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Lennard Ong Architectural Portfolio Lennard Ong 2007 2010 Architectural itectural ectural l Ong Portfolio Po Port P Lennard 2007 2010 2007-2010 01 Architectural itectural Portfolio Port Lennard Ong 2007 2010 2007-2010 Architectural Portfolio 2007-2010


Contents Contemporary Domesticity and Architecture 15-unit Residential Farm

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Studio Marc Frohn

Evolo Skyscraper, MegaSeoul Version 20 Urban Research and Skyscraper Proposal Studio Emily White

The Salvation of Monsieur Hulot 34 Vertically Integrated Office for American Apparel Studio Greg Walsh

Hinterland Koln 42 Professional Internship, Berlin F-A-R Architects

Hidden Patterns 46 Data Mining Studio Josh Taron

The New(er) New Museum 50 Programmatic Proposal Studio Heather Flood

Supplemental Drawings


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Lennard Ong 306 West 3rd Street #203, Los Angeles, CA 90013 email: Lennard.Ong@gmail.com telephone: +01 (213) 537 5102

EDUCATION Southern California Institute of Architecture (SCI_ARC) / 2007 - Present / Los Angeles, California B.Arch, Current GPA: 3.81 National University of Singapore / 2006 - 2007 / Singapore B.Arch, Dean’s List RECOGNITION Chicago 2020, international architectural competition featured on www.notcot.org Contemplating Contemporary Domesticity, 2009 SCI_ARC All School Exhibition of Selected Student Works The New(er) New Museum, 2008 SCI_ARC All School Exhibition of Selected Student Works SCI_ARC Academic Scholarship, 2007 - 2008 National University of Singapore, Dean’s List United World Colleges (UWC) International Scholarship One of 5 annual recipients of the UWC International Scholarship to study architecture in Trieste, Italy PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE Ray Kappe Library, Student Librarian, 2007 - 2009 / losangeles + front-desk relations + organizational responsibilities + well versed in architectural literature Audio-Visual Unit, Media Assistant, 2007 - present / losangeles + SCI_Arc LiveStream broadcasting + comprehensive media coverage of events LA Fashion Week, Fashion Photographer, 2009 / losangeles + photographic work for publication Frohn&Rojas Architects, Professional Internship, Summer 2009 / berlin + physical and digital design + graphic production + designed parametric packages Ministry of Design, professional internship, Summer 2008 / singapore + physical and digital design + geometric rationalization of complex facade geometry + environmental analysis Singapore Police Force, Public Affairs Department, Police Inspector, 2003 - 2005/ singapore + coordination of monthly magazine + photographer and videographer + magazine design + writer The President’s Challenge Charity Event, Chief Event Organizer, 2004 - 2005 / singapore + planned, coordinated and executed a 1000km charity cycle + raised S$150, 000 in donations for various childrens charities + maintained media relations and generated publicity + filmed and edited video for public release

Skills + AutoCAD, Rhino, Digital Projects, T-Splines, Grasshopper, Brazil renderer, V-ray renderer, Adobe CS4 + Languages: English, Chinese, Malay Other Interests + wandering around the city, photography, cycling, good books, wine, coffee, coke and movies not starring val kilmer.


A


Contemporary Domesticity and Architecture The brief asked for a 15-unit residential scheme in a community farm. Instead of a 15-unit residential scheme in a community farm, what if it became a community farm in a 15-unit residential? By flipping the brief on itself, the project proposes a high-density urban prototype that accomodates vertical farming. This evolved to a series of questions: What is the state of domesticity? What does it mean then, to bring agrarian practices to the domestic urban environment? What are the programmatic opportunities with regards to contemporary lifestyles? What massing strategies would balance between maximizing vertical surface area (for vertical hydroponics growth) and compactness?


How I Learned to Love the City This trend snowballed toward the 1990’s, culminating in what some called an “urban renaissance�, characterized by an increase in the number of jobs and a decrease in relocations to outlying areas from the city. documented by Richard Florida in “Cities and the Creative Class�. The transition from the industrial to service economy. With the outsourcing of low-skilled jobs, cultural creativity became a crucial factor in economic growth. This is rooted in a collaboration of knowledge and skills previously categorically seperated by Fordist tendencies. The city as a social condenser became an invaluable proxy for this to occur.

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In the 1980s, there was a rising tide of alternative modes of living, latent from the generation raised in the 1960s. The number of households without children rose sharply, as did divorce rates.

Extending contemporary informality, the single surface also absortbs peripheral program - a place to use the laptop, do your bills or fold your laundry. The kitchen thus becomes the Klitchen! Hardened Boundaries (fig. 3a)

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Viewed as a perimeter condition of appliances surrounding the user, like in a cockpit, the kitchen now folds in on itself into a simple mass, the use of it now occurs around the perimeter.

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Thus, many of todays home may be described as leftovers, or the residue of what remained after certain activities and functions were transferred to outside institutions.

Thus, in opposition to the Frankfurt Kitchen, which is modelled toward the efficiency of a single user - the result of several people sharing the space stepping on each other’s toes - we propose to invert the kitchen.

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The Behrens House by Peter Behrens is a tight little traditional box carved into smaller cubic boxes. Where it fails is in accomodating change or growth. The brief as imagined is hardened into spaces defined by walls, fulfilling their unique square footage requirements.

