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Fall Edition 2014 Volume XI

Transforming Teacher Education in the Twenty-First Century The Job of Every Child

Projects That Change the World African American Student Crisis Persists

The Education of Homeless Children Our Economic Engine Runs on STEAM Food for Thought: School Feeding Programmes Nourish Minds and Change Lives

Ferguson, Missouri

The Buzz on S.T.E.M. & S.T.E.A.M

STEM and Federal Policy (audio) Kelly Carnes, Esq. @TechVision21

President and CEO TechVision21

Living Education: Re-Defining The Narrative: Minority Students and STEM/STEAM William Jackson @wmjackson Dr. Nicki Washington @dr_nickiw Dr. Michael Robinson @DrMikeRobinson

Publisher’s Note Another academic season is here! It is that time of the year when class schedules, course assignments, lunch bags, boxes and pales; along with tuition payments and book buying are filling the minds of both students and parents. This is the time of year when children are bustling off to school in their newly purchased school clothes and freshly ironed school uniforms. It is back-to-school, the start of the 2014-2015 school year. In most places throughout America, schools have been up and running nearly non-stop for a month. This is an exciting time of the year for all of us who believe education is the great equalizer, and as such has a role in our everyday lives. Whether you have school age children or any children at all; this time of year should generate a sense of infinite possibilities, as we witness groups of children walking to school, waiting at the bus stop, or standing in line at the registrar’s office. It says to us all, there goes our future. There are the next leaders of this great country. It says to our spirit, the path to greatness for our country travels through our amazing schools, universities, colleges and their classrooms filled with students and their desire to learn. This time of year, for me brings back vivid memories when I used to walk to school with my sisters and brother and all our cousins. Back to School always makes me aware how wonderfully special those memories are to me and why the theme of education would remain a constant in my life. As my husband and our children preform our family’s morning rituals of preparing for school and work, I am sometimes melancholy knowing that these moments will become memories of another wonderfully special time as I continue on my life’s journey. But, I am equally excited to know, that our children will have memories of their own educational journey. It is safe to say, children have a way of making you remember what life is really about by simply being children. Now that school is back in secession once again families and countless communities have embraced their responsibility to ensure all children have safe environments where they can learn and thrive. It is our obligation to guarantee all communities have resources that will support the needs of children and their families. Decisions to close schools, grocery stores, decrease police presence should no longer be decided in silos; each of these resources are interconnected and create the fabric of a strong and healthy community and they all have an impact on the academic success of children. Let this academic season be a term of renewed commitment to do the hard work of listening for understanding. Let’s commit to considering completely the repercussion of decisions and how actions or inactions have lasting effect on children. Confirming equal access to infinite possibilities for all children and the communities they live in is what we must do.


ELLEN BASSUK, M.D. @EllenBassuk The Education of Homeless Children (p60) Ellen Bassuk, M.D. is founder of the Center for Social Innovation. She is a leading voice in the fight to end family homelessness in America and a pioneer in discovering the causes and solutions to this national tragedy. Her work as a clinical researcher has revealed the connections among poverty, homelessness, trauma, and mental illness. Dr. Bassuk received her B.A. from Brandeis University, M.D. from Tufts University School of Medicine, and an Honorary Doctor of Public Service from Northeastern University. As a Board Certified Psychiatrist, she is also an Associate Professor at Harvard Medical School, and was founder and president of The National Center on Family Homelessness.

JIM FERRELL @drjimferrell Why Standards are Necessary to Ensure Equity and Equality in Public Education (p54) Jim Ferrell grew up in southwestern Oklahoma where he attended a rural high school graduating in a class of 12 seniors. He attended college at Oklahoma City University where he received his Bachelor of Arts degree in history. He began teaching social studies and Spanish in the rural areas around Oklahoma City and later earned his Master of Arts degree in history from the University of Central Oklahoma. In 2008, Ferrell earned his Doctorate of Education degree from Oklahoma State University. During this same time period, he served as a middle school principal. In 2012, Dr. Ferrell made the move to higher education where he now serves as Department Chair for the Educational Leadership Department and the Program Chair for the School Administration Program at Northeastern State University in Tahlequah, Oklahoma. In addition to working throughout Oklahoma with school administrators, Dr. Ferrell also travels around the country conducting curriculum audits. These audits aid administrators, teachers, and other stakeholders in offering the best learning opportunities for students.

STEPHANIE FOLLING @StephFolling It’s Back­to­School Time: 5 Tips for Getting Ready for School (p12) Stephanie Folling is a secondary RELA teacher working and residing in Prince George's County, MD. She is an advocate for multicultural curriculum, gifted students of color, and educational technology. In addition, she's penned a multiple-award-winning food blog and can be spotted pontificating about grammar, punctuation and classic literature on Twitter @MissFolling.


JEROMIE HEATH @TeachHeath 5 Strategies to Successful Student Discourse (Teaching Students HOW to Interact with Each Other) (p16) Jeromie Heath is a National Board Certified Elementary Teacher currently teaching at Alki Elementary in Seattle, WA. He has taught for over 10 years. He has a passion for making learning exciting and engaging students with songs (music videos), costumes, unique dĂŠcor, leveled games, and stimulating innovative strategies like blacklights and 3d. He continuously collects new ideas from colleagues, trainings, book studies, online sources, and more that unleash engagement, imagination, enthusiasm, motivation, and overall fun in the classroom. He believes that engaging a student by customizing the learning experience to meet their academic, social, behavioral, and cultural needs leads to a better education. He shares his student engagement ideas on his website, twitter account, youtube channel, and online radio show

DR. STEPHEN JONES @DrStephenJones African American Student Crisis Persists (p14) Dr. Jones is currently President of SAJ Publishing. He is also the Associate Dean of Student in the College of engineering at Villanova University. For thirteen years he worked at Drexel University as Director of the SUCCESS/ACT101 program. He has received numerous awards for his dedication to students. Some of his awards include Distinguished Toast Master, Toastmasters District Award Winner, National Society of Black Engineers Award and Black Engineer of the Year Award. The Drexel University chapter of the National Society of Black Engineers recently named an award after him to acknowledge his efforts.

JEFF OLIVET, M.A. @jeffolivet The Education of Homeless Children (p60) Jeff Olivet, M.A., is CEO of the Boston-based Center for Social Innovation. He has provided leadership on issues of homelessness, poverty, supportive housing, behavioral health care, public health, and HIV for more than two decades. During his human services career he has served as outreach worker, case manager, housing director, writer, trainer, and activist. His work with hundreds of organizations across the United States has helped to improve strategic planning, organizational management, and implementation of evidence-based practices. He has also worked with health and social service systems in South Africa, Kenya, and Nigeria.


CARL PETERSEN @ChangeTheLAUSD Our Economic Engine Runs on STEAM (p47) Carl Petersen is a candidate in next year’s Los Angeles Unified School District school board election. He is a father of five, including two daughters who are on the autism spectrum. His fight to get them the services that they needed inspired his first run for public office. After 15 years, he left to advance his career at a start-up company. He was then invited by Arecont Vision to manage their Operations Department as they progressed from development to production of high-definition security cameras that are manufactured in the United States. Carl has played drums in several bands. He loves the adventure of a thrill ride and can often be found with the family at an amusement park. The family also fosters for a dog rescue.

ANNE RILEY @AnneRileyAuthor The Job of Every Child (p49) Anne Riley holds a degree in Accounting from Illinois State University and an MBA from Portland State University. She lives in Hillsboro, Oregon with her husband Tim. They have three grown children. After a lifetime of struggle to find her own personal happiness, Anne left her professional career in 2010 to discover her values. She sought out and participated in several different fields and discovered the activity that best matched her life was. . . writing. In 2013, she published her first book, Elusive Little Sucker, a short guide to finding the happiness it had taken her so long to find. In June of 2014, she published her first work of fiction, Aerie. Aerie is first and foremost a good story, as all fiction should be. But underneath the compelling story are some important messages about the temptation for businesses to exploit customer and the impact of greed on honest business people.

SEAN ROBINSON @sr_tutor Projects That Change the World (p20) Sean Robinson has been teaching for over 20 years in classes from kindergarten to high school in cities from Jarkarta to Vancouver. Considered one of the top project-based learning teachers to follow on twitter by The Guardian, he enjoys sharing his classroom trials and triumphs with others to move education forward. Sean received a BA in Psychology from Trinity Western University and a Post Baccalaureate in Learning Disabilities and ESL from Simon Fraser University. He has a passion for guiding teachers to employ more effective pedagogy. Along with project-based learning, he leads workshops on digital citizenship and technology in the classroom. Lately he has been running a “Bring Your Own Technology” classroom and blogging about what he has been learning at


DR. CATHINE GILCHRIST-SCOTT Transforming Teacher Education in the Twenty-First Century (p37) Dr. Scott has been the dean and professor of education at Claflin University, Orangeburg, South Carolina, and Cheyney University, Cheyney, Pennsylvania; assistant and associate dean of education and director of teacher education at North Carolina Central University, Durham, North Carolina and Benedict College, Columbia, South Carolina, professor of education at Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia, a summer education research fellow at the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA), Langley, Virginia, and a public school teacher in the school districts of the District of Columbia, Prince George’s and Anna Arundel Counties, Maryland, and the US Department of Defense Schools in Germany. Dr. Scott has presented numerous papers and workshops at international, national, regional, state, and local conferences and conventions on improving teacher quality, student achievement and leadership skills. Dr. Scott holds a Doctor of Philosophy Degree (Ph.D.) in Leadership, Training, and Development from the American University, Washington, DC, a Master’s Degree in Elementary School Mathematics from the University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, and a Bachelor of Arts Degree in Early Childhood and Elementary Education from Norfolk State University, Norfolk, Virginia.

PETER RODRIGUES Food for Thought: School Feeding Programmes Nourish Minds and Change Lives (p40) Mr. Peter Rodrigues is the Chief of the School Feeding & Chronic Hunger Unit at the UN World Food Programme (WFP) based in Rome, Italy. In 2012, the organization provided meals to over 25 million school children in 63 countries in Africa, Latin America, Asia and the Middle East. The connection with local agriculture is one of the four main objectives of the organization’s school feeding programmes, and home-grown school feeding is underway in many country offices. Since 2008, WFP has been leading the Purchase for Progress pilot which leverages the organization’s purchasing power to support smallholder farmers. Mr. Rodrigues has over 25 years of experience in humanitarian food assistance and has served in various capacities in Mozambique, Angola and Zambia. He has also been deployed in WFP corporate emergencies in Myanmar, Gaza, Haiti and in the Horn of Africa. Prior to his current position, Mr. Rodrigues served as the Senior Advisor to the Deputy Executive Director and the Chief Operating Officer. He earned his degree in Economics from Rajasthan University in Jaipur, India.

CONTRIBUTORS DR. SHONTA SMITH @DrShontaSmith. Culturally Responsive Teaching: How to Bridge the Cultural Disconnect (p31) Dr. Smith is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Elementary, Early and Special Education at Southeast Missouri State University. She has over 22 years of experience in education. Of those 22 years, 17 years have been at the elementary, middle and high school levels. She has been a teacher, team leader, department head, coach, administrative intern and principal with the St. Louis Public Schools, Normandy School District and the Ferguson-Florissant School District. The other 5 years have been at the collegiate level as an Adjunct Professor with Lindenwood University and Assistant Professor with Southeast Missouri State University. Her research interests are African Centered Rites of Passage Programs, Culturally Responsive Teaching, and Instructional Leadership. Dr. Smith received her Ed. D. Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership from St. Louis University, M.Ed. Master of Education in Counseling from the University of Missouri St. Louis and B. S. Bachelor of Science in Education from Harris Stowe State University.

DR. FAYE WILSON Greet the Parents Welcoming Parents into Our Schools (p25) Dr. Faye Wilson is a parent involvement specialist for the Wicomico County Public Schools. She works directly with parents to help address concerns they may have with their child’s education. She helps to create engaging programs and activities to bring parents to the school and to help them be involved in shaping their children’s academic success. She holds a B.A. in religion studies (Wilson College, Chambersburg, PA), a master’s in theological studies (Drew Theological School, Madison, NJ), a M.A. in journalism (New York University), and the Ed.D. in adult education (Columbia University).

