Page 1

FAVELASCAPE tools of integration for the favela Santa Marta in Rio de Janeiro


politecnico di milano facoltĂ di architettura e societĂ  landscape architecture

FAVELASCAPE tools of integration for the favela Santa Marta in Rio de Janeiro

tesi di laurea di livia minoja relatore salvatore porcaro


INDEX

1 | INTRODUCING 12 SLUMS OF THE WORLD 14 BRAZILIAN REALITY 16 THE CITY OF RIO DE JANEIRO 18 FAVELAS OF RIO DE JANEIRO 20 INTERVIEW WITH JORGE MARIO JAUREGUI 26 FAVELA OF SANTA MARTA 28 VIEW FROM SHOPPING LEBLON 30 VIEW FROM REDENTOR CHRIST 32 VIEW FROM SUGAR LOAF

2 | 1 TIMING 36|51 SANTA MARTA: evolution of the community 36|51 PUBLIC POLITICS: Rio de Janeiro and Brazilian interventions and decision about public politics, with particular attentions to public politics that influenced conditions in favelas 36|51 NOTES, PHOTOS, COMMENTS: photos or notes from inhabitants about specific historical moments

2 | 2 TIMING BY IMAGES 53|65 YEAR 1987 images from the movie “Duas semanas no morro”, directed by Eduardo Coutinho 53|65 YEAR 1999 images from the movie “Noticias de uma guerra particular” directed by Directed by Kátia Lund and João Moreira Salles 53|65 YEAR 2009 from my surveys in Santa Marta


3 | LIVING 68 BORDERING 70 MEASURING 71 DECOMPOSING 72 SECTIONING 74 POPULATING 78 SECTORIALIZING 80 MATERIALIZING 82 HOUSING Housing typologies 86 BUILDING | REFORMING | DEMOLISHING Interview with Emilio and Vitor 92 WORKING Working activities Interview with Francisco 98 NETWORKING Networking buildings Interview with Pescarda 104 MOVING Moving spaces Interview with Manuel 110 MEETING Meeting spaces Meeting on the roof Interview with Thiago 118 GOING OUT 120 WASTING Interview with Alexandre

4 | OBSERVING 126 DISCUSSING WITH: POLITICIANS, NGO REPRESENTATIVES, RESEARCHERS, SOCIOLOGIST What do you think are the biggest problems?

130 OBSERVING: URBANIZATION PROCESS What do you think about urbanizatIons works? What do you think about participation to urbanization process? Is there a lack of investments about culture/health/education?

138 OBSERVING: THE CONTAINMENT WALL What do you think about the wall? What will happen to the area between the wall and the last houses? 144 OBSERVING: THE RISK AREA What do you think about the risk area? 148 OBSERVING: PEACEMAKER POLICE UNIT What do you think about UPP?


152 OBSERVING: INHABITANTS MANIFESTATION What do you think about inhabitants manifestation? 156 OBSERVING: SANTA MARTA “FAVELA MODELO OR POLITICAL PROPAGANDA? Do you think it is a model of interventions or a political propaganda?

5 | PLANNING 170 RIO 2016. WHAT’S THE FUTURE FOR THE CITY? Olymic games resources Olymic games plan for the city 178 WHAT ARE PLANS OF INTEGRATION FOR FAVELAS IN VIEW OF 2016? PAC favelas UPP and UPP Social Morar Carioca Program Empresa Bacana Rio Top Tour

196 WHAT ARE THE PLANS OF EXCLUSION FOR FAVELAS IN VIEW OF 2016? Demolitions of favelas in Barra da Tijuca Walls and barriers around favelas

200 IS THERE ANY OTHER OPTION THAN EXCUDING AND DIVIDING? Wich are the identities of favelas? Cultural activities promoted by Ngo/Cultural Groups

204 WHAT’S THE PROPOSAL AT A CITY SCALE? Open-favelas network Thematic paths within the network

210 WHAT’S THE FUTURE SCENARIO FOR SANTA MARTA? Decreasing density/Increasing public spaces Increasing fluxes, activities and income possibilities Santa Marta and the new paths Santa Marta and the landscape Santa Marta and the music Santa Marta and the small commerces Santa Marta 2016


FOREWORD “ Paradise is here, hell is here, madness is here, passion is here” Sinfonia do Rio de Janeiro de São Sebastião Geraldo Carneiro and Paulo Cesar Pinheiro About 1.3 million people live in more than 900 “favelas” (slums) in Rio de Janeiro. Rich neighborhoods co-exist next to the poorest slums, with a continuous visual relation, but without any social interaction. Rio is an emblematic example of a city that is the representation of the spatial and social segregation of a “urban ghetto”, inside the city itself; favelas in the middle of the formal city are the best expression of the duality that is a peculiarity of Rio: heaven and hell, luxury and poverty. Many social programs have been promoted to bridge the urban divide, obtaining good results and international awards, but the city is still far from being considered integrated. With the objective of understanding this global reality, the study is focalized on the specific case of the favela of Santa Marta, considered by media and government as a model of intervention concerning public politics, but by inhabitants as an experimantal laboratory where population is not questioned. The interest of studying this specific community started from this duality: an external idyllic vision, positively influencing public opinion, and an internal dissatisfaction, that has almost no voice. A deep analysis, conducted in the field, explains the physical and social dimension of the community, viewed from the point of view of inhabitants, through daily actions inside the community. Trough various interviews realized with politicians, Ngo representatives and researchers, is presented an evaluation about public politics already realized in the community, and is defined the complexity of problems and interests for the future development of the slum, analyzed from points of view coming from different backgrounds. This analysis conducted on the field, brought to light a series of criticisms about previous interventions, and problematics to be considered for a future development of the community. The planning strategy of intervention is originated by the results of the local researches on Santa Marta, with a reflection about the strategic moment for urban and social development, that is involving Rio at present: the upcoming events (World Cup 2014, and Olympic games 2016), could give a unique opportunity to the city, if considered as a tool to build a specific city plan, aimed to solve both technical problems and social ones (as the strong divide between formal and informal settlements). The challenge of the proposed strategy is to turn these events into a tool to nearing the urban divide, culturally integrating favelas. Starting from existing identities, cultural activities, and potentialities, a network of “openfavelas”, wherein intervene with cultural projects aimed at the valorization and the development of the existing identities through physical interventions on public spaces, become the tool to start a process of cultural integration with the city, that hasn’t been enough supported by previous interventions, but that is slowly starting to be considered in public politics. Planning thematic paths and positive attractive centers inside communities, has a double objective: from one side drawing new meanings of belongings and giving new possibility of cultural and economic rescue for “informal inhabitants”, from the other side offering new possibilities of interests for people living on the asphalt or tourists that want to discover the complexity of the reality of Rio and the cultural vitality of favelas.


