YIRAN LI 901144
I prefer drawing to talking . Drawing is faster and leaves less room for lies.
Hi, I’m Yiran, a third year architecture student in the Univer¬sity of Melbourne. Like what Le Corbusier said, I’m more of a doer than a talker. I like to translate my ideas into 3D sketches, so that they are clear and can be easily interpreted. Also, drawing in 3D helps me to visualize things better. “A drawing is worth a thousand words.” Design is not just about passion and experience, it is about communication. There are thousands of languages in the world, however I use drawing to tell others about my design language. Instead of using words, I use sketches or digital drawings to convey message to other people.
“ Without sustain-ability neither we nor have a future.
Nowadays the resources on earth are very limited, our planet system are negatively changing due to human activities. Do we really have a liveable environment for our future? Like Tony Fry said, “we only have a future by design1 “. The architecture is at the state of invoking to changes, architects should consider the sustain-ability of architecture in the future. The design we have now is suitable for the present environment, but climate are changing. Architects need to think beyond the changes. If we want to have a sustainable future, we need to re-direct ourselves towards a far more sustainable mode of planetary habitation2.
Now we are moving to a new age called “digital design”.I think that exploring more about computational design can make the future better. As Dunne said, “to find inspiration for speculating through design we need to look beyond design to the methodological playgrounds of cinema, literature, science… 3” We can learn design from our daily lives, like how Biomimetic Principles have been introduce in design. During the air studio, ‘Silk pavilion design’ by MIT Media Lab was used as a case study to show how computational design interacts with nature biologically and robot fabrication.
1.Fry,Tony, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice ( Oxford:Berg,2008). pp.1-16 2.Fry.p.6 3.Dunne, Anthony &Raby,Fiona, Speculative Everything:Design Fiction ,and Social Dreaming (MIT Press,2013) pp.3
A.1.1 ICD-ITKE Research Pavilion 2016-17 Architects : ICD/ITKE University of Stuttgart Location: Stuttgart, Germany Project Year :2017
Fig.1 Â©Burggraf/ Reichert
This project is a research pavilion exploring building-scale fabrication of glass and carbon fibre-reinforced composites.1. The pavilion was built by a team of architects, engineers and biologists. They take full advantage of this fibre composite material which is lightweight and its span. This type of material is highly used in other industries, but has yet to be developed in architecture. Robots are used to ensure the accuracy of the work and the UAV which have the ability to move uninhibited (Fig.2). They combined these new technologies and test a new kind of material and I think the product was very impressive. They were studied the leaf miner moths. The larva of the moth can spin on a curve leaf to make a “hammock” on it (Fig.4). This project clearly demonstrated the potential of fibre composites materials. The use of robots and UAV can save a lot of time and improve the veracity. ICD-ITKE has been doing this kind of pavilion for several years. They were inspired biologically and innovated their work further with material science, construction design and digital design. Back in 2011, they used plywood to build the research pavilion which was inspired from sea urchin. Every year they try something new and test out the material’s
© ICD/ITKE University of Stuttgart
© ICD/ITKE University of Stuttgart
adaptively and plastically. They are showing the potential of the combination of biological and computation design. I never thought that the strategy of biological design can be use in construction, we should learn from nature and dream bigger. When people have desire they will have the impetus to do it.
1 ”ICD-ITKE Research Pavilion 2016-17 / ICD/ITKE University of Stuttgart” 18 Apr 2017. ArchDaily. Accessed 28 Jul 2018. <https://www.archdaily. com/869450/icd-itke-research-pavilion-2016-17-icd-itke-university-of-stuttgart/> ISSN 0719-8884
Fig.4 © ICD/ITKE University of Stuttgart
Fig.5 ©Laurian Ghinitoin
A.1.2 HygroSkin-Meteorosensitive Pavilion Architects : Achim Menges Architect, Oliver David Krieg , Steffen Reichert Location: France Project Year :2013
Fig.1 ÂŠICD University of Stuttgart
This pavilion is about climate-responsiveness in architecture1. The architecture will respond to the climate change without the machine to control it. There is no external energy to support the building. The “window” on the façade will open up depending on the humidity. From the diagram on the right side, the higher the humidity level, the bigger the opening of the window. Humidity changes from 30% to 90%. The “windows” will adjust the brightness and air flow of the interior. Biomimetic Principle became more and more common in architecture. In this pavilion, they study the spruce cone’s behaviour, study how it transforms during humidity change. It don’t spend energy to respond to the climate, it also don’t rely on external force. Spruce cone just self-respond to the surrounding environment, they will need to absorb moisture to make themselves consistent with the surrounding humidity.