Executive Perspective By Michael A. Robinson, Ed.D The Four Forces of an Effective Parental Engagement Over my 20 years of community engagement, civic partnership development and parent outreach, I have discovered there are four key factors that drive effective parental engagement programs which enhances their success. These drivers of effective parental engagement programs I have labeled as “The Four Forces” are common in nearly all quality initiatives designed to bring parents into a partnership with their neighborhood schools. The Four Forces are: (1) Commitment; (2) Two-Way Communication; (3) Professional Development; and (4) Shared Governance. Force One (Commitment): Requires a commitment from both school districts and parents to support and become involved in the lives of children around their learning needs. The forms of commitment have to be firm and consistent on the part of the school district, while the methods of commitment by parents and families can be lucid but should be grounded in the understanding of the academic rigor of the classroom. A set standard of achievement developed in concert with the child’s teacher and a realistic understanding of the child’s academic capabilities is a great first step. Force Two (Two-Way Communication): Two way communications is the essence of a strong and effective parental engagement program. Effective two-way communication systems allow for both schools and parents to connect with each other in reliable ways. These communication conduits provide for unfettered and uncluttered messages to be received and responded to in a way that causes limited disruptions in the day-to-day lives of the teacher and parent. Technology provides unlimited two-way communication avenues. For two-way communication to be truly effective is has to be grounded in honest dialogue with emphasis on student achievement and void of blame and assertions. Force Three (Professional Development): Professional Development is the hallmark of robust parental engagement programs. When school districts provide its teachers, school leaders and administrators with ongoing training regarding best practices in the areas of family engagement, community outreach and civic involvement; they are making an investment in student success. Conversely, it is incumbent upon parents to seek training in areas which will allow them to better support, supplement, and assist in their child’s learning. Schools can facilitate the professional development of parents by continuing to offer parent workshops, especially in areas which can eliminate communication barriers, enhance utilization of website based services, and improve an overall understanding of curriculum and enrichment programs.

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It’s Back to School Time: 5 Tips for Getting Ready for School By Stephanie Folling

It’s back to school time and students must get acclimated to their school schedule and academic rigor. Here are some tips to start the new school year fresh and ready to go! Set the expectation It’s important that students know why they are going to school and what will be expected of them while there. Make a list of behavioral and academic expectations and why their success in that area is important. Lay out for them any consequences and/or rewards when the expectation is met and when it isn’t met. Be Prepared Purchasing the proper school supplies, clothing, and textbooks for the school year will mentally prepare your student for their return to school. Make the transition smooth by letting them pick out their items and show them how their new found goodies will be their tools for current and future success: “Your new graphing calculator will help you excel in math. It will also help you as an architect when you’re older. Architects use a lot of math when designing buildings.” Introduce Yourself Introduce yourself to all of your student’s teachers and administrators, providing them with a business card with your direct contact information. Introducing yourself to teachers and administrators lets them know that you are actively involved and open for dialogue. Further when students know that there is open communication, there are fewer shenanigans. Get Organized Post a calendar in a visible space for everyone to see. Include on that calendar any academic assignments, extracurricular activities, and special events like birthday parties or family outings and color-code them. By remaining organized in your time and obligations, you can map out how much time should be devoted to study, major projects and homework. Reconsider Rewards & Responsibilities Transitioning to a new academic level can bring with it new responsibilities and expectations. Revisit your norms and collaborate with your student to update the list; agree on them and post them. This may include a later bedtime but also an increase in household chores. This will make going back to school exciting.

African American Student Crisis Persists Stephen Jones, Ph.D. There is an education crisis and America’s African American children are right in the forefront of it. Students have become part of a political nightmare that is unending. Politicians are raising money for a new campaign that takes precedence over youth who are in desperate need of better education. Cities are stuck because they do not generate sufficient money to fund public schools. City mayors are fearful that they will drive businesses away if they continue to raise corporate taxes. Cities like Philadelphia are trying to raise cigarette taxes to generate additional money so that schools can open on time. We are shooting ourselves in the foot when we cannot even predict when schools will open due to a lack of funding. Schools cannot afford to open one day late. They are already behind in terms of the type of education that will prepare students for post-secondary education. If a student does not decide to go to college or a trade school then their career options are limited.

Too few public school graduates are prepared for employment in a small or large corporation. A lot of students are frustrated because there are so few public school counselors to provide them with career guidance in their high school. There used to be apprenticeship programs that allowed students to get a feel for working for a company. Today there are very few apprenticeships. These students do not have time to lose with regard to their education. Today many careers are changing every three to five years and all of the technology that they use is changing too. Educators need to do a better job of connecting a child’s education to a career or at least an apprenticeship. Too many inner city companies are not connected with the schools that are located in their area. The students do not see how companies operate and who they hire. We need more companies who will aggressively pursue and train high school students. Why is this important? Students remain uninspired about their education because they do not believe that there are employment options after they graduate. We need to find more creative ways to raise the education level of all students. The honor students are not the only ones who deserve a good education and a job. Corporate involvement could provide the boost that schools and students around the country need. The United States is ignoring this crisis thinking that employing people from other countries is the solution. The government at all levels needs to invest in strategies that

improve our own education system now. Education must not take second place to a political campaign or agenda. We are all in the education crisis together. Politicians must be willing to fight for the best education for children. Educators must be willing to be persistent in their commitment to providing the best education possible for all children too. We also need company presidents who recognize the crisis and make a decision to use company employees as tutors and mentors in local schools. There are an increasing number of school options for children. There are cyber schools, charter schools, public, private and catholic schools. It is hard to believe that there is a crisis when there are so many schools. These schools are full of students and there is no room for all students who want to attend them. Some of these schools also take away some of the brightest students from the public schools. Educators need to find more ways to make the public schools more attractive. We need more administrators and teachers who emphasize the value of getting a good education. Students need to feel that teachers expect them to go to college and to be a successful graduate. Parent involvement plays an important role in advocating for school funding and good education policies. Parents need to be encouraged to stay involved in the success that a school experiences. Parents cannot leave it up to the school system to meet their child’s needs. School administrators can benefit from parent involvement by inviting them to share knowledge that they have obtained with students. The government at all levels should provide more funding for parent involvement. When parents are involved there is a greater chance that schools will succeed. An active parents group can change the environment of a school. Parents must work with students throughout the year to witness a child’s growth. Some parents wait until the report card is issued to get a tutor or other help. Parents need to know that academic help is always available for their child. Parent involvement must be a year long journey where good adjustments can occur and match the child’s education needs. School

districts that welcome parents understand that they can make a significant difference. Each school must find a flexible way to incorporate parents in classes and in other aspects of the school. Students need to experience new and innovative schools with great teachers and education resources. The students who are in in elementary school today will be high school seniors six years from now. They need a superior education that includes the frequent enhancement of their computer and technology skills. Career days that occur throughout the school year can help students to explore how technology will be used in their business. The use of technology is one of the best ways to interest students in learning. The crisis in education is an everyday experience for students of color all around the country. Educators must believe that now is the time to change their local school districts education system. Public school systems need to be fully funded rather than being forced to chase after money each year. The crisis represents millions of children who are under educated and who have poor math, reading and writing skills. Educators need more stability in the resources that are available to educate America’s students. This is the time to make a commitment to education. There is an education crisis. I wonder if anyone is listening.

start and continue a conversation. Their communication, behavior, and

Do your students talk AT each other or talk WITH each other? In other words, do your students have an academic conversation with each other in which they express views, listen to new perspectives, comment on them, and learn new ideas from each other? This is the dream, isn’t it? But HOW do we get our students to do this? I used to have a classroom (like many of us have) where students spend much time arguing instead of debating, fighting instead of providing evidence, playing around instead of focusing, teasing instead of asking for clarification, or just flat out not caring about what was being said during group conversations. I have learned that to achieve this type of student-to-student discourse goes well beyond teaching students how to do group work or how to be polite. I’m happy to share with you the success that I have found with teaching my students how to

engagement have all improved. They now listen to each other’s ideas, agree or disagree and provide evidence, and provide counter evidence. The conversations are richer, last longer and even I have found myself learning from them. Having students that are more intellectually engaged in academic-rich discourse has made me passionate about sharing the strategies that got my students there. I’ve compiled some ideas in hopes that you can use, adapt, or add on to these strategies to enhance the discourse in your classroom. Strategy 1: Creating and Using Poster Prompts I first sought out to create a list of what I didn’t want to hear (like “That’s not right” and “You’re wrong”) and did want to hear

(like “I have a different perspective” and “That’s a great idea”) when my students are dialoguing. After creating this list, I realized that I had 4 different categories: Active Listening, Disagreeing Respectfully, Making Statements, and Clarifying Questions (see picture). I sorted and formed these lists of statements into prompts. Then, I placed them on posters in the classroom. In this way, my students knew what my expectations of a successful dialogue sounded like. If you are interested in this strategy, you can begin with writing down things you would like your students to say in conversationsthis way; they know what your expectations are. I used these prompts throughout the year to help guide students in dialogue when they weren’t sure of what to say or how to respond. These

were a great ‘go-to’ for students. After a while, students were using the poster prompts without even looking at them. They surprised me when they started adding their own statements like “I concur” and “I see your point.” After just a few short months, my 5th graders began sounding like college students! Strategy 2: Modeling and Code Switching Just like any other routine or procedure, teaching students how to have conversations is something that will need to be modeled and practiced. I decided to spend a week on each category (mentioned earlier). Each day, I reviewed the poster, gave my own examples of when to use these prompts, and then had some student groups model them. Then, I had the class write down or give ideas about how they would respond. For

example, I asked a group of 4 to come up to the front and pretend to have a disagreement about a math problem. Then, I would stop the disagreement and ask the whole class “How would you respond using one of the prompts on the poster?” I had them give their responses in this fashion: “Instead of saying….the person could say …” For example, a student would say “Instead of Jessica saying that she thinks that is wrong, she could say that she has another idea.” We collected several suggestions like this and I wrote them on the board. Then, I asked the group to have the same disagreement, but use the class’ suggestions this time. This type of strategy allows students to ‘code switch.’ They can learn how to take not so polite dialogue and turn it into effective and successful dialogue. (Another great idea is to video tape this process and you can use the video to show next year’s students).

Strategy 3: Practicing and Refining Successful Dialogue After modeling, I gave students tasks (in Math, Reading, Science, and Social Studies) that I knew would lead to disagreements (that were open-ended and had no right or wrong answer). I reminded students that the purpose of the discussions was to practice the conversation prompts that we modeled. For example, for Science, I asked students “Which is a bigger threat to our environment: water, air or land pollution?” As students held discussions, I walked around and wrote down a list of things I would like to hear less of (like “That’s wrong”) on a clipboard. After about 35 minutes, I chose 3 of these statements and wrote them on the board (anonymously) and asked the whole class to change them into something

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Living Education Everyday

Fair Housing


Most states permit property owners to require all children upon turning 18 are added to the lease or any subsequent least of parents. This policy jeopardise the credit and rental history of that young adult if the parents suddenly face financial hardship while under a tenant rental agreement. This policy does not take in any consideration the young adult economic status to include whether the child is a stay at home college student.

Please take our Fair Housing policy survey. 1. Would you support legislation that prohibits landlord and property owners of rental properties from requiring children 18-25 still living at home are added to a family’s current and/or pending lease? 2. How would you define the appropriate relationship between tenant and landlord? 3. Please select the Fair Housing protected class you believe is discriminated most often in their search for housing: Race, Sex, Religion, Family Status, Color, National Origin, and Disability

Let’s start the discussion

Projects That Change the World By Sean Robinson

I remember the day I made the switch from having my students do projects for me to having my students do projects for humanity. When I had explained this new kind of assignment, there was an incredulous look on many of my grade sevens’ faces: “You mean we can do something, really do something?� It was like they were just waiting for permission. And they took that permission and ran with it to places I had not fathomed. Intuitively it makes sense. While we spend the 200 days together, we might as well make a difference. We might as well move beyond what if two trains leave their stations at such and such a time and into how could we improve the transit use in our community. We might as well shift from finding out what a wetland is to how we can save the wetlands behind the school. This is one of the tenets of project-based learning (PBL): learning through interacting with real life, through completing real-life challenges. But do these kinds of projects actually lead to learning? For educators, many initiatives that seem well and good may not be based in research. Does educational research support PBL? John W. Thomas, Ph.D. (2000) formerly of the Buck Institute for Education reviewed research on project-based learning using specific criteria when considering whether something was project-based learning or not. Along with criteria such as centrality, a driving question, constructive investigations, and autonomy, he used as his plum line a level of authenticity. His fifth criterion was as follows: Projects are realistic, not school-like. Projects embody characteristics that give them a feeling of authenticity to students. These characteristics can include the topic, the tasks, the roles that students play, the context within which the work of the project is carried out, the collaborators who work with students on the project, the products that are produced, and the audience for the products, or the criteria by which the products or performances are judged. Gordon (1998) makes the distinction between academic

challenges, scenario challenges, and real-life challenges. PBL incorporates real-life challenges where the focus is on authentic (not simulated) problems or questions and where solutions have the potential to be implemented. (Thomas, 2000). Here we find what I see as the crux to projectbased learning: authentic problems or challenges. While Thomas reviewed evaluative research, implementation research, and intervention research of project-based learning in his article, he also reviewed research on PBL effectiveness. Of note was his look at Boaler’s (1997) longitudinal study of two British High Schools. One school taught Math in a traditional way while the other school employed project-based learning. During the periodic interviews, the “students at the project-based school regarded mathematics as a ‘dynamic, flexible subject that involved exploration and thought.’ (Boaler, 1997, p. 63)” while students at the control school reported that they found

study than traditional school students.” (Thomas, 2000). More recently, Boss et al (2011), as reported in The Foundation Review, desired to create an engaging and effective AP (Advanced Placement) course for students centered on experience-based project cycles. The researchers set up an experiment that would compare their US Government and Politics AP course containing authentic projects with a statistically matched control group. The PBL AP students completed projects all the while keeping this fundamental question in mind: what is the proper role of government in a democracy? The researchers found that students in the PBL courses performed “as well or better than students in the traditional courses on the AP test, and better than (or in one case, the same as) students in the traditional courses. But more telling is what the students have to say about their experience. “Project-based learning actually helps you to apply it to life