011

SLUMS OF THE WORLD

BRAZILIAN REALITY

THE CITY OF RIO DE JANEIRO

INTERVIEW WITH JORGE MARIO JAUREGUI

FAVELAS OF RIO DE JANEIRO

FAVELA OF SANTA MARTA

VIEW FROM SHOPPING LEBLON

VIEW FROM REDENTOR CHRIST

VIEW FROM SUGAR LOAF

INTRODUCING

from worldwide slums to the favela Santa Marta

INTRO DUCING


012 from worldwide slums to the favela Santa Marta

INTRODUCING

SLUMS OF THE WORLD 600.000.000 urban dwellers

1.000.000.000

people in rural areas are living in slums

“Slum”, is “a heavily populated urban area characterized by substandard housing and squalor”. (The Merriam-Webster Dictionary (1994) Merriam-Webster Inc.) This definition encapsulates the essential characteristics of slums: high densities and low standards of housing (structure and services), and “squalor”. A slum is generally defined as a heavily populated urban area characterized by substandard housing and access to basic services, overcrowding, insecure tenure, and social exclusion. It is typically not recognized and addressed by public authorities as an integral or equal part of the city.

NO DATA 0-10% 10%-20% 20%-30% 30%-40% 40%-50% 50%-60% 60%-70% 70%-80% 80%-90% 90%-100%


INTRODUCING

* sources: UN-HABITAT, Global Urban Observatory, 2001

from worldwide slums to the favela Santa Marta

The Challenge of Slums, Global Report on Human Settlements 2003 UN Human Settlements Programme

013

“In facing the challenge of slums, urban development policies should more vigorously address the issue of livelihoods of slum dwellers and urban poverty in general, thus going beyond traditional approaches that have tended to concentrate on improvement of housing, infrastructure, and physical environmental conditions. Slums are, to a large extent, a physical and spatial manifestation of urban poverty, and the fundamental importance of this fact has not always been recognized by past policies aimed at either the physical eradication or the upgrading of slums. Slum policies should seek to support the livelihoods of the urban poor, by enabling urban informal sector activities to flourish, linking low-income housing development to income generation, and ensuring easy access to jobs through pro-poor transport and low-income settlement location policies.�


014 from worldwide slums to the favela Santa Marta

INTRODUCING

BRAZILIAN REALITY Over the last decades Brazil manifested a tendency of accelerated growth of urban population and deterioration of living conditions of particularly low-income people. The migrations from the countryside between the ‘40s and the 90’s brought the percentage of people living in cities from 26% till 80%. Mostly of this people are at present living without the entitlement to access to basic infrastructure services, decent houses, public areas, basic welfare and educational services. Most of these new incomers are settled in degraded areas, such as slums, illigal lots, usually settled in the outskirts of large cities or in old historical downtown areas. It is extimated that in Sao Paolo and Rio de Janeiro, almost the 40% of inhabitants is living under those extreme conditions. Favelas brought together migratory groups of people attracted by the possibility of obtaining a job or education for a temporary moment, but that finish to establish permanently in these settlements because of a lack of other opportunities. The fast growth of these settlements wasn’t followed by sufficient public policies to meet the pressing needs of population. The initial approach was, on the contrary, the remotion of the families from the “marginal areas”, to new housing complexes disconnected from the cities, far from the centers of employment. Dissatisfaction with the policy intensified the processes of irregular urban settlements. In the last decades the role of the city, as a social, economic, and cultural development of the society came back, with the proposal of amelioration of the space quality, by assimilating the marginal areas of the “informal city” to the formal one. Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Salvador, sharing the same urban scene of contrasts, as result of the complexity of the same metropolitan problems, developed some programs aiming urban integration for both social development and amelioration of inhabitants conditions in these communities, respecting the pre-existing environmental and cultural conditions while dissolving the urbanistic and symbolic borders separating the informal city from the ordered city. At present the National Program PAC (Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento), is financing many development programs concerning infrastructure and improvement of big slums, in a larger scale than the previous programs promoted.


SALVADOR DE BAHIA

PAC National Program

Program Novos Alagados

SÃO PAULO Legal Lots Program Programa Lote Lagal (Legal Lots), promoted by Housing Secretary of the municipality of São Paulo, had as main aim the regularization of informal settlements, giving to these areas basic sanitation, infrastructures, community equipments, and qualification of housing, enabling the inclusion of the lots into law rules, and registering and mapping occupation of soles and destination of uses.

GUARAPIRANGA BASIN, SP Guarapiranga Program Guarapiranga Program, developed by State of São Paulo, and Municipality of São Paulo, had the objective to recuperate quality of water in the area of Guarapiranga, responsible for the supply of 3 million people living in that area, improving inhabitants conditions and environmental resources. 1/3 of the area is occupied by irregular lots and favelas, responsible for the bad condition of the water basin, provoking risks for all the population, aggravated by the frailty of families, subjected to landslide, flood and diseases, due to lack of basic sanitation. The Program promoted urbanization of favelas, correction of sewage and sewerage systems, garbage collection, improvement of infrastructural systems in general.

RIO DE JANEIRO Favela-Bairro Program The Inter-American Development Bank with the Municipaility of Rio de Janeiro funded this US$180 million “Favela-Bairro” project 1995 in which it sought to integrate existing favelas into the fabric of the city through infrastructure upgrading and service increases, as an instrument to develop urban and social integration between citizens, and to revert the urban situation. The project involved 253,000 residents in 73 communities characterized by a high level of degradation. The main objectives of the program were to give solutions to community problems, such as basic sanitation, drainage network, and social services; to improve income possibilities; to build public spaces inside communities to improve cohabitation and integration between communities and formal city; to improve conditions that keep the idea of a favela as a ghetto. Key to the success of this large project was a committed and flexible city government and the use of intra- and extra-institutional partnerships with NGOs, the private sector, churches, and the general population. * sources: IBGE, demographic census 2000

INTRODUCING

The Program Novos Alagados promoted the upgrading of the homonym favela, counting 13,000 people living on the water’s edge or on the water in houses on stilts in the “Todos os Santos Bay” in Salvador, Brazil. This upgrading program was started in 1993 by an Italian NGO, AVSI (Associazione Volontari per il Servizio Internazionale) and was funded by the World Bank, the state government of Bahia, the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and others. It was selected as one of Brazil’s submissions to HABITAT II in 1996 due to its physical and environmental focus, its emphasis on the creation of jobs and income-generating opportunities, and its environmental education component.

from worldwide slums to the favela Santa Marta

PAC (Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento) is promoted by Federal Government of Brazil, and includes economical politics planned to improve the economical growth of the country, investing in infra-structure, sanitation, housing, transport, energy and others. Between these, a big investment provides new housing for people living in favelas all around the country. Pac inaugurates a new phase in economical politics of Lula Government: the topic of development and growth of the country, forgotten for years in precedent governments

015

BRASIL


016 from worldwide slums to the favela Santa Marta

INTRODUCING

THE CITY OF RIO DE JANEIRO STATE OF BAHIA

STATE OF ESPIRITO SANTO

STATE OF MINA GERAIS

STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO

STATE OF SÃO PAULO

Rio de Janeiro is the second largest city of Brazil and the third largest metropolitan area and agglomeration in South America. Rio de Janeiro lies on a strip of Brazil’s Atlantic coast, close to the Tropic of Capricorn, where the shoreline is oriented east–west. The city largely faces south. It was founded on an inlet of this stretch of the coast, Guanabara Bay (Baía de Guanabara), the entrance to which is marked by a point of land called Sugar Loaf (Pão de Açúcar). The population of the city of Rio de Janeiro, occupying an area of 1,182.3 square kilometres, is about 6,100,000. It was Brazil’s capital until 1960, when Brasília took its place.


