LANA Newsletter Winter 2020/2021

Page 1

LANA NEWS Llama Association of North America Winter Edition 2020/2021

LANA is celebrating 40 years of serving llamas, alpacas and the people who love them.

Please join us. Renew your membership and encourage others to join.



LANA’s 40th Anniversary


President’s Message


LANA Board of Directors


LANA Business Office


Editor’s Note


Calendar of Events


Wet Felting




Alaska Ban Update




Welcome New Members


Morris Animal Foundation


MAF Valley Fever Study


Versatility Llama




Happy New Year Llama Enthusiasts! With the new year comes new board members. But first, I want to thank Jana Kane for her service on the LANA Board. Although it is sad to see Jana leave, we are excited to welcome Stephanie Pedroni to the board. Stephanie is an alpaca owner and has been showing camelids for a few years. She loves helping with camelid events and has volunteered at the Hobo show for many years. Speaking of llama events, Covid-19 is playing havoc on our LANA events again. Unfortunately, the 2021 Hobo Show will be cancelled but the outlook for the Kids & Camelids Show and the Marvelous May Performance Show are both good. We are also hoping to have a llama hiking trip in the spring and llama camping trip (llamping) trip at the beginning of summer. Please check the LANA calendar for updates on all events. This year LANA will be celebrating its 40th anniversary. To commemorate this accomplishment, I have been working with the Oregon State University Libraries Special Collections to create a lasting archive for LANA. Archived materials collected and organized by L’illette Vasquez were brought and donated to Oregon State University. Documents contained in LANA’s archive can be accessed by contacting me at or the special collections librarian at It is my sincere wish that you all stay positive and test negative. Your LANA president Michelle Kutzler


LANA Board of Directors

Dr. Michelle Kutzler President Kathy Nichols Vice President, Newsletter Editor Sue Rich Secretary Joy Pedroni Treasurer, Office, Webmaster Lee Beringsmith Director Maureen Macedo Director Stephanie Pedroni Director Dolly Peters Director Cathy Spalding Advisory Chair

LANA BUSINESS OFFICE Joy Pedroni 1246 Meadowlark Drive Vacaville, CA. 95687 1-707-234-5510 Please contact the LANA Business Office for Member Services, Advertisements, Event Calendar updates, and any llama-, alpaca-, or LANA-related questions you may have. Visit LANA at:

LANA News DISCLAIMER LANA News is published for educational purposes only. The information published heron is solely the opinion of the authors and does not necessarily represent the view of LANA, its Directors or Officers. LANA articles can not be reprinted without permission from LANA or the author. LANA’s acceptance of advertising does not imply endorsement of any products or services whatsoever. Articles, letters, editorials and other contributions are welcome and may be edited for brevity. Inclusion and placement is solely a the discretion of the Editor. Before undertaking any herd work with your animals, you are advised to always consult with your veterinarian.

THANK YOU for CONTRIBUTING Thank you to the following for their contribution to this newsletter: Chela Grey, Dr. Murray Fowler, Dr. Michelle Kutzler, Phil Nuechterlein Joy Pedroni, Stephanie Pedroni, and Sue Rich, Photo credit to Linda Nuehterlein, Sue Rich

Editors Note: Due to COVID-19, shows and events have been cancelled or postponed. Your LANA BOD voted to cancel the HOBO Classic Show this year. The hosting county in California is still showing spikes of COVID infections. We are deeply saddened by the loss of Dan Milton and Lorene Grassick. Our sincere condolences to their families and friends. LANA is celebrating its 40th Anniversary. What an amazing feat! It hasn’t been easy with the economy’s ups and downs (mostly downs) and now, this pandemic. Through thick and thin, LANA has persevered. This association serves the llama and alpaca community by hosting clinics, hikes, camping trips, funding research, newsletters, and much more including some darn good shows. Please show your support and become a member or renew your membership.

