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METALMENTALIST RNI No.: MAHENG13143/13/1/2012-TC

Vol 1 Issue 1 June 2012

COVER STORY “STAINLESS STEEL AS IT STILL REMAINS STRONG AFTER 100 YEARS …!!”


SPECIAL METALS THE ALLOY EXPERTS

1 0 0 INNOVATIO

YEAR OF

A century of inventing and producing high-performance nickel and cobalt alloys for severe environments.

T

he Special Metals Corpora on group of companies was created in the la er part of 1998 when Special Metals Corpora on of New Har ord, New York, acquired Inco Alloys Interna onal, including its Hun ngton Alloys and Wiggin Alloys divisions. In 2006, Special Metals Corpora on became a part of Precision Castparts Corp., a worldwide manufacturer of complex metal components and products. With a history of alloy technology now going back some 100 years, our company con nues to provide solu ons to difficult materials problems through such me‐tested products as our world‐recognized INCONEL, INCOLOY, NIMONIC, UDIMET, MONEL and NILO alloys.


YEARS OF

E S TA B L I S H E D 1 9 0 6

RS

ON INCONEL® INCOLOY® MONEL® NILO® NIMONIC® UDIMET® The design standards for engineers around the globe.

SPECIAL METALS SERVICES LTD. No. 60, First Main Road, First Block, Vasantha Vallabha Nagar, Subramanyapura Post, Bangalore India 560 061 Phone: +91 (0)80 2666 9159 | Fax: +91 (0)80 2666 8918 Email: raj@specialmetalsindia.com


Dear Readers, It gives me great pleasure to keep a magazine named “METALMENTALIST” in front of your desk which includes Metal Ores, Minerals along with Metals its forms and usage. This magazine covers Stainless steel, Nickel alloys, Copper and Brass, Aluminium Alloys, Titanium Alloys, Carbon Steel and other Metals in form of Coils, Strips, Sheets, Plates, Bars, Fittings, Fasteners, Valves, Pipes, Sheet Metal components and other Metal and alloy components made up of Ferrous and Non ferrous Metals, used in wide range of industries. Keeping in Mind the competition and the global demand of raw materials in all forms of metals we have tried the best way to keep the buyer and seller in contact with the help of this magazine. Today metal industry is a key sector in the Global and Indian economy as it meets the requirements of a wide range of important industries such as Aerospace, Oil and gas, Pharma Industry, Acid and Nuclear Plants, Engineering and Automation, Rubber Industry. The metal Sector consists of two major groups ferrous metals and non-ferrous metals. Indian steel industry has shown strong performance in the recent past in terms of production, capacity utilisation, exports and consumption. India is now a major competitor among steel producers in the world. The Steel industry contributes 1.32 to 1.57 percent to India's GDP. The metal industry provides employment to 0.45 million people directly and 0.62 million people indirectly.

“SHINING CONVINCINGLY KEEPING ITS REPUTATION OF BEING STAINLESS“ In an aim to let the industry know the monthly analysis of metal industry, keep supplier, manufacturers and buyers in one chain and as well as the condition of the market this edition of our magazine is focusing on the century of Stainless steel which is essential in daily usage from cutlery to aerospace as well as other ferrous and non ferrous metals and also brings you the preview of all products in ferrous and non ferrous metal world and will give you an extreme knowledge and a reason to absorb the same in an aim to increase your awareness in the metal industry. Don't forget that you can get in touch with us to discuss any queries you have about the metal industry. You can send us your mails at quiries@metalmentalist.com and also send a tweet @metalmentalist. Stay connected and be a METALMENTALIST! Happy Reading Regards,

Editor in Chief C.D. Chandan editor@metalmentalist.com

Associate Editor Rupal Jain Yogita Jain Sneha Chandan info@metalmentalist.com

Asst. Editor & Advt. Head Sanjay Khond advt@metalmentalist.com

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On behalf of Nu Web Wave Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Printed & Published by C.D.Chandan. Printed at NWW Printers 3rd Khetwadi lane, Mumbai -400 004. Published at NWWTPL Publications 3rd Khetwadi lane, Bansi bhuvan, 2nd oor, Room No.:33, Mumbai-400 004. All efforts are made to ensure that the information published is correct, NWWTPL or the editor hold's no responsibility for any unlikely errors on products or articles provided in references. However, readers are hence reputed to use the information on their professional knowledge and expertise. NWWTPL Publications are not the representative or agents, for any of the advertiser displayed in this magazine. Any disputes that may arise from products & services, copyright, trademark and solutions should be dealt directly with the companies involved. Disclaimer No part of this publication may be transmitted, reproduced or electronically stored without the permission of the publisher. Consent of the Editor is not necessary for any articles produced by the writers in the magazine. All disputes are subject to exclusive jurisdiction of competent courts and forums in Mumbai only.

C.D.Chandan RNI No.: MAHENG13143

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Labh steel is one of the leading Importers, Stockist of Stainless Steel, Nickel Alloy, Mild Steel, Alloy steel, Copper & Brass in various shapes & sizes.

Pipe Fi ngs

Flanges

Pipes & Tubes

Round & Flat Bars

Plate, Sheets & Coils

29\31, Savita Sadan, 1st Floor, 1st ParsiwadaLane, V.P. Road, Mumbai-400 004 Tel: +91-22-66518975, Fax: +91-22-23868976, Email: labhsteel@yahoo.co.in


CONTENTS Editor Desk

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Stainless Steel History Classification Of Stainless Steel Role Of Alloying Elements In Stainless Steel Stainless Steel Still Remains Strong After 100 Years As Its Usage Goes On And On Market Report Of Stainless Steel

7

Nickel And Nickel Alloys History Overview Where And Why Nickel Is Used- By Nickel Institute

17

Aluminium And Aluminum Alloys Introduction Overview Types Of Aluminium Alloys

23

Market Reports Of Nickel, Aluminium And Copper

28

Mr. Naveen Mathur, Angel Commodities

Titanium And Titanium Alloys Introduction Overview Types Of Titanium Alloys Titanium News

31

Copper And Copper Alloys Overview Types Of Copper Alloys Copper It’s Alloys Usage Structure

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Glossary

45


Y E A R S


Cover Story CELEBRATING 100 YEARS OF

STAINLESS STEEL HISTORY Today it has been 100 years since stainless steel was first patented. Harry Brearley was born on Feb 18, 1871 and by 1907 he was managing the Brown-Firth Research Laboratory in Sheffield, England and he is given the credit of invention of stainless steel, but there are many others at the same time shall get credit for invention of stainless steel such as Pierre Berthier and Elwood Haynes. Brearley called his new metal "rustless steel" which is known as Stainless Steel today. French scientist Leon Gillet had documented the constitution of stainless steel in 1904. While Gillet noted the composition and properties of his alloy mix, he never recognized the corrosive resistance of the material .In 1912, two German's at the Krupp Iron Works, Eduard Maurer and Benno Strauss, patented the first austenitic stainless steel of a

Metalmentalist - June 2012

STAINLESS STEEL Cutlery to Aerospace

21% chromium and 7% nickel combination. Brearley patented the first martensitic stainless in 1913. Many inventors have contributed to our knowledge of why stainless steel is so important and how it resists corrosion from grades to grades along with its ductility, Capacity of bearing High temperature and being heat resistant. Development of steel Started from Cutlery items such as knife but today its used widely in almost a l l s e c t o r s f r o m c o n s t r u c t i o n , Fa b r i c a t i o n , Pharmaceuticals machineries to railing at our bungalows or house. Today it has been a century of stainless steel but the shine of stainless steel hasn’t yet diminished its shining much brighter than ever with the increase 100 in use of Austenitic and Ferritic YEARS OF grade and of its new STAINLESS STEEL members in duplex and super duplex grades were invented

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Cover Story long back but the use is gaining in the current 21st century due to its high chromium and molybdenum content and due to its advanced resistance to corrosion.

CLASSIFICATION There are several different types and grades of stainless steel. They are classified by their crystalline structure

AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL When nickel is added to stainless steel in sufficient amount its crystal structure changes to "austenite". It has a maximum of 15% carbon, a minimum of 16% chromium and sufficient nickel, 6-22, with low carbon. It is strong, easy to form and weld, and non-magnetic. Popular uses for austenitic stainless steel are; kitchen sinks, building facades. Professional food processing equipment, chemical pipes, and cooking utensils. Austenitic grades are the most commonly used stainless steels accounting for more than 70% of production (type 304 is the most commonly specified grade by far). The most widely used austenite steel is the 304 grade. The second most common austenite steel is the 316 grade, used primarily for its increased resistance to corrosion.

properties than austenitic grades. However, it is highly corrosive-resistant. It contains 10.5-27% chromium, small amounts of molybdenum and aluminum or titanium, and very little nickel. They are magnetic and cannot be hardened by heat treatment. A few of the uses are in automobiles, architectural appliances, and exhaust systems.

MARTENSITIC STAINLESS STEEL Martensitic steel is produced by increasing the carbon content of ferritic stainless steel and heating and tempering it .These steels are similar to ferritic steels in being based on Chromium but have higher Carbon levels up as high as 1%. This allows them to be hardened and tempered much like carbon and low-alloy steels and they are magnetic. It is strong and hard, but brittle and magnetic. They are used where high strength and moderate corrosion resistance is required. Martensitic steel have generally low welding

FERRITIC STAINLESS STEEL The least expensive steel and has better engineering

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Cover Story

ability and formability. It contains 10-17% chromium. It is used for knives, blades in razors etc.

DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL It contains 50% ferritic stainless steel and 50% austenitic stainless steel and nitrogen is added. Duplex stainless steels have roughly twice the strength compared to austenitic stainless steels and also advanced resistance to corrosion, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. They are magnetic but not as much as the ferritic and martensitic grades. “lean duplex” steels has comparable corrosion resistance ,enhanced strength and resistance to stress corrosion cracking. The “Standard duplex” having 22% chromium content is widely used duplex grades.“Superduplex” having 25% chromium content steels have enhanced strength and resistance to all forms of corrosion. The properties of duplex stainless steels are achieved with overall lower alloy content than similar-performing super-austenitic grades, making their use cost-effective for many applications. Duplex grades are characterized into groups based on their alloy content and corrosion resistance. They are mainly used in hot water heaters and chemical tankers.

PRECIPITATION HARDENING STAINLESS STEEL Precipitation hardening stainless steels have corrosion resistance comparable to austenitic varieties, but can be precipitation hardened to even higher strengths than the other martensitic grades. Common grades such as 17-4PH, 17-7PH they have copper added to give it more strength. These grades are highly used in Aerospace and defence purpose as well as widely used for making fasteners.

“UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF ALLOYING ELEMENTS IN MAKING UP OF STAINLESS STEEL”

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NICKEL The role of nickel is most important in the making of Stainless steel and it provides the material to resist heat stabilizes the austenitic structure and increases ductility and helps the making of stainless steel easier. The nickel content provides the resistance of corrosion as well as increases the high temperature strength of the material and hence it is used in aerospace, pharmaceuticals as well as chemical and marine industries. The content of nickel is much more important while choosing the grades for particular applications and its industry. It makes the material non-magnetic in nature. Its content also plays an important role in resistance of acidic attack when the material is used in oil industries and it helps particularly with the attack of sulphuric acid. Nickel is the essential element in the 300 series stainless steel grades which is the most used grades in its relevant industries.

CHROMIUM The higher the chromium level the greater the protection. It makes a surface film of chromium oxide to make stainless steel corrosion resistant. It also increases the scaling resistance at elevated temperatures. It is a most reactive element and is responsible for the “passive” nature of all stainless steel grades. The resistance to the chemical effects of corrosion and the typical “rusting” (oxidation) that occurs with unprotected carbon steel is the direct result of the presence of chromium.

CARBON Carbon Strengthens stainless steel but promotes the formation of precipitates harmful to corrosion resistance. Carbon is always present in stainless steel. The percentage of carbon content is the important part in the making of stainless steel. The content of carbon is very much low except in martensitic as it provides high strength and hardness. 10


Cover Story

COPPER Copper is added to stainless steels to increase their resistance to certain corrosive environments. Copper is known to decrease the metallic dissolution rate in acidic media and consequently to slower the propagation pit growth rate. It also decreases susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking and provides age-hardening effects.

MOLYBDENUM The more higher the molybdenum content, the better the resistance to higher chloride levels. Molybdenum Increases corrosion resistance, strength at elevated temperatures, and creep resistance. It expands the range of passivity and counteracts tendency to pit especially in chloride environments. The addition of molybdenum to the Cr-Fe-Ni mixture makes it resistance to localized pitting attack and better resistance. It helps resist the detrimental effects of chlorides.

MANGANESE Promotes the stability of austenite, at or near room temperature and improves hot working properties. Addition of up to 2% manganese has no effect on strength, ductility and toughness. Manganese is important as a partial replacement of nickel in 200 series stainless grades. Generally manganese is added to stainless steels to assist in de-oxidation, during melting, and to prevent the formation of iron sulphide inclusions which can cause hot cracking problems. It is also a “austenite” stabilizer and when added in higher levels (from 4 to 15%) replaces some of the nickel in the 200 series stainless steel grades.

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TITANIUM Titanium is the main element used to stabilize stainless steel. When stainless steel is melted in air, it is difficult to reducing the carbon levels. Titanium will react with the carbon to form titanium carbides and prevent the formation of chrome carbides, which could affect the formation of the “passive” layer. The most common grade today is 304 (with 0.08 max carbon, although in reality the levels are lower).

