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LANA NEWS Llama Association of North America Summer Edition 2020



Llama Cooling Off


Dear Fellow LANA members,

President’s Message


LANA Board of Directors


LANA Business Office


Editor’s Note


Calendar of Events


Proper Nutrition


Road Trip Essentials


Last year, with another dry summer and accompanying wildfires, the furthest thing on anyone’s mind was that our species was on the brink of another global pandemic. As I write this message, there are more than 20 million confirmed Cases of COVID-19 with nearly three-quarter of a million deaths from this virus. New confirmed cases in just our country alone range between 50,000 - 80,000 each day and we are currently in the least infectious time of the year for spreading a respiratory virus.

The Digestive System




Llamas & Alpacas Found in Tea Boxes


Dying with Kool-Aid


Llama Anatomy


Possible Indicators for Stress and Illness




As I wrote in my President’s message in April 2020, efforts are underway to develop a novel treatment of COVID-19 using nanobodies. Inspired by the uniquely small antibodies found in llamas and other camelids, a research team at the University of California, San Francisco, has synthesized a molecule that they say can block coronavirus from attaching to and infecting cells. While their work is still very preliminary, the goal is to deliver the synthetic nano body via simple inhaled sprays to the nose or lungs, allowing it to potentially be self-administered and used prophylactically against COVID-19 (https:// www.statnews.com/2020/08/11/scientists-createpotent-anti-coronavirus-nanobody-inspired-byllamas/). I know that we all miss coming together for llama activities and fellowship but we all need to remain vigilant with physical distancing, wearing face covers, and self-quaranting if exposed to a COVIDpositive individual. Please reach out to each other by phone, face time, Zoom, and other media to stay connected. We can all make it through this pandemic together if we all do our part. Take care, Dr. Michelle Kutzler LANA President


LANA Board of Directors

Dr. Michelle Kutzler President michelle.kutzler@oregonstate.edu Kathy Nichols Vice President, Newsletter Editor KathySVA@aol.com Sue Rich Secretary susan.rich9631@gmail.com Joy Pedroni Treasurer, Office, Webmaster joy@blackcatllamas.com Lee Beringsmith Director lbering@outlook.com Jana Kane Director kaneskritters@gmail.com Maureen Macedo Director macedosminiacre@gmail.com

LANA BUSINESS OFFICE Joy Pedroni 1246 Meadowlark Drive Vacaville, CA. 95687 1-707-234-5510 lanaquestions@gmail.com Please contact the LANA Business Office for Member Services, Advertisements, Event Calendar updates, and any llama-, alpaca-, or LANA-related questions you may have. Visit LANA at: www.lanainfo.org

LANA News DISCLAIMER LANA News is published for educational purposes only. The information published heron is solely the opinion of the authors and does not necessarily represent the view of LANA, its Directors or Officers. LANA articles can not be reprinted without permission from LANA or the author. LANA’s acceptance of advertising does not imply endorsement of any products or services whatsoever. Articles, letters, editorials and other contributions are welcome and may be edited for brevity. Inclusion and placement is solely a the discretion of the Editor. Before undertaking any herd work with your animals, you are advised to always consult with your veterinarian.


Dolly Peters Director ranchodollyllama@gmail.com

Thank you to the following for their contribution to this newsletter:

Cathy Spalding Advisory Chair cathy@gentlespiritllamas.com

Jana Kane, Maureen Macedo, Barney McClung, Dan and Marilyn Milton, Dr. Daniel Mora, Cathy Spalding, and Heather Woodke, DVM. Photo credit to Maureen Macedo and Joy Pedroni.

