LANA 2021 Fall Newsletter

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LANA NEWS Llama Association of North America Fall Edition 2021

LANA’s Felting Clinic


Contents

PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE

LANA’s Felting Clinic

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President’s Message

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LANA Board of Directors

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LANA Business Office

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Editor’s Note

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Calendar of Events

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LANA BOD Elections

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LANA’s Mission Statement

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Board of Directors’ Elections

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What’s Happened to Good Old Common Sense

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LANA Butte Hike

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Acupuncture in Veterinary Medicine

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Industrial Practicality Unpacked to Felt Baskets and Bags

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Hearing Our Herd

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2022 Hobo Show

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Minimum Standards of Care

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Sponsors

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Dear LANA members, Life is full twists and turns. Some8mes these life experiences are good, joyous, even wondrous. Other 8mes, we are tried more than we think we can endure. Global pandemic, wildfire devasta8on, financial insecurity, and loss of cherished loved ones. Because of my husband’s parents increasing health problems, my husband and I had to sell our Oregon home of the past 20 years and move to Minnesota. The transi8on has been difficult for our family but our llamas and alpaca will probably never fully acclimate to their new home and they are surely not liking the monthly ivermec8n injec8ons they receive to prevent meningeal worm infec8ons. Over the past nine years that I have served on the LANA board, my most memorable accomplishments have been both tangible and intangible. From the memorial bench to Dr. Murray Fowler at the Sacramento Zoo to establishing a permanent archive for LANA at Oregon State University to represen8ng LANA on the llama medical research group (LMRG) and working to prevent llama bans in na8onal and state parks—I feel like I am leaving the board in a good posi8on for the future. It has been my pleasure and honor to serve the llama community but now is 8me for me to pass along the proverbial torch. Stay safe, get your Covid vaccina8on, wear a mask and God Bless. Michelle Kutzler, MBA, DVM, PhD, DACT LANA President

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LANA BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Dr. Michelle Kutzler President michelle.kutzler@oregonstate.edu Kathy Nichols Vice President, Newsletter Editor KathySVA@aol.com Sue Rich Secretary susan.rich9631@gmail.com Joy Pedroni Treasurer, Office, Webmaster joy@blackcatllamas.com Margaret Drew Director llamaspn@castles.com Lee Beringsmith Director lbering@outlook.com Stephanie Pedroni Director StephaniePedroni@gmail.com Cathy Spalding Advisory Chair cathy@gentlespiritllamas.com

LANA BUSINESS OFFICE Joy Pedroni 1246 Meadowlark Drive Vacaville, CA. 95687 1-707-234-5510 lanaquestions@gmail.com Please contact the LANA Business Office for Member Services, Advertisements, Event Calendar updates, and any llama-, alpaca-, or LANA-related questions you may have. Visit LANA at: www.lanainfo.org

LANA News DISCLAIMER LANA News is published for educational purposes only. The information published heron is solely the opinion of the authors and does not necessarily represent the view of LANA, its Directors or Officers. LANA articles can not be reprinted without permission from LANA or the author. LANA’s acceptance of advertising does not imply endorsement of any products or services whatsoever. Articles, letters, editorials and other contributions are welcome and may be edited for brevity. Inclusion and placement is solely a the discretion of the Editor. Before undertaking any herd work with your animals, you are advised to always consult with your veterinarian.

THANK YOU for CONTRIBUTING Thank you to the following for their contribution to this newsletter: Lee Beringsmith, Ralph Drew, Dr. Rena Ferreira, Joy Pedroni, Sue Rich, Judy A. Smith, and Cathy Spalding

Editors Note: As many of you know our beloved Dolly Peters passed away. A long-time LANA BOD and member, she will be dearly missed. Our hearts go out to her son Kelly. The Board has asked Margaret Drew to serve the remainder of Dolly’s term and she has agreed. Welcome Margaret! Another dear llama friend has left us. Judy Johnson was also long-time LANA member and was the 2012 LANA Lifetime Achievement Award recipient. At shows you would often find Judy scorekeeping as well as helping with Youth Judging. Our deepest condolences to her husband, Steve. LANA is in the planning stages for its Hobo Classic Show January 29-30 . The no-groom show is always a fun event. LANA will be the host organization for the 2022 California State Fair Llamas & Alpaca Show. Look forward to more information about these two shows.