Guanabara Bay

“Zona Norte”

“Zona Oeste”

“Zona Central” “Pedra Branca” Massif

Tijuca National Park

Sepetiba Bay

“Zona Sul”

“Zona Jacarepaguà/Barra”

Atlantic Ocean

BUILT AREA IN RIO DE JANEIRO RELIEVES NOT BUILT AREAS

INTRODUCING

Gerincinho/Medanha Massif

from worldwide slums to the favela Santa Marta

Governor Island

017

The “Zona Central,” the core of Rio, lies on the plains of the western shore of Guanabara Bay, is the historic centre of the city, as well as its financial centre. The greater portion of the city, commonly referred to as the “Zona Norte” extends to the northwest on plains composed of marine and continental sediments and on hills and several rocky mountains; it is an heterogeneus area, characterized by middle-class neighborhoods, but as well by many low-incomes communities. The “Zona Sul” of the city, reaching the beaches fringing the open sea, is cut off from the Centre and from the North Zone by coastal mountains; it’s the richest part of Rio, and the most touristic as well. The ”Zona Jacarepaguà/Barra” is a new zone, characterized by a high development index. The large “Zona Oeste” long cut off by the mountainous terrain, had been made accessible by new roads and tunnels by the end of the 20th century; neighboring districts within the West Zone reveal stark differences between social classes. The area has industrial zones, but some agricultural areas still remain in its wide area.


018 from worldwide slums to the favela Santa Marta

INTRODUCING

FAVELAS OF RIO DE JANEIRO “more than 900 favelas 1/5 population living in favelas 1.300.000 favelados” Vila Catiri Bangu

Caminho do Lucio Bangu

Vila Croacia Senador Camarà

Jacarè Jardim Moriçaba

C

Santissimo

R

Campo Grande

Vila do Ceu Cosmos

Frederico

Tres Pontes

Santissimo

Santa Cruz

Divineia

Vila Mangueiral Campo Grande

Paciencia

Vila São Jorge Campo Grande

Roberto Morena Paciencia

Agulhas Negras Campo Grande

Vila Jurani Campo Grande

RELIEVES LOTEAMENTOS FAVELAS

About 1.3 million people live in more than 900 “favelas” in Rio de Janeiro. Rich neighbourhoods co-exist next to the poorest slums, with a continuous visual relation, but without a social interaction. Favelas in the middle of the formal city are the best expression of the duality that is a peculiarity of Rio: heaven and hell, luxury and poverty. Rio is an emblematic example of a city that is the representation of spacial and social segregation inside the city itself. Many social programs are promoted by local government (as Favela-Bairro Program, or PAC Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento) to improve the integration between this informal parts and the formal city, but a lot of critics and considerations to improve the reality of favelas can be done. * sources: FAVELA 2004, Prefeitura do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

Un-Habitat (The Challenge of Slums, Global Report on Human Settlements 2003, UN Human Settlements Programme) identifies four types of slums in Rio de Janeiro:

3 INVASOES: “these consist of irregular occupation of public or private land still in the process of consolidation. They are frequently located on riverbanks, swamps, hills or in residual public areas, such as under viaducts and along roads throughout Rio.”

1 FAVELAS: “these are highly consolidated residential areas of self-construction on invaded public and private land and without infrastructure. They exist in large numbers all over Rio.”

4 CORTICOS: “these comprise social housing formed by one or more buildings located on a single plot, or shared rooms in a single building. The rooms are rented or sublet without contract. The dwellers share bathrooms, kitchen and sometimes even electrical appliances. Houses lack ventilation and lighting, they are frequently overcrowded, and one room may house many people while accommodating multiple uses. Services are deficient, and they are located in the city centre.”

2 LOTEAMENTOS: “these comprise illegal subdivisions of land not in compliance with planning rules or infrastructure. They are considered irregular if submitted for regularization by the planning authorities and clandestine if they have not. They are located mainly in the eastern part of Rio.