Math boring and tedious. Although the effect on students’ perceptions of Math speak volumes to the impact of projectbased learning, the students’ results on assessments seemed to follow suit. “Students at the project-based school performed as well as or better than students at the traditional school on items that required rote knowledge of mathematical concepts, and three times as many students at the project-based school as those in the traditional school attained the highest possible grade on the national examination. Overall, significantly more students at the project-based school passed the national examination administered in year three of the

because when you read things out of a book, you kind of wonder, ‘When am I ever going to use this?’ That’s a question that students ask almost every day.” (Boss et al, 2011). One of my own students whose project led her to collect used books to send to Uganda to build portable libraries wrote: “instead of just doing one small assignment and being over with it, it seems like we get to do a project for a while and really get involved with it. We also like that with this project we got to take some action towards what we wanted to help fix, and actually get the students in the school and the people in our community involved.” (Robinson, 2014). Continue on page 24

Living Education eFocus News Education Information for Our Everyday Lives

The Historic Agreement Between HBCUs and The Government of China (audio) Dr. Davis Wilson

Creatively Bringing in the Best and Brightest (audio) Dr. JosĂŠ Antonio Bowen



President Morgan State University

President Goucher College

Welcome to Grambling State University (PowerPoint) Dr. Cynthia Warrick @DrWarrick1

Interim President Grambling State University

How an Altruistic Educational Leader is Moving an Institution Forward (audio) Raymond M. Burse, Esq. @PresidentBurse Interim President, Kentucky State University

Community Colleges And What Higher Education Means (audio) Dr. James Ball @CarrollCC

President Carroll Community College

Projects That Change continued from page 21

The possibilities are infinite. Portland students consulted professional microbiologists to create soil bacteria information pamphlets to be distributed at local garden centers. San Diego eleventh graders developed forensic techniques that help protect African wildlife; they shared their findings with wildlife-protection officials and even traveled to Tanzania to present bush-meat identification workshops. (Curtis, 2001). The types of projects are limited only by the opportunities the teacher avails and the imagination the students bring.

Robinson, S. (2013). “The Problem with Projectbased Learning.” Retrieved August 8, 2014 from ON THE SIDE OF TECHNOLOGY on the World Wide Web:

For my own personal experience, once the paradigm shifted, the atmosphere in my classroom became more like a campaign headquarters than a classroom. “The next thing I know, we are tweeting the mayor, writing proposals, finding email addresses, advertising for a bake sale, and abiding by a group’s request to stop all screen-time for two days.” (Robinson, 2013). Money was raised for orphanages in Ethiopia and food distributing organizations; used books were sent to Uganda; trees were planted in schools and parks nearby.

Thomas, J. (2000). A Review of Research on Project-based Learning. Retrieved August 5, 2014 from NEWTECHNETWORK.ORG on the World Wide Web: ws/pbl_research2.pdf

Though there are many aspects to project-based learning, I believe it is the authenticity of the projects that really set this kind of teaching apart. Students learn the material often to a greater degree and with depth. Work habits and attitudes toward learning improve. Local and global needs are addressed. Self-esteem is increased. The learning is enjoyed. The students win. The community wins. Humanity wins. Bibliography Boss, S., Johanson, C., Arnold, S., Parker, W. Nguyen, D. (2011). The Quest for Deeper Learning and Engagement in Advanced High School Courses. The Foundation Review: Vol. 3: Iss. 3, Article 3 Curtis, D. (2001). Project-Based Learning: RealWorld Issues Motivate Students. Retrieved August 8, 2014 from EDUTOPIA on the World Wide Web:

Robinson, S. (2014). “Diary of some not-sowimpy Project-based Learners.” Retrieved August 10, 2014 from MRRCLASS on the World Wide Web:

5 Strategies to Successful continued from page 16

more effective (by using the prompts or creating their own). I would write down several options. I then ask students to remember how to take negative sounding phrases and change them to more positive sounding ones (as listed on the prompts). I did this several times each day for the first 3 weeks of school. Then, I did this one time per day for about 2 weeks. And finally, I did this when needed throughout the year if I find that these negative type of statements return. Strategy 4: Giving Instant and Constant Feedback When students are holding their conversations I also like to give instant feedback. I walk around and listen to each group for a few minutes. If I hear someone say something from the prompts, I compliment them (“Good Job, Ben. I heard you say ‘I have another idea’). If I hear them say something negative, I ask them to refer to the prompts (“Ben, I heard you say ‘You’re wrong.’ Is there something different you can say that would maybe be more successful? Let’s use the prompts). Constantly praising and re-directing goes a long way in this process. I continued this trend constantly all through September and sporadically throughout the year. Additionally Continue on page 33

Greet the Parents: Welcoming Parents into Our Schools By Faye Wilson, Ph.D. Most schools take great pains to welcome students ‘back to school.’ These annual events might feature music and food while students receive a pep talk about what to expect, pick up their schedules, and meet their teachers. No one can argue that this is not a good thing. But what if our schools spent an equal amount of focused time on ‘meeting and greeting the parents’, ensuring that mothers, fathers, and guardians had a clear picture of what they can do to support the social and academic success of their students? Wait a minute, you might be saying: parents attend the ‘back to school’ bash. They are there jotting down notes about their child’s needs – the number of notebooks, the kind of calculator, etc. They are there

hearing about extracurricular and athletic activities available for their students. What else is there to tell them? A lot! Wicomico County Public Schools created a model for welcoming parents when their students are NEW to a school. [The generic name is ‘Transition Forum’; many schools gave their event a personalized named such a ‘Champions of Chipman Elementary’.] The initial focus was on parents of students entering grades 6 for middle school and grades 9 for high school; eventually, parents of prekindergarten and kindergarten students were greeted as well. What are the components of a ‘Greet

Parents’ event? What needs to be shared that just might not show up in the typical ‘back to school’ event? Here are seven areas of emphasis: 1. Affirm parents for their commitment to the academic success of their student 2. Emphasize ways in which parents can help their student in this next phase of the education 3. Have parents tell other parents some specific ways in which parents/guardians can use their skills and expertise to help their student and/or the rest of the student body 4. Offer parents an opportunity to present their child to their new teachers 5. Share how school will provide information to parents, positive and negative 6. Provide a ‘give-away’ for the parents 7. Provide an opportunity for parents to make a commitment to serve You may read this list and say, “What’s new about that?” Remember, sometimes it is not the ‘new’ that needs to be emphasized but what is effective. Some things bear repeating, especially as students move from elementary to middle, then middle to high schools. Let me share how these ‘Greet the Parents’ events helped families in Wicomico County Public Schools to support their children. The Transition Events were designed to be upbeat, sometimes even festive in nature. East Salisbury

Elementary School, for example, was ‘treated’ to a fair atmosphere by a local church who is their faith-based partner [most schools in Wicomico County Public Schools has a faith-based partner which supports the work of the school and provides support to the staff]. The church, Immanuel Baptist Church (Salisbury, MD), brought two bouncy houses, set up stations for cotton candy, popcorn, and served hotdogs and snow cones. In addition, a group set up an

antique car show with parents and students doing a math exercise (estimation of the year of the car), voting to establish a ‘people’s choice’ award, and interviewing car owners on how they take care of their cars. The event also was designed to provide the ‘must know’ information so that parents would understand how valuable they are to their children’s academic success. As one principal said, “There are some things that only parents can do: make sure they get plenty of rest; encourage them to do their best every day; provide them with nutritious meals and snacks at home; establish an atmosphere for learning in the home.” This ‘parents matter’ message was emphasized in the seven key areas mentioned earlier. Point #1: The affirmation of parents came in a variety of ways. Administrators and other parents spoke of the need for family involvement; they affirmed that parents were welcome in the school, in the classroom, even though safety precautions had to be observed. They provided a calendar of dates and invited parents to come. Point #2: Parents also received a list of ways in which their skills and experiences could be used in the school. In addition, parents received ideas on how to make the home environment ‘learnerfriendly.’ They encouraged parents to continue to ‘read’ with their children, to reduce distractions, to follow their student’s academic progress on Parent Portal (and gave them a chance to sign up and/or practice using it). Point #3: Parent presenters were key to the success of the ‘greet the parents’ events; parents who were active in the school already could attest to the positive role model parents’ presence would play and. Parents provided their contact information and said, ‘call/write me if you have questions and concerns.’ Point #4: Parents were given a template that they could complete about their students: what is their favorite TV show? What kind of music do they like? What do they want to be when they grow up? What do you like best about your child? These papers were collected and shared with teachers.

Point #5: Parents and school staff reviewed the various ways in which parents would receive communication: the website; agenda books; weekly folders; rapid notification (phone) calls; text messages; emails. Parents were assured that they would receive positive communication – and not just a ‘call’ when something went wrong. They were assured that the school staff wanted to ‘catch’ students doing good things and celebrate that. Point #6: Parents were given something that they could use which represented the school: a cling for their car; a pen; a lanyard; a water bottle; mini-flashlights. Yes, schools also offered opportunities for students to receive a book or other school supplies, but the emphasis was on the parents having something to call their own that linked them to the school. Point #7: Parents were asked to make a commitment to serve. Some schools had parents recite the “Parents Pledge” (adapted from Project Appleseed and the work of the National Network of Partnership Schools). Other schools had a ‘form’ that parents were asked to complete on-site that essentially said ‘you can count on me to do ….’ By putting the spotlight on the gifts and resources of parents, many schools were able to increase the numbers of parents who attended academic events (math and reading workshops). The events helped to increase the number of parents who served as volunteers at school-wide events. The Transition Events helped to increase parent participation in the district’s annual Family Involvement Conference: Strengthening the Connection between families, schools, and communities. Rome was not built in a day, and family involvement in our schools may not quadruple with one or two events. However, by creating a culture of ‘welcome’ which is rich in content that parents can use, parents and staff members of that school made the new/incoming parents feel valued and appreciated. This year, let’s GREET THE PARENTS!

Living Education Everyday

Organizations To Know Our purpose is to ensure that families of children with any kind of disability or special health care need have the knowledge and assistance they need to make informed decisions that support their child's health, education, and development.

Founded in 1998, the Tom Joyner Foundation supports Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) with scholarships, endowments, and capacity building enhancements.

The Mind Research Institute mission is to ensure that all students are mathematically equipped to solve the world's most challenging problems. The mission of the Tomorrow’s Luminaries Foundation is to develop youth into flourishing and intelligent global leaders who possess the necessary tangible and intangible skills needed to positively impact their community and society. Living Education Everyday

Living Education Everyday

Culturally Responsive Teaching: How to Bridge the Cultural Disconnect By Shonta Smith, Ph.D. One of the greatest challenges the American school system is experiencing is providing culturally and linguistically diverse students with a quality education. Each year the school system increasingly becomes more diverse; however the teaching population does not reflect the student population. According to the National Center for Education Information 84% of teachers are white, 7% are black, 6% are Hispanic, and 4% are classified as other (NCEI, 2011). Culturally and linguistically diverse students are not being exposed to educators that reflect their cultural backgrounds. This poses a dilemma for the teaching and learning process as the educators that are responsible for teaching America’s children are facing challenges with understanding the cultural norms and references of their students. Their students also face the same challenges as the majority of them come from communities where everyone is a member of the same cultural group (i.e. race, ethnicity, social economic status, religion) and has had limited interaction with members of other cultural groups. This predicament creates a cultural disconnect (Banks, 2004) between not only teachers and students, but the home, school, and community. To combat this quandary, the framework of culturally responsive teaching can be implemented. Culturally responsive teaching is using the cultural knowledge, prior experiences, frames of reference, and performance styles of ethnically diverse students to make learning encounters more relevant to and effective for them (Gay, 2010).

It recognizes each student and validates who they are. Each student is acknowledged by building on their gifts and talents as the teacher uses a variety of instructional strategies to encompass the different learning modalities that exist in the classroom. A culture of excellence is created as the teacher understands the importance of incorporating numerous techniques to meet the needs of their students. The teacher is comfortable with being uncomfortable as they realize teaching is not about them; teaching is about the student (Parkay, 2013). Gay (2010) states the teacher heightens this validation by building a collaborative relationship with the home. This relationship creates opportunities for the teacher and parent to work accordingly and do what is in the best interest of the child.

