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Llewellyn’s

Herbal Almanac 2010

© 2009 Llewellyn Worldwide Llewellyn is a registered trademark of Llewellyn Worldwide. Editing/Design: Sharon Leah Interior Art: © Fiona King, excluding illustrations on pages 2–4, which are © Mary Azarian Cover Photos: © Digital Vision, © Brand X, © Digital Stock, © Photodisc Cover Design: Kevin R. Brown You can order annuals and books from New Worlds, Llewellyn’s catalog. To request a free copy call toll-free: 1-877-NEW WRLD, or visit our Web site at http://subscriptions.llewellyn.com. ISBN 978-0-7387-0691-7 Llewellyn Worldwide 2143 Wooddale Drive Woodbury, MN 55125-2989

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Table of Contents Introduction to Llewellyn’s Herbal Almanac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Growing and Gathering Herbs Grow Herbs that Give Back to the Bees by Suzanne Ress . . . . . 9 Plantscaping: Bring the Outdoors In by Alice DeVille . . . . . . . . 17 Basil: We Love It or Hate It by Elizabeth Barrette. . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Winter Solstice-sown Herbs by Danny Pharr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 The Herb Way to Container Gardening by Misty Kuceris . . . 51

Culinary Herbs A Dash of Salt and Pepper by Chandra Moira Beal . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Wild World of Mustards by Calantirniel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Parsley: Compliments of the Chef by Anne Sula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Cordial Craft by Susan Pesznecker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Edible Flowers by Dallas Jennifer Cobb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Indian Herbs for Curries by Chandra Moira Beal . . . . . . . . . . 107 Ginger’s Cousins in the Zingiberaceae Family by James Kambos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

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Herbs for Health Quit Smoking with Herbal Support by Lisa McSherry . . . . . 133 Blessed Bitters by jim mcdonald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Metabolic Herb Boost by Kaaren Christ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 All About Plantain by Calantirniel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Tea Time Herbs by Dallas Jennifer Cobb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Herbal Love Potions by Lisa McSherry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

Herbs for Beauty Herbal Beauty Baths by Kaaren Christ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Craft Your Own Organic Body Lotions by Sue J. Morris . . 187 Head to Toe Beauty with Herbs by Elizabeth Barrette . . . . . . 193

Herb Crafts The Art of Making Infusions by Susan Pesznecker . . . . . . . . . 207

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Herbs, Flowers, Plants, and Spices from A to Z by Sally Cragin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Crafting Wreaths from Herbs by Ellen Dugan . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Strew, Dye, and Festoon with Herbs by Nancy Arrowsmith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Beyond Pine-scented Cones by Laurel Reufner . . . . . . . . . . . . 245

Herb History, Myth, and Lore Hidden and Forbidden Herbs by Nancy Bennett . . . . . . . . . . . 255 Sacred San Pedro Cactus by James Kambos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 Holy Smoke: Beyond the Smudge Stick by Amy Martin . . . 271 Flying Ointments by Susun Weed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275

Moon Signs, Phases, and Tables The Quarters and Signs of the Moon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 January-December Moon Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 About the Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

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Introduction to Llewellyn’s Herbal Almanac The herbal landscape is an ever-evolving one. The slow warming of our planet has temperate climates creeping toward the poles, while consumer trends prompt more immediate changes. But through it all, home-grown herbs still make a lasting impact. Llewellyn’s 2010 Herbal Almanac takes a look at the yearround effects of herbs, re-examining the research on uses of herbs as medicine, as culinary spices, as cosmetics, and more. This year we once again tap into practical, historical, and just plain enjoyable aspects of herbal knowledge—using herbs to help people stop smoking; to attract bees to our gardens; to make infusions and smudges; and, of course, trying out new recipes. And we bring to these pages some of the most innovative and original thinkers and writers on herbs. Growing, preparing, and using herbs allows us to focus on the old ways—when men and women around the world knew and understood the power of herbs. Taking a step back to a simpler time is important today as the pace of everyday life quickens and demands more and more of our energy—leaving precious little room for beauty, good food, health, love, and friendship. This state of affairs is perhaps not terribly surprising considering so many of us are out of touch with the beauty, spirituality, and health-giving properties of the natural world. Many of us spend too much of our lives rushing about in a technological bubble. We forget to focus on the parts of life that can bring us back into balance and harmony. Though it’s getting more difficult, you can still find ways to escape the rat race once in a while. People are still striving ^5&