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Private homes in the modern sense have not existed for very long, and buildings devoted exclusively to housing are therefore a recent invention. They appeared en masse only in the wake of industrialization and the emergence of the modern city.

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This proposal recenters the idea of cooking as a primarily social activity.

top left, right: interior study pictures

Any change becomes a negotiation of the existing boundarieswhich may ill fit future demand.

right column: unit study models

Universal Blandness (fig. 3b) On the other hand of the spectrum, the Farnsworth House by Mies accomodates any and all future programmatic demands via Universal Space.

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For centuries, how people lived was a byproduct of how they worked. For example, farmers lived where they kept their animals, private dwellings of craftsmen were connected directly with their workshops. The list goes on.

to day meals have taken on a form of distributed domesticity. They are either eaten outside or taken in or as leftovers. The formality of meals as a sit-down affair has similarly eroded.

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One possible critique is the idea of “universal space�, in its total universatility, actually achieves this because it lacks any real architectural specificity.

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The domestic unit (as we know it) is a red herring.

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What is the state of domesticity? What does it mean then, to bring agrarian practices to the domestic urban environment?

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On the other end, the Suburban ideal, entailing investments in property, cars and household technology, was a capital-intensive process. More flexible modes of work are making it more and more difficult to calculate future income, further diminishing the appeal of the suburban dream. Thus, the social domestic unit is increasingly diversifying while the division of work and life is decreasing. The home unit no longer absorbs such heterogenous arrangements. This proposal is an architectural response to these factors.

Too Many Cooks is Never Enough (fig. 2) The Frankfurt Kitchen was optimized to be used by a single individual - i.e. the domestic mother preparing a meal for the return of her husband and children. The social reality of this has changed - typical day


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top row: massing studies

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middle: final acrylic model with pullout sectional blocks (see previous spread)

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bottom: shadow analysis of unfolded facade to program growth

      

circulation diagram

  

The formal investigation deals with compactness and porosity.

 

  

 

By maximizing surface area-to-volume ratios, we increase the amount of growable surface for vertical hydroponics.

tomatoes

eggplant

carrots

wheat

cucumbers

lettuce

peppers

soybeans

green peas

strawberries

bananas

green beans

Number of Harvests / Year

Nutritional Value

    

Edible Portion of the Plant

spinach

potatoes

Energy Requirement + Light Needs

Space Needs

Carriage and Storage Requirements



  

    

Concrete Slab On-Grade Diagonal Lateral Bracing D

Concrete Retaining Wall #6 Bar @ 18” o.c.

12 x 12 x 1/2” Steel I-Beam Structure 1 Concrete Transfer Beam V-Struts V

  



Massing Model 2” water-jet cut acrylic sheets with pull-out laser-etched sections



Concrete Pylon

Foundation and Transfer Beams


17

Additional Documentation: Contemporary Architecture and Domesticity

1 2 4 3 14

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SECTION scale: 3/32” = 1’ 0”

long section

structural diagram

1


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B


the Skyscraper & the Giant giant 3D 3d Neighbourhood neighbourhood The Skyscraper

The 3D Neighbourhood

The typological prototype of the skyscraper is conceived of as an extrusion of the perimeter boundary - too many dreams for too little space and the architectural ambition to support that metropolitan aspiration.

We propose a return to first principles: the simple extrusion of the perimeter boundary gives a solid mass of private program: housing, school, offices and exhibition spaces.

Increasingly, and especially in asia, with larger sites, the typology has evolved to the plinth/tower - a cadavre exquis, a box of public program with a tower of private interests.

To bring light into the interior, a giant continuous volume filled with public program snakes through it, hollowing it out. It is a conceptually inverted farnsworth core on hyperdrive, physically, a spatial adventure.

How can we embrace tallness and largeness at the same time?

This core condenses new forms of metropolian life into a skyscraper, making the entire section open to the public. This core also spatially divides the floorplates, dividing private program in plan instead of in section.

1500’

1000’

500’

0’

Conceptual Parti

Flatiron Building, New York 1902

Public Perimeter

Seagram Building, New York 1958

Taipei 101, Taipei 2004

Petronas Towers, Malaysia 1998

“The Sock”, concept model


24

25 +

open to below

open to below open to below

+

=

In plan, the hollow 3D neighbourhood continually mutuates, giving a range of spatial divisions, from dividing the floor plate into diagonal quadrants to 4 light wells.

open to below

open to below

a series of scripts were created in grasshopper to parametrically model the structure.

open to below open to below

open to below

Urban Chambers

Circulation Tubes

Public Collars

top row: test bottom row: application right: interior render test


26

2 27 7


The Salvation of Monsieur Hulott Manufacturing and Sales Office for American ican Apparel

Entry

buffe

t

r

/ Even

Manuf

The sectional relationship of the plan is the architectural issue investigated within this project.

The brief is weeded and clustered into two sets: Formal and Informal. Formal responds to programmatically specific demands while the informal areas are conceived of as collective areas given to instability and accessible by the public.

How to imagine a fluid trajectory? Does architecture have to be experienced a “level +1, level +2, etc...�, or can one conceive of the building as a continuously differentiated boulevard.

Kitchen/ Dining

views!

Offices

Manufacturing

Sectional Parti

Production

area: 6,000 s.f.

Support

area: 10, 000 s.f.