Kathy 3


*LANA HOBO CLASSIC Merced County Fairgrounds Merced, CA Contact: CANCELLED

*MARVELOUS MAY PERFORMANCE SHOW May 15, 2021 Macedo’s Miniacre Turlock, California contact:

SUTTER BUTTE HIKE April, 2021 Date to be confirmed Sutter Butte close to Marysville, California


KIDS & CAMELIDS SHOW April 17, 2021 Macedo’s Miniacre Turlock, California contact:

*LANA LLAMPING TRIP June 11-13, 2021 Black Oak Equestrian Camp Sly Park, CA contact: *LANA FELTING CLINIC July 10, 2021 Macedo’s Miniacre Turlock, California contact: LANA events in BOLD type * denotes LANA member discount All events pending due to COVID-19

If you have an event you would like added to the Calendar of Events, please contact: or



“Just a little bit more,” that was the mantra of the day. One at a time, as we approached Maureen Macedo to ask if our felting task was complete, we heard, ”Just a little bit more.” Eventually though, that “little bit more” saw our felted projects through to completion.

Mid-Covid crisis, when the eye of the pandemic storm passed over the Central Valley of California, allowing for small group gatherings with safety precautions in place, a handful of masked participants convened at Macedo’s Mini Acre for a Felted Soap and Wet Felt Design Clinic. Each family group had its own table for the projects, spaced apart from one another in an outside location. Masks were fully on, removed only for the occasional photo and lunch. After the many cancellations and closures and postponements of events due to the Corona Virus, this merry group of felters was glad to actually attend an event, be in the company of LANA friends, share stories, and belly laugh when those stories were funny. What we once took for granted – the opportunity to be in each other’s company – was truly enjoyed. 5

Upon arrival, we were greeted with a shopping bag of goodies from the local Dollar Store: a dish drainer, two boxes of hard soap, a pair of knee-high panty hose, a pie plate, some netting and a little bit of bubble wrap. Maureen supplied the clean and sometimes dyed fiber.

First project up: felted soap. Using the provided fiber, in whatever color combination we chose, we wrapped the fiber around a bar of soap. By the way, hand-made soaps tend to be too soft for use for this project. We maneuvered the cocooned bar into one of the knee highs, dipped it in water, and began to felt the fiber by rubbing it and working it into a lather.


Re-dipping and continued rubbing, with a little bit more rubbing, checking with Maureen and getting “A little bit more.” When the fibers were tight around that fragrant bar of Yardley English Lavender, our work was complete.


Project #2: a felted trivet (or is it a hot pad? Not quite sure). An arrangement of fibers – guided with some tutoring from Maureen about how to create certain shapes – went into the pie plate. More water, some work to squash the fibers flat, and then some fun. We rolled the trivet and threw it onto the dish drainer or table surface. Smack! Thump! Whap! and talk of the therapeutic benefits of throwing things with force. Next, rolled into the bubble wrap, we pressed and popped our way to interwoven fibers. And again, with “Just a little bit more,” we worked our way to the second project’s completion.



After cleaning our work spaces, we ventured out into Maureen’s pasture to see her latest born alpaca. The youngsters were friendly and well beyond cute. While we cavorted with the animals, Maureen’s husband picked up our lunches, and we ended the clinic with a picnic in the pasture.


A huge thank you to Maureen Macedo for her talents, preparation, and patience. The day ended with two lovely felted products (just in time for Christmas!), a day outside with friends, and the satisfaction of having learned something new. A day definitely well spent!