Kathy 3


CALENDAR OF EVENTS

LANA Board of Directors Candidate Statements Due: November 30, 2021 *LANA Hobo Classic January 29-30, 2022 Merced County Fairground 900 Martin Luther King Jr Way Merced, CA 95341 contact: KathySVA@aol.com or lanaquestions@gmail.com Riverside County Fair & Nat’l Date Festival February, 2022 Riverside County Fairground Indio, CA wwwdatefest.org

LANA Butte Hike April 2, 2022 (tentative) California State Fair Llama & Alpaca Show July 2022 dates TBA Cal Expo. 1600 Exposition Blvd., Sacramento, CA. 95815 contact: KathySVA@aol.com calexpostatefair.com LANA sponsored events in BOLD type * denotes LANA member discount

If you have an event you would like added to the Calendar of Events, please contact: lanaquestions@gmail.com or KathySVA@aol.com

Mission Statement: Established in 1981, the Llama Association of North America (LANA), serves the camelid community be sponsoring medical research specific to llamas and alpacas; providing current and accurate information about camelid health and care; advocating for pro-camelid legislation and access to public lands; encouraging, educating and mentoring camelid enthusiasts of all ages in their interactions with camelids; supporting rescue for camelids in distress; and hosting a variety of activities including youth programs, hiking trips, shows, parades, fiber clinics, educational events and more. 4


LANA

Board of Directors Elections Do you have ideas to share? Do you want to give back to the lama community? Here’s your opportunity There are three board of director positions open in 2022

If you're interested in running for the LANA BOD, email your candidate’s statement to the LANA office by November 30th.

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What’s Happened to Good Old Common Sense? by Judy A. Smith Lladner Llamas, Ladner BC Canada Lately it has occurred to me that a lot of people seem to think in a most peculiar way. Some folks who are professing to know how to select, place and use llamas as guardians don’t appear to be applying any common sense to the issue. Statements like… “introduce the llamas around 6 to 8 months and they will bond to the flock”… Um, it just doesn’t make sense to put an obviously immature animal out to BOND so it will guard anything. Who will be guarding the young llama while it grows up? When the llama isn’t physically or mentally mature the traits necessary in a successful guardian have not developed and the animal may be just as vulnerable as the species it is with. If the animal is put out with the target flock and it is an immature male, castration after the development of the “Breeding behavior” many not stop the habit. It can be a habit

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and used to established a hierarchy. This kind of thing is still all to commonly seen as the number one complaint from farms who are not happy with their guardian llama. The sale of a young intact male as a Guardian is just not a responsible thing to do. Too many times the llama is just doing what comes natural at the natural time in its life as an intact male. The term “young” means a llama under the age of 18 months, who is a sexual being of the llama world. Castration at or around this age, is the recommended practice to put these males now geldings, in the running for successful candidates in the Guardian try-outs. The other time heard is … “He was breeding my sheep and it was killing them.” Upon further investigation it is discovered that the llama, an intact male, was used part time as a breeding animal. Well, he has found it acceptable to breed female llamas, what is the problem with breeding those fuzz balls he is living with? Common sense says that breeding is breeding and guarding is guarding. Don’t attempt to confuse their duties. It doesn’t usually work. But in this life, nothing is carved in marble and there are some exceptions. It just makes more sense not to recommend the use if a guardian as a part time breeder too.

Others have the idea that the llama can do everything on his/her own. The perfect solution to predation. Once again, common sense should tell them that the llama can offer a deterrent but the best combination is the llama and YOU. You provide the means for the guardian to do his/her job and they will. Paying attention to that clump of animal gathered in the corner or shelter while the llama stands out in the pasture intently staring at something is an alert for you. If you can’t be there then the llama will confront the intruder(s) on his /her own. Hopefully it will only be a single predator and not a pack. It is said the guard llama doesn’t need any special care. Well, if offering the llama a balanced mineral made specifically for llamas containing higher levels of copper and other ingredients than the target species has, I guess they do need some special care. Most all of the above is based on good old common sense. The problem is common sense isn’t so common any more. Reprinted from a previous LANA newsletter pictures from the Ohio State University and the Fencepost.com

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Sutter Butte Hike by Lee Beringsmith