Editors Note: Due to the COVID-19, shows and events have been cancelled or postponed. At these events and shows, we get a chance to visit with our friends that we only get to see a few times a year. Whether a text, email, phone call or by snail mail, it’s important that we stay connected with our friends. Together, we’ll get through this. Another horrible fire season is upon us. My heart goes out to those who have lost their animals and homes. With the heaviest of heart, I’m sad to report that one of our LANA Board of Directors lost her home in Vacaville to one of these fires. Joy and her husband Ron were fortunate to get themselves and their small animals out safely. Their llamas, alpacas, and goats were on a “shelter in place lot” and their area did not burn. While both animal shelters survived, the Pedroni’s house, remaining vehicles and horse trailer did not. The animals have been relocated and are enjoying grazing on pasture. Joy, Ron and the small critters are staying at an apartment over their business. A big hug to you both.

Kathy 3


“It’ll be nice when things get back to normal so we can go places.”

*LANA FELTING CLINIC Macedo’s Mini Acres Turlock, CA Contact: lanaquestions.gmail.com Rescheduled to a later date TBA ALSA WESTERN REGIONALS October 3-4, 2020 Noble Creek Regional Park Beaumont, California CANCELLED CALIFORNIA CLASSIC ALPACA SHOW March 27 - 28, 2021 Merced County Fairgrounds Merced, California contact: macedosminiacre@gmail.com *LANA LLAMPING TRIP May 29-31, 2021 Sly Park, CA contact: lanaquestions.gmail.com

“Did you hear that we may be able to help our human friends fight the virus?”

LANA events in BOLD type * denotes LANA member discount

If you have an event you would like added to the Calendar of Events, please contact: lanaquestions@gmail.com or KathySVA@aol.com



from a LANA Expo presentation and notebook

Proper nutrition of any animal is an ongoing and ever changing proposition. The nutrients available in a particular foodstuff will vary by batch, geographical region, methods of production, and many other factors.

These factors can be broken down into three categories: 1) Animal factors, 2) Feed/diet factors and 3) Animal Management factors. Animal factors are those influences that are particular to the kind of animals that you are feeding.

1. Unique aspects of the camelid digestive system influence how well the animal can utilize a particular feedstuff.

- Anatomy and size of the digestive tract.

- Rate of Passage of food through the digestive tract.

2. The food that you feed to the animal may not be the ultimate source of nutrition.

- Volatile Fatty Acids, the products of fermentation.

- Fermentation allows the broth of many types of microbes who are digesting the plant material. 3. Urea and glucose metabolism are important modifies of the fermentation and the utilization of the nutrients derived from the fermentation.

4. Specific animal requirements of water, energy, minerals, Vitamins and dietary fiber will influence how you ffed an animal.

5. Environmental conditions can be large modifiers of nutritional requirements.

6. The physiologic status of the animal will greatly influence the nutrient requirements fo the animal. Is she pregnant, and lactating, and growing?

Feed factors make it necessary to understand feeds and their composition and how they will affect fermentation and digestion. Forage quality will dictate what type of supplements you will use.

1. Roughages and forages.

2. Energy concentrates.

3. Protein concentrates.

4. Mineral supplements.

5. Vitamin supplements.

6. Other additives.

Feeding management is where you can really show how well you understand your animals and what you want them to accomplish.

1. A feeding system must be based on the herd but be adaptable for individual animals. Not all animals have the same nutritional requirements.

2. You must consider size of, number of, and placement of feeders in a pen.

3. Social behaviors.

4. Feeding behaviors.

An important part of any feeding strategy is the ability to monitor and check on how well you are doing. These include:

1. Animal Evaluation, Body Condition Scoring.

2. Feed analysis.

3. Blood and/ or tissue analysis.


ROAD TRIP ESSENTIALS by Barney McClung Traveling with animals can be fraught with surprises, and whether your destination is a faraway showring or a nearby trail, being well prepared will help you handle most unexpected events calmly, safely and purposefully. Before loading your animals into the trailer and setting out, consider your previous experiences and situations you encountered where one tool or another would have been handy to have. Gather the items you think will beef greatest use to and place them in a five gallon bucket with a lid. Secure the bucket in your trailer or towing vehicle where it is readily accessible. The following list of tools and supplies can serve as a guideline to help you choose the items you’ll want to take along with your journey. 6