Fig.2 Process -responsive component ©ICD University of Stuttgart
The design team are using computation and test of the plywood‘s adaptation. The project have the high-precision, they use computation design to get the pavilion form, they use robot to fabricate the plywood models. To study of the material behaviour combine with the computational design, it’s explode more possibility of the future. This project show the performance materials, the design team study of the ancient materials and use biometric principle to make the material “intelligent”. The natural resource is limit in the Earth, It’s important that to develop the materials.
1 “HygroSkin-Meteorosensitive Pavilion / Achim Menges Architect + Oliver David Krieg + Steffen Reichert” 09 Sep 2013. ArchDaily. Accessed 5 Aug 2018. <https://www.archdaily.com/424911/ hygroskin-meteorosensitive-pavilion-achim-menges-architect-incollaboration-with-oliver-david-krieg-and-steffen-reichert/> ISSN 0719-8884
â€œWhen architect have a sufficient under-standing of algorithmic concepts, when we no longer need to discuss the digital as something different , then computation can become a true method of design for architecture. - BRADY PETERS
Computation design is a new form of digital design thinking by changing the values to control the geometric forms. It is a new way to transform design ideas. Computation never gets tired and they do not make mistake, they are faster than human production. However, they do not have the ability of creativeness, and requires the use of our creative work with those geometric forms1.Digital design has been developed and evolved in recent year. Now, fabrication design has also contributed to architecture design. Architects are inspired from nature, learn biologically and combine it with digital design. “This is an age in which digitally informed design can actually produce a second nature.”2
As Kalay mention in Architecture’s New Media, design process have four phases, namely Problem analysis, Solution synthesis, Evaluation and Communication. I think design is more interesting in the process and it does not only emphasize on the results. During the design process, we will identify the problems and provide a solution for it. Design processes are more dominant in a project. I think that computation design is a tool to help the designer think “out of the box.” The designer tend to form the pattern of thinking and providing solution, but computation design is to provide another way to process, which indicate that form may not really need to follows function.
1Yehuda E.kalay, “Architecture’s New Media :Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer- Aided Design” ,(Cambridge,MA: MIT Press,2014).pp.5-25. 2 Rivka Oxman and robert Oxman,eds,” Theories of the Digital in Architecture”(London;New York :Routledge,2014).pp.1-10.
A.2.1 Museo Soumaya Architects : FR-EE / Fernando Romero EnterprisE Location: Mexico Project Year : 2011
Fig.1Â© Rafael Gamo
The Soumaya Museum is located in Mexico and is a unique architecture in the city. The Museum is a large scale architecture, the whole building is like an organic and asymmetrical sculpture. Due to the asymmetry shape of the building, each visitor can have a different experience from different perspective. Due to the architectural complex, the interior also need to match up with the exterior .Nowadays the architecture become more complex, as a designer we should learn and work with this kind of complex. From Fig.2 is that they use software to show node data extraction on each panel. Fig.3 shows the concept model of this museum, we can see the generation ideas of the museum. They used the parametric modelling techniques to figure out how many percent of hexagonal belong to the most curved zone, and how many belong to the regular zone.1 The exterior is a double curved surface and the red colour structure in fig. 5 is the steel column .The whole project required complex computational technology. This is an example to show how new possibilities are used to build an architecture form. Computation design is help architect to formulate and envision the form. I am fascinated by the building, like how the surface is composed by hexagonal which is a regular geometry shape and still can make the perfect curve of the building.
1 Fernando Romero and Armando Ramos. Computation works: The builing of algorithmic thought,(Artmedia,London,2013).pp.67-69 2. Fig1-5 , Museo Soumaya / FR-EE Fernando Romero Enterprise" 28 Nov 2013. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 Aug 2018. <https://www.archdaily. com/452226/museo-soumaya-fr-ee-fernando-romero-enterprise/> ISSN 0719-8884
A.2.2 Digital Grotesque II Architects : Michael Hansmeyer and Benjamin Dillenburger. Project Year : 2017
This 3d printed grotto is designed by Michael Hansmeyer design team .Michael is an architect who used computation to generate and fabricate architectural forms. In computation design, the digital program can provide thousands of solutions for design, but how we know which one is the best solution for all of us? In this case the design team invite 100 volunteers to train the computer. Volunteers are required to watch some images, then the computer will calculate and analyse the user’s preferences. After a while the computer will build out the abstract geometric form that have emotion res- Fig.2 onance with human. I am fascinated by the shape of the structure, as it’s very detailed and full of richness in form exploration. The structure has a white coat on the structure surface which is to help the structure to be more stable and ensures the surface is smoother.