If you have ever driven near Yuba City, you will see off in the distance a small range of mountains known as the Sutter Buttes. It is sometimes called the world's smallest mountain range. It is the remnants of a 1.6 million year old volcano and has been extinct for 1.4 million years. The Sutter Buttes is mostly privately owned by farmers and ranchers and access to this area is very limited. We are lucky that one of the private owners, Charlie & Bo Roberts allowed a group

of llamas and their people to hike in early April. Charlie and Bo are super friendly and love 8


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having us visit. They are very knowledgeable of the area and you just might end up learning a thing or two about this unique area. The weather is mild in April and the wild flowers are in bloom, it’s a delightful time of year. Good shoes or boots are suggested as well as a hiking pole for some of the tougher spots. This year a small but dedicated group, (Covid kept the numbers down) set off on the hike. We had a number of people without llamas but those of us who brought our four-legged friends never pass up the chance to share time with these wonderful animals. The hike is not too tough but this early in the year most of us were a little out of shape and took it a little slow. The area is such a

delight; you can imagine this is what California looked like before the Gold Miners of 1849. If you look carefully you can see a number of historical items; from Indian grinding rocks to of 1849. If you look carefully you can see a number of historical items; from Indian grinding rocks to the encampment where John C. Fremont spent the winter of 1846. We made sure your llamas had their packs and carried lunch for hungry hikers. The llamas enjoyed the grass and oak tress for their meal. The views of the Sacramento Valley are memorable, be sure to bring your phone or camera. In previous years we were able to have the UC Davis Camelid Club join us on the hike. It was fun to have these vet students getting some first hand experience with llamas in the field and who knows … the student you help on the hike might some day be the vet that helps you and your critters. So tentatively mark the first weekend in April as the Butte Hike. We will finalize the date as we get a little closer. 11


Acupuncture in Veterinary Medicine by Rena S. Ferreira, D.V.M. About four thousand years ago, the Chinese with their amazing powers of observation, discovered that inserting a needle in specific points on the body brought about hearing, relief of pain, general feeling of well-being, balance and order to the body and mind. In the early 1970’s, a small group of veterinarians explored applications of Traditional Chinese Medicine for animal care. They found that our animal friends benefited greatly from this method of treatment. A certification program was started to educate veterinarians through the world. Today, approximately 200 veterinarians are being trained each year. Traditional Chinese Medicine is a discipline that involves both acupuncture and a combination of plant and animal products for medicinal purposes. There are principles that provide guidelines for reading the body’s health status. If you have ever been treated with acupuncture, you may recall being asked to stick out your tongue so your practitioner could evaluate its color, texture and condition. Different areas of the tongue correlate to the different meridians that course though out the body. He/she most likely placed three fingers on the area above each wrist to feel your pulse. Most veterinarians use the femoral artery on the inside of the hind legs to evaluate the pulse in small animals. In large animals this technique is a little tricky. Characteristics of the tongue and pulse offer information on where Qi is following through the body, where is it lacking or where it is excessive. Elaboration on Qi and meridians will be forthcoming. The theories forming the basis of Traditional Chinese Medicine are some what complicated for those who have never been exposed before. Once these theories are studied, they make so much sense. They are based on centuries of observation on how our bodies work and what influences change in them, for example—weather, time of day, season, our senses and our emotional makeup—to name a few. Though very interesting, there is so much to review that I will limit this discussion to how we utilize acupuncture in veterinary medicine and, instead, make available a list of reference books for your perusal at the end of these notes. Acupuncture has experienced a resurgence in recognition in recent medical history. Studies are being done,