Validating the student generates a comprehensive approach. This approach provides greater opportunities for academic and personal success (Ladson-Billings, 2009). The teacher sets high expectations as each student is expected to work to his or her full potential. Failure is not an option and when a student does not master a concept the student is provided additional learning opportunities. This technique gives the student more time on task and allows them to master the concept before moving to the next learning outcome. By doing this, the teacher creates a sense of belonging because the student works at a pace that is conducive to their learning style. This builds the student’s self-esteem and selfconcept, and it constructs a community of learners; where learners work cooperatively emphasizing the importance of the collective whole (Hollins, 2008). Students’ no longer focus on themselves they work as a team holding each other responsible for their learning. By holding each other responsible for learning students work with the teacher to ensure learning outcomes are met. Learning outcomes are met as a result of the teacher engaging in multidimensional practices. One of the first things the teacher does is establishes and maintains a working relationship with students (Banks, 2004). A working relationship forms a classroom climate where the teacher can teach, and students can learn. In other words, an ideal learning environment reiterates high expectations, cooperation, time on task, and exemplary achievement. In order to shape the curriculum the teacher capitalizes on culturally responsive teaching by using various sources and content that is relevant and meaningful to students to improve their lives (LadsonBillings, 2009). For example, reading text should cover a variety of literary genres, cultural themes, portray positive images of different racial and ethnic groups, are age appropriate and reflect the lives of the students (Gay, 2010). Using this type of text accentuates the importance of the students’ cultural heritage and lets them know they are valued. What students learn is just as important as how they learn. As the teacher teaches specific content, it is imperative that the content being taught be taught to meet

the needs of the student population. Each student in the classroom has numerous abilities. Some students are visual learners, while others are kinesthetic. To capitalize on these varying abilities as the teacher engages in culturally responsive teaching he or she incorporates high yield instructional strategies. High yield instructional strategies are strategies used that most likely improve student achievement across all content areas and all grade levels (Marzano, Pickering & Pollock, 2001). These strategies range from identifying similarities and differences to summarizing and note taking. When students complete formative and summative assessments their exposure to high yield instructional strategies provides them with better performance opportunities. Gay states (2010), “Culturally responsive teaching enables students to be better human beings and more successful learners” (p.34). They believe in themselves and commit to excellence. As a result of the teacher setting high expectations, and establishing a classroom culture that is conducive to teaching and learning the students and teacher support one another. This climate empowers students and encourages them to be the best they can be. The student teacher relationship sanctions positive growth and development. The mantra each one teach one becomes a reality as the students apply the skills and concepts learned. Their character reflects a greater appreciation for learning as they have a better understanding of the importance of education. Culturally responsive teaching bridges the disconnect as it advances the teacher’s knowledge, skills, and disposition to successfully teach all students (Howard, 2006). Gay (2010) explains culturally responsive teaching validates, facilitates, liberates, and empowers ethnically diverse students by simultaneously cultivating their cultural integrity, individual abilities, and academic success. It is anchored on four foundational pillars of practice— teacher attitudes and expectations, cultural communication in the

classroom, culturally diverse content in the curriculum and culturally congruent instructional strategies. (p. 46) Using this framework augments the teaching and learning process because it meets the needs of all students. The teacher fully recognizes the significance of meeting each student’s needs and has a genuine concern for their overall academic success and well-being. References Banks, J.A. (2004). Multicultural education: Historical development, dimensions, and practice. In J. A. Banks & C.A. M. Banks (Eds.). Handbook of research on multicultural education (2nd ed., pp. 3-29). San Francisco: Jossey- Bass. Gay, G. (2010). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research and practice. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Hollins, E.R. (2008). Culture in School Learning: Revealing the Deep Meaning. New York, NY: Routledge. Howard, G. R. (2006). We can’t teach what we don’t know: White teachers, multiracial schools. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Ladson-Billings, G. (2009). The dream keepers: Successful teachers of African American children. San Franciso, CA: Jossey-Bass. Marzano, R. J.,Pickering D. J., & Pollock J. E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: research based strategies for increasing student achievement National Center for Education Information (2011). Profile of Teachers in the U.S. 2011. Retrieved August 11, 2014, from National Center for Education Information: Parkay, F.W. (2013) Becoming a teacher. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. 5 Strategies to Successful continued from page 16

if I give students 15 minutes to discuss a topic,

when I call them to share their answers with the whole group, I first intentionally make it a point to say something I liked and something I didn’t like (kept anonymous) about the group talk time. For example, “I like that I heard someone ask a clarifying question when they were confused. I didn’t like that I heard two people talking in a group at the same time. Let’s remember the things we learned on the Active Listening poster.” This feedback takes less than a minute to do, but is a great reminder to students that how they are speaking is just as important as what they are saying. Strategy 5: Keeping Up the Momentum Thinking that my students were pros at studentto-student discourse, I took down my poster prompts and put up some academic things in their place (thinking that the posters weren’t needed anymore). I knew this was a mistake when a week later, some students began reverting back to their ‘old ways’. I suppose that to the students, taking down the posters subliminally meant that these strategies weren’t as important anymore. Additionally, I admittingly took my focus off of them as well. I started to focus on the academics and the topic alone thinking that the quality of the discourse would continue, but it didn’t. I learned that ‘what’ students were saying and ‘how’ they were saying it are equally important. I found it more successful when both the ‘how’ and the ‘what’ are given constant feedback. This was an important reminder to me that referring back to these strategies over and over throughout the year kept my students engaged in discussion. Each year is a new challenge to tackle the student-to-student interaction that you are looking for. It does take some planning, modeling, practice, and constant feedback. I have found if you take the time to teach students HOW to communicate, you will have to spend less time teaching them academics because they will begin to hold academic rich discourse where the learning takes place between students. I can tell you it is an amazing sight to see students who are truly engaged and passionate about academic dialogue. The feeling of pride is indescribable. It just takes a bit of practice.

Living Education eFocus News Education Information for our Everyday Lives

What Schools Don't Teach (audio) Dr. Brad Johnson @DrBradJohnson

Author and Speaker Remedial Education Marc S. Tucker (audio) President National Center on Education and the Economy Amish Education (audio) Brad Igou, President and co-owner, The Amish Experience

Diversifying the Academy (audio) Dr. Brandeis H. Marshall @csdoctorsiste

Former, Purdue University Assistant Professor of Computer and Information Technology in the Data Management

Should College Athletes Be Paid To Play (audio) Dr. William Broussard @Jag_Me_Out

Director of Athletics Southern University

Understanding Student Loan Debt (audio) Matthew M. Chingos @chingos Senior Fellow Brookings Institution

Rural Schools (audio) John C. Craver @johnccarver District Superintendent, The HowardWinneshiek Community School District

Perspectives on Ferguson Missouri By Michael A. Robinson, Ed.D. I asked educators to provide their perspectives on teacherstudent relationships and the events taken place in Ferguson, Missouri.

“Teachers need to take the time to think deeply about their own background and experiences and how these impact their interactions with students, especially those of races, ethnicities and backgrounds different from their own. With the intense attention to curriculum and testing, educators rarely focus on this critical introspection. Yet this self-awareness is at the heart of building authentic relationships with students and their families, an essential factor in student success.” Eileen Gale Kugler @embracediversiT

Author, Speaker, Consultant President, Embrace Diverse Schools

“I feel that the fact most missing from conversations is that the situation possesses a defining teachable moment for our children. Beyond the rage of possible injustice, are opportunities to discuss with our children the historical lens regarding systemic oppression in this country. Many of our children are lost regarding the struggle for racial justice, the ramifications of oppression, and strategies to confront the existence of systemic racism within our major institutions.”

Terence Fitzgerald, Ph.D. Clinical Assistant Professor University of Southern California

Recently, the town of Ferguson has become a sociopolitical demonstration of racial oppression at the intersection of unequal distributions of power and access. While African Americans in Ferguson represent the majority, they represent a perverted minority in the institutions in which they are governed. This racial gap in and of itself shows that black citizens of Ferguson are living outside of American ideals, such as government for the people –by the people, but it also creates a phenomenon where those in power are able to systematically legislate and police conditions to maintain their power; thereby, leaving a community of people in gross states of powerlessness. Many have argued for African Americans to become more active in the voting process; however this tactic alone, albeit important (yet not to be confused with a strategy), cannot disrupt this comprehensive system of power and powerlessness and its ability to reproduce and sustain itself. Another tactic that is needed, and in my opinion more significant to changing voting patterns among the 70%, is a change in how schools operate. The school has a unique function to build critical capacities in its community relating to thinking, acting and being. Instead, most schools predominantly serving African Americans condition their learners for consumption and compliance through teacher dominated instruction, textbook dependency, and the single reliance on standardized tests. As a result, students from this schooling system alone are not equipped to engage in the deep strategic planning and mobilization that Ferguson and other Ferguson-type communities need. What is the solution? Parents and community leaders need to make sure schools are promoting a learning process that truly engages the whole child and taps into his or her full potential.

Angela Dye, Ph.D. @ejuc8or

CEO/Senior Consultant PBS Development, LLC

Transforming Teacher Education in the Twenty-First Century By Cathine G. Scott, Ph.D. This article focuses on transforming teacher education in the twenty-first century. More specifically, it focuses on the concerns of society, needs of students, needs of teachers and what school of education should do to increase teacher quality and student achievement.

Introduction Transforming teacher education appears to be a concern of society. Society at large seems to think that the problem with public school education is the lack of effective teacher quality to produce student achievement. This author believes that richer education needs to be transformed, and consideration should be given to the concerns of society, needs of students, needs of teachers, and how colleges and universities can transform teacher education to improve teacher quality and increase student learning.

(Duncan, A., 2014). The Honorable Arne Duncan, Secretary of Education, said that America has three great educational challenges that must be a considered. First, the education that students received in the past, is not good enough today. Second, education, as Horace Mann said over 200 years ago, has been the great equalizer for America, and every student is entitled to a quality public education, and third, more and better prepared teachers are needed because many teachers will be retiring in the next ten years. This means that institutions that prepare teachers must prepare them to keep up with the demands of society, to be effective in the classroom, and to function in a global society.

Concerns of Society Needs of Students All nations of the world are concerned about the education of its students. Society seems to have accepted the fact that what was taught in schools many years ago is not relevant to society today

All societies of the world are concerned about meeting the needs of their citizens and making sure that the schools are producing the

workforce that employees need to sustain a society (Gregorian, V., 2013). Dr. Troy Wagner, Professor and Coordinator of the Harvard Change Leadership Group (2008) reported that students need to know and apply skills, such as (1) critical thinking and problem-solving skills, (2) collaboration across networks and leading by influence, (3) initiative and adaptability, (4) effective oral and written communication, and (5) accessing and analyzing information. In addition, they must know content knowledge of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, the STEM subjects. The American Management Association (AMA, 2010) reported that only people who have the knowledge and skills to negotiate consistent change and re-invent themselves can function effectively in a global society. Needs of Teachers Societies are concerned about the needs of teachers. Teachers must be well prepared and trained with a firm foundation to function in today’s society. Teacher preparation programs have struggled for years to identify how to produce successful classroom teachers, (Askew, Toney, 2011). The debate over whether teaching is an art or a science , which teaching style method is most effective and whether successful teacher are born or made continues to be a concern for teacher preparation programs. A consensus has never been reached over these factors. That is professional educators have not agreed on what a successful teacher should look like or on the product of successful teaching. Because of this, colleges and universities of education seem

to spend too much time on the theories of education, too little time on the STEM content, and too little time on actually teaching teachers how to teach (Wagner, T., 2011). He concluded teachers must be (1) knowledge experts, (2) learning experts, (3) critical thinkers, (4) problem-solvers, and (5) competent, to name a few. To attack this problem of Dr. William Schmidt (2013) reported that (1) teachers should be recruited to teach with stronger mathematics background; (2) more rigorous state certification requirements should be implemented for mathematics teachers, and (3) more demanding mathematics courses for teacher preparation programs should be required. He also reported that future teachers need to have broadbase knowledge in the theoretical and practical aspect of teaching mathematics and teaching in general society. Schools and colleges of education need to rethink how teachers have been prepared in the past, and look for new ways to prepare them to meet the demands of a changing society. Transforming Teacher Preparation Teacher preparation programs should be transformed, restructured and redefined in order to produce effective teachers to compete in a global society (Gilchrist, C,. 2014). To determine what prospective teachers needed to know and be more effective in today’s classrooms, Deans of Education from about 60 colleges were asked what they thought future teachers should know and be able to do to become more effective teachers. They reported using the Delphi Method that future teachers should have a broad-base knowledge in teaching and should know (1) the foundations of Continue on page 43

Do something healthy for your child. Get to know her teacher today.