Must Haves Basic tool kit Tire-changing necessities (jack, tire iron, spare tire) Lubricant (such as WD-40) Fire Extinguisher Sharp knife or scissors Double-end snaps Duct tape 50-foot coil of half-inch synthetic rope Battery powered lantern or flashlight and fresh batteries Lead rope Your travel first aid kit Multi-tool knife Highway warning flares (or reflective triangles) Notepad and pens Cell phone and charger Gallon of water

Handy to Have Bug repellant and fly spray Leather punch Spare halter, adjustable to your largest llama Extra lead line “Starter� llama pellets

From a previous LANA Newsletter 7

The Digestive System of the Llama and the Alpaca Dr. Daniel Mora

from a LANA Expo presentation and notebook

When one is considering the digestive system of the South American camelids (SAC), there are many aspects of digestion and nutrition that have to be understood. All parts have multiple important functions.

Lips The lips and the associated hairs around the muzzle are the first portions of the system.

Upper lip is divided. Both sides can move and are used to investigate and examine food or objects. Lower lips less moveable.

Teeth All of the cutting and grinding is accomplished with the teeth. important aspect of good health and management.

Dental health is a very

Two sets of teeth, deciduous and permanent. Teeth are growing and being replaced through the age of 5 years or so.

Fighting teeth erupt with puberty in the males and with time (8-10 years) in females.

Chewing cud requires sharp edges on the tenth to cut food. It is common for cheek teeth to become diseased due to sharp pieces of food being forced down along the teeth.

Tongue Does not usually spend much of its time out of the mouth. It move food around in mouth and functions in swallowing.

Salivary Glands Three pairs of glands (paratoid, submandibular, and sublingual) and four glandular regions (buccal, palatine, lingual, and labial) secrete fluid and mucous type secretions that cotton chemicals important to proper fermentation.

Bicarbonate and urea are delivered to the fermentation vat in this manner. lubricated for the trip down the esophagus.

Food is

Oropharynx This is the area of the mouth that includes the space in the mouth, the soft palate, and the domed portion of the tongue.

SACs are pretty much obligate nasal breathers. This means that with a blocked nose a SAC has a very hard time breathing, let alone trying to eat or drink.


Esophagus The long muscular tube that connects the mouth and the first portion of the fermentive compartments.

Obstruction of the esophagus results in no saliva being swelled and no fermentation gases being eructed (burped up). Repetitive cases of “choke� may be a clinical sign associated with/or the development of megaesophagus.

Gastrointestinal tract The GI tract is unique to these animals but there are also similarities to other animals.


This is the first out pouching or enlargement of the GI tract. This is a mixing and fermentation area. There are non glandular areas and glandular areas of absorption and secretion.

C2 This area ia continuous with C1 performing similar functions. This area also has unique glandular and non glandular areas.

C3 This area is most similar to the digestive stomach of simple stomached animals. Acid and enzyme secretion digest the products o C1 and C2 including the microbes grown during fermentation.

Small Intestine Three parts (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). These are the primary areas of digestion and absorption.

Large Intestine The ileum enters the large intestine at the cecum (cecocolic orifice). The colon then continues into the spiral colon (5.5 loops into and 4.5 loops out). The transfers colon continues into the descending colon, onto the rectum and then terminates with the anal sphincter.

A primary function of the large intestine is to resorb all the fluid from the digest before it exits out of the anus. Diarrhea is a result of too much water in the feces. Normal feces should be individual pellets.


