LANA NEWS! Llama Association of North America! Winter Edition 2017/2018
LANA BOD elections LANA’s Hobo Classic Herbs for Llamas & Humans Low Impact Trekking Kids & Camelids Show LANA Youth Contest Fiesta Days Parade LANA “Llamping” Trip What Exactly is a Ccara Llama The Healthy Cria Fleece and Fiber Sponsors LANA T-Shirts LANA Board of Directors LANA Business Office LANA Membership Form
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! ! ! UPCOMING LANA EVENTS ! LANA Hobo Classic Show February 3-4, 2018, Turlock, CA !Kids & Camelids Show April 14, 2018, Turlock, CA !Fiesta Day Parade May 26, 2018, Vacaville, CA !LANA Hike
LANA BOD Election A quorum was not met in the recent election. A live election will take place during the annual membership meeting at the LANA Hobo Classic show. There are three people running for three positions. DeeAnn Forester Jana Kane Kathy Nichols The LANA BOD would like to thank Mary Adams for receiving and tabulating the votes.
June 8-10, 2018 1
Please join us the first weekend in February for LANAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 11th Hobo Classic. The show will be held at the Stanislaus County Fairground in Turlock, CA. LANA annual membership meeting including elections LANA annual awards Silent Auction Dessert Auction RV and tent camping available Please consider being a show sponsor Sponsorship benefits include: LANA membership Priority stalling Newsletter and website advertisement
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LANAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 11th Hobo Classic
February 3 & 4, 2018 Stanislaus County Fairground Turlock, California
Judges Deb Yeagle, Ohio Tracy Weaver, Florida
Single Show Performance Double Show Halter
new this year Shorn Fleece Finished Products
more information, show packet, entry and sponsorship forms are available on the LANA website and on page
2016 Ribbons and Awards
Mary trying to post bail
Sheriff Mogler keeping an eye on the jailed delinquent youth
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Dirtiest Llama Contest Lee Beringsmith with 2017 winner WOL Deja
2017 Grand and Reserve Awards
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Herbs for Llamas and Humans At the Ranch or on the Trail - Part One
Tina Hodge Eagle Peak Herbals - Red Thistle Ranch
Plants sustain life. Both humans and animals eat, drink and utilize for medicine many plants every day. We also wear them as clothes, use them for body care, exclaim at their beauty, pull them as weeds, tie knots in them, use them ceremonially, scrub our dishes and build house with them. Becoming familiar with some of the plants around your ranch and along the trail will not only make things safer for you and your llamas but will also be both interesting and enriching. Please treat unknown plants with both respect and wonder and teach your children to do the same.
At the end of this writing is a Book List. I encourage those of you who don’t already, to have at least a couple of good plant identification books on hand. A lightweight plant book can be included in the llama’s packs for wild plants on the trail.
Ornamental plants around homes and ranches are most often planted for human pleasure and not with animals’ health in mind. This category of plants is huge in number and contains more toxic or poisonous plants than one would normally encounter hiking the high country with the llamas. Find out what is growing in your yard. Gardeners, books and little old ladies are excellent sources of information. Before your llamas go through some gate that has been left open and start grazing your lively bushes and flowers, find out what has been planted. If you are just now building a place or planning a yard overhaul consideration can be given to plants that are poisonous and those that are edible or non-toxic.
It has been my experience that the animals most at risk of poisoning themselves are those with a mineral imbalance or those that have been in a dry lot situation or starving. They will seek out certain plants to balance themselves and perhaps eat something they normally wouldn’t be interested in. There are also the human caused problems of exposure to toxic chemicals used around homes and ranches as herbicides, pesticides, fertilizers, and medications. All of us have a great responsibility to not only protect our animals from these sources of pollution but to protect ourselves, the land, and the waters. There are many fine land management practices than can enhance the health of the soil and all living beings while not endangering future generations. Chief Seattle once said that all decisions made should consider the next seven generations …..
The liver is our body’s main filter. processor of waste products, bile producer, etc. The liver often gets damaged in the case of poisonings. We often get calls from llama and alpaca owners that have lost or are in danger of loosing animals to liver problems.
