Indian Council of Philosophical Research (under the Ministry of HRD, Govt of India), 3/9, Vipul Khand. Gomti Nagar, Lucknow226010 Advertisement in detail may be seen on ICPR website http://www.icpr.in 3. 10th Conference of the International Congress of Social Philosophy (ICSP) 2-4 December 2011 International Congress of Social Philosophy (ICSP) is a non-profit making organization of social philosophy and an international centre of excellence Lokāyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy, Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011


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working systematically for the promotion of social philosophy at the global level relentlessly. It had made an indelible mark in the promotion of Social Philosophical pursuits and academic endeavors throughout the world and at the same time it is earnestly trying to eliminate social evils, crisis, violence and conflicts as well. Thrust Area: The Conference would focus on the following thrust area: DEMOCRACY, CIVIL SOCIETY AND GOOD GOVERNANCE. Scholars are requested to send with both soft copy and hard copy of their full length paper along with appropriate notes, references bibliography and diacritical marks on any one of the above topics in double space typed within 2000 (two thousand) words and also in an electronic version (MS Office or Open Office)or in the CD on or before October 30,2011 to Prof. Dr. Ferdoushi Begum. 66 North Road, Flat no.6/c Dhanmondi, e-mail: begum.ferdoushi@gmail.com. Mobile: 088-01713046992; Phone: 088-029662992 or Treasurer Md. Salah Uddin, Cell: 088-01674799704, 08801552337495, email:suddin_2006@yahoo.com. An expert committee will screen the papers for publication in the special volume entitled ―Democracy, Civil Society and Good Governance.‖ A special volume will be released in the Inaugurall Function of the Congress. Interested persons may collect the volume after paying the subsidized cost of the book from our conference sales counter. The remaining papers will also be allowed to be presented in the conference. The papers of those who do not send in their Registration fee will not be considered for publications Contact: Prof. Dr. Ferdoushi Begum(Local Secretary) Former Dean, Faculty of Arts, Jagannath University, Dhaka, Mobile: 088-01713046992, Phone: 088029662992, Mail: begum.ferdoushi@gmail.com . For more details go to: http://icspbd.webs.com/ 4. SPECIAL CIRCULAR INVITING PROPOSAL FOR ACADEMIC EVENTS for The Financial Year 2012-13

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Indian Council of Philosophical Research, New Delhi invites proposals in the prescribed format (available at www.icpr.in/download/ ) from Departments of Philosophy and also from scholars affiliated with Universities, Colleges and Academic Institutions in India for the financial assistance reg. : 1. Seminar, Conference, workshop, 2. Refresher Courses, 3. Research Projects and Short Duration Project in Philosophy and Allied disciplines, 4. Travel Grants. The proposals complete in all respects and forwarded through proper channel should reach the undersigned by 31 December, 2011. http://icpr.in/proposal-academic-events.pdf 5. Seminars at India Institute of Advanced Studies (IIAS) Shimla (i)

(ii) (iii)

International Conference on 'The Home And The World: Rabindranath Tagore', 14-16 November, 2011. Seminar on 'Annihilation of Caste' 21-23 November, 2011 Seminar on 'Religion, Violence and Language', 9-11 April, 2012, For More details go to : http://www.iias.org

6. International School on Logic and its Applications (ISLA), in collaboration with Association of Logic in India (ALI) This event starts from 9 and end at 20 January, 2012 http://www.manipal.edu/Institutions/UniversityDepartments/MCPHManipal/ Pages/EventsDetails.aspx?EventsID=4 Postal Address: Manipal Centre for Philosophy and Humanities , Old TAPMI Building , Behind Post Office , Manipal : 576104 , Phone 08202923157 7. Sciences and Narratives of Nature: East and West December 12,2011 This is an international workshop which will bring together some of the most eminent thinkers in the fields of history, philosophy and sociology of science. LokÄ yata: Journal of Positive Philosophy, Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011


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The workshop will explore various formulations of nature and the consequences of these views on the nature of science. It will also act as a platform to carefully look at the unique characteristics of Indian science as well as Indian mathematics. The workshop also aims to establish networks for collaborative projects on science and technology studies. How to Apply: Post-graduate and PhD students, as well as young faculty interested in Science and Technology studies -- covering history, philosophy and sociology of science and technology -- are invited to apply for participation in the workshop. Interested candidates may write to mcphoffice@gmail.com or our postal address with their résumé and letter of interest. The last date for the submission of applications is 30 September 2011. http://www.manipal.edu/Institutions/UniversityDepartments/MCPHManipal/ Documents/Sciences%20and%20Narratives%20of%20Nature.pdf Postal Address: Manipal Centre for Philosophy and Humanities , Old TAPMI Building , Behind Post Office , Manipal : 576104 , Phone 08202923157 8. UGC SPONSORED WORKSHOP ON HUMAN RIGHTS Title: International Workshop on Human Rights Date of Workshop: 8th – 10th December, 2011 Venue: Conference Centre, University of Delhi Date of submitting Abstracts: 1st – 30th September, 2011 Full Length Paper: 30th October, 2011 Final Program Schedule: 15th November, 2011 For further details contact : Dr. Rajesh & Dr. V. K. Dixit 9873302532 (M) Email: rajeshkumar72001@yahoo.co.in http://www.du.ac.in/fileadmin/DU/Events/2862011_adult_human-rights.pdf DEPARTMENT OF ADULT CONTINUING EDUCATION & EXTENSION, I/4, Old Jubilee Hall Barracks, University Of Delhi, Delhi 110007