MENTORING by Dan and Marilyn Milton Young Kind Arthur had Merlin the Magician. United States Presidents James Madison and James Monroe had Thomas Jefferson. Just what is it that

No one is born with the wisdom to know the best course of action, the correct response to every situation, or answers to all the questions we are faced with. If we seek help from knowledgeable and experienced people, we, as mentees, can achieve our goals faster and avoid making mistakes and wasting valuable time. Such knowledgeable and experienced people, called mentors, take a personal interest in the mentee and serve as role models, coaches, and confidantes, offering knowledge, insight, perspective and wisdom to the mentee. Mentors can be found everywhere. Think about your work. Was there someone who helped you get started in your career, offering advice and guidance, showing you how things worked and how to get things done? How about your education? WAs there a teacher who took a special interest in you and who had an especially positive influence on your life? Each one of you could probably name at least two people who had a profound positive effect on your life? In the “Man of La Mancha” Don Quixote stated “Love not what thou art, only what thou may become.” Fitting words which Marilyn and I took to heart. We were mentored when we became new llama and alpaca owners and for many years we have been mentors to several new owners. We have seen and felt the positive effects that mentoring has achieved — both in the growth of the new owners and in our own personal growth. Using the mentor concept within a local llama or alpaca association helps new, as well as established, lama owners achieve their potential and receive the most benefits from owning llamas and alpacas and participating in their local association.

Easing the Transition Most new owners join a local association because they have problems and/or needs. They believe that improving their skills may help them or offer them greater personal satisfaction. They expect the association to help them solve their problems and meet their needs.


In unfamiliar situations, people need support, personal contact, and reassurance. The local association officers play important roles by explaining the benefits provided by the association persuading new owners to join and then briefly reviewing activities and responsibilities. While beneficial, this does not provide the individual ongoing support new owners need. Mentors provide this valuable personal attention.

Benefits for New Owners A new owner, under the tutelage of a mentor, reaps a number of benefits. He/she …

• • • • •

Learns what resources are available in the local area. Learns new skills. Develops confidence. Participates in the local association. Gains greater personal satisfaction.

Benefits for Experienced Owners With a mentor’s guidance, a more experienced owner …

• Further refines skills. • Learns new skills. Sometimes experienced owners’ skills can become a bit rusty or the may have a desire to learn skills that they do not yet have. That’s when a mentor can provide some helpful feedback that will encourage the experienced owner to build upon other experience, to introduce new skills, or perhaps revitalize the skills they already posses, whether it be in marketing, showing, driving, breeding, packing, spinning, shearing, pasture management or working with youth. There are always better, more efficient or more enjoyable ways to get things done.

Benefits for Mentors Those who serve as mentors to new or experienced owners also profit. They …

• Learn from their mentees — mentees often offer new information and perspectives.

• Remain productive — mentors continue to make use of their own knowledge and skills.

• Do something for others — much can be said for the pleasure we receive from helping someone else. To do so is not only a confirmation of our own


skills, hut we also feel good about ourselves when we help someone achieve their goals.

• Receive recognition — mentors are respected and appreciated by fellow

owners for helping people; their reputations are enhanced. Mentors also earn the gratitude of their mentees.

Starting a mentor program will help a local association to be full of active, involved, satisfied owners.

Mentor Qualities Before we review what mentors do, let’s look at some important characteristics that we should possess to be effective mentors. A good mentor is …

• Available — to spend time with new or experienced owners. To visit their

farm or ranch. To invite them to ours. To be available to answer questions in person or on the phone.

• Patient — people learn at varying speeds, and some need more guidance than others.

• Sensitive — tact and diplomacy are vital.

We should motivate and

encourage the mentee.

• Respectful — everyone is different. A mentor respects the differences

between himself, the mentee and others. We should be loyal and take care not to betray mentees’ confidences.

• Flexible — not everything happens according to plan. We should adapt and adjust to various situations and accept that mentees may make mistakes or make decisions with which we ma not agree.

• Supportive of the association — we should show our pride in our association and what it has done, and can do, for owners.

• Knowledgeable — before we can help someone else, it is necessary for us to be knowledgeable and have developed sufficient skills in those specialties that are part of our operation.

• Confident — we need to be self-assured and friendly. • A good listener — simply listening, without taking on the other person’s

problem, can be of great help to the mentee. Just by listening we can enable the mentee to articulate the problem and help sort things out.