SILICON Silicon resists carburizing at high temperatures and slightly increases tensile strength and hardness. Silicon Increases scaling resistance by forming a tight initial scale, which will withstand cyclic temperature changes. Small amounts of silicon are added to all grades of stainless for deoxidizing. Small amounts of silicon and copper are usually added to the austenitic stainless steels containing molybdenum to improve corrosion resistance to sulphuric acid. Silicon also improves oxidation resistance and is a “ferrite” stabilizer. In “austenitic stainless steels, high silicon contents improves resistance to oxidation and also prevents carburizing at elevated temperatures (309 and 310 are examples).

“STAINLESS STEEL STILL REMAINS STRONG AFTER 100 YEARS AS ITS USAGE GOES ON AND ON…!!” Significant future growth is foreseen in the use of stainless steel. Stainless steel is a versatile material. First used for cutlery and from domestic use it went to 11


Cover Story architectural, engineering, aerospace, marine, chemical, oil and gas industry because of its corrosion resistant characteristics. Corrosion resistance is of great importance and slowly but steadily the mechanical characteristics of the material are being recognized. It is a material that keeps on finding its way into new applications on a close to daily bases. Below you will find a number of applications where stainless steel has proven itself through many years of reliable service.

DOMESTIC USE The invention of stainless steel started from manufacture of cutlery items such as knifes. The finest cutlery uses are specially produced from stainless steel 410 and 420 for the knives, razor blades and grade 304 for the spoons and forks, cutlery, sinks, stands the most well known application stainless steels is probably for cutlery, kitchenware as well as for our daily materials in domestic use.

ARCHITECTURAL/CIVIL ENGINEERING Stainless steel usage for cladding, handrails, door and window fittings, street furniture, structural sections, reinforcement bar, lighting columns, lintels, masonry supports are growing day by day as many modern buildings use stainless steels for cladding, roofing and facades as it has a good life and remains rust free for many years. Its low maintenance cost and anti-corrosive characteristics of stainless provides a growing market in public transport, ticket machines and street furniture. Stainless steel reinforcing bar, although initially expensive, is proving to have very good life cycle costing characteristics.

TRANSPORT The market for stainless steel continues to improve by manufacturing exhaust systems, car trim/grilles, road tankers, ship containers, ships chemical tankers With greater concentration being made to achieving Green Revolution, low long term maintenance costs, less environmental impact and greater concern with life

Metalmentalist - June 2012

cycle costs,. Cars are making increasing use of stainless steel, primarily for exhaust systems and catalytic converters, but also for structural purpose as it increases its strength as well as Protects from damages cause due to accidents.

100 YEARS OF STAINLESS STEEL CHEMICAL/PHARMACEUTICAL, OIL AND GAS Probably the most demanding industries that use stainless steels are the chemical, processing and oil & gas industries have created a large market for stainless tanks, pipes, pumps and valves as well. One of the first major success stories on stainless steel 304 was the storage of dilute nitric acid as it could be used in thinner sections and was more robust than other materials. Special grades of stainless have been developed to have greater corrosion resistance at a broad range of different temperatures.

M E D I C A L – S U R G I C A L I N S T R U M E N T S, SURGICAL IMPLANTS, MRI SCANNERS. Especially clean melted stainless is used for medical implants and artificial hips. A great deal of medical equipment - such as orthopedic beds, cabinets and examination machines - is made as standard from stainless because of its hygienic and easy-clean qualities. Pharmaceutical companies use stainless for pill funnels and hoppers and for piping creams and solutions.

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Market Reports RUPEE WEAKNESS AFFECTS DECLINING NICKEL COSTS FAIL TO STIMULATE STEEL PRICES IN INDIA STAINLESS STEEL MARKET At a time when global industrial activity is slowing down, the demand for the steel in the sectors of infrastructure, construction and automobile is uncertain and the major factor of Rupee depreciation is detrimental for businesses of import of steel raw material or finished goods for manufacturing purposes. With manufacturing of steel products being the core of our business, the necessity of importing the raw material is high. The Indian Rupee has depreciated more than 5 percent on a year-to-date basis and considering the current state of the global economy, weakness in the Rupee could continue due to global economic and euro zone crisis. From the industry point of view, depreciation in the Rupee has led to rise in import costs for the steel manufacturing companies in India. Iron ore and coal being major inputs in steel manufacturing have seen a softening of prices on the international front, but in the Indian markets the scenario is different. Once the global economic scenario stabilizes, we could possibly see a reversal in the currency and this would bring a relief to the Indian markets. But a factor still remains crucial to the industrial metals space as the economic scenario in China and in Europe the weak economy has lead to weak demand of steels. Considering the expected slowdown in Chinese economic activity and the eurozone crisis, we feel that, Indian markets too would feel a pinch of the same. Source:

Ravindran M. Medore Equipments (India) Pvt Ltd.

Stainless steel markets throughout the world are in a subdued mood, reflecting a general, global malaise. Transaction values are down in most countries. This has combined with seasonal buying patterns and caution arising from the economic situation to bring about severely depressed business activity in many markets. Most countries in Europe have reported very low purchase volumes in recent weeks. Basis values are close to breakeven levels and the LME nickel price has recently recorded its lowest figures since 2009. Buyers are understandably cautious, given the overall economic climate. The ongoing uncertainty over Greece's continued participation in the euro has led politicians and business leaders to consider the consequences of the country's hypothetical exit from the single currency and possible default. This could cause a knock-on effect on the other weakest members of the euro zone - Italy, Spain, Portugal and Ireland - and more wide reaching consequences for banks, businesses and governments throughout the region who trade with these nations. The situation in Scandinavia is slightly more encouraging. Financial systems there are less exposed to the turmoil in the south of Europe. Furthermore, there is significant investment in Norway's North Sea oil interests, while Sweden's manufacturers of trucks and yellow goods, for example, and maintain strong export volumes to developing nations, such as Brazil. The recovery in industrial activity in the United States, since the global financial crisis, has been quicker and stronger than in Europe. However, markets there, too are becalmed at present. The optimism usually associated with an impending presidential election is not apparent on this occasion. Moreover, given the global surfeit of production, domestic suppliers are subject to competition from imports from Asia, particularly on the west coast and, to some extent, from Europe, in the east. Whilst growth in consumption and output continues in China, the rate of that expansion has certainly slowed in the past twelve months. The huge investment in new

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Cont...


Medore Equipments (India) Pvt. Ltd.

Company History & Vision

“M

edore Equipments (India) Pvt. Ltd., is an Engineering Company with excellent infrastructure facilities, engaged in design and manufacturing of various fabricated equipment like Pressure Vessels, Heat Exchangers, Reaction Vessels, Agitators, Spray Dryers, Extractors, Crystallisers, Deodcrisers etc. and special machineries for Chemical, Fertilizers, Petrochemicals, Paper and Edible Oil Industries. Medore is incorporated under the Indian Company Act in the year l99I with NRI participation and managed by a team of professional Engineers having a vast experience in the field of Design and Manufacturing of Process Plant Equipment (PPE). We manufacture and export to the Gulf, special Foundation Bolts, Flag Holders and Fabricated Sleeves for High Pressure Pipeline. We understand that every customer requires Quality. Our job requires a dedication to products and services that conforms to our Customer's needs and expectations, at a cost that represents value. Our suppliers understand and assist us in meeting our requirements. Medore is committed to excellence in every aspect of its business. We will provide our customers with quality equipment consistently on time. Quality is the responsibility of every person at Medore. Therefore, our company will remain dedicated to continuous improvement of quality, productivity and work environment in our continuing efforts towards defect-free material.


Pressure Vessels A pressure vessel is defined as “a vessel in which the pressure is obtained from an indirect source or by the application of heat from an indirect source or a direct source. The vessel proper terminates at: (a) the first circumferential joint for welded end connections; (b) the face of the first flange in bolted flange connections; or (c) the first threaded joint in threaded connections." Pressure vessels include but are not limited to compressed gas storage tanks (i.e., air, oxygen, nitrogen tanks, etc.), anhydrous ammonia tanks, hydro pneumatic tanks, autoclaves, hot water storage tanks, chemical reactors and refrigerant vessels, designed for a pressure greater than 15 psi and a volume greater than 5 cubic feet in volume or one and one-half cubic feet in volume with a pressure greater than 600 psi.

Heat Exchangers A heat exchanger is a specialized device that assists in the transfer of heat from one fluid to the other. In some cases, a solid wall may separate the fluids and prevent them from mixing. In other designs, the fluids may be in direct contact with each other. In the most efficient heat exchangers, the surface area of the wall between the fluids is maximized while simultaneously minimizing the fluid flow resistance. Fins or corrugations are sometimes used with the wall in order to increase the surface area and to induce turbulence.

Spray dryers Spray drying is a method of producing a dry powder from a liquid or slurry by rapidly drying with a hot gas. This is the preferred method of drying of many thermally-sensitive materials such as foods and pharmaceuticals. A consistent particle size distribution is a reason for spray drying some industrial products such as catalysts. Air is the heated drying media; however, if the liquid is a flammable solvent such as ethanol or the product is oxygen-sensitive then nitrogen is used. All spray dryers use some type of atomizer or spray nozzle to disperse the liquid or slurry into a controlled drop size spray. The most common of these are rotary disks and singlefluid high pressure swirl nozzles. Alternatively, for some applications two-fluid or ultrasonic nozzles are used. Depending on the process needs, drop sizes from 10 to 500 µm can be achieved with the appropriate choices. The most common applications are in the 100 to 200 µm diameter range.

Extractors Extractors are data retrieval mechanisms in the SAP source system. This can fill the extract structure of a data source with the data from the SAP source system datasets. The extractor may be able to supply data to more fields than exist in the extract structure.

Deodorizer A deodorizer is an equipment for deodorizing, the final stage in vegetable oil refining. Deodorizing removes odoriferous material, free fatty acids and other undesired minor components to produce bland oil with a good shelf life.

Medore Equipments (India) Private Limited A-352, MIDC, TTC Area, Mahape PO, Ghansoli, Navi Mumbai, Mumbai, Maharashtra - 400 701 Mumbai, Maharashtra, INDIA PIN-400 701 Phone no. : +91-22-778 1298, Fax : 022 790 5365, Website :www.seekandsource.com/medore


Market Reports plant in recent years has brought about substantial overcapacity in the Far East, especially at current levels of demand. Now, all the major stainless steel producing nations in the region are trying to export their excess output to each other. There is now the prospect of Taiwanese producers attempting to bring antidumping actions against Chinese and South Korean suppliers. One ray of light is that the Chinese government is believed to be implementing a new stimulus package, worth around 2 trillion Yuan ($Us316 billion), aimed at counteracting the downturn in growth. Funding will be available for investment in infrastructure schemes, such as railways, environmental projects and social housing. The financial injection will be around half the size of the previous spending boost unveiled in 2008. On this occasion, the state hopes to encourage greater private-sector involvement.

FASTENERS

Manufacturer & Exports of Cold Forged Stainless Steel, Duplex, Nickel Alloy Fasteners.

Source: MEPS - Stainless Steel Review

GLOBAL STEEL MARKET ROUND UP FROM MEPS In the US, both strip and plate prices are being negatively influenced by imports. Climbing domestic output and short delivery lead times are exacerbating the situation. However, lower scrap prices have eased some of the cost pressures on the steelmakers.

7/13, Bhagyashree Bldg., 2nd Parsiwada Lane, Shop No. 5, Mumbai - 400 004. Tel.: 91-22-2382 1517 / 6636 3363, Fax : 91-22-2384 1926, E-mail : vikfast@vsnl.net Sole Selling Distributors of

In Canada, mill activity held steady throughout May, with steelmakers reporting good order intake, although some distributors noted that delivery lead times are www.tright.co.in relatively short. Selling values have softened a little. Demand is reasonable but not strong. However, raw material costs are still high enough to encourage producers to lift transaction figures whenever possible. Chinese market prices have been declined in May. Although Baosteel elected to keep June’s official ex-works figures flat, several other producers have reduced theirs. This has not helped market sentiment which was already weak. Domestic demand is rebuilding in Japan, while export volumes are also growing, due to the weaker yen. Sales to the auto and construction industries are forecast to stay firm. Major producers of strip mill products are planning a rise of around ¥5000 per tonne. The negotiations with customers are ongoing. The hikes are cost driven and also reflect recent increases in the price of imported steel. South Korean mills continue to struggle to implement any advances as buyers resist their initiatives. Domestic demand from construction and shipbuilding is weak, although the auto sector is performing relatively well. Total inventories of flat products, held by distributors, at end March, rose by around 3 percent, compared with April. The appreciating Taiwanese dollar is helping that country’s steelmakers to reduce their raw material costs, whilst, at the same time, encouraging cheap imports. Overall sales remain sluggish, although some downstream industries have been doing slightly better lately. Source: MEPS - International Steel Review

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Nickel Alloys

NICKEL AND NICKEL ALLOYS HISTORY Nickel is the most versatile Element of all. Nickel is a naturally occurring, lustrous, silvery-white metallic element. It is the fifth most common element on earth and occurs extensively in the earth's crust. Nickel has been used in alloys long back to the dawn of civilization more than 2000 to 3000 Years ago. It was first identified and isolated as an element by the Swedish chemist, Axel Cronstedt, in 1751. It name comes from the Saxon term 'Kupfernickel' as the 15th century miners thought the ore looked Reddish brown like copper but it was too difficult to mine. Nickel in elemental form or alloyed with other metals and materials has made significant contributions to our present-day society and promises to continue to supply materials for an even more demanding future. Complete solid solubility exists between nickel and copper. Wide solubility ranges between iron, chromium, and nickel make possible many alloy combinations. Stainless steels which was discovered early in the 20th century and nickel content had a very important role in the invention of the same, and still 61% of the nickel is used in manufacturing Nickel alloys balance for making other nickel high temperature alloys and plating. When nickel is added to other element its Alloys were found to have excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature resistance, which made them suitable for Aerospace, Chemical, Pharmaceuticals Industry, Heat exchangers and energy. Still the metal is known to be the future Metal as its value and usage is increasing in 20th century. Nickel has its presence in over 3lakh products for consumer, industrial, military, transport, aerospace, marine and architectural applications. The biggest use is in alloying with chromium and other metals to produce stainless and heat-resisting steels.