Quality education is crucial to the development of individuals and societies. Building schools, hiring good teachers, and providing educational materials such as textbooks and pencils are key to successful education systems. However, equally important is ensuring that where these learning opportunities are available, children are prepared to take advantage of them. Even the best schools and teachers cannot accomplish their goals if children remain absent or are too hungry to learn. School meals are essential in this regard. The World Food Programme (WFP) plays a significant role in providing school feeding to children, families and communities in need. Last year, we provided school meals to almost 20 million children in 63 countries in Asia, Africa, South America, and Eastern Europe. This represents an investment of almost US$350 million and over 350 million metric tons of food. Beyond those numbers, the provision of school feeding, which consists of daily schools meals, snacks, and/or take-home rations, is one of the best tools we have to draw

Food for thought: School Feeding Programmes Nourish Minds and Change Lives By Peter Rodrigues

kids, especially girls, to the classroom, keep them coming back, and ensure that they have the cognitive ability to be able to pay attention in class and retain information. School meals play a significant role in breaking the cycle of hunger, an essential step towards a world with zero hunger. Guaranteeing that the meals contain the proper nutrition children need to learn and grow represents a worthwhile investment in a child’s future and benefits the entire society and country. In fact, an investment case

study done by the WFP school feeding unit showed that for every US$1 spent on school meals, between US$3 and US$8 is gained in economic returns. The World Food Programme’s 2013 publication, the State of School Feeding Worldwide, reports that the benefits of school feeding are widely recognized. Almost every country in the world seeks to feed its schoolchildren, and lowincome countries use it as development assistance. However, the report notes that coverage of school feeding programmes remains lowest in countries

encouraging 2% increase from 2012. Of these, WFP provided meals for over 100,000 adolescent girls in 10 countries. Specifically, WFP gives take-home rations to girls, to provide extra encouragement for attendance. These food allocations are used to help the entire family and compensate for the loss of labour cost of sending a girl to school. Moreover, keeping girls in school longer means they have children later in life, which ultimately contributes to raising healthier and more educated families. The additional energy received from meals and snacks provides children with the cognitive boost to benefit from the education they receive. Children with growling stomachs cannot concentrate on their schoolwork nearly as well as a properly nourished child can. Sufficient energy and the proper nutrients are essential for cognitive development. Nutritious school meals enhance daily performance in the classroom and provide lifelong benefits. This is why WFP often fortifies school meals with micronutrient powders that increase their effectiveness. Added nutrients include B vitamins, vitamins C, D and E, calcium, iodine, iron, magnesium, selenium, and zinc, which are essential to the harmonious development of the child. We also believe that linking school feeding programmes to local agricultural production, also called home-grown school feeding, provides benefits to entire communities as this stimulates local economies by providing a reliable and stable market. Overall, WFP has home-grown school feeding programmes in over 20 countries.

where the need is greatest. It is widely recognized that school meals act as magnets to draw children to the classroom. Given that many children must make difficult journeys to go to school or are needed at home to help with housework, this added incentive is often what makes the difference between a child regularly attending or not attending classes. Girls are usually the first to be kept at home or pulled out of school. This is why WFP pays special attention to their needs, and in 2013, WFP had almost 10 million female school feeding beneficiaries,48.7% of the total, which represents an

This approach creates ownership and a stake in school feeding programmes, which benefit from local support. It also directly affects children, as many of their parents are the ones providing the food. Furthermore, having the fresh foods that are customary to their diet increases the quality and the cultural appropriateness of the meals. Moreover, local agriculture programmes can be tailored to benefit female farmers. During times of economic hardship or in emergency situations, such as armed conflict, natural disasters, and food and financial crises, school feeding provides increased benefits. Providing a meal at school means that parents have to provide one less meal at home. The money they save acts as an income transfer to families that may desperately need it. In addition, many parents pull their children out of school during tough times to help with work at home. Maintaining attendance with the help of schools meals is vital to ensuring that entire generations of children do not grow up without education. Failure to do so can contribute to lasting cycles of violence. Our main goal is to transition WFP-led school feeding programmes to those that are nationally owned and run and funded by the government. To achieve this, WFP engages in capacity development and knowledge building. WFP tailors its technical and policy guidance Continue on page 44

Living Education Everyday

Transforming Teacher continued from page 37

Education, (2) how to teach all students, (3) how to manage a classroom, (4) how students grow, develop, and learn, and (5) how to function effective in a classroom. After reviewing the results, the author concluded that future teachers should have more in depth content knowledge in reading, mathematics, and science in order to be most effective in a global society. Six broad areas were proposed that should make a difference in the way prospective teachers are prepared. These areas include the following:

teachers should know, such as the historical, economical, sociological, philosophical, and psychological understanding of education. These elements should focus on knowledge about learning, curriculum, instruction and assessment, diversity, technology, professional ethics, legal issues, policy issues, pedagogy and the roles and responsibilities of the profession of teaching.

Recruit High Quality Prospective Teachers

Schools of Education should require prospective teachers to spend a year in an intern setting that provides an opportunity for them to: (1) apply knowledge, test new skills, and receive feedback from master teachers, (2) learn how to best facilitate learning of diverse students, and (3) better understand the connection between theory and the practical application of the theory.

Schools of Education should recruit high quality students who care about students, have a positive attitude about students, can maintain a 3.0 grade point average, and can pass the states teacher preparation entrance examination. Develop a Master of Arts Degree in Learning and Teaching:

Establish an Innovative Clinical and Practical Intern Experience

In conclusion, if schools of education would

Schools and Colleges of Education should eliminate the Bachelor of Science or Arts Degree in Education and establish a Master’s Degree in Learning and Teaching. Increase Subject Matter Content Schools of Education should focus on subject matter content in mathematics, science, and English/reading that is taught in Pre-Kindergarten through eighth grade. The mathematics curriculum in these grades normally include: (1) geometry, (2) number theory, (3) problem-solving, (4) algebra, and (5) probability, statistics, and data Analysis. The science courses should include; (1) biological science, (2) physical science, engineering, and technology, (3) chemistry, and (4) earth and space science. The English/reading courses should include (1) mechanics of English, (2) foundations of literacy, and diagnostic and prescriptive reading, (3) reading assessment, and (4) children and adolescent literature. After prospective teachers understand the content, they can learn how to teach it at the master’s level with a Master’s Degree in Teaching and Learning. Agree on the Professional Knowledge Base Deans of Education should agree on the professional knowledge that all prospective

implement such innovative ideas, teacher quality and student achievement would improve in mathematics, science and reading. Society could no longer be able to say that teachers do not know enough mathematics and science to be effective in the classroom. References American Management Association (2010) Critical skills Survey: Executive Summary. Web: American Association of Colleges and Teacher Education st (AACTE, 2010) @1 . Century Knowledge and Skills in Education Preparation. Washington, DC.

Bybee (2013). “Improving teacher and principal quality”. California State Department of August, 2013. Duncan, A. (2012). “Educating our children”. May 2012. Speech at Allen University, Columbia, SC. Gregorian, V., (2013). “Reinventing Higher Education”. Time Magazine. October 7, 2013 by Nancy Gibbs, Managing Editor. Schmidt. W. (2010). “U. S. needs better-trained mathematics teachers”. April 19. 2010. Schleicher, A. (2012). Ed., “Preparing Teachers and Developing Leaders for the Twenty-First Century: Lessons from the World”. Htte:// Today (2011). Report: Half of U.S. schools fail federal standards. Retrieved on February 22, 2013 from 1215/.../1. Tarr, J. (2013). “The effects of content organization and curriculum implementation student’s mathematics learning in second year high school courses”. Journal for Researching Mathematics Education, 2013. July 2013. Volume 44. Issue 4, page 683.non-traditional mathematics curriculum. Results in higher standardized test scores. United States Department of Education (2012). “Our future, our teachers: The Obama administration’s plan for teacher education reform and improvement”. Retrieved on February 23, 2013 from Vassilion, A. (2014). European Commissioner of Education. Wagner, T. (2008). From the Global Achievement Gap: Why Even Our Best Schools Don’t Teach the New Survival Skills. Basic Books. Food for thought: School Feeding Programmes continued from page 41

guidance to each country so that when a handover occurs, the government is able to run its own programmes according to unique country needs. So far, 38 programmes have been successfully transitioned to government ownership. This ownership is essential as it builds our collective ability to properly nourish eager young minds that will shape our future. Given that 58 million primary school age children are

currently out of school, school meals will continue to be one of the ways we work to build resilient societies. Natural disasters will continue to strike and armed conflicts and chronic hunger cannot be immediately halted. What is in our power is to assure that despite these challenges, children receive the education and nutrition that lie within their rights. Here, school meals are indispensable.

Do something healthy for your child. Get to know his teacher today.

Living Education Everyday

Our Economic Engine Runs on STEAM By Carl Petersen “You know the good ole days weren’t always good And tomorrow ain’t as bad as it seems.” - Billy Joel

For example, it took a Chinese population of 1.34 billion to manufacture $1.92 trillion worth of 3 4 goods in 2010.

While the United States only manufactured While the United States only manufactured same period, we did so with a population that is 23% 5 6 the size of China’s. Furthermore, in 2012 the average hourly wage for a Chinese worker was $1.36 - hardly something Americans should 7 aspire to. It is also important to look at the type of the products being manufactured. While China dominates the manufacturing of McDonald’s Happy Meal toys and similar products (in fact, 70% of all toy products are manufactured in China), Boeing Commercial Airplanes, an American company, competes with the European Airbus for the distinction of 8 being the largest aircraft manufacturer.

There is not a Chinese company included in the rankings for this category. 9 Caterpillar sells its products worldwide, “but much of its capacity is still in the U. S.” 10

We are in a national funk. A bright “Morning in America” has given way to a stormy afternoon as the headlines scream that America’s best days are behind us. It seems that when we lost our position as the largest manufacturing country in 2010, we also lost our cando spirit. 2 It has been replaced by a fatalism that proclaims that our greatness can never be reclaimed. When discussing our alleged demise, China is the country that is mentioned most often. However, this ignores the facts behind their success.

One of the reasons that our workers are able to make more complicated products is the amount of education that they receive. In 2000 the United States ranked first in the average years of schooling the adult citizen had received while China was ranked 46th. 11 While the average American receives 12.05 years of formal schooling, his Chinese 12

counterparts will only receive 6.36 years. The United States also leads the world in the number of students who continue their studies 13 after high school. Electronics is an industry where China also 14 does well. Work practices may play more of a role than labor cost in the decision to outsource the manufacturing of these types of products to China. Apple’s

Continue on page 51

Living Education Everyday

The Job of Every Child By Anne Riley

Throughout the pages of this magazine, we obtain a strong appreciation for the role of education in the lives of children. Education is an essential tool by which a child understands the world.

should become an expert on yourself. In fact, you’re an expert already, aren’t you? After all, you’ve been living with yourself your whole life.

My perspective is quite different from many of the scholars who contribute to this publication. I am not an educator. My background is in business, but I can say I am a grateful beneficiary of a solid education. However, despite my success in my educational endeavors, I confess to being less so in my career. You see, I missed a very important lesson along the way, one that made a big difference in my ability to be successful, not only in my career, but also as a person. It is this lesson I wish to share with you in this article.

Self-expertise may seem easy but it’s not. If you don’t believe me, quick, answer these questions: Who are you? What are the things most important to you? What do you believe in?

Students, you have a very important job to do as you grow up. Only you can do this job. No one else, and I mean no one, can do it for you. If you manage to accomplish this task, your life will make much more sense. Your job is to become an expert on… Yourself. I know what you’re thinking. This statement is so obvious, it is unnecessary. Of course, you

Not so fast.

Don't feel bad if you hesitated or weren’t able to answer the questions. I would venture to guess most people can’t answer them. Even a lot of adults who might just be busy telling you how to live your life. In our society, we don't actively encourage children to explore this question. Instead society provides a ready-made answer. It’s called the ‘American Dream.’ If you take all the messages that society throws at us every day, and run a regression line through them, the resulting ‘average American dream’ would look something like this: Get an education. Get a job. Get rich. Get married. Have a few kids. Maybe throw in a pet or two. Get a house. Retire at sixty-five. Die at a ripe old age surrounded by

grandchildren. As instructions go, the “American Dream’ model isn’t bad, it’s just incomplete. What kind of education, you might ask. What kind of job? Which person should I marry? The American Dream is silent on these detailed instructions. And that silence can cause a few problems. It’s a big world. Many choices exist. And many people are probably telling you what choices to make. That can be good. Or bad. With so many choices available, you need a way to sort them out so you can choose the best path for you. This is where becoming an expert on yourself is so critical. This knowledge about yourself becomes your anchor, the vehicle by which you evaluate available choices and determine which ones are suitable for you. I sum this approach up in five words:

Identify your values. Live them.

the key.