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to make us all more aware of the uplifting, beautiful ways that herbs can affect our lives. In the 2010 edition of the Herbal Almanac, the various authors pay tribute to the ideals of beauty and balance in relation to the health-giving and beautifying properties of herbs. Whether it comes in the form of natural herbal baths, crafting your own skin lotion, or a new favorite recipe, herbs can clearly make a positive impact in your life. Herbs are the perfect complement to the power of the mind, an ancient tool whose time has come back around to help us restore balance in our lives. More and more people are using them, growing and gathering them, and studying them for their enlivening and healing properties. We, the editors and authors of this volume, encourage the treatment of the whole organism—of the person and of the planet—with herbal goodness. Note: The old-fashioned remedies in this book are historical references used for teaching purposes only. The recipes are not for commercial use or profit. The contents are not meant to diagnose, treat, prescribe, or substitute consultation with a licensed health-care professional. Herbs, whether used internally or externally, should be introduced in small amounts to allow the body to adjust and to detect possible allergies. Please consult a standard reference source or an expert herbalist to learn more about the possible effects of certain herbs. You must take care not to replace regular medical treatment with the use of herbs. Herbal treatment is intended primarily to complement modern health care. Always seek professional help if you suffer from illness. Also, take care to read all warning labels before taking any herbs or starting on an extended herbal regimen. Always consult medical and herbal professionals before beginning any sort of medical treatment—this is particularly true for pregnant women. Herbs are powerful things; be sure you are using that power to achieve balance. Llewellyn Worldwide does not participate in, endorse, or have any authority or responsibility concerning private business transactions between its authors and the public.

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Growing and Gathering Herbs

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Grow Herbs that Give Back to the Bees ^ by Suzanne Ress &

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f you want to start a new herb garden or enhance an existing one, take time to consider which herbs are attractive and useful to bees before you select all of your plants. Yes, bees! It’s easy to forget what an essential part they play in agriculture, but they do more than provide us with honey. By planting herbs that they like, we’re actually giving back to the bees. Rock carvings found in southern Spain indicate that humans were systematically hunting for honey as early as 6000 BC. By about 2000 BC, people in Egypt were building clay bee hives and keeping domesticated bees for an annual honey harvest, much as beekeepers do today.

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Honey was the only sweetener available for sweetening and preserving fruits, nuts, and meats for thousands of years. Sugar was in use by 510 BC in Polynesia and India, but it remained a very rare and precious commodity that was used sparingly by nobility. Honey was the base for the alcoholic beverage mead (with its variations: metheglin, hydromel, and melomel). Town and city dwellers could not risk drinking plain water, but people of all ages drank meads and ales from first thing in the morning until last thing at night. Once bees were living in man-made hives, humans became aware that the flavor of honey varied greatly according to what flowering plants were blooming within about a two-mile radius around the hives. So people began to purposefully locate their beehives near flowering plants that produced the best honeys, and many of these plants were common herbs. Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) were brought to America from Europe in 1622. Through swarming, abandonment, and other means of escape, they became naturalized and can easily live in the wild in hives they construct themselves—usually in trees. Honeybees kept by beekeepers are social insects. These bees will readily live in a man-made hive, knock themselves out collecting nectar and transforming it into honey, and they don’t even complain much if we take most of it away from them for our own uses.