019

Vigario Geral

Ilha do Governador

Parada de Lucas

Bairro da Pedreira

Guarabu

Ilha do Governador

Pavuna

Pavuna

Fazenda Botafogo

Morro do Sereno

Costa Barros

N.Senhora das Graças Ilha do Governador

Penha

Morro União

Pavuna

Vila Joaniza Ilha do Governador

Morro do Caracol

Penha Circular

Parque Nova Jerusalem

Coelho Neto

Morro do Sapè

Nova Aliança

Morro do Dendè

Te contei

Costa Barros

Frederico Faulhaber Santissimo Buriti-Congonhas

Penha

Complexo do Marè Penha Complexo do Alemão Penha Parque Boa Esperança Manguinhos

Madureira

Bangu

Parque do Grotão

Vaz Lobo

Morro do Sossego Madureira

Caju

Manguinhos

João Lopes Morro da Fubà Realengo Cascadura

Cosme e Damião

São João Operario

Realengo

Jacarepaguà

Cascadura

São Sebastião o Faulhaber

Parque Vitoria Morro da Iguaibà

Realengo

Jacarezinho Eredia do Sà Benfica

Benfica

Lins do Vasconcelos

Comendador Pinto

Jacarepaguà

Vila Isabel

Jacarepaguà

Vila Calmete

Grajau

Jacarepaguà

Cidade de Deus

Jacarepaguà

Itanhangà

Rio das pedras

Vila Autodromo

Rio Comprido

Itanhangà

Catete

São Carlos Rio Comprido

Bordo do Mato

Vila Sapè

Vila Santo Amaro

Tijuca

Sumarè

Vila Isabel

Vila Sapete

Santo Cristo

Salgueiro

Morro dos Macacos

Jacarepaguà

Morro da Providencia

Rio Comprido

Campinho

Santa Maria

Caju

Mangueira

Parque Candelaria Mangueira Morro do Catumbi

Santa Terezinha Parque Vila Isabel

Fazenda Mato Alto

Mangueira

Morro da Coroa

Borel

Morro dos Prazeres Santa Teresa

Santa Teresa

Tijuca

Morro da Formiga

Guararapes

Tijuca

Cosme Velho

Ladeira dos Tabajaras Copacabana

Mata Machado

Morro da Babilonia Morro dos Cabritos Copacabana

Alto da Boa Vista

Jacarepaguà

Cantagalo

Copacabana

Ipanema

Rocinha Floresta da Barra da Tijuca

Rocinha

Pavão-Pavãozinho

Itanhangà

Copacabana

Vidigal Vidigal

Santa Marta Botafogo

E

3

0

1

2

5km

INTRODUCING

Parque do Vigario Geral

Vigario Geral

Caminho do Job

from worldwide slums to the favela Santa Marta

Proletario do Dique Chico Mendes


020 from worldwide slums to the favela Santa Marta

INTRODUCING

JORGE MARIO JAUREGUI ARCHITECT IN RIO DE JANEIRO, WINNER OF THE SIXTH VICTORIA RUDGE PRICE IN URBAN DESIGN FOR THE FAVELA-BAIRRO PROJECTS DEVELOPED WITH HIS OFFICE MPU, DESIGNER OF PAC MANGUINHOS AND PAC ALEMテグ. Graduated Architect from the Facultad de Arquitectura de la Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Argentina, he lives in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where he has his studio. Among his main executed works are the Re-urbanization of the street of Catete (Rio-Cidade program) in the historic area of Rio de Janeiro; the Urbanization of 20 favelas in different locations in the city of Rio de Janeiro (Favela-Bairro program); the Urban Furniture for Rio de Janeiro and the ongoing works to the PAC (Complexo de Manguinhos and Complexo do Alemテ」o). In 2000 he won the Sixth Veronica Rudge Green Price in Urban Design, Harvard University, Graduate School of Design, for the projects realized for the development program Favela Bairro, and in 2002 was representative of Brazil in the 8ツェ Mostra Internazionale di Architettura de la Biennale di Venezia.

5TH MARCH 2010 MPU, RIO DE JANEIRO


021

HOW WAS POSSIBLE THE GENESIS OF THE PROGRAM PAC FAVELAS IN RIO?

What is interesting for me as an architect and urbanist, has been the possibility to build a thought about the way to intervene in such a reality as a favela is. The big question for me, is that these programs opened a space of reflection about the practice of interventions in informal settlements, that before didn’t exist. Me and other thinkers started to share our theoretical and practical experience, trying to change the way to think about the complexity of the city, in a multidisciplinary way, introducing philosophical aspects to the conception of the project. In particular Deleuze, because he thinks about complexity, about a multi-centrum structure, with many connections and layers. I’ve always been interested in the theme of big scale, city, metropolis...

HOW WAS THE BASIC PROJECT FOR PAC ELABORATED?

INTRODUCING

from worldwide slums to the favela Santa Marta

PAC Favelas was possible because in the past years we had the experience of Favela-Bairro, and even before we had an unstructured experience with small and punctual interventions, always isolated, in many favelas. Starting from 1995 Favela-Bairro was created, and it gave a coherent link to all the public actions. This program started with an accord with BID – Banco Interamericano de Desenvolvimento, that financed public intervention with an investment of 1500 US Dollars for family living in favela; Favela-Bairro marked the end of disordered actions in favelas, promoting a strategical and organized action. With Favela-Bairro, around 100 urbanization works were done, and our office MPU (Metropolis Projetos Urbanos), did 20 of them. It is the office that worked the most on these projects. I started working on these themes from the beginning, and I worked with continuity along all these years. Other offices participated, but then they stopped or failed, because it is really difficult to menage such a few resources. It is necessary to calibrate the investment to pay all the parts of the team that are working on the project (sociologists, social assistants, architects, engineers...). This multi-disciplinary group, composed by different specialists, participate to the first ideation of the project, that is a kind of competition with other groups. We learned to work with this methodology for 12 years; then Favela Bairro stopped for political problems; and then Lula searched a form to apply national resources in the State of Rio de Janeiro; together with State Government they decided the areas where they wanted to intervene.

There was any previous experience on such a kind of program; so when the State discovered that could have used national resources to develop areas of Rio, they started to research if there were already proposals for development of any area of Rio. Luckily I already had two basic projects, committed by Municipality some time before: the PDU (Urban Development Plan) for the complex of favelas Alemão, and an other PDU for Manguinhos. They were just master plan, with a perspective of development in 20 years, organized in period of 4 years, offering different options of development in different fields (housing, structures, equipments etc..), so that public power could have chosen a series of options to develop the socio-spatial structure of the territory. The projects were selected with a public bidding, based on the analysis of the conception and the methodology proposed.


022

INTRODUCING

from worldwide slums to the favela Santa Marta

The cableway wasn’t proposed by me, but by the Governor, that after a visit in Medellin, thought it was a good tool to solve mobility problems for areas with a difficult accessibility. Alemão, with his topography, was ideal for this proposal: to build streets, it would have been necessary to demolish many existing buildings, de-structuring the nature of the place. In Manguinhos, on the contrary, the elevation of the rail way, was a conceptual and ideologic proposal: Manguinhos has always been called “Gaza Strip”, because it was divided, and represented a division of the city, a partition, a “broken city”, phisically materialized by two walls, characterized by an high level of insecurity. This place was one of the most fragile of the city. It was clearly a non-place. This fact provoked in me a violent desire to transform radically his nature, from a dividing place, to a linking place. What was possible to do then? To destroy these walls, elevate the rail-way, and design a democratic public space, a kind of Rambla, connecting many activities: the station, a civic centre, a library, a school, new housing, an hospital, a park, to have the guarantee that the place should be always full of people because of the diversity of activities. This space is the representation of an open and connecting place, that shows the step between a medium scale of Favela-Bairro interventions, to a big scale, a metropolitan intervention.