Solid

Offices

Office (retail)

Design Studios

Photo Studio

Sample Library

Loading Area Conference Area

Manufacturing

Mechanical Room

Void

Storage

Solid

Primary Spaces Retail

BUFFER ZONE

Restrooms

Changing Rooms

Changing Rooms

Office (retail)

Offices (admin)

Design Studios

Photo Studio

Storage

Sample Library

Conference Area

Loading Area

Mechanical Room

informal

Retail Gallery

Support Spaces

Collective

Retail

area: 7,500 s.f.

Void

area: 4, 200 s.f.

Cafe/ Dining

Entry Hall/ Common Area

Changing Rooms

Restrooms

Retail Gallery

(solid / void relationships)

Route Public

Design

area: 3, 000 s.f.

Offices (admin)

Cafe

ent

/ Ev Entry

COLLECTIVE

Design

EXPANSION

Entry Hall/ Common Area

Design

Patio

EXPANSION EXPANSION

formal

Primary Spaces Manufacturing

Rooftop

Retail

Programmatic Clusters

Brief

g

Route Manufacturing views!

A third set is included: a buffer zone. This zone accomodates growth in any sector while ensuring their relational clarity as well as unforseeable future programmatic mutations or demands.

The brief is a building to house the different vertical aspects of American Apparel (a clothing manufacturer), from design to manufacturing to sales and distribution. This scheme proposes to address the programmatic instablity of the organization with a new relational clarity.

acturin

Production

RETAIL

Offices Conference

support

Changing Rooms

Design

Entry

Buffer

/

Event

/ Photog

raphy

buffe

r

Communal Manufacturing

Route Office

Retail buffe

r!

Buffer Zone Event Space/ Cafe

Retail Cafe

Manufacturing Buffer

Patio

Design Photo

Patio Rooftop

Conference

Offices

Manufacturing

Development Models 1: split section study model 2: single looped trajectory 3: panopticonic loop 4: sheared trajectories 5: (next page) crossed trajectories

unfolded floor plan: the continuous promenade


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Design Studio

Conference Area

Main Entry

Manufacturing

Retail


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Patio

Sections

Plans

Conference

Cafe

Retail Patio

Lobby

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Plan @ +15.0”

Plan @ +27.0”

Scale 1/16” = 1’

Scale 1/16” = 1’

Scale 1/16” = 1’

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Design / Photography

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Plan @ -3.0”

B

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Manufacturing Roof Garden

Manufacturing

Buffer

Offices

Manufacturing

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B

A

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Plan @ +3.0”

Plan @ +21.0”

Plan @ +33.0”

Scale 1/16” = 1’

Scale 1/16” = 1’

Scale 1/16” = 1’

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B

Offices

Offices Conference

Cafe

Buffer

Retail

Design / Photography

Offices

Buffer Cafe

Lobby

Lobby Manufacturing

Manufacturing

Manufacturing Manufacturing

Section A

Section B

Section C

Offices Design / Photography

Buffer

Lobby

Manufacturing

Retail

Section D


Hyper-linked Geographies: Chicago Union Station, Year 2020

1. BUNDLE

Process

The TRAIN STATION is organized into 4 bundles - each bundle is “linked” to a different region.

Chicago

The competition entry for the Burnham 2.0 High Speed Rail City argues against a tower/plinth typology typical in mixed program infrastructural projects.

2. SCISSOR

MA

RK

ET

The MARKET scissors up alternately. The top surface of the market becomes a public space, allowing circulation to transverse the site. Public surface

n

atio

St

We propose a fluid terrain of linked public and private programs, interweaving the market, conference lounge, hotels and railway system into 2 seamless knots.

Internal Circulation

Surface Circulation

The CONFERENCE HALLS bridge the alternating tips of the Markets, bridging them together. This ties internal circulation together into a loop.

3. BRIDGE nce fere Con

*featured on design website www.notcot.org

Internal Looped Circulation

4. HOVER

Ambition

1

a. CLARITY

b. SYNERGY Rather than navigate a maze of corridors and passages to find your train, we propose architectural clarity by bundling the 8 different lines into pairs.

??

l

Hote

Circulation to and between the different programs constantly intertwine, creating the possibility of programmatic overlaps and unexpected situations

!!

c. HYPER-LINK The architectural articulation of each market is tied to a specific train bundle. Thus, the activities within can “hyperlink” the destination city tied to that bundle. OR Bos

I LA

ton

H

ouston

I NY

OR nth Mo ood ida Month ol yW lor _F go H Chica onth le M Seatt

onth YM o_N g a c Chi

OR Wine Review

eek ion W Fash al Festiv

r’s

me

Far

t rke

Ma

Farmer’s Market

I LA Seattle Month

I NY

Mr.2020 The bundles could be micro cities.

The bundles could hold events between cities.

The bundles could run activities for the local area.

The bundles could be a mixture of all !

7

-8

The HOTEL hovers over, with vertical connections to both the Markets and Conference Halls. By splaying them apart, inhabitants get views out toward the city.

Ingress / Egress


From the hotel one can see a spectacular overview of the station. It is a very urbanized and comfortable place to take a short break.

Kids, we should go already! The train is coming.

Ma rke t Platform

Mr.2020

The platforms are essentially a series of soft boundaries phyiscally containing their respective programs while giving visual coherence to the whole! Instead of a labyrinth of mazes, navigation becomes intuitive!