OVERVIEW 60% of Nickel Is mostly used for making Stainless steels, 14% in copper nickel alloys such as alloy 400 and alloy 500, 6% to make superalloys such as alloy 625, 800, 718 Etc. 9% in plating, 5% in heat and electric resistance alloys, such as Nichrome, 6% for in all other applications combined. Nickel foam or nickel mesh is used in gas diffusion electrodes for alkaline fuel cells. Nickel is used in many specific and recognizable industrial and consumer products, including stainless steel, coins, rechargeable batteries, electric guitar strings, microphone capsules, and special alloys.

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Nickel Alloys Nickel is widely used as an alloy metal, and its main use is in the nickel manufacturing stainless steel, duplex steel and other high temperature and heat resistant alloys. It is also widely used in many other alloys, such as nickel brasses and bronzes, and alloys with copper, chromium, aluminium, lead, cobalt, silver, and gold. Because of its resistance to corrosion, nickel has been occasionally used historically as a substitute for decorative silver. Nickel is used as a binder in the cemented tungsten carbide or hard metal industry and used in proportions of 6 to 12% by weight. Nickel can make the tungsten carbide magnetic and adds corrosion-resistant properties to the cemented tungsten carbide parts, although the hardness is lower than those of parts made with cobalt binder.

WHERE & WHY NICKEL IS USED Nickel-containing materials play a major role in our everyday lives – food preparation equipment, mobile phones, medical equipment, transport, buildings, power generation – the list is almost endless. They are selected because - compared with other materials - they offer better corrosion resistance, better toughness, better strength at high and low temperatures, and a range of special magnetic and electronic properties. Most important are alloys of iron, nickel and chromium, of which stainless steels (frequently 8-12% nickel) are the largest volume. Nickel based alloys - like stainless steel but with higher nickel contents - are used for more demanding applications such as gas turbines and some chemical plants. In addition, iron and nickel alloys are used in electronics and specialist engineering, while copper-nickel alloys are used for coinage and marine engineering. There are about 3000 nickel-containing alloys in everyday use. About 90% of all new nickel sold each year goes into alloys, two-thirds going into stainless steel. Nickel metal is used to provide hard-wearing decorative and engineering coatings as 'nickel-plating' or 'electroless nickel coating' or 'electroforming'. When used with a top layer of chromium, it is popularly known as 'chrome-plating'. When done in combination with silicon carbide it is known as composite plating. Nickel is a key part of several rechargeable battery systems used in electronics, power tools, transport and emergency power supply. Most important today are nickel-metal hydride (NiMH). Nickel is a key ingredient in many catalysts used to make chemical reactions more efficient. Nickel use is growing at about 4% each year while use of nickel-containing stainless steel is growing at about 6%. The fastest growth today is seen in the newly and rapidly industrializing countries, especially in Asia. Nickel-containing materials are needed to modernize infrastructure, for industry and to meet the material aspirations of their populations. A list of some of the major nickel alloy and nickel stainless steel producers in the world is

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Nickel Alloys available here. Most nickel-containing products have long useful lives. Average life is probably 25-35 years, with many applications lasting much longer. Nickel containing products frequently can provide optimum solutions to practical challenges at a lower total cost and with more efficient use of resources, including energy. At the end of their useful life, nickel-containing products can be collected and recycled for future use and re-use. Nickel is one of the most recycled materials globally. It is collected and recycled, mostly in the form of alloys. About half of the nickel content of a stainless steel product today will have come from recycled sources. For more information on nickel recycling go to Recycling. Nickel is of considerable economic and strategic importance to many countries, as can be appreciated from the wide diversity of end-use industries which it serves. It is traded on the London Metal Exchange. The International Nickel Study Group, based in The Hague, Netherlands, is an inter-governmental body which publishes monthly statistics on nickel supply and demand, and acts as a forum for the exchange of information and views on nickel trends. Nickel and nickel compounds can in certain circumstances be associated with toxicity, carcinogenicity and with dermal sensitization. Most of the practical risks associated with nickel hazards are seen in certain complex processes used in nickel production and refining. The risks are well known and are managed and controlled by specific workplace regulation. In the nickel industry's view, significant risks are not normally associated with the use of nickel, nickel-containing alloys or nickel-containing products, with the exception of the use of nickel and some nickel alloys in jewellery. Nickel use makes a very high practical contribution to improvements of health, safety and protection of the environment. Society will lose a lot more than it will gain if it adopts an excessively precautionary approach to the assessment and management of the risks associated with nickel. Source: Nickel Institute

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Nickel Alloys NICKEL INSTITUTE CELEBRATES STAINLESS STEEL CENTENARY IN BEIJING As part of the Centenary of Stainless Steel celebrations, the Nickel Institute today hosted an event in Beijing ‘Nickel and Stainless Steel – Towards the Next 100 Years’. This event showed representatives from the metals industries as well as policymakers and researchers how nickel and the Nickel Institute are key partners in the success of stainless steel. Stainless steel was one of the major discoveries of the 20th Century. Contributing to our safety and quality of life, stainless steel is an integral element of our daily lives. Not only is nickel a crucial ingredient in stainless steel but the Nickel Institute has worked for decades to promote stainless steel and develop the markets for its wide-ranging applications. The Nickel Institute provides end-users with information and training to enable them to fully understand the benefits stainless steel can bring to applications like food, beverage and drinking water production, architecture, transport, chemical and energy production and healthcare.

Metalmentalist - June 2012

In China where the ‘Nickel and Stainless Steel - Towards the Next 100 Years’ event was held, demand for stainless steel is still growing. Part of the Nickel Institute’s role is to work with its partners across the value chain to demonstrate the sustainability and recyclability of stainless steel. Our aim is to inform both industry and policymakers, to improve the understanding of the sustainability profile of stainless steel and to reverse policy trends towards regulation based solely on hazard. Dr Kevin Bradley, Nickel Institute President said, “Despite a solid 100-year history, stainless steel is very much a material for the future. We are working tirelessly with our partners to highlight stainless steels contribution to society and to sustainability. By working together across the value chain, we are committed to addressing any barriers which could prevent stainless steel from achieving its full potential in the next hundred years. Source: Nickel Institute

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(An ISO 9001 : 2008 Certied Company)

Importers, Stockist & Manufacturers of : Carbon Steel, Alloy Steel, Mild Steel, Stainless Steel, Low Temperature, Pipes & Tubes, and all other Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Metals

Kaarlo Metal & Tubes 23, 2nd oor, Pipwala Building, 78/80, Kika Street, Mumbai-400004 Telephone No.: +91-22-22415016, Fax: 022-66362037 E-Mail: kaarlometal@rediffmail.com, URL : www.kaarlometal.com

Importer & Exporter of pipes and tubes in Alloy Steel, Carbon Steel, Mild Steel, Stainless steel Company Prole Karlo Metal & Tubes is an Importer and Stockiest of Alloy Steel, Carbon Steel, Mild Steel, Stainless Steel Pipes and Tubes (Seamless/ERW) which maintains bulk stocks of the pipes as per customer requirement along with quality certicates. Karlo metal stocks pipes ranges from 1/2” to 24” Dia along with the same they provide third party inspection. Material and Grades CARBON STEEL & MILD STEEL PIPES & TUBES

: ASTM A 53, 106 Gr. A, B, C API 5L Gr. B, IS 1239, IS 3589

ALLOY STEEL PIPES & TUBES

: ASTM A 335 P-1, P-2, P-5, P-9, P-11, P-12, P-22, P-91

STAINLESS STEEL PIPES & TUBES

: ASTM A 213, A 249, A269, A 312, A 358, A 409, 304, 304L, 304H, 316, 316L, 316H, 316TI, 317, 321, 347.

LOW TEMPERATURE PIPES & TUBES

: ASTM A333, A 334 BS 3603 A 420, 1, 3, 6, 27 LT 30, 27 LT 50 WPL3, WPL6

HEAT EXCHANGER, CONDENSER & BOILER

: ASTM A 179, A 199, A 200, A 209, A 210, A 213, BS. 3059, T-1, T-5, T-11, T-22, 33, 45, 620

Applications Reneries, Chemical Plants, Petrochemicals Industry, Fertilizers, Cement and Industrial Boiler Manufacturers.


Aluminium Alloys ALUMINIUM AND ALUMINIUM ALLOYS

its high strength-to-weight ratio. The most common aluminium alloying elements are copper, magnesium, manganese, silicon and zinc.

INTRODUCTION OVERVIEW Aluminium is found primarily in bauxite ore. Pure aluminium is soft, silvery , ductile of the poor metal group of chemical elements ,which is corrosion resistant, light weight and high electrical conductivity. The metal obtained its name from the Latin word form alum, alumen. The name alumina was provided by L. B. G. de Moreveau, in 1761 for the base in alum, which was positively shown in 1787 to be the oxide the undiscovered metal. In 1807, Sir Humphrey Davy said that the undiscovered metal shall be referred to as aluminum. This was then altered further to that of aluminium so to agree with the "ium" spelling that ended most of the elements. The metal is used in many industries to manufacture a large variety of products and is very important to the world economy. Aluminium alloys are most important alloys which are use in the important sectors of the world such as aerospace due to

Metalmentalist - June 2012

There are two principal classifications, namely casting alloys and wrought alloys. About 85% of aluminium is used for wrought products, for example rolled plate, foils and extrusions. Cast aluminium alloys yield cost effective products due to the low melting point. The most important cast aluminium alloy is Al-Si, where the high levels of silicon (4.0% to 13%) contribute to give good casting characteristics. Aluminium alloys are widely used in engineering structures and components where corrosion resistance is required. On the opposite hand, pure aluminium metal is far too soft for such uses, and it doesn't have the high tensile strength that's required for airplanes and helicopters. Aluminium alloys with a good composition of properties are utilized in engineering structures. Alloys composed mostly of the two lightweight metals aluminium and magnesium have been very important in aerospace manufacturing.

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Aluminium Alloys Aluminium alloy surfaces will keep their apparent shine in a dry environment due to the formation of a clear, protective layer of aluminium oxide. Aluminium alloys with a wide range of properties are used in engineering structures. Selecting the right alloy for a given application entails considerations of its tensile strength, d e n s i t y, d u c t i l i t y, f o r m a b i l i t y, workability, weldability, and corrosion resistance, to name a few. Structural components made from aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and very important in other areas of transportation and building. It is widely used for foil and conductor cables, but alloying with other elements is necessary to provide the higher strengths needed for other applications. Aluminium alloys in comparison to steel and its alloys With the change in new metal products, the design choices are often known by the choice of manufacturing techniques. Extrusions are particularly important in the current century as owing to the ease with which aluminium alloys, particularly the aluminum, magnesium and silicon alloy series, can be extruded to form complex extrusions. Aluminium alloys have an elastic modulus of about 70 GPa, which is about 1/3rd of the elastic modulus of many kinds of steel and its alloys. Hence component made up of an aluminum alloy will

Metalmentalist - June 2012

experience a greater elastic deformation than a same part of steel which is identical in size and shape. Though there are aluminium alloys with somewhat-higher tensile strengths than the commonly used kinds of steel, but selecting the right alloy of aluminium or steel for the respective component is also the factor as just replacing some alloys won’t help the component. With aluminium alloys, stiffer and lighter designs can be achieved rather than steels. Aluminium alloys are hence mainly used in parts that require high tensile strength. In automotive engineering, cars made of aluminium alloys uses space frames made of extruded profiles to ensure rigidity. Aluminum alloys do not have this lower fatigue limit and will continue to weaken with continued stress cycles. Aluminium alloys are majorly used in automotive engines, due to the weight savings that are possible. Since aluminium alloys can resist high temperatures, the cooling system of such engines is critical. Manufacturing techniques and metallurgical advancements have also been important for the successful

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Aluminium Alloys application in automotive engines. An important structural limitation of aluminium alloys is their lower fatigue strength compared to steel.

TYPES OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS There are two types of alloys Wrought and cast aluminum alloys. Wrought aluminum is known with a four digit number which identifies the alloying elements. Cast aluminum alloys use a four to five digit number with a decimal point. The digit in the hundreds place indicates the alloying elements, while the digit after the decimal point indicates the form (cast shape or ingot).

WROUGHT ALLOYS 1000 SERIES 1000 series are commonly known as commercially pure aluminium grade with a minimum 99% aluminum content by weight. 1000 series aluminium having higher purity is used in many applications especially in the electrical and chemical fields due to corrosion resistance, high thermal and electrical conductivity, low mechanical properties, and excellent workability. Iron and silicon are the major impurities.