The Mentoring Steps The duties of mentors will vary, depending on whether their mentees are new owners or experienced owners. Trying to explain everything at once to a new owner will only confuse and discourage. When the basic information building blocks are provided over several visits or several months it is less overwhelming and more likely to be understood and remembered. Following are some suggestions about what to tell new owners and when to tell them. As a mentor, when we first begin working with a new mentee, we should: 1. Visit with the new owner — at his/her farm or ranch or have him/her come to yours. Explain the basics of your operation and answer any questions the mentee may have. Include an explanation of why you do what you do. 2. Orient the new owner to the local llama or alpaca community — help the mentee become comfortable with the sources of help that are available and help the mentee become a part of the local llama and alpaca community encouraging active participation. 3. Explain how to get involved — introduce new owners to other owners of the llama or alpaca community. Take them to a meeting of your local association. Involve them in projects. Next, a mentor should: 1. Make mentees aware of resources — if your local association has a library, show it to the mentee. Point out other sources of information (magazines, videos, and books). Discuss who in your area has what specific expertise. Discuss local veterinary coverage. 2. Provide positive feedback — the first few weeks of new ownership are critical. Mentees should feel that they are already benefiting from owning llamas or alpacas. Follow and compliment them on their progress. 3. Explain responsibilities — ownership is more than just owning llamas and alpacas. There is a responsibility to provide a level of care that these animals deserve. It also means a commitment to helping others within the llama or alpaca community become successful. Eventually, mentors should: 1. Tell how we’ve benefited — share our own goals and aspiration with the mentees and how we have benefited from he program. We are proof that they can achieve their own goals. 2. Invite the mentee to other events — regional or national shows, auctions, 13

seminars, conferences offer mentees the opportunity to extend their learning and participation. 3.

Acknowledge progress — ask for time during an association meeting to mention your mentee and his/her progress in the program. Such recognition shows that the association care about the mentee’s progress, and motivates the mentee to continue.


Explain association leadership duties — describe how the mentee can develop leadership skills by serving on a committee of the association or as an association director of officer.

Remember that new owners tend to be shy. Take the initiative to contact them. Be positive, friendly, and helpful. Remember that ou can help your mentee in person, and by telephone, fax, or electronic mail. Also keep in mind that new owners provide new perspectives.

Mentoring Experienced Owners If you mentor a more experienced owner, then you most likely will not need to spend time orienting the mentee. Instead, our duties will depend on what new skills your mentee specifically wants to learn or possibly what skills he/she would like to improve. For example, if your mentee wants to learn how to be more confident showing his llamas or alpacas, you could provide some books or videos on the subject which you have found helpful. Recommend that the mentee observe local and regional shows or attend show clinics. Provide one-on-one coaching, watching the mentee when he/ she shows and offer suggestions for enhancing his/her capabilities. If your mentee wants to learn leadership skills, encourage him/her to serve as an association officer or director and then give them feedback on performance.

Qualities of Mentees So far, we have discussed the responsibilities of mentors. If a mentor/mentee relationship is to be successful, however, mentees have responsibilities and obligations as well. To receive maximum benefit from the relationship, mentees, should be:

• Eager to learn — willing to take on new challenges. • Receptive — open to feedback, viewing it as an opportunity to improve themselves.

• Open to new ideas — able to see things from other perspectives. 14

• Loyal — should not violate confidence or trust. • Grateful — appreciate the help their mentors are giving. A Finite Relationship While a mentor/mentee relationship requires time and commitment, the relationship does not last forever — nor should it. The purpose of a mentor is to help the mentee to think and act indecently and successfully. Once mentees have developed to the point where they are functioning effectively on their own, mentor’s services are no longer needed. Most likely the mentor/mentee relationship turns into a strong, warm friendship. Mentors can find new mentees to help, and former mentees have the skill and knowledge to become mentors themselves.