Ok, so this is Bundle #2...

Ch

ica g

o-N

ew

Yo rk

Who designed this station, so nice...

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ma

nit

ies

Fe st

iva

l2

02

0@

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nd

lee #2

Mr.2020

Whats happening up there? Looks interesting... Who is he talking to...

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11 -12

Train is coming!

Mr.2020 nce

blic Pu

n Co

e fer

The conference lounge is an open and organized space that connects each bundle from upper floor. It is appealing to me that one can view the lively scene of the market, by looking down out of the window.

Hotel ion Circulat

Hotel Unit

Old Union n Statio

rence Confe

Hotel

Hotel Circulation

Ballroo m Confer ence

rence Confe

Ballroo m

Marke t Waiti ngAre a Waiti ngAre a Bun dle # 1

Exit

Marke t

Marke t Entranc

e For

Train St

ation

Office s

A-A’ Section

A’ Ho tel Un its

d rgroun Unde g Parkin

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La rge Ba Me llR oo diu m m Pu Ba blic llR Co oo nfe m ren ce Co nfe ren ce Ce nte r

B-B’ Section

B’ Pa rki ng

Bu ndle #1

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The New(er) New Museum: Programming for Instability

“A museum can either be modern or it can be a museum, but it cannot be both.” -Gertrude Stein, author The focus of the New(er) New Museum (NNM) is on the reprogramming of the contemporary museum. Contemporary art cannot be defined with any full certainty. Hence, we propose that the categorization of art into painting/sculpture/installations and its architectural implications of “the painting gallery”/“sculpture court”/”installation room” are counterintuitive to the relevance of a truly contemporary museum to absorb new and unimagined forms of art and media. To accomodate this ambition of speculative relevance, the NNM proposes the concept of a Spatial

Catalogue - a spatial sampling of various scales and proportions. The relationship and adjacencies between these spaces can be choreographed via a Transfer Zone. The relationship between Art, Architecture and the Curator thus becomes a symbiotic one.

Contemporary art musuems of late had been hijacked, viewed as a shamnistic jewel to bestow an aura of instant culture and sophistication to a city.

research video online at: http://vimeo.com/6049975

What is the role and ambition of a contemporary art museum?

For a while, architecture played along, performing structural gymnastics and formal pirouettes.

But no more! The New(er) New Museum seeks to realign architecture away from marketing...

... and back to the foundation of a Contemporary Museum: its content and role in the production of culture.


Invisible Patterns: Data Driven Architecture

Circulation is indexed through the parameters of frequency of use and speed (fig .1).

Externally, the peripheral density is mapped. Internally, attractor sites (e.g. playground, park) are registered (fig. 2).

A voronoi grid is constructed about the points of ingress and egress about Echo Park. Conceptually, this territorializes the peripheral densities and their relationship to the park interior (fig. 4).

Data is mined from the Census statistics and interpreted within Microsoft Excel before it is translated spatially (fig. 5).

The MediaScape - projections from the website flickr.com - is projected on the site from an archive of flickr.com pictures, revealing the framed views of the site and the point from which where they were taken. (fig. 3)

The remaining density patches are rotated 27 degrees, aligning it with the city grid. Deformations are made to the re-contextualized grid, reacting to its local conditions (fig. 6).

How can the grid - an a priori ordering system through feedback and manipulation from external datasets become contextual and actively inform the siting of a project? This project investigates the understanding of a site as a physical location and its other representations: how it is consumed digitally, via flickr.com and understood statstically, from the Los Angeles Census Board. All these are indexed on a grid and used to inform the siting and massing of a greenhouse.

Echo Echo Park Par ark rk k

+ Attractor sites form puckers into themselves, “sucking� in the various flows. The degree of pucker relates to the degree of their programmatic significance (fig. 7).


42

Massing Strategies Diagrams

The filtered territorialization becomes a framework for the siting of the Greenhouse.

Manipulated Field

Mutated Territories

Filtered Territory

Rationalized Topography

Programmatic and Topographical Interations

Territorialization

Single Massing Strategy

Fragmented Urban Corridor

Hybridized Urban Corridor

Single Massing Strategy Aggolmerating the program into a single mass minimized the potential for interstitial spaces between programs to inform its surrounding context. Fragmented Urban Corridor The massings are concieved as an extension of the Laguna Corriderthe urban texture literally extends into Echo Park. However, the fragmentation limits the identity of the Greenhouse. Hybrid Urban Corridor To create a massing hierarchy while maintaining interstitial spaces, several of the programmatic elements are juxtaposted together while others are strategically scattered. This reinforces the identity of the Greenhouse while still allowing it to blend into and inform one’s conception of Echo Park as a whole .


C


Projective Prosthetics: Parametric Modelling in Digtial Projects

0.9h

0.7h

Mechanics of Bionic Movement

Shoul er

d = 0.6h

4. Afferent Signal 1. Efferent Signal Motor Center of the brain sends impulse to muscle

This project is an investigation into parametric modelling within CATIA.