Metalmentalist - June 2012

2000 SERIES Copper is the principal alloying element in this group. 2000 series are aluminium alloy which consist of copper ranging from 2% to 5% which can be hardened to strengths comparable to steel. There are most common aerospace alloys for its high tensile strengths. In some instances artificial ageing is employed to further increase the mechanical properties. These alloys are processed to solution heat-treatment to properties at its highest level and in the heat-treated condition mechanical properties are similar to and sometimes exceed those of some alloy steel. 3000 SERIES These aluminium alloys are alloyed with manganese. These alloys are popular and widely used as general-purpose alloys for moderate-strength applications requiring good workability. Manganese is the major alloying element of alloys in this group, which is not heat treatable as only a limited percentage of manganese, up to about 1.5%, can only be added to aluminium, it is used as a major element in only a few instances. 4000 SERIES These alloys are also known as silumin as are alloyed with silicon which can be added in sufficient quantities

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Aluminium Alloys

to cause substantial lowering of the melting point without producing brittleness in the formation of alloys. These alloys are non heat treatable but due to alloying elements it responds well to the heat treatment to an extent. Hence aluminium-silicon alloys are used in welding wire and as brazing alloys where lower melting point is required. 5000 SERIES Magnesium is one of the most effective and widely used alloying elements for aluminium. Magnesium is considerably much effective than manganese as it is stronger and harder, about 0.8% magnesium being equal to 1.25% manganese, and it can be added in considerably higher quantities. These alloys are also known as marine grade alloys (5083,5086) as they are widely used in marine applications. When it is used as the major alloying element, or with manganese, the result is a moderate to high- strength non-heat treatable alloy Alloys in this series possess good welding characteristics and good resistance to corrosion in marine atmospheres.

Metalmentalist - June 2012

6000 SERIES These alloys are not as strong as the 2000 series alloys or 5000 series alloys as they are alloyed with magnesium and silicon which are easy in machining. Alloys in this group contain silicon and magnesium in approximate proportions thus making them capable of being heat-treated. As compared to other strong alloys, with average strength these alloys possess good formability and corrosion resistance. 7000 SERIES The strongest of all the alloys in Aluminium, They are known as aerospace alloys. This alloy is the most important alloy in current aerospace industry. Zinc being the major alloying element in this group, and added with a smaller percentage of the magnesium results in heat-treatable alloys of very high strength. Usually other elements such as coppers and chromium are also added in small quantities. They are alloyed with zinc, and can be precipitation hardened to the highest strengths of any aluminum alloy. 27


with Mr. Naveen Mathur, Associate Director-commodities & currencies, Angel Broking

Source: Reuters, Angel Research

Market Reports Nickel

“From the month of February’12 onwards, nickel is witnessing a downtrend in prices as weak global economic prospects along with expectations of a surplus in 2012 and 2013.” From an average of around $19,940/tonne in January’12, nickel prices on the LME have slipped to an average of $17,000/tonne in May’12. In the Indian markets, prices on the MCX have declined from a monthly average of Rs1016/kg in January12 to Rs.940/kg in May’12. When the price performance of the metal is compared from Janueary’12 to May’12, then it shows that in dollar terms prices corrected 15 percent, while in Rupee terms the metal prices fell only 7 percent due to the factor of Rupee depreciation which cushioned sharp downside in prices. In the current scenario, demand concerns for the metal have increased as China, which accounts for a whopping 46 percent share in world nickel consumption is expected to witness a slowdown in economic growth. Other major nickel consumer such as the US and the Euro Zone are also expected to witness slow growth in demand due to the ongoing economic concerns. On the inventories front, commercial nickel stocks at the end of the last year stood at 96,848 tonnes. But despite a fall in nickel inventory levels last year, the metal prices slipped due to heightening macroeconomic worries. As far as demand-supply is concerned, a deficit was seen in the global nickel market in 2010 and 2011. The deficit seen in the last year was mainly due to a sharp increase in nickel consumption in the last few months of 2011 by China. But inventories in the current year are expected to witness an increase as

production is forecast to exceed consumption in 2012. Downside in nickel prices is expected to continue in the short-term on account of the expected rise in inventories, concerns on the macroeconomic front along with expectations of a surplus. From a one month’s perspective, we recommend a Sell in the MCX Nickel June contract around 950 with a Stop Loss of 980 and a Target of 870.

Source: Mr. Naveen Mathur Associate Director-commodities & currencies, Angel Broking

Metalmentalist - June 2012

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Market Reports

with Mr. Naveen Mathur, Associate Director-commodities & currencies, Angel Broking

ALUMINUM Aluminum slipped below the crucial $2000/tonne mark on the LME as heightening global economic concerns along with strength in the US Dollar Index added to

“further decline in aluminum prices could be restricted as cues remain negative, considering the current macroeconomic scenario.” World aluminum pressure on prices. However,

consumption grew at a pace of 5.9 percent in 2011 and EIU expects growth to slow down at 4.8 percent for 2012. This is because ongoing global European economic worries will have an impact on investment and business confidence in the Euro Zone. But global demand is not expected to witness sharp deceleration on account of consumption which will be supported by the recovery in supply chains in the auto sector after the disruptions that were caused in the March’11 earthquake in Japan.

Source: Reuters, Angel Research

China’s Aluminum consumption is expected to witness slow growth at around 6 percent for 2012 and 2013, compared to previous 11.5 percent in 2011 and 10.5 percent in 2010. The weak economic scenario in China is

Metalmentalist - June 2012

expected to restrict growth in manufactured products, thus leading to lower demand. The rail i n f r a s t r u c t u r e p r o j e c t o f high-speed in China has been scaled down, and earlier growth expectations were made keeping in mind the huge demand that would come from this segment. On the overall demand front, demand from Japan is expected to improve post the earthquake and tsunami. Demand in Japan is expected to grow in the auto sector on account of as Japanese carmakers receive tax breaks and subsidies. US demand is expected to improve after witnessing a decline in consumption by more than 4 percent in last year. This year, aluminum consumption in the US could rise more than 3 percent according to the WBMS as the auto sector is indicating better performance than 2011. The Indian economy in the current year is going through a slow growth phase and demand growth is expected to fall from more than 9 percent year-on-year in 2011 to around 6 percent in the 2012 as car manufacturing witnesses a slow growth phase. On the supply front, world aluminum production is expected to grow at a slow rate of 4.6 percent in 2012, which is down from 6.4 percent in last year. Due to rising energy costs, the usage of secondary aluminum is expected to rise. In the Euro Zone, concerns on the environmental front will affect production and China too will face a decline in production due to restrictions on electricity usage and higher energy costs. Nevertheless, the aluminum price scenario would be more dependent on global happenings than on actual demand-supply fundamentals. Taking cues from sentiments and developments on the macroeconomic front Aluminum is expected to trade on a negative note with less clarity over the re-emergence of Euro Zone from its worst debt crisis, thus leading to a pressure on aluminum prices in the short-term. From a one month’s perspective, we recommend a Sell in MCX Aluminum June contract around 111 – 111.50 with a Stop Loss of 114 and a Target of 105 (CMP: 109). Source: Mr. Naveen Mathur Associate Director-commodities & currencies, Angel Broking

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Market Reports COPPER

with Mr. Naveen Mathur, Associate Director-commodities & currencies, Angel Broking

In the current context, a major factor that is driving the global financial markets is the developments on the macroeconomic front, which in our opinion are not supportive for positive risk sentiments. While on one hand expectations with respect to actions by global policymakers is on the rise, on the other hand, investors remain cautious considering the uncertainty surrounding the European debt crisis. Base metals are used for industrial purposes and slowdown in economic growth affects price performance. On the London Metal Exchange (LME), Copper prices are currently trading below $7300/tonne as the ongoing global economic worries are having a negative impact on prices. At the beginning of May’12, copper prices on the LME were trading around $8430/tonnes, but downtrend in prices continued thereafter as worries over demand prospects emerged due to the slowdown in economic growth in major economies. Apart from this, strength in the US Dollar Index (DX) and low risk appetite among investors also affected prices. A major factor that helped cushion sharp downside in prices was the decline in LME inventories by 4.4 percent in the month of May’12.

Source: Reuters, Angel Research

In case of the red metal, fundamentals look bearish from the short-term perspective as slow Chinese economic growth will lead to lower demand for the metal. Chinese copper demand is expected grow at a slow pace of 6 percent in 2012 from 6.7 percent in 2011 as per the Economic Intelligence Unit (EIU). In spite of slow economic growth and expectations of decline in demand for the year, Chinese imports have increased sharply at the end of 2011 and in the beginning of 2012. Chinese copper imports stood around 711, 311 tonnes, for January’12 and February’12, marking a rise of 75 percent on a year-on-year basis. This increase in imports cannot be misconstrued for increase in fabrication demand as the imports of the metal have been largely gone into bonded warehouses at ports, or at

Metalmentalist - June 2012

exchange warehouses and is also used as collateral in order to get around at a time when lending costs were high. Hence, the import of the metal was not targeted to fabricators or for physical consumption by manufacturers. According to the current global economic environment, the demand scenario was not positive in the rest of Asia for 2011. According to WBMS data, refined copper consumption declined in India, South Korea and Taiwan by 22 percent, 12.7 percent and 14 percent respectively for 2011. But for current year, WBMS expects a return of growth by 2 to 5 percent in these three countries for the whole of 2012. On the supply front, world refined copper production growth had witnessed slow growth of 1.8 percent in last year from 3 percent growth in 2010. Due to some significant mine capacity additions on stream for current year, world refined copper supply is expected to increase by 3 percent. A comfortable supply scenario at a time of heightening global economic risks would be a negative for copper prices.

“We expect copper prices to trade on a negative note from the short-term perspective, as poor economic indicators” from world’s major economic coupled with the uncertainty surrounding the European debt crisis will act as a negative factor for the commodity. Keeping in mind a month’s view, we recommend a Sell in MCX Copper June contract around 415 – 420 with a Stop Loss of 432 and Ta r g e t o f 3 9 5 (CMP: 405)

Source: Mr. Naveen Mathur Associate Director-commodities & currencies, Angel Broking

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Titanium Alloys TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOYS INTRODUCTION TO TITANIUM Titanium alloys are metals which contain a mixture of titanium and other chemical elements it is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, the cost of titanium is high due to its high melting point and extreme reactivity. was discovered in Cornwall, Great Britain, by William Gregor in 1791 and named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth for the Titans of Greek mythology. The element occurs within a number of mineral deposits, principally rutile and ilmenite, which are widely distributed in the Earth's crustand lithosphere, and it is found in almost all living things, rocks, water bodies, and soils. Titanium and titanium alloys are attractive structural materials due to their high strength, low density, and excellent corrosion resistance. Titanium has high passivity; therefore it exhibits high levels of corrosion resistance to most mineral acids and chlorides. It is also nontoxic and biologically compatible with human tissue and bone, making it an ideal material for medical implant products.

OVERVIEW OF TITANIUM AND ITS ALLOY Titanium features a comparatively low density, simply over 0.5 that of steel. It’s a comparatively low strength when pure, however alloying offers a substantial increase in strength.

Metalmentalist - June 2012

Attributable to the low density of titanium, its alloys have a high strength to weight ratio. It’s a high melting purpose (1660°C) and wonderful corrosion resistance. Pure titanium wrought products, which have minimum titanium contents ranging from about 98% to 99.50%, are used primarily for corrosion resistance. Titanium products are also useful for fabrication but have relatively low strength in service. The wrought product forms of titanium and titanium-base alloys, which include forgings and typical mill products, constitute more than 70% of the market in titanium and titanium alloy production. Powder metallurgy of titanium has not gained wide acceptance and is restricted to space and missile applications. The primary reasons for using titanium-base products are its outstanding corrosion resistance of titanium and its useful combination of low density (4.5 g/cm3) and high strength. The strengths vary from 480 MPa for some grades of commercial titanium to about 1100 MPa for structural titanium alloy products and over 1725 MPa for special forms such as wires and springs. This allotropic behaviour, which depends on the type and amount of alloy contents, allows complex variations in microstructure and more diverse strengthening opportunities than those of other nonferrous alloys such as copper or aluminum. The use of titanium has expanded in recent years to include applications in nuclear power plants, food processing plants, oil refinery heat exchangers, marine components and medical equipments. The high cost of titanium alloy components may limit their use to

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Titanium Alloys

with Mr. Naveen Mathur, Associate Director-commodities & currencies, Angel Broking

applications for which lower-cost alloys, such as aluminium and stainless steels. The relatively high cost is often the result of the intrinsic raw material cost of metal, fabricating costs and the metal removal costs incurred in obtaining the desired final shape. They are light weight, have extraordinary corrosion resistance and the ability to withstand extreme temperatures. However, the high cost of both raw materials and processing limit their use to military applications, aircraft, spacecraft, medical devices, connecting rods on expensive sports cars and some premium sports equipment and consumer electronics. Branded Auto manufacturers also use titanium alloys in engine components due to its durable properties in these high stress engine environments. Although "commercially pure" titanium has acceptable mechanical properties and has been used for orthopaedic and dental implants, for most applications titanium is alloyed with small amounts of aluminum and vanadium, typically 6% and 4% respectively, by weight. This mixture has a solid solubility which varies dramatically with temperature, allowing it to undergo precipitation strengthening. This heat treatment process is carried out after the alloy has been worked into its final shape but before it is put to use, allowing much easier fabrication of a high-strength product.

oxygen and iron are intentionally added to the residual amounts already in the sponge to provide extra strength. These are composed entirely of alpha part for example of such an alloy - 92.5%, titanium - 5%, aluminium - 2.5% tin each the aluminum and tin are alpha stabilizers. Such alloys have the hexagonal close-packed structure and, as a consequence, are strong, maintain their strength at high temperatures however is troublesome to figure. This kind of titanium alloys have sensible weld ability and are used where warm temperature strength is needed, e.g. turbine blades. ALPHA AND NEAR-ALPHA ALLOYS Alpha and near-alpha alloys contain aluminum as the principal alloying element. Aluminum provides solid-solution strengthening, oxidation resistance, and reduces density. Other additions include the neutral elements tin and zirconium, along with small amounts of beta stabilizers. Alpha and near-alpha alloys are slightly less corrosion resistant but higher in strength than unalloyed titanium. They develop moderate strengths and have good notch toughness. They have medium formability and are weld able. Ti-5Al-2.5Sn is the only true alpha alloy that is commercially produced. The remainder of the commercially available alpha and near-alpha alloys are near-alpha alloys.