I assure you, this is not an easy task. Especially when you’re young. You don’t have much experience. Everyone around you seems to have more knowledge and wisdom than you do. This may be true. But the wisdom of others might not suit you.

There is no question this is a difficult job. You may need years to fully understand yourself and what is right for you. But the effort is worthwhile. I spent a lot of years struggling to learn about myself, and I didn’t fully finish the job until I was over 50 years old. Between you and me, I don't want you to take so long. So, here are a few hints that might help in the process:

The trick is to take in as much as you can from the world around you. Advice, education, opinions, ideas. The more the better. Soak them in. Absorb them. Think on them. Turn them in every direction you can think of. Then evaluate. Evaluation is essential to becoming a selfexpert. Evaluation is how you determine the importance of the things you learn. For instance, let’s say you’re trying to decide what career to pursue. Mom says “Teaching,” Dad says “Engineering.” Your friends say, “Race Car Driver.” Your neighbor says “Construction.” All of these jobs would be okay. All of them will provide you with a living. So, how do you decide? You decide when you start evaluating these choices against what is important to you. The truth is different things are important to different people. For some, money is the motivator. For others, time is the driver. Yet others are moved to help people. And others are driven by curiosity and discovery. Understanding yourself well enough to make choices that are right for you is

Action is Key. When you put your time and energy into an activity, you are taking action. Actions tell the world who you are and what you believe in. If your actions line up with the things you believe in, your life will make sense. If they don’t line up, you will feel lost. Do you see the importance of learning about yourself? Once you know who you are, you can act according to that knowledge. Without that knowledge, you are trying to hit a bull’s-eye while wearing a blindfold. You might get a lucky shot now and then, but mostly you will miss your target. There Are No Wrong Answers. Every single action you take in your life will teach you important lessons. No action is ever wasted as long as you are willing to learn from it. Discovering what doesn’t suite you can be as important as discovering what does. If you find out you have taken a path that doesn’t suit you, you are free to change your mind. Don't be afraid to

to change direction if you need to. With time and practice, you will get smarter and smarter about pointing yourself in the direction that is right for you. As you move forward doing the things you believe and taking the actions that are right for you, more and more opportunities will open up to you. And your life will become more interesting and satisfying. Changing Direction Can Be Difficult. Once you invest your time and energy on a path, it is understandably difficult to change from that path, even if you begin to discover it doesn’t suit you. How do you know when to change? Are you just not trying hard enough? Or is this path really the wrong one? If you find yourself in this situation, try to picture the ideal life you want to live, that is, the life that satisfies you and gives you peace of mind. Compare your ideal life to your real life and try to identify those areas that conflict the most. Pick the biggest conflict, which is also likely to be the area causing you the greatest unhappiness, and make a plan to bring them into alignment. Then . . . act. Rules. All of life has restraints. The search for self-expertise is no exception. As you pursue your own way, you must not hurt anyone else. This instruction is the foundation of much philosophical thought. Jesus framed it in terms of the Golden Rule. Hippocrates said, ‘Do no harm.” Hurting others is self-defeating and will only stifle your own attempts to find yourself. You will make enemies. You will make people unhappy.

You will end up fighting battles that don’t bring you anywhere near happiness. The truth is, you are free to pursue any life you want. Any life you want. Just don't hurt anyone else along the way. And if you do hurt others, and we all do now and then, own up to your actions. Acknowledge your behavior. Apologize. Learn from them so you don’t repeat them in the future. I hope this article had given you a glimpse into the importance of becoming an expert on yourself. I will leave you with one final thought. You are here, in this world, and the world needs the best you that you can offer. The world does not need someone else to say who you should be. It is your job to find your best self, and give it to the world. This is the path to peace, harmony, satisfaction and happiness. It is not only within your power to achieve, it is your rightful destiny. But it is hard work. Don’t be daunted. Go forth and discover! Economic Engine Runs on STEAM continued from page 47

“supply chain partners live in 8,000-strong dormitories, ready to be woken up at midnight to start a 12-hour shift making new parts for an iPhone that received last-minute design changes 15 from California.” This is a type of lifestyle that Americans have proudly put in their past. However, another factor calls into question the foundation of America’s educational superiority; manufacturers in China have access to “thousands of collocated engineers” to facilitate 16 rapid changes on the manufacturing floor. Once again, the sheer size of China’s population needs to be considered when comparing the number of engineering graduates that each country produces. When adjusting for this higher population, the United States needed to graduate 118,962 engineers to keep up with the 517,225 17 Chinese graduates in 2004. We actually 18 graduated 140,000 engineers. The quality of their education system also needs to be considered. While “the best of their universities are getting pretty darn good in engineering and science,” their overall higher education system 19 20 ranked 39th in the Universitas 21 survey. The United States was ranked first. There is a reason

that 819,644 students, including “hundreds of thousands of Chinese,” came from other countries to study in the United States during the 2012-13 21 school year. What China’s success has done is to show that they can be competitive. In a global marketplace, businesses can move their operations anywhere and any country that rests on its laurels risks becoming irrelevant. China is already losing some of their market share for items requiring cheap labor to countries like Vietnam. If they are to continue to thrive they will need to become more competitive in the manufacturing of higher end products. In turn, the United States will have to make sure that our education system continues to produce workers that will ensure our competitiveness. and 27 percent of 17 to 24year-olds are not eligible to serve in the military 22 23 because of their weight. Our government is so mired in gridlock that an analysis of our capabilities lists “policy uncertainty” as an area of 24 concern. Yet eleven states do not even require any courses in American government or civics and only two states require students to pass a test on the subject in order to graduate from high 25 school. However, our biggest mistake may be the extent to which we have ignored the arts. While our iPhones may be manufactured in China, they are “Designed by Apple in California While our iPhones may be manufactured in China, they are “Designed by Apple in 26 California.” The automobile was invented in Germany, but it was Henry Ford’s innovative 27 thinking that brought it to the mass market. Creativity has always been the cornerstone of America’s economic success, yet “a common cost-cutting measure is to slash funding for arts 28 education.” If we are to maintain our economic position, we need to banish STEM and replace it with STEAM. References &v=IR0fCyMm5ec#t=209 0aRCRD.htm

Continue on page 66

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Asia's New Wings Clifton and Dr. Michelle Cottom Asia Cottom lived eleven short years on this earth. Her tragic death on Flight #77 on 9/11is forever etched in the hearts of the countless people who loved her. But her wise and influential life, her positive attitude, and profound faith in God are her true legacy. You may love God with all your heart and soul, yet not understand what He is doing. In Asia's New Wings, Clifton and Dr. Michelle Cottom, along with family and friends, walk beside you, sharing their thoughts and offering compassion to help you come to a place of acceptance, when trying to make sense of suffering great loss. The people in this book have learned to come to terms with what God allows, and are now in a place where they can help heal others. If you have gone - or are going through - the "valley of despair," you will find comfort and empathy from those who care. You will also find hope and the strength to move forward as you rediscover your life. What Asia's parents and all those who loved her went through, healed from, and learned will bring comfort and relief to those who travel down the road of loss. Reading and experiencing Asia's story will truly bring healing and life to all who turn these pages.


This essay takes a brief look at the use of standards and the outcry that has come from teachers, administrators, and other stakeholders in the use of standards to guide instruction in public education. The thesis states that standards are necessary for equity and equality in public education, especially considering underrepresented student populations. The author claims equity and equality can be accomplished through effective use of planning and resources by administrators. In recent years, many teachers, school administrators, and other stakeholders have been concerned about the implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) across the nation. Some states such as Alaska and Texas have chosen not to adopt the CCSS while others such as Oklahoma and Indiana adopted the CCSS as part of a No Child Left Behind waiver and then rejected the CCSS with recent legislative action (Standards in Your State, 2013). No matter the state in which one finds oneself, using standards to guide instruction in our public school systems is not new and certainly raises controversy. This essay briefly explores the roots of using standards to guide instruction before taking a longer look at how the use of such standards is necessary to ensure equity in the treatment of students and equality of educational opportunities for all students to be successful. The essay ends with a look at the role administrators need to assume to make this happen.

Using standards to guide instruction gained the most support during the late 1990s (Schomoker and Marzano, 1999). Congress and President Bush codified these efforts in 2002 with No Child Left Behind (NCLB) when Congress re-authorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965. The changes made and implemented in 2002 were monumental for the standards. Among other tasks, state departments of education had to create state standards and students in each of the grades 3-8 were to be tested in math and reading and once in science during that grade span. High school students also had to be tested once in math, reading, and science. States could forego the creation of

standards and the impending testing, but those states would also forego any federal education money. No state withdrew from the deal. The reason for the increased emphasis on standards and testing was because of seemingly low achievement by the nation’s underrepresented populations. These included students of color, special education students, ELL students, and student from low-income households (Schomoker and Marzano, 1999). The goal was simple: By 2014, all students would be performing on grade level because the state standards to be created would be tweaked and cut-off scores, which were to start low in the beginning for success on state tests, would be raised so that districts slowly progressed to the goal of all students achieving at grade level. As a result of the failure of Congress to re-authorize ESEA under President Obama, and as the deadline of 2014 loomed for schools to have students performing on grade level, the Department of Education took another approach. In a change of policy, the Department of Education issued waivers to states from the punitive measures being meted out to low performing districts who were not making progress to all students performing on grade level. This gave rise to most states adopting the CCSS as part of their waiver, an effort to make all

standards equal across the country. As the country welcomes millions of students into the classrooms this fall, most districts around the country are now faced with the task of preparing students for the state, quasi-national, tests based upon the CCSS. The uproar has begun. In reality, it is only getting louder. Teachers and administrators began ushering statements against “teaching to the test� when Congress and the U. S. Department of Education first asked states to implement a standards based curriculum with NCLB. Many states already had standards, but not all. This was the first time for many teacher around the country to have guides telling them what students should learn in their respective classes. With the implementation of CCSS testing and states beginning to tie teacher evaluation and, ultimately administrator evaluations, to test scores, there is now a great backlash against standards. If standards are to be the panacea for low performing students, why is the uproar only getting louder? The answer to this question lies in planning and preparation. The purpose of this essay is not to address the quality of the standards. The underlying assumption is that whether the standards themselves are of good or poor quality, proper planning and preparation is necessary. Such work will

aid students in finding success by mitigating the impact of poor standards and fulfilling the goal of good standards. Planning and preparation help establish an annual checkpoint for all students if done properly. Those students who find themselves behind anticipated targets will have to rely upon planning and preparation of other stakeholders to make advances toward the next annual target however that is measured, most likely through state testing (Downey, Steffy, Poston, and English, 2009; Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock, 2001, Wiliam, 2011). It is with state testing that adequate planning begins. Teachers need to know the standards being assessed for the state assessments. Not all standards are always assessed. This means teachers will have to have planning time to dissect state tests and compare to the standards. This is called backwards planning. To ensure that

teaching his/her students the correct material, team planning is necessary to link standards from one grade to the next so there will be a seamless transition. Annual horizontal and vertical team meetings are necessary to achieve these ends and to identify weak areas and revise the scope and targeted standards for each subject area (Downey, Steffy, Poston, and English, 2009; Dufour and Marzano, 2011; Marzano, Frontier, and Livingston, 2011). It appears this is when teachers often claim they are being forced to “teach the test� instead of being allowed the academic freedom to teach how they feel is best for students. This, in reality, is not the case. What this process does is actually show teachers the overall standards that need to be taught annually for students to reach the goal of a public education, graduation and a preparedness for a career or a post-high school education. The days of beginning on page 1 of a textbook on day 1 of class have been long gone, but not all teachers and administrators realize this. Using standards to guide instruction requires teachers to understand that many parts of textbooks will not be used and teachers may have to go outside of textbooks to find supporting material or other material that may not be included in specific textbooks. If one were teaching fifth grade reading and many students were not reading on a fifth grade level, then how would one address this with standards that are written for a fifth grade student? This is a problem for many teachers,

especially in areas that serve large numbers of underrepresented students. The answer to this problem, which is a problem, lies in the role the administration plans to take in instruction. In this role, administrators can make the largest impact with the curriculum and instruction (Downey, Steffy, Poston, and English, 2009; Dufour and Marzano, 2011; Marzano, Frontier, and Livingston, 2011; Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock, 2001). Administrators who take a reactionary

approach to standards and curriculum, do so by instructing teachers to spend countless hours, days, and weeks teaching test-taking strategies in place of normal instruction. In a typical district, schools begins in late August or early September. Surprisingly and sadly, test-taking skills begin showing up in the curriculum as daily exercises as early as January or February. This leaves students with only four or five pure months of instruction before they are being told how important the test is. No wonder some students develop test anxiety. What administrators should be doing is implementing an effective intervention program along with professional

development to aid teachers in differentiated instruction and in the development of common assessments to be used as checkpoints throughout the academic year. Through the development of strong intervention programs and of teachers with the ability to teach all students individually while addressing the whole class, administrators will allow teachers to continue with established grade standards and help assist those students who are performing behind grade level simultaneously (Downey, Steffy, Poston, and English, 2009). Why is this process, which comes with much controversy, necessary to ensure equity and equality in public education for all students? These terms need some defining to understand their importance; they are not synonymous. Equity is best defined as treating un-equals unequally until they are equal. This mindset indicates that if two students are in the same grade level and one is performing below grade level while the other is at or above grade level, more resources need to be spent to bring underperforming students to grade level (Downey, Steffy, Poston, and English, 2009). These resources include time and financial resources. This could be realized through common assessments serving as checkpoints throughout the academic year and a strong intervention program implemented and supported by the administration. Once equity is realized, then equality can be addressed. This not only means equal access to curriculum across grade levels Continue on page 67

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SHADOWS OF THE HIDDEN By Anne Riley @AnneRiley Natalie Watson doesn’t believe her parents are dead, even though they disappeared five years ago. Discovering the truth about their fate is one of the only things that get her out of bed in the morning. But after moving from her home in Georgia to her aunt’s boarding school in Maine, solving the mystery of her parents’ whereabouts is just one of several challenges she must face. When she’s not fending off attacks from the popular kids, she puzzles over the rumors about a strange boy in her math class–one with fiery red hair who rarely speaks.