Closing Whom do you know in your local llama or alpaca community or local association that you can help learn hew skills? A mentor/mentee relationship provides many opportunities, offers many challenges, and has many rewards. Experience them for yourself. Benefit from the skills of a mentor — or become a mentor and share those benefits with others. Mentoring is …

“A program with the proven success to improve personal satisfaction and self- esteem …” article from a LANA Expo Notebook and presentation by Dan and Marilyn Milton


LLAMAS AND ALPACAS FOUND IN TEA BOXES by Cathy Spalding Is there any one of us enjoying the experience of alpacas and/or llamas roaming about the area of land we call home … any one of us who has been wholly able to resist collecting their likeness in some fashion? There is so much to choose from! There are full body plush ones and porcelain ones and ones made of wood, brass, bronze, silver or glass. There are collector plates, paintings, etched wine glasses and bowls, pewter beer steins, salts, spoons and cocktail forks. There are tie clasps cufflinks, earrings, broaches, necklaces, belt buckles and belts. There are socks. scarves, sweaters, shawls, ties, gloves and hats. There are games, books, note cards and bookmarks. There are welcome signs, mailbox ornaments, weather vanes, garden statues and planters. And, most of us have acquired a good many more than just one of the above! A more obscure and rare alpaca and llama collectible can be found in the area of tobacco silks and Cartophily. Cartophily specifically defines the collection of cigarette cards though the modern definition has expanded to include the collection of other product trade cards. A cartophilic item is a specific card that is given away as a promotional or advertising aid. The cigarette cards usually have a specific theme such as animals, castles, famous people, or trains. The front of the card pictures the subject matter while the reverse of the card carries additional advertising or in the case of a series, the title, card number and brief description of the picture. Other trade cards such as one for a specific brand of sewing machine often picture a scene on the front involving the product with more specific information on the back. THE LLAMA, No. 17 of a series of 25 in a set entitled “ANIMALS in the Service of Man” issued in London, England.


The idea of a trade card evolved out of the rough cards used by tradesmen in the late 1700’s to advertise their service. Though the precise origin of the trade card has been debated, they are thought to have originated inFrance around 1840 and had become popular throughout most European mainland countries by 1880. During the Victorian era, it became a favorite pastime to collect these small, illustrated advertisements. Some examples from the early 1800’s still exist but not many were created until the spread of color lithography in the 1870’s, trade cards had become the major avenue for advertising America’s products and services. They were given away free with a product and were often included inside the packaging. The intention was to promote a particular product and hook the customer through the desirability of the card. This was done be featuring the product directly on the card in a pleasing pictorial and sometimes comical way or to include a single card from a set of cards with the intent that the purchaser would wish to collect the entire set. Naturally, this became a strong incentive for repeat customers. Claims made abut patent medicines were not regulated in the late 1800’s and trade cards were even used to advertise miraculous medicinal results. The cards were colorful and attractive and children often pasted them into a scrapbook. The use and styling of trade crds matured as companies began campaigns to target specific buyers. As an example, products more typically purchased by women such as tea, breakfast cereal, sewing machines or soaps began to most often portray softer themes such as flowers, historical scenes, royalty, or animals. In response to widespread complaints of damage, early cigarette manufacturers began inserting a small blank card into the packaging to stiffen and strengthen the paper wrapping. In 1886, the United States manufacturer Allen & Ginter realized they were missing an obvious advertising opportunity and introduced the first cigaret trade card. The British manufacturer, W.D. & H.O. Wills, followed the lead in 1888. Soon, cigarette trade cards were commonplace. This early cigarette trade card (front and back shown) features the alpaca. It was manufactured in England by the Wills. Co.