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9. NEW COURSE Certificate Course in Vivekananda Studies (Through Distance Learning) Applying for the Course: Order/buy the USOL prospectus or download it and fill the requisite form. Deposit the fee and submit your application. Eligibility and Minimum Qualification: Any Citizen of India having passed 10+2 or equivalent exam can join the course. The course can be pursued simultaneously along with any other course. Medium of Instruction: Currently the course content is provided in English only but a candidate can opt for Hindi or Punjabi as his/her medium. Personal Contact Programme: One 6 day PCP is organised in the month of January in the Centre. How to get Prospectus: Prospectus can be downloaded from the Panjab university web site www.puchd.ac.in (Students are required to pay 350/- extra as cost of the prospectus, who apply through the downloaded form). It can also be obtained by Registered post from the Chairperson, University School of Open Learning, P.U. Chandigarh-160014 on remittance of 400/- by a Bank Draft drawn in favour of the ―Registrar, Panjab University, Chandigarh‖, payable at State Bank of India, Sector-14, Chandigarh-160014. Prospectus is also available at the following Post offices on payment of 350/- Chandigarh Sector -14, 15,17,20,36,47, Mohali - Sector -55, Panchkula - Sector-8, Abohar - Old Court Road, Ludhiana - Near Bharat Nagar Chowk, Muktsar - MDG, Hoshiarpur - Near District Court, Shimla - GPO, The Mall, New Delhi Gole Post office, Cannaght Place. Last Date of submission of complete Ad. form 7th Sept, 2011. (without late fee) 5th October, 2011(with late fee of Rs. 500/-) For more details call: 01722534786, 2541840, 2534331 Email: vivekanandastudies@gmail.com, Co-ordinator: Sudhir Baweja email: sudheerbaweja@rediffmail.com, Mobile – 09876621441

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10. Proposals are invited for celebrating World Philosophy Day Proposals are invited for celebrating World Philosophy Day – 2011 Last Date 13.10. 2011)For details go to ICPR web http://www.icpr.in 11. Inviting application for the ICPR book grant ( Last date 31. 10.2011) ANNOUNCEMENT Re: Inviting application for the ICPR book grant. Keeping in view the objects of the Indian Council of Philosophical Research (ICPR) to promote research and teaching in Philosophy and allied disciplines, the ICPR has decided to provide book grant consisting of its publications to various educational institutions including professional institutions where Philosophy is being taught or proposed to be taught and is not having philosophy books for the reference of the student/researchers. Applications are, therefore, invited from various educational institutions falling in the above category for book grant in the prescribed format available at http://www.icpr.in/forms.html. The grant will be released in. the form of providing philosophy books as per the discretion of the Council. Application in the prescribed format duly completed and forwarded through the proper channel may be sent to the Programme Officer, ICPR, Indian Council of Philosophical Research, Darshan Bhawan, 36 Tughlakabad Institutional Area, M.B. Road, New Delhi 110062 by Post on or before 31.10.2011. The Department/Universities/Institutes etc. who received the ICPR Book Grant last year would not be considered for this year. http://www.icpr.in/ 12. INDIAN SOCIOLOGICAL SOCIETY DIAMOND JUBILEE CELEBRATIONS XXXVII ALL INDIA SOCIOLOGICAL CONFERENCE Dated: 10-13 December, 2011 LokÄ yata: Journal of Positive Philosophy, Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011