Ashford University’s Discusses Accreditation of Its Business and Accounting Academic Programs Business The staff of Living Education eMagazine presented six questions to Pat Ogden, Bridgepoint Education Associate Vice President of Accreditation Services & Compliance and Dr. Mike Reilly, Ashford University Executive Dean and Professor for the Forbes School of Business about the efforts of students to have Ashford University’s Business and Accounting Academic Programs obtain AACSB Accreditation. Here is what they had to say. LEeM: Tell us about Ashford University. Ashford University: Ashford University’s student population is comprised primarily of learners who are working adults, with 91% 25 years of age or older. In the fall of 2013, 47% of Ashford University students were white, 36% were African-American, and 9% were Hispanic. Ninety-nine percent of Ashford students are enrolled in online programs and participate in an active learning community via the internet, which allows them to balance a job or other personal pursuits with their college coursework. The online learning community comprises students from throughout the United States and internationally. Students enrolled in online programs are provided continuous enrollment (non-term) in accelerated, asynchronous classes through online centers in Clinton, Iowa and San Diego, California. Traditional baccalaureate and master's-level degree programs are offered at the University's Clinton, Iowa campus. LEeM: Currently there is an online push to have Ashford University obtain AACSB Accreditation; are you aware of the efforts and what are your thoughts on AACSB Accreditation for your Business and Accounting Academic Programs? Ashford University: We are aware that a very small group (100 or so) of students has created an online petition. By any measure, this is a very small percentage of the total Forbes School of Business student population. Currently, Forbes School of Business (FSB) is accredited by the International Assembly for Collegiate Business Education (IACBE). IACBE and FSB have compatible missions; Ashford University is a “teaching” university and not a research institution. IACBE is focused on a teaching and learning assessment approach in the business discipline and supporting their accredited institutions in advancing capacity in this area. AACSB has a mission to advance research and focuses this mission via principles related to advancing the body of knowledge. While both accrediting bodies are excellent in what they do, AACSB’s mission does not well align with the mission of Ashford University and the Forbes School of Business. LEeM: Under which accrediting body are Ashford’s Business and Accounting Academic programs currently accredited? Ashford University: Ashford University was granted accreditation by the International Assembly for Collegiate Business Education (IACBE) ( in August 2010. The mission of the IACBE is to promote and recognize excellence in business education in institutions of higher education worldwide, at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, through specialized accreditation of business programs. Currently 19 of the University’s programs are accredited by IACBE. LEeM: What are the benefits to students and graduates of Ashford University’s Business and Continue on page 64

The State of St. Louis, Missouri Series Presented by

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State Of The Normandy School District Of St. Louis, Missouri (audio) Frm. Normandy B.O.E Member Terry Artis

St. Louis Missouri and How Education Can Change The Narrative (audio) Frm. Normandy B.O.E Member Terry Artis

St. Louis/Ferguson, Missouri and The Role of Education (audio) Executive Director Teach For America-St. Louis Brittany N. Packnett @MsPackyetti

Md. Community Leader and Former Resident of Ferguson, Missouri Devin Tucker @tuckerdevin

The State of St. Louis/Ferguson, Missouri Children/Mentoring (audio) Frm. St. Louis City Alderwoman Velma Bailey

The Impact of Violence on the Students of Ferguson and Their Learning Culture (audio) President of the St. Louis Chapter The Association of Black Psychologists @drmarvarobinson

When the general public thinks of homelessness, they often imagine the traditional stereotype—a single adult man, unkempt, unshaven, sometimes muttering, with a bottle at his feet and a cardboard sign in his hand. Teachers, school counselors, and administrators know the rest of the story: children and their families represent a significant and rapidly growing segment of the homeless population. Even using the most conservative estimates, children under 18 years now comprise 23% of the overall homeless population (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 2013). In fact, according to Department of Education data, child homelessness reached an historic high during the 20112012 school year (National Center for Homeless Education, 2013). The numbers are staggering: one in fifty—or 1.6 million—American children experience homelessness each year (National Center on Family Homelessness, 2009). The experience of homelessness has profound and lasting impact on children and their families. Medical Issues, Traumatic Exposure, and Mental Health Homeless children have higher rates of medical problems compared to their housed peers (Weinreb et al., 1998). They have more injuries, acute illnesses, and trips to the doctor and emergency room than poor housed children or the overall population under 18 years. They are significantly more likely to have lice, scabies, asthma, and chronic bronchitis, partly due to conditions in the shelters and motels. Health problems among these children are complicated by poor nutrition. One study found that 45% of homeless children were overweight, setting them up for increased medical problems as they enter adulthood (Richards & Smith, 2007). In addition to these medical issues, children experiencing homelessness routinely experience traumatic events that are unimaginable to families that have never seen the inside of a shelter or stayed a night in their car. Trauma is the norm, not the exception for homeless children. These adverse childhood events (ACEs), such as physical abuse and neglect, separation from their families, parents with serious mental illness or substance use issues, lead to persistent problems throughout adulthood (Felitti et al., 1998). Exposure to trauma often results in emotional and mental health problems for children that manifest in poor school performance and difficulties in peer relationships.

The Education Homeless children respond in different ways to these difficult circumstances based on various factors, including early childhood attachments and the presence of stable, supportive caregivers. However, it is difficult to predict which children will weather these circumstances and appear resilient and which children will continue to struggle through school, social relationships, and eventually in the workplace. Therefore, schools, health centers, and social service programs should provide comprehensive screening, assessment, and referral to services for all children who are at risk or experience homelessness. Needless to say, all of these experiences have a profound impact on children’s school performance. Academic Achievement of Homeless Children Children experiencing homelessness are faced with unusual barriers to learning and achievement and are at high risk for academic problems (Masten et al., 1997; Cutuli et al., 2013). Although school can be a safe, secure, predictable environment filled with opportunity for many children, this is frequently not the case for homeless kids. For those living in emergency shelters or other transitional settings such as welfare hotels, they generally have little privacy, quiet spaces to do their homework, or afterschool routines. They often feel ashamed about their circumstances and go to school hungry and tired. Many lack regular transportation and adequate school supplies. Their parents are frequently unable to be involved in supportive school activities such as parent-teacher conferences, despite their best intentions. Given the extreme stresses of their daily

of Homeless Children By Ellen L. Bassuk, M.D.

and Jeffrey Olivet, M.A. lives as well as the complexity of their health needs, it is not surprising that many homeless children perform poorly in school, frequently repeat grades or are suspended, and have high dropout rates. Fewer than one in four homeless children graduate from high school (National Center on Family Homelessness, 2009). Researchers have documented that children who are homeless or have moved multiple times during the school year perform poorly in math, reading, and spelling compared to housed children and those from higher socioeconomic groups (Rubin et al., 1996; Cutuli et al., 2013). For children who have moved three or more times, this is especially pronounced (National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, 2010; Reynolds, Chen, & Herbers, 2009). Studies also suggest that homelessness is a risk factor for lower academic performance that goes well beyond poverty (See Buckner, 2008 for a review).

necessary residency documents; 3) protection from a separate system of education on the basis of homelessness alone; and, 4) participation in the same programs and activities as other students. Additionally, the Act provides funds to states and districts to assure that these rights are met and that needed services are provided including: “transportation services, gifted and handicapped educational services, school meal programs, vocational education, bilingual programs, and before and after school programs” (McKinney-Vento Homeless Education Assistance Improvements Act of 2001 sec. 722(e)). However, funds are awarded through a competitive process, and only those receiving grants are required to follow the provisions of the Act. In addition, even grantees receiving funds lack sufficient resources to provide essential services. Wong (2009) examined McKinney-Vento implementation in six northeastern states and described the policy as “woefully underfunded” (p. 55).

What can schools do?

Despite limited resources, the federal program seems to work when implemented (see National Center for Homeless Education, 2010), and there are steps schools can take to improve outcomes. The first step is to identify homeless children since many go unnoticed by school personnel (Duffield & Lovell, 2008). If schools are not committed to identification, inaccurate estimates can lead to less support. Ensuring that school personnel are trained to identify these children is key. Second, schools must promote awareness of how stereotypes and stigma can affect teachers’ perceptions of homeless children and their families. Schools can encourage staff to volunteer in local food banks, promote community advocacy, facilitate discussion groups among school personnel, and develop positive relationships with students’ families (See PowersCostello & Swick, 2011 for more recommendations). Third, schools must coordinate services, including transportation, food assistance, and school supplies. Teachers can provide tutoring and mentorship to children experiencing homelessness or hold learning

When children are displaced, living in shelter or temporary housing, and exposed to multiple traumatic stresses, it is important that schools step in. Masten and colleagues (1997) describes a “cumulative protection” approach for high-risk students that include attention to basic needs as well as programs that “boost school stability, attendance, reading skills, perceived belonging, and home-school connections” (p.43). This is easier said than done. Educators need to know the legal rights of homeless children and their families, and what they can do to support students. In 1987, Congress passed the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act, Subtitle VII-B, later reauthorized in No Child Left Behind, legislating the educational rights of children experiencing homelessness, including: 1) "equal access to the same free, appropriate public education, including preschool education, as provided to other children and youth" 2) enrollment without

evenings at local shelters (Milenkiewicz, 2005; Swick, 2005). Fourth, all schools should provide trauma informed services, since most children living in poverty have experienced an array of traumatic stresses. Finally, it should be borne in mind that homeless children are a heterogeneous group with diverse needs. Some remain resilient and do well even in the face of extreme adversity. Researchers have recently focused on factors that promote resilience, including parenting supports, child self-regulation, and quality teaching and relationships in the classroom (Cutuli et al., 2013; Masten, 2012). While implementation of services for homeless children takes resources and collaboration across multiple agencies, support often begins with compassionate teachers in the classroom who are aware of their students’ needs. Conclusion Child homelessness is more than a national tragedy. It is a scandal. It is unconscionable in a nation as rich as ours for homelessness to be a reality for anyone, much less for the youngest and most vulnerable among us. We believe in a simple, clear vision: “not one child, not one night.” Child homelessness is never acceptable, and we must work together to prevent homelessness and to end homelessness quickly for those who slip through the cracks. This will require sustained and focused energy and resources over many years on many fronts—housing, education, health care, child development, juvenile justice, foster care, and behavioral health. State Education Departments, district leadership, and school staff all play a critical role in helping to end this crisis. We must work together to identify children who are homeless or at risk, provide appropriate support for them to achieve at school, support families during and after homelessness, and advocate for comprehensive policies and adequate resources. This is not easy work, but it is essential for our future and that of our children.