Sensors send feedback to nerves; Nerve cells send feedback to brain to adjust for contextural factors

umerus

h

2. Muscles Nerves trigger muscle contractions to engage initiate movement

ot tor

u

i

Ød

As a driver, resesearch was conducted on biomechanical prosthetics.

i

lbo

ength

Ød

3. Prosthetic Muscles engage prosthetic limb

0.5r

5. Haptic Response

The designed prosthesis is parametrically controlled to accomodate variation between people of different sizes and genders.

lbo

Brain recieves signal, sends appropropriate response signal to complete task

r = 0.78h ius

ln

X

Prosthetics in Fiction

Y

Form

rp ls

Expressed “post-human”

0.34f

0.35f

2

0.27f 5

0.3f 4

3

et c rp ls

1

0.25f 2

0.15f 2

0.1f 1

Suppressed “human”

0.1f 2

0.25f

3

0.15f

0.25f

4

0.15f

3

4

0.1f 3

0.1f 4

f5 = 0.42hx

0.25f

f4 = 0.54hx

“post-human”

f3 = 0.60hx

“human”

f2 = 0.54hx

Augmentative

f1 = 0.24hx

Function

0.3f 1

Replicative

0.25f 5

0.15f 5

0.1f

5

Pro im l

nterme i te

ist l

P r meters

sc le coe icient

h

h

h

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Assembly Supporting Geometry

P r metric

ri tions

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ier rchy

h


Financial Geographies: Global Capitalism and the Asian City

MOUNTAINS

HAN RIVER

Density and compactness have always been urban ideals du jour, but when is too much too much? When does excitement and energy sour into antagonistic claustrophobia? Instead of building a mixed use skyscraper in Seoul, an already hyper-dense city research led to a counter-proposal - to build in the post-industrial city of Bupyeong, sandwiched growth

between Seoul and Incheon, two cosmopolitan cities.

Bedtime Stories: Seoul Suburbanism

Critiquing existing urban plans for an “instant city” to be reclaimed off the coast, the ambition is to to redirect metropolitan urbanization and global capital to combat the urban inertia and regenerate a failing post-industrial city.

Seoul is facing intense population pressures. Unable to cope, it has no choice but to grow.

40 km NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN

The natural of topography of this area consists of This is Seoul with a 40km radius - the spatial equivalent of driving from SCIARC to the Getty Center mountains, the ocean and the Han River and back again.

Seoul

growth growth

Bucheon

growth

Daejeon

Intention, (unrealized)

“The Main City”

growth

Paju

MTN

MTN

H2

Goyang

O

growth

Gimpo

“The Transport City”

Busan

“The Science City”

Daegu “The Industrial City”

The Main City

Seeding Utopias

The Transport City “Incheon”

Bucheon

The Industrial City “Daegu”

The Port City

MTN

MTN

Incheon

Seongnam Siheung

MTN

MTN

Gwangju

MTN

Uiwang

Ansan

MTN

The Science City “Daejeon”

Guri

SEOUL

H2O

MegaSeoul

“Grow West”

“The Port City”

Growth Strategy

Busan

Reality, 2009

“Seoul”

O H2

MTN

“Spread South”

Intent: Growth of seed program to produce a continuous Urban Fabric, a Mega South-Korea?

Daejeon

H2O

Implementation, 1970

growth

Daegu

H2O

Seoul Bucheon

Yangju

growth

MTN

Suwon

The Science City “Daejeon”

The Industrial City “Daegu”

“Busan” Result: Lack of critical mass creates urban islands, marooned in their individual “identities”, linked by threads of infrastructure..

The Port City “Busan”

decision tree

The early aspirations of 1970s South Korea was to create a series of urban islands, each defined by an economic activity, connected by the one highway. (fig. 1) Perhaps, implicit in this is the idea (or potential) of the Linear City on the scale of a whole country (fig. 2). However, the 2005 population census shows a severly lopsided distribution toward Seoul. This is exacerbated by the rise of “bed towns” (refer to Bedtime Stories), the South Korean mutation of suburban residential enclaves that support the demand for a slice of Seoul.

...is a diagram of the Seoul Greater Metropolis.

The smaller red dots are called “bed towns”.

Spreading South, thus, is contradictory to the logic of Seoul urbanism: past a certain critical point, the aura of “Seoulness” fades. Yangju

Like butter spread too thin on toast, without enough critical mass, they risk deflating the ambition to a parody of itself: islands of semi-urbanism marooned in their imposed identities. (fig. 3)

Paju

Goyang

Growing West exploits a unique situation arising from the coincidence of Seouls topography, which creates valleys of density without urbanism (e.g. Bupyeong), and the relationship between Incheon (transportation hub) and Seoul (capital city). It is conceptual middle ground between the initial aspirations of South Korea and the realities that can support it.

By virtue of its topography and natural features, the further growth for Seoul is limited to two scenarios: 1. Spread South This could reinforce the initial aspirations of the 1970s and eventually lead to a continuous necklace of urban areas, a “Linear City”. 2. Grow West

Almost as if by instant decision, the poche of its topography...

Gimpo

Bed towns are residential enclaves built within very short spans of time - within 7 years - to accomodate the intense demand for housing in and around Seoul.

Guri

SEOUL

Bucheon

Incheon They were built with little to no greater ambition than to be a place where one can go to sleep.

Seongnam Siheung

Gwangju

Uiwang

Ansan Suwon

This strategy would consolidate the urban matter of Incheon and Seoul into a mega entity. But can South Korea support such an urban ambition at the scale of Spreading South? These towns are linked by infrastructure that is also defined by the natural features of South Korea.