Cigarette cards enjoyed a significant but relatively short life. Highly competitive marketing during the Tobacco War of 1901-1902 led to a tremendous increase in the number of cards put into circulation. World War I brought heavy restrictions on the use of raw materials. This severely limited the production of cards. Cards of any possible subject matter that was feared could aggravate the conflict were destroyed. Daily life began to ease with the end of the war allowing cigarette trade card advertising to hit a new high over the next 20 years. It is, in fact, called the Golden Age of cigarette trade card manufacturing. A tremendous number of card sets were produced while Cartophilic clubs and shops sprang up in cities around the world in support of the collector. However, with the onset of World War II, the production of cigarette cards were again restricted or altogether banned. The UK wartime government officially banned their production as “a waste of vital raw materials.” With costs rising significantly in every sector of the economy, the cards were never fully revived after the end of the war. During the same time period, other forms of color advertising such as magazines had become a much more cost-effective medium. Some European countries continued to produce cigaret cards on a very limited basis thro ugh about 1940. Major cigarette card manufacturers ended their production in the United States around 1910. There were a few who continued to produce them with a near complete end to all production worldwide by 1940. Today, there are very few manufacturers of any trade cards. Cards may still be occasionally found in a few products such as tea or chocolate. But even the most popular and largest trade card manufacturer of “tea cards” ceased card production in 2000. The modern concept of trade card production has taken on a different focus becoming “trading” cards such as Star Wars, Pokemon, baseball or Magic cards is a strong, vital business and it is not typical that one must purchase a particular product in order to acquire a card.


Tobacco silks? Just after the turn of the century, cigarette companies began to compete heavily and by about 1915, smoking was becoming commonplace for both men and women. Amidst this intense competition for customers, the effect of trade card advertising needed a boost. An additional competitive edge was needed. Some companies began to offer pictures on silk within their packaging to influence the buying power of women. It worked. Women were eager to obtain these small pictorial rectangles of silk. Soon cotton and silk were worn together allowing the opportunity for brighter colors. Companies would often go the extra length to include instructions for making household items from these “silks” — including quilts! Today, silks are usually much more valuable then the trade cards due to their more fragile nature.

This silk pictures a llama with the Chilean flag in the background. It is part of a 1915 national flags and emblems series issued by the Imperial Tobacco Co. of Canada.

Today, Cartophily enjoys a strong following. There are specialized auctions, conventions, periodicals, catalogs and museums devoted to trade cards. While there does not appear to be hundreds of these trade cards that feature alpacas and/or llamas, it is amazing the number that do. Where might one find one? I smile to say that Ebay is an all but sure bet! A large number of websites can be found by typing “trade card” or “cigarette card” into a search engine. The Cartophilic Society of Great Britain offers a reading list including both the British Trade Index and the World Trade Index and a bi-monthly magazine



by Maureen Macedo

Preparing the yarn for Kool Aid

Soak the yarn in enough warm water to cover for about 20 minutes. I add a drop of dish washing liquid. Now mix white vinegar with the water.

Soaking helps the yarn absorb dye quickly and evenly. The dishwasher soap breaks the surface tension.

Once soaked, remove moisture by gently squeezing. Do not wring!

Making single colored skeins – crock pot method

Partially fill a crock pot with water. Add the Kool Aid or Easter Egg and mix gently, but well. The color of the dye bath will be very close to the final color of the yarn so you can make changes at this point by adding more packets.

Add the yarn to the dye bath and push it under, making sure it’s fully submerged.

Turn on the heat, leave the crock pot on low for 4 hours. By this time all the dye should have absorbed and the water will be clear (or milky with certain shades). The liquid turns clear when all the dye has been absorbed.

Making multi-coloured skeins

Place the yarn in a crock pot and add enough warm water to cover.

Empty different colors of Kool Aid/Easter Egg into different areas on the pan and very gently agitate each area using a chopstick until the powder dissolves.

Turn on the heat, leave on low for about 4 hours

Leave the yarn in the dyebath, allow it to cool until it is room temperature 20

Finishing the yarn (both methods)

Leave the yarn in the dyebath, allow it to cool until it is room temperature

Rinse using water of the same temperature as the dye bath, until the water runs clear. Do not be alarmed if takes several rinses, especially with red colors.

Gently squeeze the water out of the yarn. Hang to dry.