The combination of high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance makes titanium the best material choice for many critical applications. Today, titanium alloys are used for demanding applications such as static and rotating gas turbine engine components. Some of the most critical and highly-stressed civilian and military airframe parts are made of these alloys.

TYPES OF TITANIUM ALLOYS Commercially pure titanium alloys Commercially pure titanium alloys are used primarily for corrosion resistance. They are also useful in applications requiring high ductility for fabrication but relatively low strength in service. Yield strengths range from 170 to 520 MPa. Basically, oxygen and iron contents determine the strength levels of commercially pure titanium. In the higher-strength grades,

Metalmentalist - June 2012

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Titanium Alloys Ti-5Al-2.5Sn is quite ductile, and the extra-low interstitial grade retains ductility and toughness at cryogenic temperatures. Because Ti-5Al-2.5Sn is a single-phase alloy containing only alpha, it cannot be strengthened by heat treatment. Near-alpha alloys contain small amounts of beta phase dispersed in an otherwise all-alpha matrix. The near-alpha alloys generally contain 5 to 8 wt% Al. The near-alpha alloys retain their strength to high temperatures and have good creep resistance in the range of 320 to 590 °C (600 to 1100 °F). These are composed of just about all alpha part with little quantity of beta part dispersed throughout the alpha. Such alloys are achieved by adding tiny amounts, regarding one to twenty, or beta-stabilizing parts like molybdenum and vanadium to what's otherwise an alpha-stabilized alloy. An example of such an alloy is ninetieth titanium. This alloy is often utilized in the annealed condition. There are 2 types of annealing; mill annealing and duplex annealing. Mill annealing involves heating the alloy to 790°C, soaking for eight hours and then furnace cooling. Duplex annealing involves mill annealing followed by reheating to 790°C, soaking for quarter of an hour and then air cooling. The results of such annealing are beta particles dispersed throughout an alpha matrix. Titanium alloy within the annealed state is employed for airframe and jet engine elements that need high strengths, sensible creep resistance and toughness up to temperatures of regarding 850°C. The alloy has sensible weldability.

ALPHA-BETA ALLOYS Alpha-beta alloys contain both the alpha and beta phases. Again, aluminum is the principal alpha stabilizer that strengthens the alpha phase. Beta stabilizers, such as vanadium, also provide strengthening and allow these to be hardened by solution heat treating and aging. Alpha-beta alloys have a good combination of mechanical properties, rather wide processing windows, and can be used at temperatures up to approximately 320 to 400 °C (600 to 750 °F). The alpha-beta alloys include Ti-6Al-4V, which is the workhorse of the aerospace industry. It accounts for approximately 60 wt% of the titanium used in aerospace and up to 80 to 90 wt% of that used for airframes. These contain sufficient quantities of beta-stabilizing parts for there to be appreciable amounts of beta part at area temperature. The aluminum stabilizes the alpha part whereas the vanadium stabilizes the beta part. These alloys will be answer treated, quenched and aged for increased strength. The micro structure of the alloys depends on their composition and warmth treatment. Thus, a quick cooling rate from a temperature where the fabric was all, beta, e.g. quenching in cold water, produces a martensitic structure with some increase in hardness. Ageing will then turn out some any increase in strength as results of beta precipitates.

BETA ALLOYS A typical beta-titanium alloy contains 77% titanium-13% vanadium-11% chromium-3% aluminum. Beta alloys are sufficiently rich in beta stabilizers and lean in alpha stabilizers that the beta phase can be completely retained with appropriate cooling rates. Beta alloys contain small amounts of alpha-stabilizing e l e m e n t s a s strengthening agents. As a class, beta and near-beta alloys offer increased fracture toughness over alpha-beta alloys at a given strength level. Beta alloys also exhibit better room-temperature forming and shaping characteristics than alpha-beta alloys, higher strength

Metalmentalist - June 2012

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Titanium Alloys

than alpha-beta alloys at temperatures where yield strength instead of creep strength is the requirement, and better response to STA in heavier sections than the alpha-beta alloys. They are limited to approximately 370 °C (700 °F) due to creep. When sufficiently high amounts of beta-stabilizing parts are added to titanium, the ensuing structure will be created entirely beta at area temperature when quenching, in some cases by air cooling In contrast to alpha-titanium alloys. Beta-titanium alloys are readily cold worked within the answer treated and quenched condition, and may be subsequently aged to relinquish terribly high strengths. Within the high-strength condition the alloys have low ductility’s. They’ll additionally suffer from poor fatigue performance. The alloys are therefore not thus widely used because the alpha-beta alloys. The alloy is sometimes utilized in the answer treated, quenched and aged condition so as to get the terribly high tensile strength. It’s used for aerospace elements, honeycomb panels and high strength fasteners aviation-database has several resources for the aircraft business.

TITANIUM NEWS Kobe Steel expanding titanium capacity TOKYO, Kobe Steel, Ltd. announces that it plans to increase its production capacity of titanium alloys for the aerospace sector and commercially pure titanium

Metalmentalist - June 2012

for general industry. Investments are anticipated to total 7.5 billion yen, of which 1.5 billion yen is allocated for the joint venture Japan Aeroforge, Ltd. Kobe Steel plans to construct a new ring rolling mill and install heat treatment and inspection equipment for large forged products at its Takasago Works in Takasago, Hyogo Prefecture in western Japan. Group company Kobe Special Tube Co., Ltd., a 100% owned subsidiary of Kobe Steel, has already completed a titanium welded tube line in Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi Prefecture, also in western Japan. Titanium demand is anticipated to expand over the medium- to long-term future owing to strong worldwide demand for civilian aircraft and infrastructure demand in emerging countries, such as for power generation and desalination plants. Japan's total shipments of titanium mill products reached 19,358 metric tons in 2011 (ended December 2011), the second highest since 2008. Of this amount, a record 13,245 metric tons were exported. Through the capital investments, Kobe Steel will be able to increase and improve its production capacities for ring products for aircraft and large forgings made of titanium alloys, as well as welded tube made of commercially pure titanium. The additional capacity will enable Kobe Steel to enhance business opportunities for the growing titanium market. In September last year, Kobe Steel developed precoated titanium sheet and high heat transfer titanium sheet for 35


Titanium Alloys use in plate heat exchanger. Expanding its production capacity and strengthening its ability to meet user needs, Kobe Steel's Titanium Division plays an important role in contributing to the company's medium- to long-term business vision, KOBELCO VISION "G.�

In the future, Japan Aeroforge hopes to provide overseas aircraft manufacturers with forgings. The heat treatment and inspection equipment to be installed is aimed at meeting processing capacity, as well as specifications from aircraft manufacturers. Production capacity will increase three-fold.

Kobe Steel pioneered the production and commercial application of titanium in Japan, when in 1949 it became the first company to begin research on this lightweight material. Kobe Steel is Japan's only integrated producer of titanium mill products with operations ranging from melting to mill product manufacturing. The company supplies numerous titanium products to a wide variety of industries.

Titanium billets made at the Takasago Works will be supplied to Japan Aeroforge for die forging. The semifinished forgings will then be returned to Takasago for heat treatment and inspection before being shipped to customers.

1. Construction of new ring rolling mill at Takasago Works As the current ring rolling mill at Takasago Works is over 20 years old and aging, Kobe Steel decided to build a new ring rolling mill. By installing new equipment for high precision rolling, Kobe Steel can utilize near-net-shape ring rolling and achieve a considerable reduction in forging weight. This is anticipated to reduce costs and increase orders for rings used in jet engines. By constructing the new ring rolling mill, Kobe Steel's ring rolling capacity is anticipated to double. The current ring rolling mill will be shut down after the new mill receives certification. 2. Installation of heat treatment and inspection equipment for large forgings at Takasago Works Kobe Steel plans to install heat treatment and inspection equipment for large forgings to be manufactured by Japan Aeroforge, Ltd., a joint venture with Hitachi Metals, Ltd. and other partners. This investment will expand sales to domestic heavy industry manufacturers of large titanium forgings.

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3. Expansion of titanium welded tube line at Kobe Special Tube Co., Ltd. Kobe Special Tube added a new line at Japan's largest titanium welded tube plant. The added capacity will help meet the growing demand for welded tube for power plants in emerging countries and desalination plants in the Middle East. The new line enables Kobe Steel Tube to gain more orders by providing the additional capacity necessary for large projects. Integrated production from ingot melting to welded tube manufacturing enables the Kobe Steel Group to supply high-quality titanium welded tube. This investment increased production capacity 25 to 30%. To bolster the annealing capacity of the base material for the new welded tube line at Kobe Special Tube, Kobe Steel increased the capacity of its vacuum annealing equipment for sheet at its Kakogawa Works in Kakogawa Hyogo Prefecture. The new line went into operation in December 2010. Source: Kobelco.co.jp

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Copper Alloys COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS OVERVIEW It was originally named cyprium (metal of Cyprus) Cyprus initially during the Romanian time as it was mined in Cyprus. Later the name was shortened to cuprum. Copper is known as the Best conductor of Electricity. It has been a best friend of human being as oldest civilization knew its usage more than 10,000 years ago. It is the most common and important metals having a wide scope of applications in many sectors across the world such most importantly in Electrical, Manufacturing, Aerospace, Heat exchanger, Telecommunications and utensils. Copper is known for its super conductivity, high ductility, corrosion resistant and easy moulding properties. It is vital to humans. Adults require 2-3 mg copper in their diet daily. There are as many as 400 different copper and copper-alloy compositions loosely grouped into the categories such as copper, high copper alloy, brass, bronze, copper nickels, copper–nickel–zinc (nickel silver) and leaded copper and special alloys. They are amongst the most necessary materials needed to provide the means to keep home, commerce and industry running. The best known traditional types are bronze; where tin is a significant addition, and brass, using zinc instead. Most of its uses are based on this property or the fact that it is also a good thermal conductor.

TYPES OF COPPER ALLOYS COPPER ALLOYS These alloys have excellent resistant to sea water corrosion and are good conductor of electricity as well as have a higher strength resistant, have similar corrosion resistance, but they are susceptible to corrosion at high water velocities. The high-copper

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alloys are primarily used in applications that require enhanced mechanical performance, often at slightly elevated temperature, with good thermal or electrical conductivity. There are various grades of unalloyed copper, which differ in the amount of impurities they contain. Oxygen free coppers are used specifically in applications requiring high conductivity and exceptional ductility.

BRASSES Brasses containing between 32% and 39% zinc exhibit excellent hot working characteristics but limited cold workability .Brass colour ranges from red to golden yellow, depending on the amount of zinc the alloy contains. Gilding Metal, Commercial Bronze, Jewellery Bronze, Red Brass and Cartridge Brass are common names given to brass alloys with specific zinc contents. Brasses containing more than 39% zinc have high strength and lower ductility at room temperature than alloys with less zinc. Elements such as lead, tellurium, beryllium, chromium, phosphorus, and manganese have little or no effect on the corrosion resistance of coppers and binary copper-zinc alloys. These elements are added to enhance such mechanical properties as machining ability, strength, and hardness. Brass are alloys made from copper and zinc, they exhibit good strength and ductility and are easily cold worked, properties which improve with increased zinc content up to 35%. Brasses are known for their ease of fabrication by drawing, high cold-worked strength and corrosion resistance. Brasses are routinely blanked, coined, drawn and pierced to produce springs, fire extinguishers, jewellery, radiator cores, lamp fixtures, ammunition, flexible hose and the base for gold plate. Brasses have excellent cast ability. Cast brasses are used as plumbing fixtures, decorative hardware, architectural trim, low pressure valves, gears and bearings are basically copper-zinc alloys and are the most widely used group of copper alloys.

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Copper Alloys TIN BRASSES They possess good hot forge ability and good cold formability. These materials have moderate strength; high atmospheric and aqueous corrosion resistance and excellent electrical conductivity. Cast brasses for marine applications are also modified by the addition of tin, lead, and, sometimes, nickel. This group of alloys is known by various names, including composition bronze, ounce metal, and valve metal. Tin Brasses alloys made are made from copper with zinc content ranging from 2 % to 40% and tin from 0.2% to 3%. This family of alloys includes admiralty brasses, naval brasses and free-machining tin brasses. These alloys are used to make high-strength fasteners, electrical connectors, springs, corrosion resistant mechanical products, marine hardware, pump shafts, and corrosion-resistant screw machine parts.

ALUMINUM BRONZES Aluminium Brasses containing 5 to 12% Aluminium have excellent resistance to resisting corrosion and high-temperature oxidation. High copper alloys aluminum containing alloys can be quenched

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and tempered. Aluminum bronzes are used in marine hardware, shafts and pump and valve components for handling seawater; sour mine waters, non oxidizing acids, and industrial process fluids. They are also used as heavy duty sleeve bearings and machine tool ways. Aluminum bronzes are used for beater bars and for blades in wood pulp machines because of their ability to withstand mechanical abrasion and chemical attack by sulfite solutions. Aluminum bronze castings have exceptional corrosion resistance, high strength, toughness and wear resistance. They also exhibit good casting and welding characteristics. In the most of practical commercial applications, the corrosion characteristics of aluminum bronzes are primarily related to aluminum content. Alloys with up to 8% Al normally have completely face-centred cubic structures and a good resistance to corrosion attack. Solid solution strengthening, cold work and precipitation of an iron rich phase contribute to these characteristics. Nickel appears to alter the corrosion characteristics of the phase to provide greater resistance to de alloying and cavitations-erosion in most liquids.