Resources America’s Youngest Outcasts: A State Report Card on Family Homelessness, published by the National Center on Family Homelessness: t3 Training Institute, a resource for schools and community agencies, providing onsite and online training opportunities to learn more about homelessness and effective responses: Help Homeless Children and Youth Now, a website dedicated to supporting legislation, including the Homeless Children and Youth Act: Buckner, J. C. (2008). Understanding the impact of homelessness on children: Challenges and future research directions. American Behavioral Scientist, 51(6), 721-736. Cutuli, J. J., Desjardins, C. D., Herbers, J. E., Long, J. D., Heistad, D., Chan, C. K., ... & Masten, A. S. (2013). Academic achievement trajectories of homeless and highly mobile students: Resilience in the context of chronic and acute risk. Child Development, 84(3), 841857. Duffield, B., and P. Lovell. 2008. The Economic Crisis Hits Home. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth. Felitti, M. D., Vincent, J., Anda, M. D., Robert, F., Nordenberg, M. D., Williamson, M. S., ... & James, S. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245-258. Masten, A. S. (2012). Risk and resilience in the educational success of homeless and highly mobile children: Introduction to the special section. Educational Researcher, 41(9), 363-365. Continue on page 67

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Ashford University Continued from page 58

Accounting Academic Programs if they are AACSB or The International Assembly for Collegiate Business Education (IACBE) accredited? Ashford University: Specialized accreditation provides external validation for the quality of an institution’s programs. Each accrediting body has its own unique perspective and standards. The focus of the AACSB is on research-based institutions and large, land-grant institutions where faculty research is a high priority. While research scholarship is important to FSB, it is only one of three areas of significant responsibility for our faculty. Ashford faculty are responsible for teaching, service, and scholarship with teaching as the primary emphasis. The benefits of IACBE accreditation are published prominently on the IACBE website and include:    

Enhanced Reputation Evidence of Quality Sharing of Best Practices International Partnership Opportunities

LEeM: Is the mission of Ashford University and that of AACSB aligned? Ashford University: As mentioned in question #4, AACSB accreditation focuses on institutions for which research is a significant area of focus. While faculty scholarship is encouraged and supported at the University in a variety of ways, Ashford continues its tradition of being a teaching institution. LEeM: How do you address the concern of graduates of Ashford’s MBA program that have suggested they are not as competitive as students who have earned their degrees from AACSB Accredited colleges and universities? Ashford University: IACBE has 172 accredited member institutions including Azusa Pacific University, National University, Bellevue University, Bemidi State University, Chaminade University (Hawaii), Concordia University (New York), Davenport University, Dickenson State University, Eastern Oregon University, Excelsior College, Fitchburg State University, Harris-Stowe State University, Humboldt State University, Lewis-Clark College, Minot State University, National American University, National-Louis University, Nova Southeastern University, Oregon Institute of Technology, Pacific Union College, Purdue University-Calumet, State University of New York Potsdam, University of Alaska Southeast, University of Guam, University of Maine at Fort Kent, University of Maryland University College, University of Montana Western, University of the Ozarks, Urbana University, Wayne State College, among many other fine institutions. The graduates of IACBE accredited institutions enter the the workforce fully prepared for success. It is important to point out here that only three specialized accrediting bodies operate in the business school/college/department space with Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) approval: International Assembly for Collegiate Business Education (IACBE), the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSP), and the Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP). These three accrediting bodies accredit approximately 1,100 schools/colleges/departments of business in the US—approximately 40% of the total business education entities. Any student earning an academic credential from any of these institutions should be very proud of their academic accomplishments. The Forbes School of Business at Ashford University, including its students, faculty, deans, and staff, Continue on page 68

Spotlight By Roma Benjamin, Ph.D. Roma J. Benjamin is a retired public school administrator, who said “ENOUGH IS ENOUGH.” After serving 18 years as teacher and principal, she took an early retirement leaving a position with the highest paid salary in her district. No monetary compensation could satisfied the pain she endured daily when forced to promote children without the skills necessary to take on the challenges of education. They could not READ, continuous failing and turning to the hard road instead of succeeding if only they could READ. Benjamin earned her Bachelor of Science degree in Elementary Education, and Masters of Arts degree in Public School Education at Oral Roberts University, Tulsa, Oklahoma (1993-1998). She also obtaining a Superintendent Certification from Shippensburg University, Pennsylvania and finishing her doctorate at Nova Southeastern University, Ft. Lauderdale, FL in Education Leadership. With her background Dr. Benjamin understood if a child didn’t know the sounds of the alphabet they wouldn’t be able to sound out words, or comprehend literature to focus and achieve. Too many times Benjamin would witness young Black and Hispanic boys be suspended or punished for something outside their power, they couldn’t READ. Behavior became the main focus, when actually the problem being the children reading below grade level or not being able to READ at all. Benjamin is also a licensed and ordained Senior Pastor of Greater Faith Ministries in Harrisburg, PA. A church she started from ground up serving a large population of young men and women who were in the same situation as her school children, illiteracy was a fast spreading disease within her community and she had to take action. With her leadership as principal in the city school district and Senior Pastor at her church, Benjamin understood her children would not easily confide they couldn’t read, however she was convinced of the need for a solution which swayed her to put a program together where they could learn.

As a strong teacher in grades 1-8, and a previous principal in elementary, alternative education, middle and high schools where the reading test scores were the lowest in the entire district, Benjamin experienced what she describes as “war” and no one was facing the truth. Our children cannot read, so what are we really dealing with? What are we doing when parents send them to our system for 6-8 hrs a day and they still cannot read the language they speak? The largest prison systems are being built in areas where 3rd and 4th reading standardized test scores are abysmal; you can’t help but wonder that there is a connection between illiteracy and crime. Data is revealing that children are going from school to prison and something has to be done to shut down this pipeline. Public school education is not doing the job effectively for our children; they need help and additional services. Benjamin feels that she is called, and on a Godmandated assignment to “make a difference” even if it is only one child at a time. Roma recently renovated space in her church building in order to open up a literacy center, New Sound Literacy & Technology Center. Serving the minority children in her area to learn how to READ causes Benjamin to be very passionate about eradicating illiteracy in the urban community, with a strong focus on Black and Hispanic males. Having firsthand experience in that system gives Benjamin an insider fire that will not die out. New Sound Literacy & Technology Center, located in Harrisburg, PA , powered by renowned reading learning company is on the rise and expanding. The focus will be on students in grades K-8 because she knows the majority of the damage takes place in the elementary years. With daily software lessons and leveled book reading training, Benjamin will use and teach children how to read, starting from the

basics and advancing as An evaluation test is administered before commencing the program to find where the child is lacking in reading and individualized lessons are constructed for each child. They come weekly for personal and intensive training for two hours daily to start learning how to read. Much preparation and thought on Benjamin’s part was given before starting her reading center and this uphill battle to eradicate illiteracy. Yet, with high expectations and determination, Benjamin says, “her children will learn how to READ.” Her journey is shared by many; parents, church colleagues, directors, family and her children. Like many, Benjamin felt powerless! But, with assistance and a small investment, she has started running her own reading center in her area. Benjamin wants to encourage all individuals, churches, nonprofits even parents to take a stand saying, “ENOUGH IS ENOUGH” and join her in the movement of saving our children, and teaching them to READ! 1/harrisburg_school_district_chi.html g/27-Sylvan-Heights-Science-Cs/?tab=test-scores Economic Engine Runs on STEAM Continued from page 51

References 3 4 5 6 7 8 ocess-Industrial-Products/manufacturingcompetitiveness/mfg-competitiveness index/aea9f024eca0b310VgnVCM3000003456f70aR CRD.htm

9 10 11 12 u-other-average-years-schooling-adults.html 13 14 ocess-Industrial-Products/manufacturingcompetitiveness/mfg-competitivenessindex/aea9f024eca0b310VgnVCM3000003456f70aR CRD.htm 15 16 17 umber-us-engineers-decline-relative-china-india 18 umber-us-engineers-decline-relative-china-india 19 gs/19611/53074.aspx 20 21 22 23 24 rocess-Industrial-Products/manufacturingcompetitiveness/mfg-competitivenessindex/aea9f024eca0b310VgnVCM3000003456f70aR CRD.htm 25 26 27 28

EQUITY, EQUALITY, AND STANDARDS continued from page 56

and school sites within a district, but, in the bigger picture, it is ultimately equal access to an education with the goal of graduating and being prepared for a career or a post-secondary institution. Research shows that teachers, unknowingly for the most part, treat underperforming students as though they cannot learn as much as students performing at or above grade level. This was best shown in Robert Rosenthal’s study on the Power of Positive Expectations (Riggio, 2009). By administrators supporting a standards-based curriculum with strong professional development and effective intervention strategies while providing time and support for teachers to plan effectively, teachers can plan instruction based upon an annual review of the standards and state tests. This also allows teachers to implement common assessments along with effective differentiated instruction whereby all students, including those who are often considered underrepresented such as students of color, special education students, ELL students, and students from low-income households, will find success. In addition, teachers, administrators, students, and parents will not feel like students are doing nothing but preparing for testing. The inevitable state tests will only be another assessment during the school year, barely a spot on the academic calendar. References Downey, C. J., Steffy, B. E., Poston, W. K., and English, F. W. (2009). 50 ways to close the achievement gap (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Dufour, R. and Marzano, R. J. (2011). Leaders of learning: How district, school, and classroom leaders improve student achievement. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.

Riggio, R. E. (2009). Pygmalion leadership: The power of positive expectations. Cutting-Edge Leadership. Retrieved from Schomoker, M. and Marzano, R. J. (1999). Realizing the promise of standards-based education. Educational Leadership, 56. Retrieved from educational_leadership/mar99/vol15/num06/Realizing _the_Promise_of_Standards-Based_Education.aspx Standards in Your State. (2013). [Graph illustration of states that have adopted the Common Core Standards]. Standards in Your State. Retrieved from standards-in-your-state/ Wiliam, D. (2011). Embedded formative assessment. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press Homeless Children continued from page 62

Masten, A. S., Sesma Jr, A., Si-Asar, R., Lawrence, C., Miliotis, D., & Dionne, J. A. (1997). Educational risks for children experiencing homelessness. Journal of School Psychology, 35(1), 27-46. Milenkiewicz, M. (2005). Colorado educators study of homeless and highly mobile students. Denver, CO: Colorado Department of Education. National Center for Homeless Education. (2010). Education for Homeless Children and Youth program data collection summary. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Homeless Education. (2013). Education for Homeless Children and Youths Program SY 2011-12 CSPR Data Collection Summary. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Education. National Center on Family Homelessness. (2009). America’s youngest outcasts: State report card on child homelessness. Newton, MA: National Center on Family Homelessness.

Marzano, R. J., Frontier, T. and Livingston, D. (2011). Effective supervision supporting the art and science of teaching. Alexandria, VA: Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development.

National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. (2010). Student mobility: Exploring the impact of frequent moves on achievement: Summary of a workshop. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D. J., and Pollock, J. E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: Researchbased strategies for increasing student achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development.

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, 2002. Pub. L. 107110, Title X, Part C, McKinney- Vento Homeless Education Improvements Act of 2001 § 20 U.S.C. 6301, 115 Stat. 1989. Available at

Ashford University continued from page 64 Powers-Costello, B., & Swick, K. J. (2011). Transforming teacher constructs of children and families who are homeless. Early Childhood Education Journal, 39(3), 207-212 Reynolds, A. J., Chen, C. C., & Herbers, J. E. (2009, June). School mobility and educational success: A research synthesis and evidence on prevention. Paper prepared for the Workshop on the Impact of Mobility and Change on the Lives of Young Children, Schools, and Neighborhoods, The National Academies, Washington, DC. Richards, R., & Smith, C. (2007). Environmental, parental, and personal influences on food choice, access, and overweight status among homeless children. Social Science & Medicine, 65(8), 1572-1583. Rubin, D. H., Erickson, C. J., San Agustin, M., Cleary, S. D., Allen, J. K., & Cohen, P. (1996). Cognitive and academic functioning of homeless children compared with housed children. Pediatrics, 97(3), 289-294. Swick, K. (2005). Helping homeless families overcome barriers to successful functioning. Early Childhood Education Journal, 33(3), 195–200. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). (2013). The 2013 point-in-time estimates of homelessness. 2013 Annual Homeless Assessment Report; vol. 1. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Weinreb, L., Goldberg, R., Bassuk, E., & Perloff, J. (1998). Determinants of health and service use patterns in homeless and low-income housed children. Pediatrics, 102(3), 554-562. Wong, J., Elliott, L. T., Reed, S., Ross, W., McGuirk, P., & Tallarita, L. (2009). McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act Subtitle B—Education for Homeless Children and Youths Program: Turning good law into effective education, 2008 update. Georgetown Journal on Poverty Law & Policy, 16, 53–98.

is very proud of the association with IACBE and holds its accredited status dear. We further expect to maintain our IACBE relationship and accredited status long in. Executive Perspective continued from page

Force Four (Shared Governance): Effective parental engagement programs and place importance in the area of governance when it comes to central office school level decisions. What is shared governance? Shared governance is perhaps one of the most effective ways to show parental engagement. In its simplest of definitions shared governance is participatory decision-making. Shared governance should be a process by which parents, community stakeholders and others can actively participate in the management of their community schools. This is typically accomplished by having parents and community stakeholders serve on the school improvement team (S.I.T) or the school based management team (SBMT) or the school’s formal parent organization. This could include a PTA, PTO, or PTSA. In either case, school base formal parent organizations provide an avenue for shared governance. More than 30 years of research (Comer, 1998; Henderson, et al. 1994) has shown family and community involvement in the education of children is a critical link to improving student achievement and instilling positive attitudes toward learning. If schools want to increase parent involvement it will require a rich and genuine parental engagement approach (Robinson and Davis-Robinson, 2010).

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