HAIRBALLS WHAT EVERY LLAMA OWNER NEEDS TO KNOW by Chela Grey, Stillpointe Sanctuary First of all, YES, llamas can get hairballs. These hairballs can be lethal. Last August, we lost our lovely boy of 14 months, Royal, to what amounted to a giant hairball. As llamas will do, he showed no real signs of anything being wrong until about two weeks before we took him to Pilchuck Veterinary Hospital in Snohomish, WA, to find out why “all of a sudden,” he was showing a lot of interest in food, but seemed not to be eating much. He would run for the hay and pellets, but lose interest after one or two swallows. He was also spending a lot of time at the poo pile with very scanty results. When this gentle soul, who had never spit (that I knew of) and was very mannerly around people, spit right in my face with no provocation whatsoever, I knew something was very wrong. Our vet at Pilchuck noticed immediately that Royal’s mid-section seemed bloated — isn’t is amazing how we can miss such obvious things when we are around our llamas almost all the time — and asked the usual questions about eating and drinking and pooing habits. I filled her in on all I could, and we decided on a blood draw first. There was nothing out of the ordinary. Next came an ultrasound, which revealed a mass in the upper intestine right next to the third stomach compartment. Then an x-ray, which confirmed a solid appearing mass. By this time (two days into his hospital stay), Royal was in obvious discomfort. He tried several times to poo, and at best, could only produce two or three “beans.” WE had brought a buddy for him the second day to see if smelling another poo pile would help him, and give him a familiar face to keep him company. He did indeed “assume the position” when his buddy made the pile, at to no avail. It was quite obvious that Royal was very frustrated, and more and more uncomfortable. 12

The vet had been consulting on a daily basis with the doctors at the veterinary hospital at Washington State University. They reached a consensus, and it was not good. With Royal’s behavior — he was now kicking at his tummy and humming a lot — the x-ray, ultrasound and hands-on exams, the logical next step would be abdominal surgery to attempt to remove the blockage. However, the prognosis for such a step that it was almost certainly a futile attempt. The mass was so close to the third stomach chamber that to bring the intestine out to remove it would be next to impossible. If they were to attempt to remove the blockage within the abdominal cavity. It was 99.9% certain that bacteria would be released, resulting in peritonitis. Taking him home and attempting to break their blockage loose with the use of enemas, special liquid feedings (tubing) several times a day or leaving him in the hospital while the vets did all that was not only probably futile, but also a painful and difficult experience for Royal. And then of course there is always the cost. Even if we had unlimited funds, it was my opinion that putting the little guy through all that was terribly unkind. And so we opted to let him go over the Rainbow Bridge. We had a necropsy performer, and it was indeed an almost solid mass of llama hair interspersed with a very few hay seeds and strands. Of course, I kept asking what we could have done to detect his coming on, and the answer kept being “nothing that we know of.” We were also told that this problem has begun to show up in young llamas more and more. No one is addressing it much because no one know what to do about it, if anything. We were told not to blame ourselves. There was nothing we did or did not do that made any difference. Llamas, especially youngsters, love to run and chase and play with the others. They like to nip at other butts and chests practicing for being big guys fighting. Also, it may start with nursing. If the mom is not short-wooled or is not shorn in the spots where the cria goes after the milk, they can ingest hair that way. I know for certain, whenever I see hair in a llama’s mouth, I remove it! I also know that from now on, when one of our llamas is pregnant, we will shear her at least in the “armpits” so the baby won’t have to go through a “forest” to get the milk bar. I also know I will never quite forgive myself for not being able to do do something for that beloved, beautiful boy. (reprinted from a previous LANA newsletter) 13

Alaska U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Camelid Prohibi:on Update by Phil Nuechterlein

Endangered Ac:vity - Llama Trekking on Public Lands - Photo by Linda Nuechterlein

Background As long:me camelid owners may recall, back in the mid 1990’s Canyonlands Na:onal Park (NPS-Utah) had proposed a camelid prohibi:on that was based on a perceived threat of disease transmission to wildlife. Consequently, the camelid owner/veterinary community at the :me felt it had no other op:on than to ini:ate a lawsuit. The U.S. Secretary of the Interior was named as a defendant because NPS is a U.S. Department of Interior (DOI) agency. Faced with the lawsuit, NPS quickly changed its posi:on and the disease issue was seRled out of court exonera:ng camelids as a disease threat. Now, 14