Sometimes the cause is not apparent but is often linked to human caused chemical exposure. Toxins can also enter the liver via viral, bacterial or fungal infections. Diet (i.e. moldy hay or grain), toxic plants or mushrooms, and toxins in the air or water are also implicated. We, as good caretakers of our animals and children, can do what we can to minimize toxin exposure. We can have things on hand to treat suspected poisonings. Gastric distress or irritation are the first signs of an acute problem. I keep activated charcoal and Slippery Elm/Ginger powder on hand at home or on the trail for acute treatments. They work be absorption and adsorption to bind many toxins. The Slippery Elm is very mucilagenic (slippery) and coats the digestive tract which both soothes and protects the inner tissues. It also works wonders on both diarrhea and constipation. In humans it is used instead of products like Tums or Tagamet in chronic digestive problems or even ulcers. A compromised liver can manifest in several ways: as an unexplained weight loss, lack of appetite, skin problems, hormonal imbalances, etc. If no other explanations for these danger signals are found (such as parasites or tooth problems), and/or with an elevated enzyme count found by your veterinarian, I feel it is important to utilize herbs such as Milk Thistle, Turmeric or Burdock to cleanse, repair and protect the liver. This is of course assuming the damage has not gone beyond a certain point â&#x20AC;Ś Whenever we have had to use strong pharmaceutical chemicals with our animals such as anesthetic, we follow with Milk Thistle as a preventative measure.
! ! ON THE RANCH: !
EDIBLE OR NON-TOXIC FLOWERS, HERBS, SHRUBS AND TREES: Can safely be planted in the yard (by no means a complete list) Rosemary Garden Sage or Salvia Lavender Chamomile Roses Ornamental Grasses Calendula or Pot Marigold Valerian Oregon Grape Hyssop Echinacea or Purple Coneflower Hollyhock Marshmallow Hibiscus
Evening Primrose Yarrow Bee Balm or Oswego Tea Currants Gooseberries Mints Sunflowers All Vegetables for humans Apple Trees Pear Trees Willow Trees Aspen Trees Cottonwood/Poplar Trees Cedar Juniper 6
BENEFICIAL PLANTS TO HAVE IN THE PASTURES:
Several varieties of grasses Several varieties of clovers
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A scattering of: Dandelion Yarrow Plantain Sunflower Willow Aspen
In pastures it is desirable to have a diversity of plants not a mono crop situation. This encourages healthy mineral and vitamin balance, self-medication, balance of predator/ prey insects and overall soil fertility. The mono-crop pasture, or one type of grass only, is not likely to provide a wide enough range of nutrition for strong, healthy animals. This type of pasture looks very neat and tidy but usually requires intensive care, large amounts of water and chemicals to maintain it. Neither does it increase habitat for beneficial insects, birds, or amphibians that can help us keep balance. Depending on the soil type, it can be detrimental to the proper bone growth in crias.
TOXIC OR POTENTIALLY DEADLY PLANTS: Do not plant where animals or small children ever have access! Never stake out llamas where theses plants are present! (consult poisonous plant books for a more complete list) Aconite or Monkshood Foxglove or Digitalis Oleander Yew Tree Death Camas Black Henbane Senecio or Groundsel Rhododendron Azalea Castor Bean Larkspur Delphinium Lily of the Valley Hyacinth Narcissus Daffodil Rosary Pea Tina Hodge
Eagle Peak Herbals
Bleeding Heart Rhubarb Milkweed family Wisteria Laurel family Lantana Jimson Weed or Datura Wild and cultivated Cherry Trees Wild and cultivated Plum Trees Lupine Nicotiana Nightshade family Black Locust May Apple Bloodroot Water Hemlock Poison Hemlock Eagleville, CA
Low-Impact Trekking with Llamas
Pack out what you pack in … and more!
If fires are allowed, keep them small and contained. Extinguish them thoroughly, and use preexisting fire-rings only. Burn only dead, downed wood.
Dispose of human waste in accordance with regulations. Deposit in 6-inch hold and bury. Carry out paper.
Wash dishes, clothing, and people by using a container, and dispose of soapy water at least 200 feet from any water source.
Do not camp, or allow your llamas to graze, within 200 feet of lakes or springs.
Higher, fragile, alpine environments cannot tolerate prolonged visits. Camp at lower elevations and day hike up.