They are using algorithmic called mesh-grammars. By Fig.3 using this input to produces multiple output. We can only design what we are thinking. We cannot handle complex form or mathematics design. Hence, computation and digital fabrication are useful tools to allow the architect to process more attractive architecture forms. From fig 3, we are able to see how accurate detail that digital fabricate can do. They add sandstone in 3d printing, which is new to the architecture printing, if we develop more on this type of printing, it may help to restore the historic architecture.1
Fig.4 1 DIGITAL GROTESQUE – TOWARDS A MICRO-TECTONIC ARCHITECTURE, http://saj.rs/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/ SAJ-2013-02-M-Hansmeyer-B-Dillenburger.pdf 2 fig1-4 https://www.archdaily.com/868540/this-mysterious-3d-printed-grotto-challenges-boundaries-of-computational-geometry-and-human-perception
Computational designers are more than just creators of complex 3D models or the developers of digital tools - BRADY PETERS
Brady peters talked about “computerization" in ‘computation works’. The designer usually practice and process their design process in their mind.1‘‘Computation means the digital design is not only a tool to present the design idea, it’s also a process thinking .The designer uses code to adjust their design to get their ideal form. Brady peters also talk about “Algorithmic thinking”.2 Nowadays a lot of designers are using code and computation to design the architecture. When they share this code to others, the other designers can use this code to develop more, to explore more of the computation design. It’s like a code library, designers can share their algorithmic thought. Computational design can simulate the material performance and also to test out the physical properties of the structure .It give the designer’s an opportunity to practice . The designer can get feedback through this kind of practice .Therefore, the designer can increase efficiency and also get better communication in the industry. Generation design can be generate from image, natural or object form our daily life .They set a rule then using computation to design it. Generation is a design method to explore form.
Brady peters, “Computation works -The Building of Algorithmic thought” ,(John Wiley & Sons, 2013).pp.10-15. 2 Peters.P11.
A.3.1 Data MoirĂŠ Architects : Synthesis Design + Architecture Location: San Francisco, USA Project Year : 2016
This project is an interior wall in Watson Experience center. This project wants to show how data can affect our built environments1. Those complex patterns on the panel is representing the data from our mobile phones. The designer uses his own database to create those patterns on the panel. To use the parametric modelling out the massive data. Due to the large amount of data, human is unable to analyse that, hence we need to rely on computation design. The wall is a spiral shape to allow users to experience the space. It’s an abstract way to allow users to read the statistical and data analysis. The two layer panel is made by aluminium. From diagram Fig.2, we can see that they use voronoi pattern for the exterior layer, for the interior layer, they used Delaunay pattern which is more complicated. By combing those two layers, it makes the project complete. The wall give a moiré effect due to the patterns changing on the panel. So the visitors can have a visual experience while they are moving in front of the wall.
They light up the area between this two layers. I think that is able to attract more people into the wall. After the users get into wall, they are still surrounded by the complex pattern panels, just like us, where we are surrounded by digital network daily. The project idea is generated from the data, instead of showing how the mundane and wordy data statistics are, they are showing the digital mapping by using architecture. It’s an alternate way to present ideas.
Fig.4. 1 Isabella Baranyk. "Big Data Becomes Architecture in This CNC-Milled Screen Wall for IBM" 29 Apr 2017. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 Aug 2018. <https://www. archdaily.com/870095/big-data-becomes-architecture-in-this-cnc-milled-screen-wallfor-ibm/> ISSN 0719-8884 2 Fig1-4, "Big Data Becomes Architecture in This CNC-Milled Screen Wall for IBM" 29 Apr 2017. ArchDaily.
A.3.2 Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport - Terminal 2 Architects : SOM Location: India Project Year : 2014
Fig.1Â© Rafael Gamo
This International Airport Terminal is located at Mumbai, India. Due to the high technology and elegant of the structure, it became the landmark of Mumbai. The designer draw inspiration from lotus, as seen in fig 5.The roof of the Terminal become an art sculpture, which allow visitors to experience the local culture. This flowing roof is throughout the whole airport, forming a continuous design language.
The design team used complex algorithmic in the architecture. This large scale architecture is build up by computation design too. The shape spread out from the column. Each geometric shapes flow to different directions. From Fig.3, we can see that the construction is very complex. As Peter mention “Architecture is currently experiencing a shift from the drawing to the algorithm as the method of capturing and communicating designs.”1 We are at the new stage of design, design can use algorithm to communicate the ideas. The designer can use cad, grasshopper and other software to produce their idea. Back the old days, we only can sketch out our ideas, but now we can use algorithm to build the larger and complex architecture like this airport terminal.