More than 20 years later, another DOI agency, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in Alaska has decided to prohibit camelids in the Arc:c Na:onal Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) on the basis that they are a disease threat to wildlife. Nothing has changed since the Canyonlands NPS lawsuit in that no scien:fic evidence has ever been iden:fied by any DOI agency that would incriminate pack camelids as a disease threat to wildlife. In spite of the camelid community's public comments with suppor:ng scien:fic evidence, and expert tes:mony by Dr. Kutzler, the USFWS promulgated a final rule effec:ve August 31, 2020 that prohibits the use of camelids in ANWR. Here's a link to the final rule on the Federal Register hRps:// The USFWS ANWR Lawsuit Because the August 2020 ANWR camelid prohibi:on was a final rule with no opportunity to appeal, the camelid community felt it had no other op:on but to again file a lawsuit. The USFWS final rule is in direct conflict with the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) posi:on that does not iden:fy camelids as a disease threat to wildlife. ADF&G has the staff and the resources to properly evaluate any risk. ADF&G manages the wildlife in the ANWR jurisdic:on. The ANWR decision is federal overreach in that they are overriding the official State of Alaska posi:on on the camelid disease issue. The precedent segng decision in ANWR will undoubtedly trigger more camelid prohibi:ons in other government jurisdic:ons. Camelid owners in Arizona and Utah have already been denied commercial packing permits by federal agencies that are perceiving camelids as a wildlife disease threat. With this latest USFWS-ANWR decision, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM – also a DOI agency) may perceive this as a green light to proceed with camelid prohibi:ons that could be included in planning documents that are forthcoming in 2021. BLM has already revealed their inten:on to prohibit camelids in some Alaska jurisdic:ons. This ANWR decision will undoubtedly spread to other Alaska and lower 48 government agencies and harm the en:re industry by iden:fying camelids as a wildlife disease threat. The Greater Appalachian Llama and Alpaca Associa:on (GALA) agreed to earmark funds to ini:ate a lawsuit against the USFWS/DOI. GALA selected a law firm with aRorneys having both veterinary exper:se and legal experience with federal agencies. The Interna:onal Llama Registry recently contributed funds to GALA toward the lawsuit. The law firm has iden:fied both USFWS procedural errors in implemen:ng the ANWR camelid prohibi:on as well as the lack of scien:fic evidence to support a camelid disease threat. A funding campaign has been ini:ated to help pay for legal fees hRps:// All contribu:ons go directly to GALA. The law firm felt that it was important to name Alaska residents as plain:ffs as they are directly affected by the ANWR decision. That is why Phil and Linda Nuechterlein are named as plain:ffs, as they are Alaska residents that have historically used pack llamas in ANWR since the mid 1980’s. The complaint was filed in U.S. District Court in Washington, D.C. on October 28, 2020. hRps:// view USFWS has 60 days from the date that the complaint was filed to respond.


ALLERGIES IN LLAMAS AND ALPACAS by Murray E. Fowler, DVM University of California, Davis (from a LANA Expo presentation)

What comes to mind when you think of allergies? Do you relate it to your own allergies (sneezing, coughing, difficult breathing, itching, hives, skin rash, tearing, swollen irritated eyes)? Do these or other reactions occur in llamas and alpacas? One would have to say yes, but rarely and under unique circumstances. What is an allergy? Webster says, “It is an exaggerated reaction to substances, situations or physical states that are without comparable effects on the average individual.” Or, “an altered body reactivity to an antigen in response to a first exposure.” If you want to impress people at a cocktail party, recite the definition from Dorland’s medical dictionary, “A state of hypersensitivity induced by exposure to a particular antigen (allergen) resulting in harmful immunologic reactions on subsequent exposure.” Vaccination is a type of allergic reaction. The vaccine (antigen) is injected into the animal and the body’s response is to produce antibodies. When the vaccinated animal is exposed to the real infectious agent, the antibodies essentially attack the organisms and destroy them. For the next few minutes, I’ll talk about the allergies in animals and people and relate this to llamas and alpacas. I’ll try to answer some questions, such as: Why allergies? How do animals develop allergies? When do animals develop allergies? Are there special places more prone to allergies? How can allergies be prevented in llamas and alpacas? What conditions are not allergies? The difference between an allergic response and a toxic effect. Why allergies? Are allergies with us to vex us and our animals? Not necessarily. Initially the so-called allergic response is an attempt on the part of the body to try to contain and destroy a foreign substance that gets into the body. It is a protective mechanism, that becomes overpowered and then causes problems. The allergy process The skin and membranes of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract and conjunctival 16