Dermatologic conditions are a sticky wicket, indeed. They can be limited to the skin or be representative of an underlying problem such as immunosuppression, or dietary imbalances. Through physical exams are the first step in coning to a diagnosis. Sometimes hair-loss can be confused with skin issues. Dermatologic conditions can cause secondary hair-loss, but hair-loss alone is usually a hormonal problem. First, make sure that your animal is experiencing a skin problem. If the skin looks pink, red, crusty, or is producing any discharge, chances are that you are cleaning with a skin problem. Although there are many more, the following is a list of some common skin conditions found in camelids. SUNBURN This affects lamoids just like people. Often, lighter fibered animals are more at risk, and it is a sunny weather phenomenon (either high-altitude or seasonal). Areas with less hair (the bridge of the nose, around the eyes, top of the head, ears, and any areas experiencing less hair coverage) appear red, swollen, and may blister if severe. The llama or alpaca may be itchy (pruritic) causing more trauma to effected areas. Treatment - Remove from the sun. Sunblock or a coverage device such as blanket or mask may be used if housing is not available, or practical, but pay attention to potential overheating if the weather is hot. PARASITES External parasites like mites, lice, ticks, fleas, or flies can cause some animals extreme discomfort causing them to rub effected areas and further exacerbate skin damage. Signs include visualization of the vile, little creatures; hair loss due to parasite damage and/or rubbing; and scaling and crusting of skin. Treatment - A nice dose of ivermectin should do the trick. Be cautious of powders, collars, dips, and other treatments formulated for animals


other than lamoids, as some have been known to cause reproductive problems. TOXINS Some toxic compounds directly affect the skin, but usually cause problems elsewhere also. There are a few plants that can cause photosensitization making animals more susceptible to sunburn. These include agave (agave), St. Johnswort (Hypericum), buckwheat (Fagopyrum), and spring parsley (Cymopterus). Tetracyclines can also cause primary photosensitization. Treatment would involve discontinuing exposure to the plant, and removal from the sun. BACTERIAL OR FUNGAL INFECTIONS These are usually diagnosed by rule-out of the more common skin conditions and with the aid of a skin scraping or a biopsy. Treatment - Appropriate antibiotics or anti-fungals are then applied to effected areas after the hair has been removed. For animals with a large part of the body infected, it is a good idea to check for underlying immune system problems. ZINC RESPONSIVE DERMATOSIS This is the one that usually affects darker animals and causes hair loss around the face, as well as under the tail, scrotum, inner thighs, armpits, and lower legs. A cardinal sign for since responsive dermatosis is thickening of the skin and hyperpigmentation of effected areas, meaning that the skin tends to get dark or gray.

This is an individual problem (in a herd that is receiving appropriate supplementation), where only one or a few animals are affected. It is thought to be a relative zinc deficiency in that the specific animal needs more zinc than everybody else, or that intestinal absorption of zinc has gone awry. Treatment - Success for treatment is variable. Oral administration of zinc has been successful in some animals, and injection of zinc has worked intoners, while some deficiencies cannot be overcome. It is not known whether there is a hereditary component to this disease.


LLAMA ANATOMY Do you know your llama anatomy? Test yourself. Cover the answers and see well you do.


POSSIBLE INDICATORS for STRESS and/or ILLNESS ………. A small collection by Cathy Spalding A phrase often repeated throughout the camelid communities is:

“They are so stoic. Once they really begin to act as though something may be wrong … something is usually really wrong!” Following is a brief listing of some of the possible behavioral cues that may indicate something may not be going well. Though these behaviors can mean different things at different times for different animals, they do give us cause to pause and consider the possibilities.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Up and down frequently — can not seem to get comfortable

Consistently changing positions when pushed

Stays rushed in one area much of the day


Stomping feet

Kicking belly

Rushed apart from the herd

Eyes glazed, partially closed, squinting


Eye wrinkles, drooping eyelids

Head/neck very forward

Head held straight out just above the ground

Holding neck very stiff


Grumpy with herd mates

Flared nostrils

Tight lip or drooping lip

Hunched top line

Grinding teeth

Out of balance

Awkwardly rushed

Sniffing pasture grass or feed bin but not actually grazing or eating


Clamped tail, rear tucked under

Ears continually half mast

Holding breathe or heavy breathing

Lack of participation in herd activity


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