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trying to understand the physiological mechanism for the success in hearing and relieving pain for many people and animals. Once theory is that Qi (pronounced chee) is an energy thought to follow neural pathways and, therefore, is pictured as an electrical stimulus which transmits information to all the cells and organs. The acupuncture points can be detected by measuring for changes in resistance at the points on skin’s surface. Truthfully, we are still unsure of how it all works. Those of us that have employed this method of ealing just know that it does work and are grateful to be able to administer the benefits of this gift to our patients. My own observations have left me with a sense that acupuncture utilizes many means for cell to cell communication and coordination throughout the body. Some of theses means can be measure—electrical, electromagnetic, humoral (transmitted through the body fluids), chemical—and some “things” just can not be measured with present technology. For centuries, Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners have identified pathways through which energy flows. This Qi energy is referred to as the life force. The pathways Qi travels along are referred to as meridians. There are different types of Qi that work together to protect the body from external and internal assault. The Wei Qi is weak then cold, infectious “bugs,” wind, heat, dampness, etc., can enter the body and make it ill. The other types of Qi involve nutrition, heredity, and cosmic properties. All are effected by acupuncture and Chinese medicinal therapies. Other properties observed by the Chinese are the Shen and the Jing. The Shen is related to the spirit or psyche. The Jing is the essence that makes up what an individual is at birth, with contributions from each parent—some from mom, some from dad. In every day terms, it may be best compared with genetics. We are born with a limited supply of Jing. Some of us have more, some of us less. Jing can be used up quickly or abused by not taking proper care of ourselves. Excess alcohol, drug, sex, and stress are considered abusive to the Jing and will deplete it prematurely. Tai Qi, yoga, meditation, proper nutrition, adequate sleep, will nurture the Jing. Once the Jing is used up, life as we know it ends. These considerations apply more to humans than to our llamas and alpacas, however, you may consider this during breeding season or when sharing your beer (excessively, that is). These properties, as well, are influenced by acupuncture and Chinese medicine. The yin and yang represent balance in all things. Dark can not exist without light. Cold can not exist without warmth. They are relative to each other, affect each other, and represent the idea of opposites in all creation. Properties of food are measured in degrees of yin and yang. These properties in food—plants, herbs and even animal parts—are used for medicinal values.

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The meridian system contains paired meridians, one being in and the other being yang. Generally speaking, if the meridian runs predominantly along the back side of the body, it is yang (Large Intestine, Small Intestine, Bladder, Triple Heater, Gallbladder, Governing Vessel). Each of these is paired, Lung with Large Intestine, Stomach with Spleen/ Pancreas, Heart with Small Intestine, Bladder with Kidney, Pericardium with Triple Heater, Gallbladder with Liver. Each of these has symmetrically placed meridians on each half of the body. The Governing Vessel runs down the midline of the back. Down midline of the under side or front of the body runs the Conception Vessel. Acupuncturists (as well as other disciplines) access these pathways to orchestrate Qi back into balance. The success is determined by the ability of the individual’s body to heal.

The Chinese believe that a healthy being is one that is balanced, yin and yang are in harmony. When Qi is flowing smoothly through the meridians, this balance is maintained. However, each and every one of us is barraged by “pernicious influences.” The air we breathe carries pathogens of all kinds—bacteria, viruses, molds, chemicals, etc. Food we eat no longer has the nutritional value it once had due to being grown in soils depleted of minerals and micronutrients, not to mention our fixation with fast food. Our bodies are trying to do repair with less than adequate fuel or building blocks. None of use function in perfect harmony. Constantly we are repairing ourselves, our bodies, our emotions, our constitutions. Llamas and alpacas experience the same imbalances. Acupuncture, in its mysterious way, taps directly into the Qi, effects the flow of Qi and the body’s ability to restore balance. In the hands of a master, Qi can be directed by toning or sedating acupuncture points. The immune system can be enhanced, pain can be sedated or relieved completely, appetite restored, fertility improved—the list is impressive. Many orthopedic conditions have achieved resolution without performing surgery when surgery was thought to be te only means for cure. So, at this point you may be asking, what does all this have to do with our llamas and alpacas? How can my family herd members benefit from this form of healing? Acupuncture is by no means a panacea. It does not work for all conditions and constitutions. Any form of healing is limited by the body’s ability to heal. Acupuncture merely accesses the Qi and encourages it to flow evenly through all organ systems. As mentioned earlier, an even flow of Qi achieves balance. Theoretically, when yin and yang are balanced the body is devoid of disease. Where Qi is blocked or stagnant, pain and disease occurs. 14