sacs of the eyes form a barrier to prevent foreign substances (bacteria, viruses, fungi, foreign protein (allergens) from gaining access to the body. The allergic response is part of that process. Just consider allergens in genetically prone animals for the moment. The first time an allergen comes in contact with the skin or mucous membrane, a flag goes up and forces are mobilized within the body. Special cells are attracted to the area and these cells become sensitized to that allergen. The next time the allergen comes along, those cells rush to the site and in the process of trying to prevent invasion into the body set up an irritation at the site which may produce the signs of allergy. We are all used to seeing the signs of allergy either in ourselves or others, but we have to recognize that other animals may react to allergens in a different manner. The allergic response, particularly in people, has a genetic component. People are susceptible to hundreds if not thousands of allergen which do not affect animals. Why? Because people have a genetic predisposition to develop allergies. We have all seen people who are totally disabled during the season that olive trees or ragweed are flowering. There is a good possibility that one of their parents had the same problem. So the keys to the allergic response is that the animal must first be exposed to a substance, certain cells become hyper-sensitized and subsequent exposure may bring on an unpleasant response. 1. Inhalation – During certain times of the year, the newspapers and TV stations provide information on pollen counts. Pollens are produced by male flowers and may be moved to a female flower by becoming airborne. People who inhale certain pollens may be affected. 2. Touching – Contact with poison oak produces a serious rash in many people. 3. Ingestion – Again, people may develop an allergic response to certain kinds of food. Not every food aversion is an allergy. Sometimes the body lacks enzymes or other substances to process food properly. 4. Injection – People and animals may develop an allergy to certain medications (serious and sometime fatal reactions to penicillin or other antibodies) ALLERGIC CONDITIONS IN LLAMAS AND ALPACAS Dark Nose Syndrome (Dorsal Nasal Alopecia) This condition is characterized by lack of fiber over the bridge of the nose (alopecia). It is more common in dark skinned animals but may be seen in light skinned animals. The skin may be normal or be thickened, darker than surrounding skin and scaly. Close observation may reveal that the animal rubs the nose on the ground or other objects in the environment.


Although trauma may be the cause of hair loss, this is a classic fly-bite allergy. Flies are attracted to the dark skin because it is warmer. The irritation to the skin caused by the flies stimulates the animal to try to scratch the area. The problem abates during the nonfly season. Other animals may have an allergic reaction to fleas or other insects. Some of the you may have had a dog that develops a “hot spot” at the base of the tail. This is often a flea bite allergy. The fleas may actually be at another location on the body. I’ve seen that same reaction in wolves and foxes. Generalized scratching (pruritis) The condition is characterized by generalized scratching without irritation being present on the skin, unless the llama has rubbed a spot raw by the scratching. Fiber may or may not accompany the scratching. Often, this is seasonal during the warm months. Remember that certain kinds of scratching (using a hind foot to scratch the front legs or even the head) is normal behavior in llamas and alpacas, but when the animal tries to scratch the body or rubs against fences, posts or structures, that animal needs to be examined. Other conditions that would have to be considered in a diagnosis would include mange, lice or ringworm. Cases suspected of being an allergy are usually treated with corticosteroids, which may stop the scratching quickly. This is why such cases are suspected of being an allergy. There are many skin conditions that plague llamas and alpacas. Some of these should be ruled-out by diagnostic tests before saying: “It’s an allergy.” How to tell if a condition is an allergy 1. The clinical signs – skin rash, itching, scratching 2. Response to treatment – antihistamines, corticosteroids 3. Ruling out other skin diseases Some laboratory test may help to confirm clinical impressions 4. Microscopic examination of a segment of the affected skin 5. Blood tests (IgE, IgG) 6. Intradermal skin tests Allergies are a complex problem. In human medicine there are specialists who only deal with allergic conditions. It is easy to say that if you can’t find any other cause of the clinical conditions associated with allergies, blame it on to an allergy an treat accordingly. Animals are less likely to have allergic reactions than are humans, but they do. As an example: A good friend of mine had a bull calf that he wanted to castrate and dehorn. I went to the ranch and performed the surgery, then felt inclined to give tetanus antitoxin serum because this was a horse ranch. Tetanus organisms are commonly associated with horses. I administered the serum, hopped into my care and drove away. Within five minutes, my radio crackled, asking me to hurry back to the ranch. When I got back the calf 18