NICKEL SILVERS Though they do not contain silver, they h a v e a n a t t r a c t i v e s i l v e r l u s t e r, moderately high strength and good corrosion resistance. The two most common nickel silvers are C75200 and

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Copper Alloys they have good resistance to corrosion in both fresh and salt waters. Nickel Silvers are also called nickel brasses which contain copper, nickel, and zinc. They are used to make food and beverage handling equipment, decorative hardware, electroplated tableware, optical and photographic equipment and musical instruments.Primarily because their relatively high nickel contents inhibit dezincification, C75200 and C77000 are usually much more resistant to corrosion in saline solutions than brasses of similar copper content.

PHOSPHOR BRONZES Phosphor bronzes have superb spring qualities, high fatigue resistance, and excellent formability and solder ability, and high corrosion resistance. They are used primarily for electrical products; other uses include corrosion resistant bellows, diaphragms and spring washers. Phosphor Bronzes alloys in Addition of tin and phosphorus along with copper produces good resistance to flowing seawater and to most non oxidizing acids except hydrochloric. Alloys containing 8 to 10% stannum have high resistance to impingement attack. Phosphor bronzes are much less susceptible than brasses and are similar to copper in resistance to sulfur attack. Tin bronzes-alloys of copper and tin-tend to be used primarily in the cast form, in which they are modified by further alloy additions of lead, zinc, and nickel. Phosphor Bronzes, or tin bronzes as they are sometimes called, contain between 0.5% and 11% tin and 0.01% to 0.35% phosphorous. Tin increases their corrosion resistance and tensile strength; phosphorous increases wear resistance and stiffness.

COPPER NICKELS ALLOYS

aqueous corrosion of all the commercially important copper alloys. Both of these alloys, although well suited to applications in the chemical industry, have been most extensively used for condenser tubes and heat-exchanger tubes in recalculating steam systems. They are superior to coppers and to other copper alloys in resisting acid solutions and are highly resistant to corrosion. Copper alloys possess tensile properties that exceed some aluminum alloys and approach those of stainless steels, and can be used in a multitude of applications. Copper is a relatively soft and malleable metal with excellent formability, making it ideal for architectural applications such as roofs, wall cladding, gutters and downspouts. Additions of other elements to copper strengthen it and form copper alloys, including brasses, phosphor bronzes and copper nickels. Miniaturization of electronic devices and components has benefited from the high strength and moderate to high conductivities offered by specialty copper alloys.

COPPER AND ITS ALLOYS USAGE STRUCTURE. ELECTRICAL APPLICATIONS Approximately 65% of copper produced is used for electrical applications. Copper has the highest electrical conductivity of any metal, apart from silver, leading to applications in generators, transformers, motors, bus bars and cables provide and deliver electricity safely and efficiently to homes and businesses. Copper has a key role to play in energy efficiency - the judicious use of 1 tonne of copper in the energy sector makes it possible to reduce CO2 emissions by 200 tonnes per year on average.

The common copper nickel alloys are known as 70/30, 90/10 which has the best general resistance to

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Copper Alloys CONSTRUCTION 25% of all the copper produced is used in buildings for plumbing, roofing and cladding. Copper provides light, durable maintenance-free structures that are naturally good looking, long lasting and fully recyclable. Copper's naturally antimicrobial properties can be exploited in hygienic surfaces for hospitals and healthcare facilities.

provide clean, efficient transport powered by electric motors. The overhead contact wires are either copper-silver or copper-cadmium alloys.

TRANSPORT Trains, trams, cars and Lorries all need copper and transport accounts for 7% of copper usage. The high purity copper wire harness system carries the current from the battery throughout the vehicle to equipment such as lights, central locking, on-board computers and satellite navigation systems. Electric super trams in cities such as Manchester, Sheffield and Croydon,

OTHER The remaining 3% is used for coins, sculptures, musical instruments and cookware.

STAINLESS STEEL , MILD STEEL , CARBON STEEL - SEAMLESS & ERW PIPES / PLATES , COIL & ROD / FITTINGS / FASTNERS / STRUCTURAL STEEL. OTHER METALS - HIGH NICKEL ALLOYS, DUPLEX, ALUMINIUM, COPPER, BRASS, & BOILER QUALITY.

SERVING SINCE 2000 IMPORTER, EXPORTER & STOCKIST

India : Prithvi House, 66, C.P. Tank Road, Mumbai-400004. Tel.: +91-22-66373111, +91-22 6639 4241, Fax : +91-22-2381 2506 International : P.O.Box:49023, Hamriyah Free zone, Sharjah-U.A.E. TEL.: +971509809789 Email : prithvisteel@yahoo.co.in, info@prithvisteelengg.com

Company Prole “Prithvi Steel” were established for manufacturing, stocking & supplying quality products viz. Forged Pipe Fittings & Flanges of various sizes and types in Carbon Steel, Low temperature Carbon Steel, Stainless Steel, Alloy Steel material and supplied under the brand name ‘PRITHVI’. Quality Quality is our prime concern. We are able to maintain high quality standards through our committed personnel and sound infrastructure. We ensure that nest quality material is used for our products. For ensure the quality of each material, we are providing Materials Test Certicate along with supply. Our team of experts maintains a vigil on the quality of the products. Every single piece is attached with test certicates and reports. We are continually improving our quality to serve our clients better. Right product for the right requirement at the right price, i.e. rather than a mere supplier of the product we take utmost efforts in understanding the client's requirement, identifying the right product at the right price. This has resulted in close ties with major customers within India & World-wide. Application Chemical, Fertilizer, Petrochemical, Power Generation and Pharmaceutical industries, and used widely in the Piping system for their project jobs and maintenance.

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®

Tonnes of Experience Behind Each Kg A N ISO 9001: 2008 C OMPANY A PPROVED BY API FOR S PEC API 5L & 2B W ELL K NOWN P IPE M AKER by IBR

Lalit,with a state‐of‐art‐hi‐tech‐eco‐friendly manufacturing Facility spread over 120,000 sq mtrs, is a reputable brand name in the field, manufacturing Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel & NACE Steel Large Diameter SAW (LSAW) Pipes in India for more than a decade. Lalit,is a cer fied holder of ISI licence, API 5L & API 2B licence the IBR license as "Well Known Pipe Maker" for Steam service. Pipes are manufactured as per N ATIONAL & I NTERNATIONAL S TANDARDS/ S PECIFICATIONS like ASTM A671, A672, A691 1.25Cr, 2.25Cr and 5Cr, API5L, API 2B IS 3589 and also for sour applica ons. Lalit,has partnered in M AJOR P ROJECTS IN I NDIA* and around across sectors. In the Refinery Sector viz. IOCL Panipat Refinery Expansion, IOCL ‐ Gujarat Refinery upgrada on, HPCL‐Mumbai Green Fuel, BPCL‐Kochi Refinery, CPCL‐Manali, ONGC Petro Addi vies Ltd‐Dahej, HPCL‐Mi al Energy‐Bha nda, Manglore Refinery & Petrochemicals Ltd., Manglore, Tarapur Atomic Power (TAPP 3 & 4), BHEL for NTPC Power projects of Unachal, Vindhyachal and many more. The Company's L IST OF C LIENTS* include ALSTOM, BHEL, BPCL, CPCL, EIL, GAMMON, HPCL, HMEL, IOCL, IOTL, JACOBS, L&T, NTPC, ONGC, PUNJ LLOYD, PDIL , RIL , SAMSUNG, TECHNIMONT,

Manufacturer of SAW PIPES

TOYO, UHDE and many more EPC contractors and end users. The Company's is E NLISTED A ND A PPROVED B Y V ARIOUS I NSPECTION A GENCIES* viz: ABS, BV, CEIL, DNV, PDIL, RITES, TUV and many more. The Company has con nually proved its me le by its commitment to Quality, Price and Delivery. Their clients are the most delighted groups who partner with Lalit, for the mely execu on of projects. Lalit, is poised to increase its share of business with the upgrada on of its plant facili es with value added products like, NACE steel, Alloy Steel and Higher Thick Tubulars for the Offshore Industry. The Company welcomes new clients and counts on their exis ng clients with overseas exposureto further this venture. Thus, with each project executed, certainly, reflects Tonnes

Experience behind each Kg

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of

and each execu on offers Quality Pipes at Delight Price, On Time, Every Time!® To know more visit us @ www.lalitsawpipes.com *an indica ve list

For more details write to: 212, Hermes Atrium, Sector 11, CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai ‐ 400 614 Maharashtra, INDIA Tel.: (022) 2756 1169 Fax: (022) 2756 1173 E‐mail: info@lalitsawpipes.com Website: www.lalitsawpipes.com

Quality Pipes at Delight Price, On Time, Every Time!

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RATNA

METALS

“Interior & Exteriors of your world”

22/3, Vannier Street, (Facing Mookernalla Muthu St.,) Chennai - 600 001. Tel.: 044-2524 8981 / 044-2346 3719 • Fax : 044-4262 5758 E-mail : ratnashrimetals@yahoo.co.in

COMPANY PROFILE : - RATNASHRI METAL team comprises of people that are the best in the industry, in Manufacturing decorative interior and exterior railings & hardware, engineering sheet metal components, textile rollers, automation parts, casting parts, precision parts and supply of aluminum, stainless steel, copper, brass has been their passion; it goes back to a decade when they started manufacturing these products from scratch at our manufacturing facility, with in-house capabilities of supply of raw materials and outsourced engineers.

PRODUCTS :- Stainless steel Railing, Balustrade, Balustrade Accessories, Capsule, Decorative Pipe, Design Pipe, Checks & Rassi Pipe, Ball Set & Base for Top & Bottom, S. S. Chains, S. S. Conceal Socket, and Bars, Sheets, Flats and Pipes in Stainless Steel, Copper and Brass. APPLICATIONS :-

Engineering industries,

automation, textiles, household interiors & exteriors, shopping malls, offices, bus panels, handles, gates.

We don't push for orders, we push for expertise & quality, orders will follow it's as simple as that for which our customers call RATNASHRI METALS


Glossary ABRASIVE WEAR The removal or displacement of materials from a surface when hard particles slide or roll across the surface under pressure. The particles may be loose or may be part of another surface in contact with the surface being worn.

AGE HARDENING A process of aging at atmospheric temperature that increases hardness and strength and ordinarily decreases ductility gradually. Age hardening usually follows rapid cooling or cold working. Takes effect on all cold rolled sheets in storage except fully aluminum killed.

ALLOY A substance having metallic properties consisting of two or more elements in which the major constituent is metal, or of metallic and non-metallic elements which are miscible with each other when molten, and have not separated into distinct layers when solid.

ALLOY STEEL An iron-based mixture is considered to be an alloy steel when manganese is greater than 1.65%, silicon over 0.5%, copper above 0.6%, or other minimum quantities of alloying elements such as chromium, nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, lead, niobium or tungsten are present. An enormous variety of distinct properties can be created for the steel by substituting these elements.

ALLOY SURCHARGE The addition to the producer's selling price included in order to offset raw material cost increases caused by higher alloy prices.

ANNEALING What A heat or thermal treatment process by which a previously cold-rolled steel coil is made more suitable for forming and bending. The steel sheet is heated to a designated temperature for a sufficient amount of time and then cooled.

AUSTENITE Generally a solid solution of one or more alloying elements in a face centered cubic polymorph of iron (g iron). Specifically, in carbon steels, the interstitial solid solution of carbon g iron.

BAR Finished product of solid section generally supplied in straight length, which are rolled from billets and may be rectangular, square, flats, channels, round, half round or polygonal. The bars may be supplied in coil form also. The dimensions generally conform to the following : a. Rounds and Half-Rounds : Minimum diameter 5mm. b. Squares and Polygonal : Minimum 6mm side. c. Flat Bar (Flat) : A finished product, generally of cross section, with edges of controlled contour and thickness 3mm and over, width 400mm and below and supplied in straight lengths. The product shall have rolled edges only (square or slightly rounded). This group also includes flat bars with bulb that has swelling on one or two faces of the same edge and a width of less than 400mm.

BEAM Long pieces of squared-off metal, normally stainless steel, which are used in building construction.

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Glossary BILLET A semi-finished steel form that is input material for manufacturing long products: bars, channels or other structural shapes. A billet is different from a slab because of its outer dimensions; billets are usually square and not exceeding 125x125 mm in cross section with rounded corners, while slabs are 750-1000 mm wide and 50-250 mm thick. Both shapes are generally forged or continually cast or rolled in billet mill / slabbing mill from ingots, but they may differ greatly in their chemistry.

BLOOM A semi-finished form of stainless steel that will be further processes them into mill products. Generally having a cross section greater than 36 sq. inches.

BOILER TUBES (SMOKE TUBES) Tubes which form part of the heating surface of a boiler, as distinct from superheater tubes. The tubes may contain water and be surrounded by the furnace gases as in a water tube boiler, or they may act as flues and be surrounded by water as in smoke tube boiler.

BRAZING Brazing and soldering are techniques for joining metals in the solid state by means of a fusible filler metal with a melting point well below that of base metal.

BRIGHT BAR OR WIRE Bar or wire with a bright finish obtained by cold drawing, machining, grinding etc.

BRINELL HARDNESS TEST A test for determining the hardness of a material by forcing a hard steel or carbide ball of specified diameter into it under a specified load. The result is expressed as the Brinell hardness number.

CASTING Pouring or teeming molten metal into moulds. This also refers to metal objects so procured.

