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8B — Wednesday, November 13, 2013

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SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 17, 2013 Claves


Cymbals By Laurie Triefeldt


Most percussion instruments are either idiophones (instruments that vibrate when struck, shaken, plucked or scraped) or membranophones (instruments with a stretched membrane that vibrates when struck, shaken, or rubbed).

Percussion instruments can be further classified as those that produce pitch and those that do not.

Parts of a drum

The outside of a drum, not the top drumming surface or the drumhead, is called the shell. The materials used to make a drum can have a major effect on its tone and on the intensity of the sound. Metal, clay, wood and leather all produce different sounds. The drum’s diameter and shell thickness also influence its sound. Drumheads are usually made of calfskin or plastic. Some drums have two drumheads; others have just one. Parts of a snare drum Throw-off Batter head (top) Disconnects the snares Hoop or rim


Percussion instruments are thought to be the first man-made musical instruments. This family of instruments produces sound when struck with an object or the hand. There are hundreds of percussion instruments, including scrapers, beaters, rattles, drums, cymbals and bells. Their sounds are as varied as their construction. They are most often used to keep rhythm. Right-handed rock drum kit Riding tom

Riding tom

Crash cymbal

Ride cymbal

Tambourine Cymbals, triangles, gongs, maracas, tambourines and hand drums are sometimes referred to as the toys in the percussion instrument family.

Riding toms add variety to the rhythm.


Triangle Hi-hat cymbal Bass drum

Snare drum

Guiro (scraper)

Crash cymbal

Large tom

Crash cymbals are smaller and thinner than ride cymbals.

Sleigh bells


Some famous drummers Castanets

Resonant Snares: Wires that head produce the Tension “buzz” sound rods heard from a snare drum

Gene Krupa 1909 – 1973 Jazz & big band

Buddy Rich 1917 – 1987 Jazz & band leader

Ringo Starr 1940 – The Beatles

Sheila E. 1957 – Percussionist & singer

The glockenspiel uses mallets to produce tones from metal bars. The difference between a glockenspiel and a xylophone is that the bars of a xylophone are made of wood, not metal.



The adondo, or talking drum, is widely used in West Africa and can be used to communicate or send messages.


A Mandinka drum ensemble, played by the Mandinka people of Senegal and Gambia, consists of three drummers and their tuned drums.

Because of its shape, the timpani is also known as a kettledrum. Mallets made of felt, leather or wood produce different tones. Timpani are usually played in pairs or in groups of four.





The tabla is from North India. It is a set of two drums played with the hands. The larger, left-hand drum is called the bayan; the smaller, right-hand drum is the dayan.

Conga Kutirindingo



SOURCES: World Book Encyclopedia, World Book Inc.;;;;

At a bookstore near you: Two full-color World of Wonder compilations: “Plants & Animals” and “People & Places.” © 2013 Triefeldt Studios, Inc. Distributed by Universal Uclick for UFS


First lady undertakes new education initiative By STACY A. ANDERSON Associated Press

WASHINGTON — Edging into a broader policy role, Michelle Obama is joining President Barack Obama’s efforts to get the United States on track to have the highest percentage of college graduates by 2020. Mrs. Obama spoke to students Tuesday at Bell Multicultural High School just a few miles from the White House. Officials say the event is part of what will be a broader focus for the first lady on getting students — especially those in underserved communities — on track to attend college. The first lady told students that meeting the 2020 goal is important, but their personal success is just as significant. “No matter what the president does, no matter what your teachers and principals do, or

Carolyn Kaster AP photo

First lady Michelle Obama hugs Bell Multicultural High School alumni Menbere Assefa as she arrives to speak at school in Washington on Nov. 12.

whatever is going on in your home or neighborhood, the person with the biggest impact on your education is you,” Mrs. Obama said. “It’s going to take young people like all of you across the country stepping up and taking control of your education.”

Mrs. Obama also drew from her own experience as she encouraged students at the high school with a large immigrant population to attend college. She said neither of her parents went to college, but they had an “unwavering belief in the power of education.”

The first lady said she attended one of the best high schools in Chicago across town that required her to wake up at 6 a.m. and travel at least an hour on the bus. Mrs. Obama, who grew up in a working class family, went on to Princeton University and Harvard

Law School. But not before facing discouragement as she applied to Princeton, an Ivy League university. “Some of my teachers straight up told me that I was setting my sights too high. They told me I was never going to get into a school like Princeton,” Mrs. Obama said to a hushed crowd of 10th graders. “It was clear to me that nobody was going to take my hand and lead me to where I needed to go; instead it was going to be up to me to reach my goals.” Officials said Mrs. Obama is coordinating with Education Secretary Arne Duncan, who has been overseeing the president’s efforts to boost the nation’s college graduation rate. The president has cited statistics showing that the U.S. ranks 12th globally in the proportion of people who hold college degrees. This new endeavor

marks a slight but noticeable shift in emphasis for Mrs. Obama. While she frequently touts the value of education while speaking to students, she rarely connects those general comments with specific policy goals promoted by her husband. Mrs. Obama challenged the students to emulate Menbere Assefa’s story. Assefa, 22, is a Bell Multicultural alumna who graduated on scholarship from James Madison University in May. Her family emigrated from Ethiopia when she was 8 years old and stressed the importance of education. “There’s scholarships out there, there are funds out there for people to get and make sure that they attend higher education,” said Assefa, who works as a management assistant in policy and compliance administration for the District of Columbia government.