was dead. It had died from an anaphylactic response to the horse serum because horses were used to produce the antitoxin. Lest you say, “no more tetanus vaccination,” may I explain some ters. Tetanus antitoxin serum is produced by repeated injection of minute amounts of the tetanus toxin into horses and then harvesting the serum. The antitoxin serum is used for immediate protection against possible tetanus infection. The effect only lasts for two or three weeks. The product used in llamas and alpacas to vaccinate against tetanus is Tetanus Toxoid. It is not produced in horses and won’t cause an allergic response. The animal is protected for a year or more. Difference between an allergy and a toxic reaction Sometimes it is difficult to differentiate the two, because they present the same clinical picture. As an example: Lutalyse is a drug used to treat various reproductive disorders. Llamas seem to be quite sensitive to this drug, so caution must be used when administering it. If the does is slightly too high the bronchial tubes constrict and may eventually suffocate the animal. The signs and reaction are identical to what happens in anaphylactic shock, but in the case of lutalyse, it is the direct toxic effect of the drug and not an allergic reaction. People brushing past stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) break off the tip of stiff plant hairs which penetrate the skin and inject toxin. Reactions vary from no effect to a sharp pain to large red welts, but the retain is to a toxin and not an allergic reaction. Some human allergies People become allergic to many different plants. If you look at a book on plants poisonous to people, half of the plants listed will cause an allergic response in a segment of the population. Animals are less likely to have plant related allergies, but it shouldn’t be written off as not possible. Poison Oak This is the most common contact allergy in people in the United States. A significant rash is produced in people who are sensitive to the oil (urushiol) found in the leaves, roots, stems and immature fruits of one of the following shrubs or vines: Poison Oak (Toxicodendron Diversiloba), found along the west coast of North America. Poison Ivy (Toxicodendron Radicans), found east of the Rocky Mountains. Poison Sumac (Toxicodendron Vernix), found in ore restricted habitats in the eastern U.S. Ten minutes after contact with the plant, the oil will have penetrated the skin and begin the allergic response. People and some non-human primates react to the plant, but other animals do not. Goats and llamas are actually used to brush-off poison oak stands. First the stand must be cut back, then the llamas will deftly eat the new leaves. Eventually the 19