For me, urbanization of a favela means first of all the comprehension of the place, of what is existing, and of the demand of inhabitants; it means to force the chaos, till converting it in form. The methodology that summarizes the steps is: reading of the place; listening of the demand, in a psychoanalytic way: the demand need to be listened, not directly answered, but rather it needs to be answered with a proposal that goes beyond what is asked. Otherwise the circulation of desires is stopped. Requests need to be interpreted, with a critical analysis, to propose a urban image that the community commitment even didn’t hope. This is not a commercial strategy, but a responsible operation that want to change the established relations between politic power and an unfair society, with the objective to obtain as a result a better place to stay. In a social plan, this means that the unfair reality of the origins needs to be forced to the fragile side, to give benefits to the poorer, and not to the others. We work for the public good, and because of this sometimes we even risk to be dismissed from the public power action, because what we say is not the same they wanna hear. An other important influence derived from Freud: he showed that human beings are not defined just by their consciousness, but as well by their unconsciousness, to be listened, it is necessary the support of somebody who has the methodology to intend this language, that is the unconscious language. In this logic, the demand cannot be answered with a literal translation, but needs to be interpreted. In a megalopolis, as in a favela, it exists an immensity of demands and necessities, not immediately evident; the importance of the approach to such a reality, is the understanding that what we discover is just a small part of a bigger complexity and of the demands. Think, listen, dialogue, stay always next to the object of study are tools to have a good comprehension of the place; and as well take care about both the sensitive side (what immediately touch us, like poorness, violence, lack of infrastructure) and the intelligible side of problems. The method elaborated by Freud suggest us to listen to the demand and to the desires with a free association of ideas, and a floating attention between all the factors at the same time, (politicians, inhabitants, organizations) without any hierarchy. This has a chaotic structure. The three pillars of the methodology of thought about favelas then are philosophy, psychoanalysis and contemporary sciences. According to contemporary sciences, chaos is manifested with an extreme sensibility to the initial conditions. It is so necessary to keep an extreme sensibility in designing a solution for a favela, exactly in opposition to what was thought with the modernism, that exalted every new intervention as better than whatever was existing before. Now we think exactly the opposite: what is existing is the base of every thought of intervention.

HOW WERE THE IDEAS FOR ALEMÃO, SUCH AS THE CABLEWAY, CONCEIVED?

WHAT’S THE PROCESS OF IDEATION OF A STRATEGY FOR A URBANIZATION PROJECT IN A FAVELA?


023

HOW DOES PARTICIPATION OF INHABITANTS CONTRIBUTE IN THIS PROCESS?

3 When the project is being realized, people participate directly to the construction of the works: they observe, comment, inform, so that everything is adapted to the better conditions of the place. In a formal way inhabitants are contracted to work in the construction site, because there is always an obligatory percentage of engaged people from the community; and in a informal way, it is always necessary to promote a dialogue with the community during all the phases of the project. When this is not possible, is for political reasons: with PAC politicians didn’t let me meet the community. They didn’t want it, they acted with cowardice, being scared that consulting inhabitants they could have had repercussions, and receptivity problems. This fear is due to a lack of flexibility, caused by resources limits; 4 Communities participate theoretically with POUSO (urbanistic and social orientation post): this is an institution created to join public power with communities, to manage post-works problems. It never really worked: it is governed by Municipality, and not by State, even if PAC is conduced by State Government. It was more useful with Favela-Bairro, but at present is just useless, because it has been abounded by public power. This reflect a more general problem: public power is not acting with a plan of maintenance of investments; it is never previewed money to the management of the works.

WHAT’S THE PRACTICAL METHODOLOGY ADOPTED THEN?

INTRODUCING

This is a really important question, and it is a political matter. What does it really mean participation and listening of the demand? When I was a political militant in Argentina, supporting the left sector of Peronism, that wanted to build a socialism in urbanism, I started having a direct approach in Argentinian favelas: I was going with other militants with a megaphone, declaring to be part of the political technical team of “Joventude Peronista”, gathering many people to listen to their problems and demands, we immediately responding with a project made directly in the place of the meeting. We were ingeniously thinking that it was possible to realize a project without any mediation, as our hands were already drawing what people were asking. This was not a serious project. What I learned coming in Brazil, trough other practices that were not political anymore, is that it is necessary to follow a process: it is necessary to listen one, and an other one and again an other one, because there’s not a common denominator. First of all it is necessary to have a first approach of the place, to familiarize with the place; then to make interviews with the President of Inhabitants Association, to explain my objective, that is not political, but that is the promotion of an improvement for the community. My desire to make a good project for inhabitants, grows slowly with the transference from the unconscious canal of the architect, to the unconscious community collective. In this way a confident relation is created.

2 When you are already designing the project, then inhabitants become consultants that can express opinion about the development of the project.

from worldwide slums to the favela Santa Marta

1 Walk in the favela with somebody that knows the place, that can show all the places he knows, and that presents the complexity of problems. You register, you write, you draw, you take pictures; then you start meeting people, to build a dialogue to better intend problems.


024

INTRODUCING

from worldwide slums to the favela Santa Marta

Pulsation of constructing life in favelas is really strong: this should be a model for the rest of the city; in the worst conditions of abandon from public power, of lack of financial resources, of infra-structures, difficulties of life, lack of work, even with all these conditions, life is pulsing, and even with happiness! This people have an energy that is for sure stronger that whatever person from the middle class of the formal city. It is necessary to appreciate this informal richness, this creative capacity. To implement this pulsation, I believe in public spaces, but above all in income generation centre, that is an aspect that has never been thought before. In Favela-Bairro the only thing that was done in this field was the introduction of spaces destined to commerce. This was a micro-reality, that could boost interchange, fluxes, co-existence. The idea is to create dynamic spaces with many activities (commerce, leisure, etc), as Manguinhos plan provide.

WHAT DO YOU THINK COULD IMPLEMENT THE PULSATION OF A FAVELA?

For sure. In Alemão complex, there’s just a small building destined to this activity, and this is not sufficient. The problem is that the State doesn’t guarantee the administration of the building, because it doesn’t have a strong connection with the society. For example, when the Government could establish a good dialogue channel with inhabitants association, NGO, and other community organizations, these organizations could manage the structures offered by Government, and these equipments could be used more than what they are, and could be perceived more as a collective building. The problem is that our society is individualist, and in a not consolidated society as a favela, the exclusion and division between poor and rich, create a mistrust in public power that make difficult to keep a good dialogue between the parts. This is a long process, difficult to improve even because, for a lack of education, these two parts speak totally opposite languages. Codes coincide just concerning football and samba. Besides this, everybody stay in a different world. So we need to advance in different plan: political social and urban. We are just producing a micro-action, even if the projects are involving big areas.

DON’T YOU THINK THAT WITH PAC THERE’S A LACK FOR WHAT IS CONCERNING INCOME GENERATION?


025

WHY SO MANY INVESTMENTS HAVE BEEN DONE IN MANGUINHOS AND ALEMÃO, WHILE MANY COMMUNITIES NEED INTERVENTIONS?

INTRODUCING

from worldwide slums to the favela Santa Marta

Manguinhos, Alemão and Rocinha have a symbolic value. It is not sufficient just to build a school, an health post, infrastructures, that are inaugurated and then abounded: it is necessary to rethink to the complexity of the city. The idea was to concentrate the affords, and not to spread isolated actions, but to make both a big investment, that shows a symbolic value, and many small actions to solve small problems. The objective is not to design an “any school”, but a big and architectonically interesting school, that could turn into a monument for the community; to show to inhabitants that they have rights to have a monument. These big projects need to be used to pulse a movement in the community, in terms of rights. It is important to think about the big scale, together with the small one, in a way that a democratic project, available for everybody, is followed by small actions that improve conditions of people that are still living without basic sanitation etc. The question is how to join the macro with the public demand? With a vision of a more articulated and less divided city and society.