What results are corridor conditions, or, the creation of density without urbanism.


50

51

Cheongna

Seoul

“Disneyland for Businessmen”

Yongjong “The Business Quickie”

b

a

Incheon

Songdo “The Fresh Start” Population Pyramids

Male (%)

Female (%)

Early Expanding

Male (%)

Female (%)

Late Expanding

Male (%)

Female (%)

Low Stationary

Male (%)

Female (%)

Early Contracting

Male (%)

a

Female (%)

b

influx of foreign talent

Bupyeong Songdo International City

Songdo International City

This is embodied in 3 urban scale projects which underscore Incheon’s ambitions: Yeongjong Logistics Complex, sited on the Yongyu Island and next to the Incheon International Airport. It is the business equivalent of a fast food drive-through, where deals are done fast and without fuss.

Incheon Bridge Project

Landmark City Development (151-story Incheon Tower)

Yonsei University Songdo Global Academic Complex Project

Bio-Research Complex Science Village

Tomorrow City Project (PR and Experience Center) Bio-Research Complex

Strangely, this had close parallels with the developments in the Pearl River Delta. Was this the new recipe for the globalization of countries?

Municipal Integrated Operation Center and infrastructure for u-City Project

2000

Landmark City Development (151-story Incheon Tower)

Tomorrow City Project (PR and Experience Center)

Bio-Research Complex

2010

a

2020

2025

2001 GM buys most of Daewoo 2004 GM raises market share to 48.2%. Bupyeong Daewoo Factory is jettisoned from the contract.

Evolvo Tower

b

Site 2: Daewoo Car Factory

operational retro-fitting 2015 Stage 3: Science and Research “Warehouse”

2005 Stage 1: Phase out industrial operations from Daewoo Factory

Science Village

Municipal Integrated Operation Center and infrastructure for u-City Project

2015

1999 Daewoo goes Bankrupt

Site 1: Bupyeong Station

Yonsei University Songdo Global Academic Complex Project

Bupyeong International City

2005

Incheon Bridge Project

Science Village

Songdo International City is the most “serious” of the three and the most dangerous. Reversing our prediction of in-ward growth, Song-do is built on 7km2 of artificial land that extends Incheon toward the sea, a post-modern version of the Tabula Rasa.

Yonsei University Songdo Global Academic Complex Project

financial

Bupyeong Industrial City

Landmark City Development (151-story Incheon Tower)

knowledge

Cheongna Leisure City, a pleasure city that grafts its identity onto the coastal atmosphere if Incheon. It is the Korean version of Disneyland for a mature demographic.

science

After the initial hypothesis for a new MegaSeoul - we looked deeper in the conditions fueling this growth, especially in Incheon, which seeks to create a new momentum to combat its urban inertia.

served

Female (%)

High Stationary

serving

Male (%)

construction phase

b

Science and Research Warehouse

a

2010 Stage 2: Evolvo Skyscraper

operational

(formally Daewoo Factory)

“It is a region whose urbanism emphasizes the greatest possible difference between its parts, whose infrastructure both enables and prevents a functioning whole” By re-imagining Songdo International City into an

existing urban fabric instead of a “tabula rasa”, can we resuscitate a failing post-industrial city and fill the gap between two metropolitan cities - Incheon and Seoul - forming a “megaurban” corridor?


Hinterland Koln Typologically Parametric Models

Parametric Design Model

How can one densify historic city cores? The traditional european perimeter block is the creation of density without matter. What happens when artificial density needs to become real density? The problem then becomes the dense web of legal issues regarding massing boundaries. A parametric model is created to automate this task: sliders control the height of the four

elevations while taking into account their legal boundaries. This model gives active feed back on the resultant FAR ratios and floor areas, allowing for quick feasibility studies on different plots. To address the economic feasibility, the resultant massings are studied for their programmatic potentials in creating new typologies for multifamily dwellings. Video can be found on: www.vimeo.com/6049975


This is Cologne. More and more, people want to live in the city. But without enough space, they will have no choice but to settle in the periphery. The city may seem full, but in reality, there is still alot of space: in its hinterlands!

The hurdle to building in the hinterland - the interior lot layout of perimeter blocks - is straightjacket of legislation.

A parametric design tool is designed to quickly asses the potential of different lots, giving the architect real time feed back for the massing envelope and resultant floor areas.

Architecturally, this volume is developed into two typological intepretations of a 3-family residence: one a stacked organization. Access to each unit is along a continuous garden trajectory. The other, a 3-D jigsaw puzzle where each unit has their own private winter garden.


Structural Mutations and Surface Manipulations: Reintroducing Stablilty to the Deliberately Deformed

Thickness = 1” Max X deflection = 7.189” Max Y deflection = 6.248” Max Z deflection = 15.773” Max KSI (bottom surface) = 4.31 ksi Max KSI (top surface) = 5.82 ksi

Thickness = 2” Max X deflection = 3.897” Max Y deflection = 3.272” Max Z deflection = 8.145” Max KSI (bottom surface) = 3.3 ksi Max KSI (top surface) = 4 ksi

Thickness = 3” Max X deflection = 2.477” Max Y deflection = 2.152” Max Z deflection = 5.156” Max KSI (bottom surface) = 2.88 ksi Max KSI (top surface) = 3.39 ksi

Taking Le Corbusier’s St. Pierre Church as a structurally stable shell prototype, the form is deliberately “squished”. The process introduces surface manipulations such as pleats and folds to reintroduce structural stablility into the new squished form.