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Centre for the Study of Social Systems, School of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, http://www.jnu.ac.in/Conference/xxxviii_aisc_bochure.pdf 13. Twentieth International Congress of Vedanta (20Vedanta) December 28-31, 2011 Special Centre for Sanskrit Studies and Center for Philosophy , Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi & Center for Indic Studies, University of Massachusetts (Dartmouth), USA http://sanskrit.jnu.ac.in/conf/20vedanta/index.jsp 14. International Interdisciplinary Conference ―Meaning, Culture and Values‖ January 5-7, 2012 Centre of Arabic and African Studies Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi in collaboration with Davis & Elkins College, WV, USA http://www.jnu.ac.in/main.asp?sendval=conference 15. Call for Papers for the Second Issue of Lokāyata Lokāyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy is a bi-annual interdisciplinary journal of the Center for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS). The name Lokāyata can be traced to Kautilya‘s Arthashastra, which refers to three ānvīkṣikīs (logical philosophies), Yoga, Samkhya and Lokāyata. Lokāyata here still refers to logical debate (disputatio, ―criticism‖) in general and not to a materialist doctrine in particular. The objectives of the journal are to encourage new thinking on concepts and theoretical frameworks in the disciplines of humanities and social sciences to disseminate such new ideas and research papers (with strong emphasis on modern implications of philosophy) which have broad relevance in society in general and man‘s life in particular. The Centre will publish two issues of the journal every year. Each regular issue of the journal will contain full-length papers, discussions and comments, book reviews, information on new books and other relevant academic information. Each issue will contain about 100 Pages. Lokāyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy, Volume I, Number 01, April-September, 2011


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Theme of Present Issue: Concept of Mind (Manas) and Intelligence (Buddhi) in Indian Philosophy All contributions to the Journal, other editorial enquiries and books for review are to be sent to: Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal, Editor, LokÄ yata: Journal of Positive Philosophy, Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS), Milestone Education Society (Regd), Valmiki Dharmashala, Pehowa, Distt. Kurukshetra (HARYANA)-136128 (India), Mobile No.09896848775, 08968544048 E-mail: dr.sirswal@gmail.com, mses.02@gmail.com Websites: http://lokayatajournal.webs.com

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CONTRIBUTORS OF THIS ISSUE

C. Devi Meenakshi, B.E.-Computer Science and Engineering (IIIrd Year), Institute of Road and Transportation Technology, Vasavi College Post, Suriampalayam, Erode, District-638316, Tamilnadu. Ravinderpreet Kaur, BA (IIIrd Year), Post Graduate Govt. College for Girls, Sector11, Chandigarh. Manju Chauhan, B.A.(IInd Year) , Post Graduate Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh. Niyati Kumari, B.Com (Honours) Patna Women‘s College, Bailey Road Patna 800001, Bihar. Neha Vashishta, B.A.(IInd Year), Post Graduate Government College for Girls, Sector-11 Chandigarh.

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Instructions to the Contributors The article should be typewritten preferably in Times New Roman with 12 font size (English) and Kruti Dev with 14 font size (Hindi) in MS-Word 2003 and should be between 3000 to 5000 words. They should be typed on one side of the paper, double spaced with ample margins, and contain author(s)/contributor's name and his/her institutional affiliation along with the complete mailing address. An abstract of 150-200 words should be included. The authors should submit the hard copy alongwith a CD or as an e-mail attachment to be sent to dr.sirswal@gmail.com. Only papers which have not been published elsewhere will be considered. Proofs will be sent to the authors if there is sufficient time to do so. Time Line: For April to September Issue: 31stAugust every year. For October to March Issue: 31st January every year. Reference Style: Notes and references should appear at the end of the articles as Notes. Arrange references in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author and then by his initials. The following style of reference may be strictly followed: In case of Journal: Authors last name, initials, year of publication, name of the paper, name of the journal (italic), volume number, issue number and page number. In case of a Book: Authors last name, initials, year of publication, title of the book(italic), name of publisher, place of publication and page numbers. In case of an edited Book: Authors last name, initials, year of publication, name of the editor(s), title of the book (italic), name of publisher, place of publication and page numbers. In case of institution/Govt. Report: full name of the institution/ministry, year of publication, place of publication and page numbers.

Subscription of the Journal Subscription of the journal is free. Everyone can download issues for their academic help. Our intention is to provide a free online study source through this journal and aware people of importance of reading and writing.

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CPPIS, Pehowa (Kurukshetra) Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies(CPPIS) Pehowa is a joint academic venture of Milestone Education Society (Regd.) Pehowa and Society for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (SPPIS), Haryana(online) to do fundamental research in the field of Humanities and Social Sciences. SPPIS Newsletter The Centre also circulates a Newsletter which includes new information related to events, new articles and programme details. One can register himself on the below given address and will get regular updates from us. Link for registration: http://drsirswal.webs.com/apps/auth/signup

All contributions to the Journal, other editorial enquiries and books for review are to be sent to: Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal, Editor, Lokāyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy, Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS), Milestone Education Society (Regd), Valmiki Dharamshala, Pehowa, Distt. Kurukshetra (HARYANA)-136128 (India) Mobile No.09896848775 E-mail: dr.sirswal@gmail.com, mses.02@gmail.com Website: http://lokayatajournal.webs.com

―My object is to achieve an intellectual detachment from all philosophical systems, and not to solve specific philosophical problems, but to become sensitively aware of what it is when we philosophise.‖- Dr Desh Raj Sirswal

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