026 from worldwide slums to the favela Santa Marta

INTRODUCING

THE FAVELA OF SANTA MARTA COSME VELHO

TIJUCA FOREST

SANTA MARTA

CORCOVADO MONTAIN

HUMAITA’

JARDIM BOTANICO

RODRIGO FREITAS LAGOON

LAGOA

GAVEA MORRO DOS CABRITOS

LEBLON

SHOPPINGLEBLON

IPANEMA

PAVÃO/PAVÃOZINHO


027

FLAMENGO

BOTAFOGO BEACH BOTAFOGO URCA

SUGAR LOAF

BABILONIA LADEIRA DOS TABAJARAS

LEME

COPACABANA

The favela Santa Marta is located in the “Zona Sul” of the city (the richest one) in a really visible position on Morro Dona Marta, just at the feet of Corcovado Mountain; the community has a small/medium dimension with about 10.000 inhabitants. Especially because of the high visibility of the community from “Zona Sul” and its proximity to the Major’s Office, Santa Marta became a model concerning public interventions programs on favelas. Local Government and media, use the image of this community to exalt the results of public politics on favelas of Rio de Janeiro. On fact many of the promoted projects had the purpose to improve more the image of the community from the formal city, than life and conditions of inhabitants. This situation is generating many controversies between inhabitants: from one side the community is receiving some improvement projects, but from the other, it’s becoming an experimental laboratory where population is not questioned about planning intervention. The interest of studying this specific community started from this duality: an external idyllic vision, positively influencing public opinion, and an internal dissatisfaction, that has almost no voice.

INTRODUCING

from worldwide slums to the favela Santa Marta

LARANJEIRAS


028 from worldwide slums to the favela Santa Marta

INTRODUCING

VIEW FROM SHOPPING LEBLON

CORCOVADO MOUNTAIN

LEBLON

RODRIGO FREITAS LAGOON


029

JARDIM BOTANICO

SANTA MARTA

INTRODUCING from worldwide slums to the favela Santa Marta

HUMAITA’


030 from worldwide slums to the favela Santa Marta

INTRODUCING

VIEW FROM REDENTOR CHRIST NITEROI

BOTAFOGO BEACH FLAMENGO

SANTA MARTA


031

URCA

BOTAFOGO

INTRODUCING from worldwide slums to the favela Santa Marta

SUGAR LOAF


from worldwide slums to the favela Santa Marta

INTRODUCING

VIEW FROM SUGAR LOAF

032

CORCOVADO MOUNTAIN

BOTAFOGO


033

SANTA MARTA

INTRODUCING from worldwide slums to the favela Santa Marta

BOTAFOGO BEACH


035

TIMING PUBLIC POLITICS: Rio de Janeiro and Brazilian interventions and decision about public politics, with particular attentions to public politics that influenced conditions in favelas NOTES, PHOTOS, COMMENTS: photos or notes from inhabitants about specific historical moments

TIMING

SANTA MARTA: evolution of the community

from the origin till nowadays

From the origin of favelas till nowadays, the timeline flows in parallel the most important events about :


036

PUBLIC POLITICS

1804

till 1824

till 1891

from the origin till nowadays

TIMING

sept. 18

The land passes to a second owner of the farm: the Baron of Macaubas, Abílio Cesar Borges

Brazil’s imperator Dom Pedro II repeals the law “Lei das terras”, providing for a definition of crime when access to the land is taken with arbitrary concession or occupation. It’s the first time in Brazil that there is a distinction between public and private land

1859 1870

Merchants concentrate food trade in the Street São Clemente

Liberation of slavery brings to cities many freed slaves from coffee farms, increasing the residential deficit

1884 1897

The Street Voluntários da Pátria in Botafogo becomes the one with the major numbers of trade activities of the neighborhood

The first favela “Morro da Favela”(today Morro da Providência) is installed on a hill in the centre of the city

1901 1905

1909

till 1824

NOTES, COMMENTS, PHOTOS

The area now occupied by the favela Santa Marta is part of the farm own by Francisco Josè Teixeira Leite, Baron of Vassouras

1824

1850

SANTA MARTA’S HISTORY

Jesuits priests found Colegio Santo Inacio, in the street São Clemente

Mayor Pereira Passos, influenced by Haussmann, promotes many transformation, as enlargement and creation of the road network, in the city of Rio in name of sanitation and embellishment. These interventions have as immediate consequence the demolition of tenements, with the expulsion of the poor inhabitants that have no power of reaction. More than 2000 houses are demolished, aggravating already precarious conditions of poor people. One of the solutions to the absence of a public politics is illegal occupation of the hills located in the central area of the city

“the mayor had dictatorial power to expropriate, demolish, hire, build, without any possibility of contestations made by any citizens who would have felt reached” Ermìnia Maricato 1997

Priest José Maria Natuzzi starts the construction work to expand the college, buying the area propriety of Baron of Macaúba


SANTA MARTA’S HISTORY

The growth of Copacabana and Botafogo causes other construction works and increase employes’ requests

Due to the construction work of Santo Inacio, many immigrants come attracted by the high work offer in the college, and for the land offered by priests. The work lasts almost thirty years, giving work possibilities to many people.

1924

1926

The priest permits to poor workers building the college to install their houses on Santa Marta Hill, starting the process of favelization. The first huts are built on the top part of the hill, hided by the atlantic forest

Prado Junior is elected major of Rio, indicating Alfred Agache as urbanist for the urban plan for Rio de Janeiro. In the same time the thinker Mattos Pimenta is the first one who focuses on the problem of favelas Agache elaborates the plan for the city of Rio, known as “Plano Agache”, including council houses as a solution to avoid an increase of illegal constructions in favelas

till 1940

1937

1940 1940

till 1960

1941

till 1943

Many immigrants come to Santa Marta from Ceará, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, Maranhão, Bahia and other states from the North or North-East of the country

A municipal legislation inserted in Código de Obras in the article 349, represent the first legal text using the term “favela”, and consolidating a systemic association between favela and illegality, having deep influxes in public politics for decades. This document declares that is forbidden to build any new construction in existing favelas, to found new communities, on pain of demolition, and that Municipality will provide eradication of existing favelas 31% of brazilian population is living in cities A first census is realized in 14 favelas of Rio a real estate “boom” in the seaside neighborhood of Copacabana stagnate the situation of Botafogo, at the same time population of the metropolitan region passes from 2 million and 230 thousands to 4 million and 870 thousands

4.000 inhabitants are transferred to proletarian parks in the neighborhoods Gavea, Leblon and Caju

“I arrive in Santa Marta in 1935, from Campos, because there were no possibilities there.When I arrived there were no huts, only mine and an other one, and then a third one in the middle of the forest. Nothing anymore, the rest was just a closed forest”