The effectiveness of these surface manipulations are tested through software with FEM analysis and physical models which interatively inform the next series of moves.

Thickness = 4” Max X deflection = 1.743” Max Y deflection = 1.551” Max Z deflection = 3.651” Max KSI (bottom surface) = 2.51 ksi Max KSI (top surface) = 2.83 ksi


The Fiction of Wealth and its Equitable Distribution in a Global Capitalist Market “The bourgeoisie cannot exist without constantly revolutionizing the instruments of production, and thereby the relations of production, and with them the whole relations of society... All that is solid melts into air, all that is holy is profaned, and man is at last compelled to face with sober senses his real condition of life and his relations with his kind. The need of a constantly expanding market for its products chases the bourgeoisie over the entire surface of the globe. It must nestle everywhere, settle everywhere, establish connections everywhere.”

for the unfettered proliferation of capital on a global scale. The inflation of the production chain to include and emphasize design to differentiate essentially similar goods also skews the equitable redistribution of capital - when the same pie is shared by more people, those at the bottom rung get the least. An example of this is the Apple slogan- “designed in California”, but made in China. This increased complexity in the production of goods dilutes the trickle down effect of capital to those in the lower echelons of this cycle - the workers in China, in the case of this example.

-Karl Marx, The Communist Manifesto

Capitalism Gone Global

The Godfather

The emergence of the American transnational corporation and increased free trade allowed by the relaxation international trade barriers, evident in the 1993 NAFTA agreement, amongst others, has allowed the increased mobility of capital.

“...[Adam Smith] is concerned with promoting the wealth of the entire nation. And wealth, to Adam Smith, consists of the goods which all the people of society consume... We are in the modern world where the flow of goods and services consumed by everyone constitutes the ultimate aim and end of economic life.” Ironically, this egalitarian ideal would only be achieved through rational self-interest- the Laws of the Market and the Invisible Hand which regulates it. However, the theoretical framework of this theory positions itself within the confines of two a-prioris: First, the perfect flow of information, is crucial to the mechanism of the “Invisible Hand”.

However, this increased mobility is deceiving. Instead of the equitable distribution of wealth on a global scale, it has resulted in capital being captured in a new cycle that is independent of a countries geography. For example, the main factory of Daewoo used to be in the city of Bupyeong, in-between Seoul and Incheon - it served as the economic catalyst for the prosperity of the city. The relationship between industry and its site of production is evident in the decay of cities such as Manchester and Detroit in conjunction with the industries that supported it.

But this is rarely true in reality. For example, a copy of Alice in Wonderland sells at the local bookshop for $10. At the local bookshop, it sells for $5 more. Within a rationalized framework, purchase of the book from the local bookshop would the result of consumer ignorance of the alternative. Ceteris paribus, the latter bookshop thus creates the surplus value of $5 from this informational gap.

Increased mobility with regards to sites of production has allowed this production to be decentralized in a mercenary-like fashion to the lowest bidders- which has resulted in a global weakening of the power of labour, which no longer holds any leverage in this new ecology. What results is a race to the bottom, where already poor countries compete with each other to provide even cheaper labour, often by offsetting the externalities to the environment and its people.

Second, the valuation of a good is determined by its capital inputs and the balance of its supply and demand, where the the actions of individuals are determined rationally.

Economies of Ether

But not all decisions made are rationally derived. Economic booms usually leads to bouts of exuberant spending. The recent building boom in Dubai is an example of the economy of excess mixed in with cultural attitudes, in this case, toward land as a store of capital. Further adding to this is the role of design and marketing in the creation of extra value through qualitative means, which explains the difference in price between an i-pod and a generic mp3 player. This skews the quantitative evaluation of the value of a product. The effects of this are twofold: The breakdown of the Invisible Hand results in the inequitable accumulation of wealth from the imperfect flow of information. Perhaps the exploitation of this ignorance and the excessive creation of excess value through it led to the divorce of currency from the gold standard. The system of Fiat Money, now used by most countries, defined as “money that is intrinsically useless; is used only as a medium of exchange” reveals the divorce of the price of a good and its actual value”, highlights this. The removal of a “value ceiling” for wealth provides the springboard

Not only are sites of production increasingly mobile, but so are the factors of production. The shift in production toward services and the increased efficiencies communication across borders further exacerbates this. The emergence of “global cities”, cities involved in this international flow of capital, highlights the networked logic of these cities. Extending Marc Auge’s idea of non-place, perhaps this is its opposite: a networked place, and that is why the various international business districts, from Singapore to London to Hong Kong, typologically resemble each other - they are in effect related because the flow of wealth is captured in a closed loop cycle with little overlap with the overall local economy and populous. This creation of alternative economic cycles that are no longer spatially demarcated has created intense juxtapositions of wealth within these countries. “High immigration has coincided with a widening income gap. Singapore’s Gini coefficient, a measure of inequality, rose from 0.444 in 2000 to 0.481 in 2008—higher than in China and America. The contrast between the glitzy downtown and the “heartlands” is glaring, and more damaging in tiny, dense