The most common reason animals come to our clinic is for orthopedic complaints. These conditions include chronic pain from arthritis, injuries, anomalies from birth (hip dysplasia, congenital spinal malformations to name two examples). Perhaps the reason for this being the most commonly treated disorder by acupuncture is that it is the most understood. Generally accepted and proven by research science is that acupuncture causes stimulation for release of endorphins. Endorphins are a chemical produced by the body during an injury or painful experience to alleviate discomfort. These endorphins typically are transient and have a limited effect. After acupuncture many individuals are absolutely cured of pain from certain conditions, so there must be more going on that just the release of endorphins as the mode of action. It has been argued that relief by using acupuncture is just a placebo effect. Explain that to our animal friends. When it comes to comfort from neuromuscular and musculoskeletal pain, the success rate has been so high in our clinic that I feel with confidence that this theory has been ruled out. The publicity integrative medicine is receiving has brought every form of disease condition to our door. Integrative medicine utilizes both holistic practices along with modern medical technology. People whose animals have severe medical diseases from kidney failure to advanced immune mediate disorders have sought out another approach when modern medicine has been exhausted. By no means have we been able to cure them all and miracles occur in all forms of medicine. However, I have been convinced that holistic c a r e , w h e t h e r i t b e h e r b a l t h e r a p y, homeopathy, acupuncture, the many touch therapies, energetic healing, etc, have greatly complimented, and in some cases, superseded western medicine alone. Often we are faced with the understanding that a cure can not be achieved. Acupuncture is controversial when used to treat cancer. 15


Some feel that unless treated by the knowledge of a master acupuncturist (which takes many years of studying and practice to achieve such a status), more harm than good can be caused. The thought is that by activating Qi through a cancerous region, acupuncture may actually speed up growth of already-out-of-control abnormal cell reproduction. However, a master practitioner can direct Qi toward and away from any location in the body. The goal is to establish balance, as close to perfection as possible. The other issue is quality of life. If an individual can feel better while battling a debilitating disease, then every means to provide well being out to be explored. The purpose of the paper is to offer an introduction to acupuncture and its application in veterinary care. I hope I have answered some of your questions about what acupuncture is, how it came about, and how it may be of help to your family. There already exists extensive information on Traditional Chinese Medicine and more research is currently being done to enhance our understanding of how acupuncture works. As our experience with this discipline grows, so will the benefits of those receiving this form of care. Listed below are a few books written that are easy to read and will expand on the information offered herein. Have a great time at LANA EXPO 2000!

References: 1.

Schwarts, Cheryl, D.V.M. Four Paw, Five Directions, Celestial Arts, 1996, ISBN 0-89087-790-4.

2. Schoen, Allen M., D.V.M., M.S. editor. Veterinary Acupuncture. Ancient Art to Modern Medicine, Mosby, 1994, ISBN 0-939674-51-3. 3. Schoen, Allen M., D.V.M., M.S. and Wynn, Susan G., D.V.M. Complementary and Alternative Veterinary Medicine, Principles and Practice, Mosby, 1998, ISBN 0-8151-7994-4.

Editor’s note: Dr. Ferreira was a long-time supporter of LANA and spoke at many Expos. Her practice was located in Gold Run, California. Using TCVM (Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine), she treated a variety of animals with acupuncture - ferrets, dogs, cats, horses, etc., even a boa constrictor. She treated one of my llamas for a back issue. The treatments did seem to help lessen his pain and inflammation. Sadly, Dr. Ferreira passed away in 2009.

(Article from a LANA Expo Notebook) 16


“Whada ya do with a Llama?!?"

Join LANA …. and find out! Lots of Family Fun Always Educational National Dedication to Lamas And their Owners! Llama Association of North America It’s all about lamas and people It’s all about fun!

LANA (707) 234-5510 email: lanaquestions@gmail.com 1246 Meadowlark Drive, Vacaville, CA 95687

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Industrial Practicality Unpacked to Felt Baskets and Bags by Sue Rich

It was like a luxury hotel welcome – shaded portico seating, a variety of breakfast muffins, glass canisters of chilled, flavored water, and a koi pond nearby.

Breezes wafted through the

gathering area. It was a pleasure just to sit down upon arrival and soak up the ambiance. Margaret and Ralph Drew, along with an elder and younger statesman from the red golden retriever clan, opened their home to greet a gathering of fiber enthusiasts. The working tables were set apart from a display table that showcased completed fiber projects along with a collection of rovings and dyed fibers, some of which fell in ringlets of vibrant color. 18


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The day began with a choice: bag or basket. Each participant was provided with a plastic rectangle or circle, respectively, based on the option selected. With patient instruction and experienced guidance, Margaret led the group through the process of laying down cross sections of roving on the plastic shape, working soapy water through the hatchings, and then turning the plastic over to form an even edge.

The fiber that extended beyond the

plastic edges were folded over to the flip side. Then that side got its layering of fiber. First one side, and then the other. This process was repeated.

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In between, felters took their wet, soapy projects to a side table.