TIMING

1931

NOTES, COMMENTS, PHOTOS

from the origin till nowadays

1930

037

1920

PUBLIC POLITICS


038

PUBLIC POLITICS

1947

1950

from the origin till nowadays

TIMING

1955

NOTES, COMMENTS, PHOTOS

Municipality of Rio realizes the first census of favelas, registering 119 communities, with a total population of 280 thousands inhabitants

IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica) realizes a second census, registering 58 communities and 169.305 inhabitants in favelas (differences could be justified by different criteria of definition of favela)

IBGE registers 1632 inhabitants in Dona Marta

Municipality founds a department called Serpha (Serviço Especial de Recuperaçao de Favelas e Habitaçoes AntiHigienicas)

1959

1960

SANTA MARTA’S HISTORY

A group of inhabitants build the water tank on top of the hill

Governor Carlos Lacerda apply a plan called “Erradicaçao das favelas” (favelas’ erradication) to release land for valorization and real estate speculation

“I collaborated with the construction of the water tank in 1959 with a lot of other colleagues, but most of them are already dead. When I arrived in 1953 there was no water;people needed to walk till Laranjeiras to get it, and to buy food it was necessary to go till Largo do Machado, because before he 60’s there was nothing nearer, and to carry on your shoulders 10 kilos of food or more and climb the hill. The tank improved a lot life of inhabitants, there was no sewage system, there was nothing...all the huts were made by wood, covered with paper and leaves, or with half can used as tiles. Then step by step things improved....” Manuel, 78 years old, 55 years in Santa Marta

Dona Marta doesn’t enter in the list of erradicating favelas because of the stability already created in the neighborhood

45% of brazilian people is living in cities

1961 till 1965 1965

Governor Carlos Lacerda removes 27 favelas, for a total of 8.078 houses

Drugs trafficking enters in the community

“When I arrived there were any movement yet, then a guy that was living at the bottom of the community, he was called Nerinho, lose all his family apart a son, that growing up started being involved in this activity; and the movement entered in the favela. It was 1965 or 66...” Manuel, 78 years old, 55 years in Santa Marta


1965 1967 1968 till 1973

1972

Inhabitants Association of Dona Marta is found

The inhabitants associations are declared under the control of Social Secretary

The collapse of various huts causes the death of three people

Many favelas located in Zona Sul, Tijuca and Méier are demolished

The french photographer found the NGO “Olhares do morro”: the photography project starts from the concept that the idea about favelas we have from media, is just about violence, increasing the distance between city and population living in communities, so he promotes, with young artists living in communities, photography expositions about daily life

a view of Santa Marta

The Municipal Governor Marcos Tamoyo starts speaking about re-urbanization of favelas, and not anymore about remotion

Grupo Eco is found

“I say that Grupo ECO is the project of my life, because it is. I have difficulties to transmit it to other institutions where I work, because this is an autonomous project; it reflects my trajectory. It was created in 1976, with the Newspaper ECO, and it was the focus of my militancy” Itamar Silva, 55 years old, President of Grupo Eco

The successor Prefeito Israel Klabin succeed in the plan of re-urbanization

In Santa Marta there is the first official election for the President of Inhabitants Association

“...we decided that was necessary to make a regular election, with the same methodology of the ones made in the “asphalt”: there was a ballot box near the water tank, a second one near the universal church, and a third one on the bottom. There every two years there was an election.....”Manuel, 78 years old, 55 years in Santa Marta

Banco Nacional de Habitação (National Housing Bank) promotes the program “PróMorar” (For-Living), urbanizing six favelas located in areas with necessity of pile-dwelling

1980

68% of brazilian people is living in cities, in other worlds in 40 years the country assists to an inversion of proportion between rural and urban citizens The binomial poorness/violence affirms itself in an intense way a view of Santa Marta

1981

till 1990

1982

The increase in population living in favelas accentuates the complexity of problems of communities, the illegal bets and the drugs trafficking

Light Electric energy company install energy net in the community

TIMING

1979

NOTES, COMMENTS, PHOTOS

from the origin till nowadays

1977

SANTA MARTA’S HISTORY

039

PUBLIC POLITICS


040

PUBLIC POLITICS

1983

1983 till 1987

from the origin till nowadays

TIMING

1984 1985 1987

SANTA MARTA’S HISTORY

State Government promotes the program “Cada Família, Um Lote” (Every Family, A lot) ordering land titling in favelas; due to complexity of the process, it doesn’t present any result a view of Santa Marta Governor Leonel Brizola emphases on the urbanization’s projects for the community of Cantagalo and PavaoPavaozinho located in Copacabana, declaring some principles of interventions as improving mobility and accessibility, creating leisure and social centers in the communities

Mediacl Ambulatory Dedè is installed on top of the community

Takes place the first discussion between population and local government about urbanization project for the community

Terceiro Comando and Comando Vermelho (two criminal institutions) start to fight to get the control of the community. In that occasion the State declares no interest about public safety of community and citizens. During fourteen days the squadron captained by the ex military policeman Zacarias Gonçalves Rosa Neto, “o Zaca”, and Edmílson Fumero, “o Cabeludo”, took the control of the traffic

1987 june

1988

NOTES, COMMENTS, PHOTOS

the war on newspapers Eduardo Coutinho shoots the documentary “Duas semanas no Santa Marta”project for the community A strong rain causes the collapse of 43 huts, provocking the death of nine people and the wounding of many others

“...a strong rain caused many landslides, and my parents’s house collapsed. My grandmother was there; it was the day before Carneval, around 5 in the afternoon. I wasn’t living in that house anymore, but even being at the other side of the favela, I heard the noise of the collapse.When it would have been happened two hours later, all my family would have died assisting to the Carneval show on television. This was a really hard moment for me. I was responsible for the Inhabitants Association at that time, and in a while I nedeed to solve problems of many people, speak with Municipality. Nine people died, and 43 houses collpsed, many people were homeless. It was a really hard moment, but we learned a lot...” Itamar Silva, 55 years old, born and grew up in Santa Marta


1991 1992

till 2000

1996 febr. 11

A census by IBGE points out that less than the 20% of houses located in favelas is reached by sewer system, only the 60% by piped water, the 85% by energy network, and only the 3,7% is owning a regular propriety

Inhabitants change the name of the community from Dona Marta to Santa Marta

“The name of the land was Dona Marta, because of an ancient owner; the name of the favela has always been Santa Marta, because one of the first building built on top of the hill was a chapel, built by Jesuits, consecrated to Santa Marta; starting from that moment, the community has been called as Santa Marta. The name Dona Marta, is felt by inhabitants as a lack of respect to the history of the community itself...” Juan Silva, 27 years old, born and grew up in Santa Marta