CLADDING What Method of applying a stainless steel / copper / aluminum coating to carbon steel or lower-alloy steel (i.e., steel with alloying element content below 5%). Why To increase corrosion resistance at lower initial cost than exclusive use of stainless steel etc. How By (1) welding stainless steel onto carbon steel, (2) pouring melted stainless steel around a solid carbon steel slab in a mould, (3) placing a slab of carbon steel between two plates of stainless steel and bonding them by rolling at high temperature on a plate mill,

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Glossary (4) mounting the steel core in a covered mould and heating it out of contact with air to a temperature slightly above the melting point of copper, which then is cast about it, (5) dipping the solid steel core into a bath of molten copper, (6) depositing the copper on steel core electrolytically, (7) rolling flat steel almost to gauge, cleaning it thoroughly and either placing it between two sheets of aluminum and cold rolling or heating to between 315o and 400oC and rolling.

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS A report of the chemical composition of thee elements, and their percentage that form a stainless steel product.

CHROMIUM(CR) An alloying element that is used in stainless steel to deter corrosion.

COATING The process of covering steel with another material (tin, chrome, zinc etc.), primarily for corrosion resistance. They can be classified as anodic, cathodic and inert.

COILS Steel sheet that has been wound. A slab, once rolled in a hot-strip mill, is more than one-quarter mile long; coils are the most efficient way to store and transport sheet steel.

COILING The process of laying or winding the product in the form of coils

COILED BAR A long length of hot rolled bar produced in a continuous rolling mill and coiled in a manner similar to wire rod.

COLD DRAWING Reducing the cross-sectional area of a tube, when cold, by drawing through a die. The tubes are occasionally pushed through the die.

COLD-ROLLED STRIP (SHEET) A product manufactured from hot rolled descaled (pickled) coils by cold reducing to the desired thickness, generally followed by annealing and temper rolling. Strip has a final product width of approximately 12 inches, while sheet may be more than 80 inches wide. Cold-rolled sheet is considerably thinner and stronger than hot-rolled sheet, so it will sell for a premium. If the sheet is not annealed after cold reduction it is known as full hard.

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Glossary CONDENSER TUBES Tubes used in the conversion of a vapour into a liquid by cooling.

CONTINUOUS CASTING What A method of pouring steel directly from the furnace into a semi-finished product such as billet, bloom, or slab directly from its molten form. It bypasses the traditional process of pouring (teeming) molten steel into ingots, reheating those ingots, and then rolling them into semi-finished steel shapes. Why Continuous casting avoids the need for large, expensive mills for rolling ingots into slabs. Continuous cast slabs also solidify in a few minutes versus several hours for an ingot. Because of this, the chemical composition and mechanical properties are more uniform. This process has steadily displaced ingot casting due to its advantages of higher yield and improved productivity. How Steel from the BOF or electric furnace is poured into a tundish (a shallow vessel that looks like a bathtub) atop the continuous caster. As steel carefully flows from the tundish down into the water-cooled copper mould of the caster, it solidifies into a ribbon of red-hot steel. At the bottom of the caster, torches cut the continuously flowing steel to form slabs or blooms.

COPPERED WIRE A wire produced by wet drawing with a copper sulphate or copper tin sulphate solutions for improving drawability. The colour depends upon the chemical used and the drawing operation imparts a luster to the wire resulting into improved appearance and limited corrosion resistance.

CORROSION The gradual degradation or alteration of steel caused by chemical or electrochemical attack due to atmosphere, moisture, or other agents.

CORROSION RESISTANCE The intrinsic ability of a material to resist degradation by corrosion. This ability can be enhanced by application of special coatings on the surface of the material or by imparting certain structural changes in the material by addition of alloying elements.

CUT-TO- LENGTH Cutting flat-rolled stainless steel into desired length and then normally shipped flat-stacked.

DEFORMED BAR Concrete reinforcing bars in which the surface is provided with lugs or protrusions (called deformations) which inhibit longitudinal movement of the bars relative to the surrounding concrete. The surface deformations are hot formed in the final roll pass by passing the bars between rolls having patterns cut into them so that the surfaces of the bars are forced into the depressions in the rolls to form characteristic deformations.

DUPLEX A category of stainless steel with high amounts of chromium and moderate nickel content. The duplex class is so named because it is a mixture of austenitic (chromiumnickel stainless class) and ferritic (plain chromium stainless category) structures. This

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Glossary combination was originated to offer more strength than either of those stainless steels. Duplex stainless steels provide high resistance to stress corrosion cracking (formation of cracks caused by a combination of corrosion and stress) and are suitable for heat exchanger’s, desalination plants, and marine applications.

ELECTRIC RESISTANCE WELDED (ERW) PIPE Pipe made from strips of hot-rolled steel which are is formed into tubular shape by passing through forming rolls and welded by passing a heavy current across the longitudinal joint. While seamless pipe is traditionally stronger and more expensive than comparable ERW pipe, ERW technology is improving and the technique now accounts for approximately 48% of OCTG shipments by tonnage. Generally used by oil or gas companies.

ELECTROLYTIC TIN PLATE (ETP) 1. Light-gauge, low-carbon, cold reduced steel on which tin has been electro-deposited. 2. Black plate coated with Tin (Sn) electron deposition.

ELECTROPLATING This process is an old art, practiced not only to protect the base metal from corrosion but also for decorative purposes and, more recently, to protect the base metal from wear by friction or abrasion. Metals used for coatings include cadmium, chromium, copper, gold, tin, lead, nickel, silver and zinc, and alloys such as brass, bronze and leadtins as well as cobalt-tungsten, tungsten-nickel, nickel-zinc and cadmium-tin alloys.

ELONGATION A measurement of ductility expressed in terms of the stretch having occurred over a given length on a standard tensile specimen at time of fracture, usually based an original length of 2 inches.

EXTRUSION Hot Extrusion : Consists of enclosing a piece of metal, heated to forging temperature, in a chamber called a 'container' and having a die at one end with an opening of the shape of the desired finished section, and applying pressure to the metal through the opposite end of the container. The metal is forced through the opening, the shape of which it assumes in cross-section as the metal flows plastically under the great used.

Cold Extrusion : It is carried out in a manner similar to the hot-extrusion process, with two main exceptions : (1) The steel is at room temperature, and (2) the surface of the piece is treated by some chemical process such as bonderizing to assist in reducing the friction between the steel and the container wall and die, in conjunction with special lubricants.

FERRITIC The second-largest class of stainless steel, constituting approximately 25% of stainless production. Ferritic stainless steels are plain chromium steels with no significant nickel content; the lack of nickel results in lower

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Glossary corrosion resistance than the austenitics (chromium-nickel stainless steels). Ferritics are best suited for general and high-temperature corrosion applications rather than services requiring high strength. They are used in automotive trim and exhaust systems, interior architectural trim, and hot water tanks. Two of the most common grades are type 430 (general-purpose grade for many applications, including decorative ones) and type 409 (low-cost grade well suited to withstanding high temperatures).

FERROALLOY A metal product commonly used as a raw material feed in steel making, usually containing iron and other metals, to aid various stages of the steel making process such as deoxidation, desulfurization, adding strength or for introducing such elements in steel. Examples: ferrochrome, ferromanganese, and ferrosilicon, silicon manganese etc.

FERROCHROME An alloy of iron and chromium with up to 72% chromium. Ferrochrome is commonly used as a raw material in the making of stainless steel.

FERROUS Metals that consist primarily of iron.

FLAT ROLLED STEEL Steel produced on rolling mills utilizing relatively smooth, cylindrical rolls. The width to thickness ratio of flat rolled products is usually fairly large. Examples of flat rolled steel are hot-rolled, cold-rolled, and coated sheets and coils, tin mill products, etc.

FLEXIBILITY The quality or state of a material that alloys it to be flexed or bent repeatedly without undergoing fracture.

FOIL Metal with a maximum width of .005 inches.

FORGING Forming a hot or cold metal into fixed shape by hammering, upsetting, or pressing.

GALVANIZED STEEL Steel coated with a thin layer of zinc to provide corrosion resistance in underbody auto parts, garbage cans, storage tanks, or fencing wire. Sheet steel normally must be cold-rolled prior to the galvanizing stage. Hot-dipped. Steel is run through a molten zinc coating bath, followed by an air stream "wipe" that controls the thickness of the zinc finish. Electro-galvanized. Zinc plating process whereby the molecules on the positively charged zinc anode attach to the negatively charged sheet steel. The thickness of the zinc coating is readily controlled. By increasing the electric charge or slowing the speed of the steel through the plating area, the coating will thicken. Differences. Electro-galvanizing equipment is more expensive to build and to operate than hot dipped, but it gives the steel maker more precise control over the weight of the zinc coating. The automotive manufacturers, because they need the superior welding, forming and painting ability of electro-galvanized steel, purchase 90% of all tonnage produced.

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Glossary GAUGE The thickness of certain stainless steel.

HARDENABILITY The relative ability of a ferrous alloy to form martensite when quenched from a temperature above the upper critical temperature. Hardenability is commonly measured as a distance below a quenched surface at which the metal exhibits a specific hardness– 50 HRC, for example- or a specific percentage of martensite in the micro-structure.

HARDENING Increasing hardness by suitable treatment, usually involving heating and cooling. See also age hardening, case hardening, induction hardening, precipitation hardening, and quench hardening.

HARDNESS A measure of the resistance of a material to surface indentation or abrasion; may be thought of as a function of the stress required to produce some specified type of surface deformation. There is no absolute scale for hardness; therefore, to express hardness quantitatively, each type of test has its own scale of arbitrarily defined hardness. Indentation hardness can be measured as Brinell, Rockwell, Vickers, Knoop, and Scleroscope hardness tests.

HEAT EXCHANGER TUBES Tubes used in a unit for the purpose of transferring heat from one medium to another.

HIGH CARBON STEEL Carbon steel containing generally more than 0.6% carbon. The more carbon that is dissolved in the iron, the less formable and the tougher the steel becomes. High-carbon steel's hardness makes it suitable for plow blades, shovels, bedsprings, cutting edges, or other high-wear applications.

IRON ORE Mineral containing enough iron to be a commercially viable source of the element for use in steel making. Except for fragments of meteorites found on Earth, iron is not a free element; instead, it is trapped in the earth's crust in its oxidized form. It is of two types : containing ferric oxide (Hematite) or ferro-ferric oxide (Magnetite).

LOW-CARBON STEEL Steel with less than 0.005% carbon is more ductile (malleable): It is capable of being drawn out or rolled thin for use in automotive body applications. Carbon is removed from the steel bath through vacuum degassing.

MACHINABILITY The capability of being machined. It is controlled through the composition and rate of cooling, but often must be sacrificed for some more essential property, such as strength or toughness.

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Glossary MAGNET STEELS These are an example of alloy electrical steels. The outstanding property of these steels is their retentivity or ability to retain magnetism. Cobalt, chromium, and tungsten are the alloying elements commonly used to enhance this characteristic.

MARTENSITIC Small category of stainless steel characterized by the use of heat treatment for hardening and strengthening. Refers to a particular grain structure of steel which is extremely hard and consists of iron oxide precipitates in a ferrite matrix. Martensitic stainless steels are plain chromium steels with no significant nickel content. They are utilized in equipment for the chemical and oil industries and in surgical instruments. The most popular martensitic stainless steel is type 410 (a grade appropriate for non-severe corrosion environments requiring high strength).

MEDIUM-CARBON STEEL Carbon steel containing generally minimum of 0.30% carbon and maximum 0.60% carbon.

MELT A stage in the steel making process when all the scrap charged has been melted. This term is also synonymous with cast, blow or heat.

MILD STEEL Carbon steel containing generally less than 0.30% carbon.

MOLYBDENUM (MO) An alloying element used as a raw material for some classes of stainless steel. Molybdenum in the presence of chromium enhances the corrosion resistance of stainless steel.

MULTIPLE LENGTHS Length from which a given number of pieces of specific lengths can be cut with minimum waste.

NICKEL(NI) An alloying element used as a raw material for certain classes of stainless steel. Nickel provides high degrees of ductility (ability to change shape without fracture) as well as resistance to corrosion. Approximately 65% of all nickel is used in the making of stainless steel.

PIG IRON The name for the melted iron produced in a blast furnace, containing a large quantity of carbon (above 1.5%, usually between 3% to 4.5%), along with silicon, manganese, phosphorus, and sulphur in varying amounts depending upon the quality of raw materials used and solidified in moving metal moulds of a Pig Casting Machine. Pig iron is used in the foundry or for conversion into steel. Named long ago when molten iron was poured through a trench in the ground to flow into shallow earthen holes, the arrangement looked like newborn pigs suckling. The central channel became known as the "sow," and the moulds were "pigs.�

PIPE 1. Technically a tube used to transport fluids or gases. However, pipe and tube are often used interchangeably in steel lexicon, with a given label applied primarily as a matter of historical use. 2. An axial cavity caused by contraction during solidification of an ingot. Also the defects arising from the axial cavity on the semi-finished or finished products.

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Glossary PLATE A hot or cold rolled flat product, rolled from an ingot or slab in rectangular cross section with a width 600mm and above and a thickness 5mm and above (going upto one foot).

PRIME COIL Any coil produced by the line that is not held for any out-of-spec or quality reasons.

PROCESS ANNEALING A heat treatment used to soften metal for further cold working. In ferrous sheet and wire industries, heating to a temperature close to but below the lower limit of the transformation range and subsequent cooling for working. In the non-ferrous industries, heating above the recrystalization temperatures at a time and temperature sufficient to permit the desired subsequent cold working.

REINFORCING BAR (REBAR) A commodity-grade steel used to strengthen concrete in highway and building construction.

RESISTANCE HEATING Heating of steel by passing current through solid conductors and using the heat generated as a result of the conductors’ inherent resistance to the flow of current. It can be applied through three methods : 1. The indirect method, in which the steel is heated by radiation and convection from resistors through which the current is passed. 2. The direct method in which the current is passed directly from a power source through the metal. 3. The induction method in which the current is induced in the steel by an induction coil connected to the power supply. Neither the indirect nor the direct method of resistance heating is practical for steel-making operations. However, the induction method is employed successfully in special steel-melting operations.