bush or vine will die. The only problem is that llamas and other companion animals get the oily substance on their hair or fiber coat and can bring it back to expose their owners. Fecal pellet may also have poison oak oil in them. Bee Stings Most people experience a sharp pain when a bee stings them. Many will get a variablysized welt surrounding a black dot. That black dot is the stinger that is left behind after the bee stings. The honey bee actually commits suicide when it stings a victim because its abdomen is now open to infection. Obviously, the honey bee can only sting once were as hornets, yellow jackets and wasps have no barbs on the stinger, which allows them to pull out the stinger and sting again. By the way, if that stinger is squeezed to try to try to remove it, more venom will be pumped into the victim. Unfortunately, a small percentage of people have an acute allergic response, called anaphylactic shock, to a bee sting. Within minutes after a sting they begin to experience difficulty in breathing and if not treated quickly they will suffocate and die (300 to 400 people die every year from bee stings). People who know they have that kind of sensitivity to bee stings carry a vial of epinephrine (adrenaline) around with them all the time because there isn’t time to seek medical help. Antihistamines and corticosteroids do not act quickly enough to counter a bee sting allergy. Animals rarely have anaphylactic shock, especially from a bee sting. However, llamas alpacas could get a systemic reaction to multiple bee stings, such as when disturbing a hive of bees or paper wasp next when they are tied up and can’t run away. That is a toxic reaction to the bee venom, not an allergic response. How about the African Killer Bee? Actually, it is a variety of the European Honey Bee and is no more toxic than a European Honey Bee, but the Killer Bee is much more aggressive and will chase a victim for some distance and he invites all his friends to join in. Miscellaneous thoughts We know virtually nothing about food allergies in llama and alpacas. Certainly, they may thrive on plants, such as poison oak, that cause special challenges to people. Allergic reactions are rare in llamas and alpacas but do occur. We may be missing some of these because animals many not show their allergies like we expect to see in people. Remember that basically the allergic response is an attempt to help the animal or person but things go awry and problems develop.


WELCOME NEW MEMBERS Kathryn Fickes Colleyville, Texas

Jeff and Tammy Smith Red Ryder Ranch Woodland, California

THANK YOU to the LANA members who renewed for 2021


LANA and Morris Animal Foundation This is LANA's 35th year working with Morris Animal Foundation (MAF). LANA currently has over $173,000 in the MAF research endowment. Since its inception, LANA has funded research projects more than $200,000 on: 1. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of oral omeprazole in camelids. 2. The development of a quantitative method of assessing insulin sensitivity in camelids. 3. Stimulation testing in healthy and sick camelids. 4. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and intramuscular tramadol in camelids. 5. Comparative effects of plasma and hetastarch on the colloid osmotic pressure in camelids. 6. The investigation of Eimeria macusaniensisSalmonella co-infections in camelids. 7. Improving the camelid genome sequence assembly to allow efficient discovery of the underlying genetic causes of diseases, disorders, and traits. 8. The clinical pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in camelids for the treatment of valley fever. If you feel LANA’s continued contribution to camelid research is important, please renew you LANA membership.



LANA provided $19,793.63 to fund this project in 2020


Establishing Effective Antifungal Medication Dosing in Alpacas Lisa F. Shubitz, DVM, University of Arizona, D19LA-005 RESULTS: Antifungal medication dosing recommendations for Valley Fever in alpacas. Morris Animal Foundation-funded researchers at the University of Arizona established dosing recommendations for the anti fungal medication fluconazole, a treatment for coccidioidomycosis or Valley Fever, in alpacas. Alpacas living in the southwestern United States are at risk of infection caused by the fungus Coccidioides, endemic in the soil in parts of this region. Infection is acquired by inhaling spore-laden dust. Primary infection begins as a respiratory infection but often spreads throughout the alpaca’s body, causing severe disease. Affected alpacas are treated with the anti fungal medication fluconazole. Although fluconazole is used effectively to treat coccidioidomycosis in many other species, including humans, alpacas absorb oral medications less efficiently which could lead to treatment failure. After studying the drug by taking several blood samples over a period of time from client-owned alpacas, the team recommends testing plasma levels after two weeks and adjusting dosages if necessary, to ensure therapeutic levels; about one-third of the study animals had unpredictably low drug absorption. In addition to the pharmacokinetic data, the team discovered subclinical disease in three of 13 alpacas (23%) screened for enrollment in the study. This finding highlights the prevalence of Valley Fever in Arizona and the need for screening procedures to help detect early disease. Findings from this study provided clinical guidelines for fluconazole in alpacas and may help inform treatment recommendations for other systemic fungal diseases in the species. Thank you to the Llama Association of North America for you generous sponsorship fo this study!



One of the most positive attributes of the lama is the “versatility” of this exquisite animal. This year LANA wants you to think and promote the Versatility of the Llama.