Move llama picket lines regularly to prevent overgrazing.
When leaving camp, scatter llama pellets so future visitors will find pristine camps.
Feed llama trail mix in non-spill containers, as grains are non-native plants in most alpine meadows, and may out-compete native grasses if introduced.
Blend with the environment when setting up camp. Naturally-colored tents and gear are less obtrusive to other campers.
Avoid obnoxious noises while in the wilderness as this quickly disturbs both native and non-native wildlife.
Be extra-alert at stream crossings … no llama potty stops in the stream!
Store your rood, toothpaste, lotions, etc. so as not to encourage bear-human interactions. Bears that learn to associate food with campers are in danger of being destroyed if they persist.
If you hike with dogs, be courteous to other wilderness travelers, and especially to wilderness dwellers. A dog that chases wildlife of any kind should be leashed at all times. Control barking.
Remember the famous saying, “Take only photographs, leave only footsteps.”
LANA Youth Article & Art Contest
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LANA invites youth member of all ages to submit an article on any camelid-related topic of interest to the youth. Articles should be 1000 words or less with four pictures or less.
Articles should be written in Times New Roman 12 point font and double-spaced, with the authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s name on each page in the header.
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Young members (11 years and younger) are also invited to submit a piece of original artwork. Pictures or scanned artwork should be submitted as .tiff or .jpeg files with a resolution of at least 300 dpi. The content should be the original work of the youth author.
Articles and scanned artwork should be submitted electronically to Sue Rich at firstname.lastname@example.org
One winner from each of the four age categories (sub-junior, junior, intermediate, and senior) will be selected twice a year.
Submission due: May 1, 2018 November 1, 2018
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Winners will receive a $25 cash prize and articles will be published in the LANA Newsletter and on the website.
www.lanainfo.org w LANAquestions@gmail.com 3966 Estate Drive, Vacaville, 95688 w (707) 447-5046
WHAT EXACTLY IS A CCARA LLAMA ? Keith Payne
When I commenced my research into the history of llamas a number of years ago, I was at first surprised that the word for llama in both Quechua and Aymara is “KARA”. As the indigenous people did not have a written language, this was expressed in english by the Europeans of the day as ccara, cara, kara or q’ara from Quechua and frequently as qawra from Aymara. But no matter how we spell it in english, the point is that it is the word for a llama. So if we were to ask them what is a ccara, they would respond simply that it is a llama.
And latterly when camelid scientists determined the llama to be a domesticated guanaco bred for traits suitable for that purpose, it became clear that there was only one type of llama at the beginning - the cara. 17
Subsequently we have learned that a single coat llama was bred over hundreds of years from the cara, they called it the chaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;cu, which is known to us today as the woolly.
And at some other point in time, as far as I am aware the exact or even approximate timing of this is unclear, a gene mutation resulted in a suri fleece in the llama.
So, at the start some 6-8,000 years ago there was the original llama the ccara, and from it was developed the woolly and at some point along the way was added the suri.
Now the original ccara llama was identical at the outset, to the guanaco. It had a distinct double coat, the coarse outer guard hair representing 10-15% of total hairs and an inner down of very fine fleece. It is further described as having bare legs to above both its knees and hocks, a bare face, bare ears and finally bare between its ears. It had short hair growth on its neck and the balance of the body was consistently covered with the guard hair/inner down combination. The ccara llama was proven to be able to survive in wet areas or total desert and at altitudes up to 4,000 meters and above, this fleece type being able to support the animal in all those conditions. 18
The ccara llama sheds its fleece. It is constantly in the process of this, accelerating in the hotter months and slowing in winter but it never ceases. The entire fleece will replace itself after shedding every two years.
The ccara llama today may have colouration similar to that of the guanaco, either the lighter brown northern type or the more reddish brown southern guanaco. Or it may evidence any of the other llama colour patterns that we see walking in our paddocks. Spots on a llama are from the guanaco, initially they are evident as smaller splodges commonly from back mating llama to guanaco and subsequently manifesting in what are commonly called appaloosa spots (although quite different from the spots on appaloosa horses). So there is no specific colour or pattern which is unique or special to the ccara llama however the guanaco or original breed colouration may and will present itself on regular intervals.