SCRAP (FERROUS) Ferrous (iron-containing) material that generally is re-melted and recast into new steel. Integrated steel mills use scrap for up to 25% of their basic oxygen furnace charge; 100% of the mini-mills' raw material for their electric furnaces generally is scrap. Home (Revert) Scrap Waste steel that is generated from within the steel mill, through edge trimming, rejects and metallic losses in slag. It normally is sent directly back to the furnace. Prompt (Industrial) Scrap Excess steel that is trimmed by the auto and appliance stampers and auctioned to scrap buyers as factory bundles. This is a high-quality scrap as the result of its low-residual content and consistent chemistry. Obsolete (Reclaimed) Scrap Iron-bearing trash. Automobile hulks, worn-out refrigerators and useless storage tanks, for example, can be recovered from the junkyard and re-melted. The residual impurity of such scrap normally relegates obsolete scrap to the mini-mills (see No. 1 Heavy Melt).

SCREW STOCK Free cutting steel bars suitable for the manufacture of bolts and screws.

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Glossary SEAMLESS PIPE A pipe without a longitudinal joint or weld, made from a solid billet, which is heated, then rotated under extreme pressure. This rotational pressure creates an opening in the center of the billet, which is then shaped by a mandrel to form pipe.

SECONDARY STEEL Steel that does not meet the original customer's specifications because of a defect in its chemistry, gauge or surface quality. Mills must search to find another customer (that can accept the lower quality) to take the off-spec steel at a discount. While secondary will not affect the reported yield, margins will suffer.

SECONDARY STEEL MAKING The purpose of secondary steel making is to produce ‘clean’ steel, steel which satisfies stringent requirements of surface, internal and micro-cleanliness quality and of mechanical properties. Ladle metallurgy is a secondary step of the steel making process often performed in a ladle after the initial refining process in a primary furnace is completed.

SHEET A hot or cold-rolled flat product, rolled in rectangular sections of thickness below 5 mm and supplied in straight lengths. The width is at least 100 times the thickness and the edges can be mill trimmed, sheared or flame cut. A sheet can also be obtained by cutting of strips.

SHEET BAR (SLAB BAR) Semi-finished product of rectangular section, of thickness not less than 6mm and width not less than 150mm, and of such dimensions that the thickness does not exceed one-fourth of the width. This term also includes tin plate bars.

SHEET PRODUCTS 1. Hot Rolled : Uncoated, heavy gauge, fully processed in Strip Steel, never cold reduced at Tandem Mill. 2. Cold Rolled : Uncoated, heavy gauge, primarily processed in Strip Steel, although some goes to the Tin Mill, always cold reduced at Tandem Mill. 3. Galvanized : "Bath" coated with zinc, heavy gauge, primarily processed through Strip Steel & Sheet Mill, majority is cold reduced at Tandem Mill. 4. Electro-galvanized : Zinc coated, normally lighter gauge than galvanized, processed through Strip Steel & Tin Mill, mostly single reduced. (Tandem)

SPECIAL BAR QUALITY (SBQ) SBQ represents a wide variety of higher-quality carbon and alloy bars that are used in the forging, machining and cold-drawing industries for the production of automotive parts, hand tools, electric motor shafts and valves. SBQ generally contains more alloys than merchant quality and commodity grades of steel bars, and is produced with more precise dimensions and chemistry.

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Glossary SPECIAL STEEL Steel in the production of which special care has to be taken so as to attain the desired cleanliness, surface quality and mechanical properties.

SPECIALTY TUBE Refers to a wide variety of high-quality custom-made tubular products requiring critical tolerances, precise dimensional control and special metallurgical properties. Specialty tubing is used in the manufacture of automotive, construction and agricultural equipment, and in industrial applications such as hydraulic cylinders, machine parts and printing rollers. Because of the range of industrial applications, the market typically follows general economic conditions.

SPONGE IRON Iron obtained by solid state reaction. In this process, iron is not melted. For many centuries before blast furnace was developed around 1300 AD, sponge iron provided the main source of iron and steel. It was produced in relatively shallow hearths or in shaft-furnaces, both of which used charcoal as fuel. The product of these early smelting processes was a spongy mass of coalesced granules of nearly pure iron intermixed with considerable slag. Usable articles of wrought iron were produced by hammering the spongy mass, while still hot from the smelting operation, to expel most of the slag and compact the mass. By repeated heating and hammering, the iron was further freed of slag and forged into the desired shape.

TEMPER A condition produced in a metal or alloy by mechanical or thermal treatment and having characteristics structure and mechanical properties. A given alloy may be in the fully softened or annealed temper, or it may be cold worked to the hard temper, or further to spring temper. Intermediate tempers produced by cold working (rolling or drawing) are called "quarter-hard", "half-hard" and "three quarters hard", and are determined by the amount of cold reduction and the resulting tensile properties. In addition to the annealed temper, conditions produced by thermal treatment are the solution heat-treated temper and the heat-treated and artificially aged temper. Other tempers involve a combination of mechanical and thermal treatments and include that temper produced by cold working after heat treating, and that produced by artificial aging of alloys that are as-cast, as-extruded, as-forged and heat treated, and worked.

TOLERANCES A customer's specifications can refer to dimensions or to the chemical properties of steel ordered. The tolerance measures the allowable difference in product specifications between what a customer orders and what the steel company delivers. There is no standard tolerance because each customer maintains its own variance objective. Tolerances are given as the specification, plus or minus an error factor; the smaller the range, the higher the cost.

TOOL STEELS Steels that are hardened for the use in the manufacture of tools and dies.

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Glossary TUBING When referring to OCTG, tubing is a separate pipe used within the casing to conduct the oil or gas to the surface. Depending on conditions and well life, tubing may have to be replaced during the operational life of a well.

TUNGSTEN (W) Gray metal with high tensile strength. It is ductile, malleable, and resistant to atmospheric elements and all acids except strong alkalies.

WIDTH The lateral dimensions of rolled stainless steel, as opposed to the gauge. If width of the stainless steel strip is not controlled during rolling, the edges must be trimmed .

WIRE A finished product, round, half round, square, hexagonal, flat or of any other section including grooved section characterised by the fact that it has been subjected to a sizing operation at ambient temperature by the process of drawing through a die or by other mechanical means. Wire is generally supplied in coil form but in exceptional cases can be supplied in straight lengths.

YIELD STRENGTH The stress beyond which stainless steel undergoes important permanent flow-commonly specified as that stress producing a 0.2% offset from the linear portion of the stress-strain curve.

ZIRCONIUM (ZR) A strong, ductile metal obtained by the chemical processing of zircon-bearing sands. It has good corrosion resistance at high temperatures and is used as a structural material in nuclear reactor and cladding material for uranium.

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Mukund STEEL & FITTING STOCKISTS OF : S. S. Nut Bolt, Washers, Studes, Allen & Grub & All Fastners & Elbow, Tee, Reducer, Coupling & Forge Fi ngs in all grades, Wex bot, Hex Nut, Hex Lock Nut, Allen cap screw, Allen CSK Screw, Allen Grub screw, Nylock Nut, Square Nut, Dom Nut, Threded Rod, Stud , Washer, Spring Washer. Suppliers of : S. S. Sheet, Plate, Tubes, Pipe, Rod, Hex in all Quality and Ferrous & Non- Ferrous Metals.

59/61, 4th Kumbharwada Lane, Shop No. 1A, Mumbai - 400 004. Tel. : +91-22-6743 7885 / 6659 5257, Mob.: 9819 994 036 E-Mail : mukundsf@yahoo.com, arvindsoni40@yahoo.com Website : www.fastenerfitting.com

Company Prole Mukund Steel and ttings is leading manufacturers and suppliers of BOLTS, NUTS, SCREWS, WASHERS, SPRING WASHERS, COTTER PINS, ROUND HEAD, CHEESHEAD, CSK HEAD MACHINE SCREWS, ALLEN CAP SCREW, GRUB SCREWS, WOOD SCREWS, SHEET METAL SCREWS, STUD, NYLOCK NUTS, COACH SCREWS, 'U' CLAMPS, DOM NUTS, WIRE NAILS, WING NUTS, ETC., AS PER SAMPLE OR DRAWINGS. Products S.S. Hex Bolts, Nuts, Washers & Spring Washers (A2 - A4) , S.S. Allen Cap Screw & Grub & Allen CSK Screws, S.S. Self Locking Nut, Dom Nut, Wing Nut & Lock Nut. Quality Mukund Steel and ttings are able to maintain High Quality Standards as per their commitments and with regards to their sound infrastructure and with the team of experts Mukund steel ensures the nest Quality of Fasteners Along with the necessary Test Certicates. Their Spacious warehouse has the capacity to store large quantity of stocks as to deliver the goods at earliest to the customers end. Application Engineering Plants, Acid Plants, Oil and Gas, Aerospace, Medical Industries and Pharmaceuticals

ROLEX FITTINGS INDIA PVT. LTD. MANUFACTURERS, EXPORTERS & IMPORTERS

Rolex Fittings India Pvt. Ltd. 147-A, Sant Sena Maharaj marg, 2nd Kumbharwada, Mumbai-400 004 (India) Tel No. : +91-22-6636 3159, 2380 4121, Fax No. : +91-22-2389 3391 Email : rolexforge@gmail.com, Visit Us : www.rolexttings.net Prole Rolex Fittings India Pvt. Ltd established in 1985, as a trading house dealing in ferrous and non ferrous Industrial raw material. Later on, it added, Pipe Fittings, Flanges, and Fasteners & Gaskets etc. In 1995, Rolex Fitting diversied into manufacturing activities and set up a forging unit and an engineering workshop under one roof. We keep sufcient inventory to meet your urgent requirement. Products Flanges, Pipe Fittings, CNC Components, Fasteners, & Other Products (Stainless Steel, Carbon Steel, Alloy Steel, Copper, Brass, Monel, Inconel, Aluminum, Hastalloy- Pipes, Tubes, Bars/Rods, Sheets, Plates, Wires, Angles, Coils, Strips) Application CHEMICALS/FERTILIZERS PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS, PAPER MILLS, CEMENT PLANTS, SUGAR MILL, FABRICATION UNITS & DAIRY INDUSTRY etc.


Grades : - SS 202, SS 304/ 304L, SS 310, SS 316/ 316L,SS 317, SS 321, SS 347,SS 420, SS 431 and Duplex (2205) as well as PH (17/4 and 17/7) series Steel. Coils : 0.30mm -2.5mm x 1250mm max width (width for strips as per customer requirement, min 13mm) Plates : 3mm -100mm (width 2500 max, length 6mtr max) Round Bars : 10mm- 400mm (peeled, polished & forged) length 6mtr max Wires : 0.90mm to 10mm (coil form) Pipes : OD 10mm- 610mm & thickness 1.21mm to 70mm (Seamless and welded)

Grades : Alloy 200/201, Alloy 276, Alloy 22, Alloy B2, Alloy 625, Alloy 825, Alloy 800H/HT, Alloy 718, Alloy, Alloy 400, Alloy 500 Product Available Forms: Plates : 0.5mm- 100mm (width 1250mm & length 2.4 mtr max) Rounds : Dia 8mm- 180mm (length 3 to 5mtr ) Pipes : OD 25mm- 200 & thickness 1.24mm- 50mm (Welded and seamless) Wires : 0.080mm- 9mm (coil form)


Grades : Grade 1, Grade 2, Grade 5 Product Available Forms: Plates : 0.5mm- 100mm (width 1250mm & length 2.4 mtr max) Rounds : Dia 8mm- 100mm (length 3 mtr max) Pipes : OD 25mm- 100 & thickness 1.24mm- 35mm Wires : 0.080mm- 9mm (coil form)

Grades : Alloy 1100, Alloy 2024, Alloy 5052, Alloy 5083, Alloy 5086, Alloy 5754, Alloy 6061, Alloy 6063, Alloy 6082. Product Available Forms: Plates : 2mm- 200mm (width 1250mm to 2200 & length 2440mm to 9000mm max) Pipes : OD 25mm- 180 mm & thickness 1.24mm- 50mm (Length 6mtrs Max)

Profile : HARSH STEEL an ISO 9001:2008 and CE certified company established in 2006, along with an expertise of over 20 years in the field of ferrous and nonferrous metal market it is able to spread the business sphere all over the world due to its quality products and after sales services. Today, Harsh Steel is well reckoned as one of the predominant Exporter and stockist of Nickel alloys, Aluminium alloys and Stainless steel.

Contact us : 2nd Parsiwada Lane, Shop No.:4, R.K. Wadi, Mumbai - 400 004, Maharashtra, India. Phone : +91-22-23822286 / +91-22-66362253 Fax : +91-22-23801369 Email : harshsteel@hotmail.com / harshsteel@ymail.com Web : www.ferrous-nonferrous.com


Registered with Registrar of Newspapers RNI No. MAHENG13143. Date of Publication 25th of every month.

Authorised Dealer Address

: 72, Nanubhai Desai Road, Bhavnagari Bldg., 2nd Floor Mumbai- 400 004. (INDIA)

Tel. No.

: +91 22 6639 4960 / 6743 8115

E-mail

: sales@stelcommetal.com

Website

: www.stelcommetal.com

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Telefax

: +91 22 2387 3699

export@stelcommetal.com

MFGRS. & EXPORTERS OF

FASTENERS

FLANGES

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"Endless Possiblities with Metalmentalist" Every thing you know about metals [Designed under nuwebwave.com]

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