1 Brady peters, “Computation works -The Building of Algorithmic thousght” ,(John Wiley & Sons, 2013).pp.10-15. 2 Fig1-5 , Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport - Terminal 2 / SOM" 17 Feb 2014. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 Aug 2018. <https://www.archdaily.com/477107/chhatrapati-shivaji-international-airport-terminal-2-som/> ISSN 0719-8884
Fig.2 © Rafael Gamo
Fig.5 ©Adam Weisman
Conclusion Computation design is a tool for designer to transfer their idea in the real world. Sometime we are able use sketches to present our design ideas, but at times we are unable to sketch to present 3d model or the complex form of the design. Therefore, computation design becomes a very useful tool. Like this sketch (fig.2) from Frank Gehry of Disney concert hall, it is a rough sketch and we can only understand the basic form of it. Hence, we would need to use digital design to deal with this kind of complex form. Some designers prefer designing in computer programme. To achieve our sustainable future, we should develop more about recycle material, computation design and robot fabrication etc.
Fig.1 ÂŠ JRC/Alamy
Learning outcome At first I donâ€™ like computation design, I think design need to use sketch to produce our thinking, or built concept model to present our ideas. Computation design sounds too rigid to me. Because I think computation design is just about complex math, but after my research, I felt that its very useful and crucial to understand what computation design is. Through those precedent, we learnt about computation design, robot fabrication and sustainable materials. Those are very interesting topics to talk about. I think these topics can really change our future, and I hope I can learn more about these topics from this studio.
Fig.2 ÂŠFRANK GEHRY
BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.Fry,Tony, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice ( Oxford:Berg,2008).
2.Dunne, Anthony &Raby,Fiona, Speculative Everything:Design Fiction ,and Social Dreaming (MIT Press,2013)pp.3 3. ”ICD-ITKE Research Pavilion 2016-17 / ICD/ITKE University of Stuttgart” 18 Apr 2017. ArchDaily. Accessed 28 Jul 2018. <https://www.archdaily.com/869450/icd-itke-research-pavilion-2016-17-icd-itke-university-of-stuttgart/> ISSN 0719-8884 4.“HygroSkin-Meteorosensitive Pavilion / Achim Menges Architect + Oliver David Krieg + Steffen Reichert” 09 Sep 2013. ArchDaily. Accessed 5 Aug 2018. <https://www.archdaily.com/424911/hygroskin-meteorosensitive-pavilion-achim-menges-architect-in-collaboration-with-oliver-david-krieg-and-steffen-reichert/> ISSN 0719-8884 5.Yehuda E.kalay, “Architecture’s New Media :Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer- Aided Design” ,(Cambridge,MA: MIT Press,2014).pp.5-25. 6.Rivka Oxman and robert Oxman,eds,” Theories of the Digital in Architecture”(London;New York :Routledge,2014).pp.1-10. 7.Fernando Romero and Armando Ramos. Computation works: The builing of algorithmic thought,(Artmedia,London,2013).pp.67-69 8 .DIGITAL GROTESQUE – TOWARDS A MICRO-TECTONIC ARCHITECTURE, http://saj.rs/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/SAJ-2013-02-M-Hansmeyer-B-Dillenburger.pdf 9.Brady peters, “Computation works -The Building of Algorithmic thought” ,(John Wiley & Sons, 2013).pp.1015. 10.Isabella Baranyk. "Big Data Becomes Architecture in This CNC-Milled Screen Wall for IBM" 29 Apr 2017. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 Aug 2018. <https://www.archdaily.com/870095/big-data-becomes-architecture-in-thiscnc-milled-screen-wall-for-ibm/> ISSN 0719-8884 11.Brady peters, “Computation works -The Building of Algorithmic thousght” ,(John Wiley & Sons, 2013).pp.1015. IMAGE A2.1 Fig1-5 , Museo Soumaya / FR-EE Fernando Romero Enterprise" 28 Nov 2013. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 Aug 2018. <https://www.archdaily.com/452226/museo-soumaya-fr-ee-fernando-romero-enterprise/> ISSN 0719-8884 A2.2 fig1-4 https://www.archdaily.com/868540/this-mysterious-3d-printed-grotto-challenges-boundaries-ofcomputational-geometry-and-human-perception A3.1 Daily.
Fig1-4, "Big Data Becomes Architecture in This CNC-Milled Screen Wall for IBM" 29 Apr 2017. Arch-
A3.2 Fig1-5 , Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport - Terminal 2 / SOM" 17 Feb 2014. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 Aug 2018. <https://www.archdaily.com/477107/chhatrapati-shivaji-international-airport-terminal-2-som/> ISSN 0719-8884