It is interesting that although there were three common fleece types, the physical integrity of the llama was the same, only the fleece differed.
Today we have in evidence a number of intermediate fleece types resulting from interbreeding between the three fleece types. This is one of the major results from the chaos in years subsequent to the Spanish conquest of the Inka, the other significant introduced factor is cross breeding between llama and alpaca. These two developments (hybridisation and mingling of fleece types) make it difficult at times to determine exactly what type our llamas are today. Certainly if you have a llama which has a double coat and sheds fully, you have a fair chance of having a ccara, but youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll find that many llamas in fact only partially shed often leading to an incorrect definition. 20
One thing to look for is in regard to breed purity. Unfortunately the only way to conclusively determine if your llama is a purebred is to have DNA analysis undertaken. This is a very expensive and lengthy exercise at present, only a handful of scientists are capable of doing this. Until such time as this becomes more accessible to the average llama farmer, fleece coverage is the next best indicator, although it is not conclusive. The bare legs, face, ears etc mentioned above are what to look for.
The other feature you may consider is fleece fineness. Contrary to a prevailing sentiment that llamas have coarse fleece, consider that the original llama, the guanaco, had very fine fleece, surpassed only by that of the vicuna which is recognised as having the finest fleece of any animal. Our llamas today which commonly have fleece testing in the 25-35 micron range do so as a result of cross breeding between the fleece types and hybridisation. Such llamas will reflect a deteriorating micron count from the age of two throughout their lives, whereas the original ccara llama will have fine fleece, normally less than 20 micron and that fineness will continue into their late teens.
The ccara type of llama is certainly one which is ideal for smaller llama farmers. The ccara are low maintenance llamas requiring only a monthly brush to remove shedding fleece and never need to be sheared. As they are closer to the original breed they tend to have low maintenance toe nails in addition to a strong immune system as long as they receive a balanced diet.. Their fleece will be fine however the trade off will be quantity, with the ccara you will have quality but not quantity. They have a repute of being difficult to handle in some quarters however my experience is they do respond to proper handling when young and maintain that through their lives. They are a pleasure to work with.
One procedure that devoted original breed enthusiasts have adopted is to only breed their females to males which have finer fleece such that progeny gradually work toward that original fine fleeced llama. Breeding to a male with coarser fleece is viewed as a backwards step in this initiative. Personally I support this practice, it makes sense to me. Progeny not only have finer fleece than the dam but often have improved conformation and structural integrity. Something to consider.
AUTHORâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S NOTE: the ccara llama will not be for everyone, many will simply prefer the look of longer fleeced animals. We do however all need to be aware of the extent of hybridisation in our national herds and the importance of maintaining the integrity of the llama breed.
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Article originally written for a New Zealand newsletter. Reprinted with permission from the author.
THE HEALTHY CRIA Dr. Christopher Cebra
Newborn camelids, or crias, face the same challenges as other newborn hoofstock, namely having to learn to breathe, stand, and eat within a short period of time. Additionally, their native environment, surrounded by predators and cold, shelterless terrain has led to certain unique adaptations.
! ! LATE PREGNANCY !
Pregnancy length is longer and more variable in length than most other domestic hoofstock. Most crias are born 335 to 355 days after breeding, with an average of 342 days. Suri alpacas are reported to carry a few days longer than the average. Healthy crias can be born over a wider range: 325 to 370 days or more. Individual dams are reported to have relatively consistent pregnancy lengths, but this is not always true. During late pregnancy, the fetus achieves about 80% of its growth. This increases the damâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s requirements for energy, protein, and calcium. The increased requirements can usually be met with high-quality forage and a mineral mix, though dams with poor or declining body condition may benefit from a grain supplement. â&#x20AC;¨
BIRTH The cold harsh environment of the Altiplano has given rise to a few features of the birth event. Parturition is usually quick, without many early signs. Most crias are born in the late morning, and almost all are delivered during daylight hours, presumably to allow the cria to become active before the onset of the cold night. Prolonged deliveries or deliveries between 4 pm and 8 am are usually abnormal, and should serve as warnings of future difficulties.