Singapore than it would be in a big country, says Paulin Straughan of the National University of Singapore.” This non-spatial logic of capital short circuits or dampens the trickle down effect of capital which, by the logic of Adam Smith, would regulate itself -”the any starting point, the proving mechanism of the market first equalizes the returns to labour and capital in all different uses.” [The Worldly Philosophers, page 61] The assumption is on the flow of capital being bound within its geographical boundaries, which would allow itself to eventually circulate to the general populous. The rise of the Global Market detaches the flow of capital from this closed-loop cycle and captures it an alternative market cycle (e.g. the stock market, private equity, bonds and investments, forex, real estate) which is exclusionary to a larger segment of the populous because participation within it requires a minimum skill-set which the general population may not be equipped with due to unequal access to educational opportunities. The result is a spatial collage of different wealth cycles: broadly put, the local and the global economic cycles. State versus the Multinational Corporation - Who is David and Goliath? What these factors lead to is it structurally locks countries into a parent-child relationship with the transnational corporation, an inversion of the post-World War 2 hierarchy. Saskia Sassen positions these structural changes within categorical framework of authority, territory and rights as pertains to the state, the global economy and citizenship, respectively. “... through their destabilizing effects, globalization and electronic networks are producing operational and rhetorical openings for the emergence of new types of political subjects and new spatialities for politics.” This detaches the idea of the political from the state - described by her as “not only a deterritorializing of citizenship practices and identities... but also their partial denationalizing.” Extending the politicization of market practices, Slavoj Zizek poses the issue: “it is not should the state intervene, but what kind of state intervention is necessary.” Perhaps the real question should be, where can the state intervene in a global environment? Ironically, this position aligns itself to a purer form of capitalism different from the pro-national agendas afforded by the BrettonWoods agreement during the 1970s. The recent economic meltdown resonates with the lack of Government intervention or power in this international economic landscape. That this occurred within an entirely fictional landscape of artificial value extends the absurdity of the situation. So what is the role of the Government? One view restates their importance in an increasingly globalized context - policy divergence during the 1980s and 1990s between countries has lead to remarkably marked differences in outcomes in the nation’s role in today global landscape. For example, the differences in regulatory reforms in Britain and Japan has shown that instead of abandoning control of the private sector behavior, both countries reorganized it.(David Vogel, 1995)

Supporting this view in a more contemporary study is Daron Acemoglu- an MIT economist and winner of the 2005 Clark Medal- “... the reasons some nations succeed while others founder comes down to the soundness and transparency of their government institutions- the ability of a nation’s citizens to own property, freely elect representation and live without fear or crime or graft.” However, through the lens of Sasika Sassen, is this state even a relevant player in such considerations, and to what extend can they affect such outcomes in the globalized landscape? Perhaps the extreme of this is a reality akin to Neal Stephenson’s 1992 cyperpunk novel Snow Crash - corporate franchise city states , a fully-instantiated laissez-faire society, and a virtual meta-society patronized by financial, social, and intellectual elites: “When it gets down to it — talking trade balances here — once we’ve brain-drained all our technology into other countries, once things have evened out, they’re making cars in Bolivia and microwave ovens in Tadzhikistan and selling them here — once our edge in natural resources has been made irrelevant by giant Hong Kong ships and dirigibles that can ship North Dakota all the way to New Zealand for a nickel — once the Invisible Hand has taken away all those historical inequities and smeared them out into a broad global layer of what a Pakistani brickmaker would consider to be prosperity — y’know what? There’s only four things we do better than anyone else: music, movies, microcode (software), high-speed pizza delivery” All that is solid melts into air, all that is sacred is profaned. References: The Worldy Philosophers by Robert L. Heilbroner Territory, Authority, Rights: From Medieval to Global Assemblages by Sasika Sassen First as Tragedy, Then as Farce by Slavoj Zizek Capitalism: A Very Short Introduction by James Fulcher The Economist


Comparative Urban Geographies

TKY

SEOUL

LNDN

NY

SGP

BRLN

outline

green

//SCI_ARC Year 4A //Studio Emily White //Fall 2008

In attempt to understand the urban composition of Seoul, six world cities - two from Europe, one from America and three from Asia - are compared. blue

London, a historically layered city Berlin, a city divided but now re-united New York, the metropolis du jour of the 20th century Singapore, a relatively young city planned to the last tree Tokyo, the asian megacity. grey

Infra-red landsat images requested from NASA were used for this comparative study to create base images seperated by their features Green, Blue and Grey - to show the scalar relationships between each layer and the differenences across each category. What If...

the other cities had the density of Seoul?

What Is...

-66.03%

-60.41%

TKY

SGP

the different natures of nature?*

SEOUL

-38.38%

NY

blue green

green

blue

grey

SGP

TKY

NY

LNDN

unmanicured, wild manicured, “park�

NY

blue

grey

BRLN

Top: Baseline Green (nature), Blue (water) and Grey (urban) diagram

TKY

*scalar comparisons

LNDN BRLN

green

grey

BRLN

BRLN

LNDN

SGP

green

grey

LNDN

-77.64%

-72.34%

SEOUL blue blue green

NY

What Are...

the different scales of water bodies?*

grey

SEOUL

SGP

blue green

grey

TKY

381m

Empire State Building

818m

Burj Dubai

MIddle Left: Density Comparisons Middle Right: Comparison of Green Natural Features Bottom Row: Comparison of Blue natural Features


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