There, the industrial

practicality of palm sanders moved the felting progress forward.

With a plastic bag

over the face of the sander, the “handler” carefully applied the small, intensive movement of the tool to the surface of the layered shape, hastening the interlocking of the fibers.

The layers laid last included the dyed and perhaps the curly wool to the project, strategically placed with a thought to the opening of either the basket or bag. More soapy water, more layering, more attention to a wellrounded or even edge.

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The next step had each felter rolling her project into plastic and securing the piece with rubber bands. The dryer added another layer of industrial assistance to the felting process.

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While we waited for the dryer to work its magic, Margaret modeled how to create a shape with copper wire – practical hint: don’t buy the copper wire from a hobby story; get it from Home Depot or Ace Hardware.

Once the shape was

completed, she wrapped the form with a continuous “thread” of roving to put fiber over the wire, and voila! A llama emerged. The fiber was tamped into position with the use of a felting needle. And then came lunch! and hot:

Delicious

chili relleno casserole

and an enchilada creation formed the entrée with a side of mango and jicama salad, guacamole and chips.

A five-star repast, with the

opportunity for seconds, in a lovely setting. Again, the feeling of being on vacation permeated the event. The dogs provided the entertainment with rousing and enthusiastic bouts of fetch.

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When the dryer yielded up its treasures, those working on baskets took up their scissors and opened a slit in the middle of the top layer, cutting through to the encased plastic circle underneath all the layers.

The plastic was

pulled through the opening, and fingers or felting needles worked the newly created raw edge. additional handling.

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The baskets took on shape and volume with the


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The day ended with participants putting their projects on a central table for a photo opportunity.

Many thanks were extended to Margaret for her

generosity and hospitality. educated, and accomplished.

All the participants left feeling pampered, They drove away with the newly created

projects in hand and satisfied smiles on their faces. It was a very good day.

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If you have an idea for a clinic and/or would like to host a clinic at your ranch, contact the LANA office. Check LANA’s calendar of events on the LANA website for up to date activities. If you would like to receive LANA email notifications about events and activities, contact the LANA office to get on the email list.

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HEARING OUR HERD … by Cathy Spalding

The dynamics of any alpaca or llama herd is intricate. The larger the grouping , the more intricate are the dynamics, relationships and duties of the individual ,embers. Through observation, it is possible to gain a basic understanding of the dynamics specific to any one group of alpacas or llamas. This knowledge makes it much easier to recognize the more subtle cues that may cause us to pause and perhaps further investigate. There are many generalities that could be noted as common behaviors in ay random group or herd of alpacas or llamas. There can also be behaviors that are specific to a particular group and to a particular animal. Each group, naturally, consists of individual alpacas, llamas or both with individual personalities and traits. The dynamics can change with the addition or exit of animals. This unique and often random mix can create behaviors that are specific to a particular her or grouping. A herd or group of alpacas or llamas all facing and looking intently in the same direction is our cue that there is something of keen interest. This is a very normal behavioral stance yet it is our cue that something may or may not be at issue. Alpacas and llamas may group together to intently observe a deer grazing in the distance, a rabbit rustling in the brush or a balloon bouquet carried by a child down the neighbors drive. They may also gather to observe a rattlesnake, injured or rabid animal, stray dog or perhaps one of their herd members has escaped the confines of the fencing. This grouping behavior typically signals an occurrence not usual to the their environment. Though this behavioral optioning is normal, it is our cue to further investigate.

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Some of the more normal herd or group behaviors include: • Some grazing and some laying about • All grazing • All resting • Group looking intently in the same direction • Herd more or less together and moving as a group • Larger herds will often have more distinct groupings • Herd members social interactive • Assertion of individuals for their place in the herd such as for a favorite rolling spot or placement at the feed bin

A general understanding of the particular herd dynamics specific to our own farm or ranch is very useful as a first indicator that something may or may not require further investigation. It is equally important to know our animals as they relate within the herd. What are their normal grouping? Are some close pasture mates while others ma not get along well? Are some at one feeding station and never at another? Is anyone a loner? What is the seeming social structure? Do you notice any who have assumed the role as guardian? Who consistently sound the first alarm call? Who would seem to rule the pastures and who might seem to be clinging to that last social rung? What is the normal activity for the alpacas or llamas holding those positions and what is the normal activity for those in that range in between?