Most camelids deliver standing up. The cria is born covered with a thin epidermal membrane, which may serve to keep their fleece dry and prevent hypothermia. This membrane usually breaks easily, but may cover the nostrils of a weak cria. The dam does not help in disrupting the epidermal membrane: she does not lick her offspring, and at most may nudge it slightly along the back. If the membrane does not rupture spontaneously, the first person on the spot must remove it from the airway.
The placenta should detach during birth, but does not always do so. Additionally, umbilical bleeding appears to be a greater problem in camelids than other domestic livestock. Hemostatic clamps or suture may be applied. Omphalocoeles and hernias are also common.
If the cria is breathing easily and nasally, this is a good time to check for signs of prematurity and dysmaturity. These include history of a gestation < 325 days, small size, lax legs, floppy ears, a soft or absent haircoat, unerupted incisors, and general obtundation. Newborn llamas in North America should weigh more than 9 kg at birth and newborn alpacas should weigh more than 5.5 kg. Normal birth weights are 20-40% greater than that.
The cria may require some protection from the elements. Though they should be adapted to cold, coats and shelters may increase survival. Also, wet conditions may decrease their thermal resistance. Other interventions at this time may include dipping the umbilicus, a selenium shot, and possibly a vitamin D shot or enema. 23
The cria should make its first effort to stand within 15 minutes and succeed within 30 minutes. Gentle assistance may be provided if the cria appears capable but slow. The cria should nurse within 1 hour, and if the crias has not nursed within 4 hours, we usually try to provide colostrum by tube. Subsequently, crias follow their dams closely, and nurse around twice an hour during the day. Longer intervals (up to 4 hours?) occur during the night. They should pass meconium within 4 hours, which may be sped up with an enema.
SUBSEQUENT DAYS Beside monitoring general behavior and well-being, the second day is a good time to check colostral transfer. This should peak between 24 and 48 hours. Acceptable results depend on the assay run and farm conditions. Radioimmunodiffusion and turbidity assays for camelids are commercially available as kits. Radioimmunoassay or protein electrophoresis can also be done at a specialty laboratory. Some insurance companies demand minimum serum IgG concentrations before they will underwrite a policy. Crias suspected of having failure of passive transfer are believed to be more susceptible to infectious disease. If failure is suspected or detected early, camelid or ruminant colostrum may be administered. Ruminant colostrum should be from Johneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s free herds or flocks, if possible. Bovine colostrum has also been associated with immune-mediated hemolysis in rare cases. If colostrum is not available or if failure of passive transfer is detected after the gut is likely to have closed, immunoglobulin may be given in the form of camelid plasma. No adverse effects of giving llama plasma to alpacas have been described, and llamas often make better donors because of their size. Overall, cross-matching is often not necessary and reports of transfusion complications are rare. Plasma may be administered by intraperitoneal or intravenous injection. One unit is often sufficient for an alpaca, whereas a large llama cria with complete failure of passive transfer may require 2 units to reach the higher range. Weight should also be monitored throughout the criaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life. Although crias may lose weight on the first day, they should subsequently gain 125 to 250g/d for alpacas and 250 to 500g/d for llamas. This rate slows after about 6 months, with camelids reaching about 50% of mature body weight at about 9 months of age, 75% before 18 months, and 100% at around 3 years.
If body weight goals are not being met, the cria should be investigated for disease or insufficient milk ingestion. Insufficient ingestion may indicate the need for supplemental feed. Whole goat or cowâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s milk may be used, as may milk replacers for those species. Camelid milk is reported to be relatively low in fat and protein, but high in carbohydrate, but it is usually better to mix replacers following label directions rather than try to second guess what more closely approximates normal. Mixing milk replacer incorrectly may adversely affect palatability and digestion. If we have any question whether a cria is drinking enough, we usually tube it with the maintenance requirement split into three feedings a day, and allow it to seek its own sources of nutrition in between. We offer supplemental feed by pan to avoid the dangers of imprinting or aspiration that are more common in bottle-fed crias. Maintenance requirements are estimated at 10% of body weight a day. Crias may be fed up to about 25% of body weight a day. Feeding more than that may result in acidosis. In Peru, crias start to eat solid feed about 8 days postpartum. Although early (<6 months) castration was recommended for many years to avoid Berserk Male Llamas, or pathologic imprinting of llamas on people, experiences have demonstrated this leads to long, straight legs and subsequent orthopedic disorders. Most males are castrated after 18 months (alpacas) or 24 months (llamas). This allows for development of some of the secondary sexual characteristics including thick cervical skin and fully erupted fighting teeth.