As the famous Johnny Mercer song lyrics proclaim: “You’ve Got to Accentuate the Positive” Llamas produce outstanding fiber. If you haven’t previously engaged into the fiber arts, this may be the time to take a class and learn about what outstanding fiber our llamas are producing. Make this the year you promote your llama’s fiber. Enter a Llama Fleece Show. The llama’s fiber is produced through several building blocks. Genetics are a vital component; however, proper nutrition and environmental factors are all part of the equation. Do something creative with your llama’s shorn fleece. Show off and promote llama creations from socks to blankets. Hats, yearn , felted embellishments, knitted, crochet, woven; and don’t forget the batting for the quilts or the stuffing for you pack gear or pillows. Llamas are excellent pack animals and trail companions. Even if you are not an avid camper, there is nothing like hiking with llamas and letting them carry the load. Llamas are excellent pack animals and are relatively easy to train. It is important that you use the proper equipment (pack saddle and gear) that fits your llama’s body, and that the equipment is properly utilized so that the animal is comfortable. If you need help learning to pack with your llama, there are private and group training classes available. The Alpaca Llama Show Association (ALSA) offers Novice Pack, Advanced Pack, Master Pack and Open Pack where the llama can earn Recognition Merit points. Additionally, the Pack Llama Trial Association (PLTA) offers “Pack Trials” at various locations where you can earn levels of achievement by competing against a standard. Llamas can earn a Basic, Advanced, Master, Extreme and Pack String Llama titles. Llamas are beautiful and elegant in Halter. Nothing is more beautiful and breathtaking to watch then a structurally correct, elegant llama moving gracefully in the show ring during a halter class. If you are not sure of what the judge is looking for, take a training class or clinic. There is no greater investment


education. In the current edition of the ALSA Handbook, the Llama Halter Judging Criteria are listed as follows, “Judging is to be done on a comparative basis using the lists of positive and negative traits and the list of serious faults.” The positive and negative traits are listed as well. For more in-depth analysis of positive and negative structural traits read Medicine and Surgery of the South American Camelids, by Murray E. Fowler, DVM.

Eliminate the Negative” Let’s be positive about our industry. For all os us that are committed to our llamas, nothing is more important than to be focused positively for the future. Breeding with a purpose is important, and the llamas of North America are no being bred for a variety of uses…thus the importance of versatility in the marketing of our llama industry. “Llama Versatility” receives the most acknowledgeable validation in the show ring when judging is done on a comparative basis. In Versatility, the llama must compete in a combination of classes designed to accurately evaluate sores in Halter, Fleece and Performance. Just as Versatility Champion horses and dogs command increased value, so should our llamas. What a great way to positively promote our industry through promotion fo the “Versatility Llama.”

Latch onto the Affirmative” Start promoting the versatility of your llamas. Now is the time to “Latch onto the Affirmative.” This year LANA is helping to promote formal recognition of the “Versatility Llama” by sponsoring the Llama Versatility Jackpot Championship Awards at the 2010 ALSA Grand National Llama Show. Halter, Fleece and Performance are all important aspects of the llama’s versatility and broad spectrum appeal. Llamas are highly intelligent animals. What more wonderful way to promote llamas, our industry and have a wonderful time doing something fun than to compete with your llamas in Versatility. You have plenty of time to start preparing your llamas. (Side note: LANA sponsored the Versatility Jackpot Championship at the ALSA Nationals for 10 years. The other shows that offer similar competitions. Perhaps it’s something you might like add to your show) article from a previous LANA newsletter 25

to our Wonderful Sponsors

THANK YOU! LANA appreciates your Support and Generosity Due to COVID, LANA cancelled many events and shows. Special show editions of the LANA newsletter were not published. Because of that, there were less opportunities for our sponsors’ ads to be viewed. To further show our appreciation to our wonderful sponsors, we are including their ads in the 2021 newsletters. Thank you again!










Issuu converts static files into: digital portfolios, online yearbooks, online catalogs, digital photo albums and more. Sign up and create your flipbook.