From this overall herd behavioral understanding, we can then come to know the specific more normal behavior of each herd member. This information provides us with immediate feedback as to whether something may or may not require further investigation. Is one who is not a loner suddenly off by themselves? Is the herd queen suddenly seen to be weaker receiving spit from much more neutral herd members and backing away? Does another suddenly begin calling the first alarm? When moving the entire herd, is one normally out front or near 33


the middle and is not one of the stragglers? Is one who normally presents a very balanced body posture looking slightly hunched or does this particular one always present a bit slouched? Is the entire herd up and about grazing in the morning sun while one remains kushed in a shelter? Even more subtle, is the entire herd grazing and only one is kushed — kushed right there amidst the group.

Some of the behavioral cues, which may not be normal, include:

• One down while the rest are grazing

• One off away from the herd

• All eating at feeding stations but one does not eat for more than moment or at all — standing or kushed

• All eating at feeding stations and one prefers to graze

• Loss of assertiveness particularly at feeding time

• Less or more interactive than usual

• Group looking intently in the same direction — though normal herd behavior, this cold be an indicator of something needing our immediate attention

Being attacked or stomped by a herd mate — not in terms of an altercation. This behavior has been seen in cases where a youngster or weaker alpaca or llama has indeed been later found to have a serious health issue, which was not readily apparent such as cancer.

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As often-repeated throughout the alpaca and llama communities is: “They are so stoic. Once they show they are ill, they are really ill.” Gaining a better understanding of their many subtle cues as individuals and as they relate within a herd or grouping, adds an important dimension to our skills as herd managers and trainers. Does what we see or think we see mean that it is? Perhaps… and then again… perhaps not. The better we become at “reading” our herd, the quicker we can respond to the possibilities. It is important to consider the positioning and surrounding circumstances in which particular cues are noted. Behavioral cues can mean different things at different times with different animals. What if we note something but it seems fairly insignificant? While it may seem a trivial cue, the fact that it was noted at all is significant. We should always take that small bit of information as cause to pause and consider the possibilities. Our alpacas and llamas are actually very expressive. They are “talking” to us all the time. However, as we know, they can be quite subtle in their communication! If we are not in the habit of “hearing our her” then indeed, we often add significant credence to our belief in “Once they show they are ill, they are really ill!

LAMAZING WISDOM Experience ia a hard teacher because she gives the test fist, the lesson afterwards. — Vernon Saunders Law

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2022 LANA HOBO CLASSIC January 29-30, 2022

Merced County Fairground Merced, California Judge: to be announced

Saturday Evening Activities Dinner Annual Membership Meeting Annual Awards Dessert Auction Silent Auction Election of LANA BOD

ALSA sanctioned Single Llama & Alpaca Halter Show Single Llama & Alpaca Performance Show Driving Division

FUN CASUAL NO GROOM Hobo attire suggested 36


Minimum Standards of Care for Llamas and Alpacas Minimum Standards of Care are mandatory to llama and alpaca survival and humane treatment. These are the most basic requirements that all llamas and alpacas must have for physical well-being and, as such, define minimum requirements for animal control officers and government officials investigating questionable llama and alpaca care situations. 1. WATER: Animals should have continuous access to potable drinking water. 2. NUTRITIONAL: Animals should have nourishment adequate to sustain health.

life and

3. SHELTER: Animals should have natural or man-made shelter that enables them to find relief from extreme weather conditions. The sheltered area must allow for the ability to stand, lie down, rest and reasonably move about. 4. MOBILITY: Animals should have a living area through which they can move freely and exercise independently 5. NEGLECT: Animals should have a physical appearance free from signs of serious neglect. Signs of serious neglect may include such things as crippled ambulation due to severely curled toenails, ingrown halters, or living conditions not meeting the minimums listed above. 6. SAFETY: Animals should be reasonably safeguarded from injury or death within their defined living environment and/or when traveling. 7. CRUELTY: Animals should be reasonably safeguarded from cruel treatment and actions that endanger life or health or cause avoidable suffering. 8. SOCIALIZING: Llamas and alpacas are herd animals and should not live alone without a companion animal. A crier (a baby llama or alpaca under six months) should not be revised apart from other llamas or alpacas. This document may be reproduced in whole or in part without permission, as long as the copyright citation is included. Standards of Care Committees, June 2005 ©2005, Camelid Community Working Group

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