! ! ! ! ! article reprinted from a LANA Expo handbook
Pictures provided by Eileen Ditsler, Caroline Gardner, Lisa Labendeira, and Suzann Penry
FLEECE AND FIBER Maureen Macedo
So, you enjoy spending time with your llama (or alpaca), you’ve entered shows – Halter, Obstacle, Public Relations or Pack. Maybe you’ve tried walking fleece. You take your animals out and enjoy going to parades and hiking with your camelids. But, wait, there’s more!
What better way to show the diversity of camelids than to enter shorn fleece, fiber or finished product classes! You do not even have to have your animal present at a show.
The ALSA Handbook, section O has all of the details that you need for fleece entry requirements. For shorn fleece, there is a difference between preparation before shearing for llamas and for alpacas. Llama information is listed on pages O1-O3, alpaca listed on pages O7 to O10. It is important to note the fiber length minimums and maximums, which are based on age divisions.
Skirting is a must! Skirting is the process by which you remove dirt and vegetative matter. You may not remove guard hair or let the fiber be washed after shearing. No cream rinse or other fiber chemicals may be added either before or after shearing. It is okay to remove second cuts or fiber that is very different in appearance than the prime area of the fleece. Belly fiber or locks with a lot of guard hair are usually removed so that the fleece has a pleasing, overall impression of uniformity.
It is important to note that llama fleeces are not judged on their weight, but alpaca fleeces are awarded 20 of the 100 points based on annualized weight.
Please make sure that your fleece is in a large enough bag that it does not felt inside of the bag! Presentation IS a big deal! Cleanliness and preparation are 10 of the 100 points. Bigger is better when it comes to bags. (You can “squeeze” or vacuum the air out of the bag when traveling or shipping fleeces, but make sure that you have time to let the fleece breathe again before the show starts.)
Now on to another type of entries - Finished Product! Located on pages O4 to O6 of the Handbook, you have five different classes. Knitted and crocheted, woven, felted, handspun yarn and the ever popular “other.”
When you enter these classes, you have an opportunity to tell a little story about the fiber or yarns that you used, what the finished use is or who the recipient might be. Let the creative juices flow, make your entry stand out along with your finished product.
Your tracking number or finished products is the same as your showmanship number for adults, for youth it is their Youth ALSA number.
These classes are really popular with the public - they enjoy seeing all of the things you can do with fiber. Also, excellent way to market you fleece or finished products, someone may not be able to own a llama or alpaca, but they can certainly enjoy a hat, scarf or knit/crochet something of their own. 28
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LANA BUSINESS OFFICE Joy Pedroni 3966 Estate Drive Vacaville CA 95688 707.447.5046 LANAquestions@gmail.com Please contact the LANA Business Office for Member Services, Advertisements, Event Calendar updates, and any llama- , alpaca-, or LANA-related questions you may have. Visit LANA at: www.lanainfo.org
LANA News DISCLAIMER LANA News is published for educational purposes only. The information published herein is solely the opinion of the authors and does not necessarily represent the view of LANA, its Directors or Officers. LANA’s acceptance of advertising does not imply endorsement of any products or services whatsoever. Articles, letters, editorials and other contributions are welcome and may be edited for brevity. Inclusion and placement is solely at the discretion of the Editor. Before undertaking any herd work with your llamas, you are advised to always consult with your veterinarian.
THANK YOU Thank you to the following for their contribution to this newsletter: Oscar Garcia Castro, Dr. Christopher Cebra, Eileen Ditsler, Caroline Gardner, Nancy Hester, Tina Hodge, Lisa Labendeira, Maureen Macedo, Keith Payne, Stephanie Pedroni, Suzann Penry, and Sue Rich.
! Message from the Editor: Would you like to contribute an article to this newsletter? Is there is a topic you would like to see an article about? Please contact me. Any suggestions or comments are appreciated. Please consider being a division sponsor for the Hobo Classic Show. As a thank you, you will receive free advertising in the newsletter.