Field-worker Bees Collect the Honey Using her senses of sight and smell, a field-working honeybee alights inside or close to the selected flower. She inserts her tiny tube-like proboscis into the part of the flower where its nectar is, and sucks it up into her mouth, from where it then goes to her honey sack. A bee gathers nectar from 50 to 1,000 blossoms to fill one tiny sack. 10

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All field-worker honeybees are infertile females. While she visits each flower, she is also packing pollen into the miniscule pollen baskets located on her hind legs. This pollen will be used as food for new bees back at the hive. Since a field-working honeybee only visits a single type of flower on each flight out of the hive, with every new flower landing she makes, she carries and leaves some pollen from the previous flowers, and thereby performs the invaluable job of pollination. Without pollination there would be no fruit, vegetables, nuts, or berries. Without bees, pollination is less likely to happen. While butterflies and other insects, as well as the wind, can also do it, bees, with their fuzzy bodies and single flower type at each outing, do it best. So, while a field-working honeybee is busy gathering nectar to be transformed into honey, she is also doing an essential part in providing the world with food.

Keep Herbs in Bloom all Season To offer the best to bees, as well as to get the greatest use and pleasure out of an herbal bee garden, a variety of herbal plants should be used. Select plants according to their blooming times. That way, something will always be in flower for as long as the growing season lasts in your temperate zone. Bees have favorite colors. Generally, they are attracted to purple, blue, yellow, and white flowers. I’ve also found that they seem to prefer many smaller blossoms crowded together on one plant rather than a few large blossoms. The common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) is considered a weed by many. But as one of the earliest herbal flowers to bloom in the spring, it is a lifesaver for hungry bees. Bees adore dandelion nectar, and dandelions should not ever be eradicated

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from lawns. Besides being essential to bees, the dandelion’s tender spring leaves are delicious as salad greens. Dandelions have also been used to treat urinary tract disorders and arthritis.

Spring Herbs Other excellent bee-attracting herbs that bloom from spring into early summer are horehound, with its rings of delicate white flowers, and borage, with its magical celestial-blue blossoms. The leaves on both of these early blooming herbs have an unusual texture, so even when the plant is not in flower it looks dazzling in the garden. Old-fashioned horehound can be used to make syrup or hard candies that work as effective sore-throat and cough soothers. The bitter liqueur is also useful to quell digestive upset. Borage leaves have a fresh taste reminiscent of cucumber that is a nice complement to salads. Check to make sure any herbs you plant are appropriate for your temperate zone.

Summer Herbs The Mediterranean trio—rosemary, sage, and lavender—blossom in early summer. These herbs love full sun and can tolerate very dry conditions and poor soil. They produce lovely blue to purple and violet flowers between May and July and, if they are grown in a zone that has a long growing season, these wonderfully fragrant plants will bloom a second time in September. Bees love them and they are extremely useful as culinary herbs, natural antiseptics, and in sachets and potpourri mixes. Bees also like sweet-scented chamomile, an early bloomer that will selfseed if the flowers have been pollinated for another bloom later in the summer. The dried flower heads make a wonderful soothing tea, especially when served with honey. And don’t forget to let some chives go to flower for the bees.

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Midsummer-blooming herbs include thyme, hyssop, fennel, oregano, and marjoram. Bees make a most delicious and highly prized honey from the tiny pink or purple flowers on thyme. The old-fashioned perennial hyssop, with its beautiful blue, pink, and white blossoming spires, can be counted on for a second bloom in September. Fragrant wild fennel (also delicious sprinkled in salads or on fish), Melissa lemongrass (comes from the Greek word that means bee), garlic chives, soft lemony-scented white verbena, bergamot (also called bee balm), and silvery-leafed lambs’ ears are also good choices for this time of year.

Autumn Herbs In late summer and early autumn, all kinds of bee-attracting mints come into flower. Low-growing summer and winter savory, with their myriad tiny white blossoms, are a bee magnet. So are the long lavender-colored lacy spires of Russian sage (Perovskia abrotanoides). Succulent-leaved purslane, with its small yellow flowerets, and its cousin, the striking multicolored single moss rose are appreciated by hungry bees, and their leaves and stems can be added to salads. Probably the last herb to put forth its flowers is the gorgeous red-blossomed pineapple sage (Salvia elegans), so named because its leaves, when rubbed, give off a refreshing pineapple scent. Once the last bloom of the pineapple sage plant has given its nectar to a bee and withered and fallen to the ground, the warm days of Indian summer may just be starting. The bees, feeling the sun’s warmth, will still be frantically looking for something to eat before starting their long winter rest. Dandelions, which opened the season for the bees, will, along with goldenrod, also close it. But if nothing else is available, bees ^ Grow Herbs that Give Back to the Bees &

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can battle it out with the wasps and suck nectar from wind-fallen apples and pears.

Herbs that Bees Dislike Though there are many flowering herbs that bees like, there are a few that will actually repel bees from your garden. Avoid planting strong-scented curry plant (Helichrysum italicum) near herb plants that bees are attracted to, or they will avoid the entire area. Feverfew produces many tiny daisy-like blossoms at midsummer and again in early fall, and bees hate them! The artemisias, including tarragon, wormwood, southernwood, and mugwort are not known for their blossoms, and the scents of their leaves seem to repel bees.

Bees Love the Sun When it comes to sun, more is better for both your herb plants and the bees. Consider the ambient temperature when deciding where to locate an herb garden for bees. If the temperature goes below 72°F, bees go into a semi-lethargic state and are barely able to move. The ideal location for growing herbs and attracting bee pollinators will be protected from the wind and facing south, with maximum daily sun exposure. Another thing to keep in mind is that bees need water to drink but cannot swim, so you might place a shallow, tray-like container filled with pebbles and clean water somewhere amongst the herbs. To improve the environment for bees, avoid using chemical pesticides or herbicides anywhere on your property. If your lawn is sprayed with a wide-range insecticide, you can be certain no bees, butterflies, or ladybugs will come to your herb garden. And very few of your plants will produce viable seed to be self-sown for the following season. Weed-killing herbicides

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will kill important nectar-producing flowers such as dandelions and clover in a lawn. Instead, think green. Reduce or even eliminate the space devoted to neatly mown grass and plant more herbs, wildflowers, or native flowering grasses. You won’t have to worry that aphids will take over. The aphids will attract more ladybugs, and ladybugs bring good luck! Human beings have reached the point where we seem to have dominion over all other species and sometimes, it seems, over Mother Earth herself. Every time a field of wildflowers or grain, an empty lot, or an abandoned fruit orchard is transformed into neatly planned housing developments, apartment complexes, office space, parking lots, or other commercially developed property, some wildlife loses its home and foraging area. Bees that depend on wildflowers and flowering wild herbs and grasses for their survival may relocate, or simply die off, when their natural foraging territory is destroyed. We owe it to the bees to give back to them at least a little bit of what we’ve taken. If you are contemplating whether or not to plant a new herb garden or add to an existing one, be sure to include plenty of flowering herbs for the bees. Or consider taking a course with your local beekeepers’ association if you are really concerned and have enough free time. You could become a beekeeper yourself.

Bees, Bees, and More Bees Aside from honeybees, there are many other species of bees in any locale. One of these is the large furry-looking black-andyellow-striped bumblebee. The bumblebee, like most other bees (aside from honeybees), is a solitary bee. Solitary bees do

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not live in caste societies as honeybees do. Some other wild solitary bees are yellow-faced bees, sweat bees, sand bees, and mason bees. All of these solitary bees, especially the bumblebee, are excellent pollinators. We can’t domesticate solitary bees (or collect honey from them) since they do not live in large groups, but we can appreciate the important part they play in the ecosystem and do what we can to help make both solitary and social bees’ lives a little better. If you fear or dislike bees because you’re afraid of being stung, remember that most bees, most of the time, would rather avoid having to use their stingers. Bees will not attack a human unless they feel they are in danger. If you swat at an approaching bee, or at one that has mistakenly landed on your arm, she may sting because she feels threatened. It’s worth remembering that a bee can sting a person only one time, because once she does, she dies.

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Llewellyn's 2010 Herbal Almanac