People living in favelas in Rio are about 882.000

The Mayor Alencar promotes a Director Plan for the city that privileges urbanization and regularization of favela, promoting inhabitants participation, with the purpose of integrating favelas with the closed neighborhoods, including dwellers in the process. To operationalize these indications Municipality creates the “Grupo de Estudos de Assentamentos Populares” (Popular Settlements Study Group), and one year after the Housing Secretary

a view of Santa Marta

The Municipality of Rio de Janeiro creates the program Favela-Bairro for medium size communities, as an instrument to develop urban and social integration between citizens, and to revert the urban situation characterized by a high level of degradation. The main objectives of the program are to give solutions to community problems, such as basic sanitation, drainage network, and social services; to improve income possibilities; to build public spaces inside communities to improve cohabitation and integration between communities and formal city; to improve conditions that keep the idea of a favela as a ghetto

a search in the entrance of Santa Marta

62 favelas benefit of FB program, with an investment of U$ 3oo million financed by IDB (Inter-american Development Bank) and Municipality

Michael Jackson shoots the video-clip “They don’t care about us”

Michael Jackson shooting the clip

TIMING

1994

NOTES, COMMENTS, PHOTOS

from the origin till nowadays

1994

SANTA MARTA’S HISTORY

041

1990

PUBLIC POLITICS


042

PUBLIC POLITICS

1996

1996 till 1998

1998

from the origin till nowadays

TIMING

fab. 13

1999 jan. 1

2000

SANTA MARTA’S HISTORY

Urbanism Secretary Dias presents POUSO (Posto de Orientação Urbanística e Social), with the purpose of plan, license, and supervise communities. It’s one of the most important program concerning urban regularization in favelas “Programa Bairrinho” and “Grandes Favelas” are promoted to attend as well small and big communities Anthony Garotinho is elected Rio de Janeiro’s State Governor

“Tartaruga” killed by Police Anthony Garotinho is elected Rio de Janeiro’s State Governor 1,1 million people is living in favelas in Rio de Janeiro (19% of total population)

A census register 1262 houses and 4520 inhabitants in Santa Marta, and 33.784 houses in Botafogo The chief of traffickers Márcio Amaro de Oliveira is arrested by Police, three years later he would die in prison for asphyxia Zacarias escapes from prison, and tries to reconquer the drugs selling points of Santa Marta, already dominated by Márcio Amaro de Oliveira, “o Marcinho VP”. During this conflict at least three people die

2000 till 2005

2002 apr. 6

2003 jan. 1

2003 2003 feb

NOTES, COMMENTS, PHOTOS

“Years ago, when I was working till 10 in the night, to climb at that hour I needed to walk as a cat, hided and silent, and when I heard shootings, I needed to stop, wait to see if others came, if not I could go up a bit more. Once I arrived in front of my door, and Police was there, other time Police wanted to shut me up, I said I was just an inhabitants, and he explained me that the situation at that moment was critic, a building that was a drug laboratory was on fire, and then I stayed in my daughter home, a bomb exploded not far, people saw policeman killing three man in the field on top...Many bad things happened here...” Manuel, 78 years old, 55 years in Santa Marta

The second part of Favela-Bairro Program starts, with investments for U$ 300 millions and interventions in other 89 favelas and 17 irregular blending

a view of Santa Marta Benedita da Silva is elected Rio de Janeiro’s State Governor Rosinha Garotinho is elected Rio de Janeiro’s State Governor an Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva is elected President of Brazil The journalist Caco Barcellos publishes the book “Abusado: o dono do morro Dona Marta” (Abused: the owner of the favela Santa Marta) During some crime attacks in Rio, criminals from Santa Marta burn a bus in Street São Clemente and a passenger dies

a view of São Clemente


SANTA MARTA’S HISTORY

Urbanization work promoted by State Government with governor Garotinho starts in the community. The project plans works in: Infra-structure: 4500 m for water supply, sewer and drainage network, 4500 m pavement Funicular: Station 3-4-5 for a total of 340 m long, Retaining wall: concrete walls to retain the mountain Housing: 25 one-family house, 2 apartment blocks (15 apt each), 110 façade re-painted Football fields: 2 hard fields, 1 concrete field

2004 mar.6

NOTES, COMMENTS, PHOTOS

children playing in the football field before interventions in Santa Marta

mar.26

Santa Marta is the first favela receiving a school of informatics promoted by “Comitê pela Democratização da Informática” (CDI Committee for Democratization of Informatics)

2005 may.20

Vice-governor Luiz Paolo Conde delivers the first houses built and re-formed

2005

“After 10 years of Favela Bairro, not even the 20% of favelas present in Rio has been attended by the program” TCMRJ (Tribunal de Contas do Municipio do Rio de Janeiro)

july 7

2005 aug.20

The community is occupied by 188 police man from PM and BOPE for an non-determinated period. Intense shootings scare population, some people get shoot, and many cannot go back home

“It happen I was at the bottom of the community, and I started hearing shootings: suddenly it was impossible to reach my house...and where should I have slept? Alexandre, 47 years old, born and grew up in Santa Marta ”It is even not possible to describe the situation: there were shootings all the time” Manuel, 78 years old, 55 years in Santa Marta

2005 sept.20

2005 till 2008

Vice-governor Luiz Paolo Conde inaugurates the multi-sport field, with 350 sq mt, made with fence, and tables and chairs around, three multi-purpose rooms located in the Cultural Centre

Favela-Bairro program stops

TIMING

girls walking in Santa Marta

from the origin till nowadays

The school "Escola de Cozinha e Companhia Ana Maria Braga" is promoted in the community, with the aim of giving new sources of income for low-income population living in favelas

2005

043

2004

PUBLIC POLITICS


044

PUBLIC POLITICS

2006 apr. 11

2006

from the origin till nowadays

TIMING

jul. 20

dec. 26

jan. 1

2007 jan. 28

2007

till 2008

2007 oct. 3

2007 nov.1

NOTES, COMMENTS, PHOTOS

Vice-governor Luiz Paulo Conde and Environment and Urban Development Secretary Ângela Fonti Serão deliver to the community an apartment block in Street Jupira with four floors and fifteen apartments, an other sport field, and the hundredth house reformed. The apartments have one or two bedrooms, living room, kitchen, bathroom and a services area; and it is destined to the first 15 families that were removed to build the funicular

“The last apartments delivered in Santa Marta have 32 sq. meters of surface, while ”movimento popular de moradia”(social housing movement) declares that the minimum for law is 42 sq. meters. Others initiatives declare declares at least 37 sq. meters. Why do we need to accept this without reacting?” Grupo Eco, document signed 14 oct. 2009

Governor Garotinho , with Environment and Urban Development Secretary Conde deliver a new apartment block, located at the bottom of the community, with fifteen apartment destined to people that were removed because of the construction of the funicular, and other ten houses. The actual investment is about R$ 28 million

2006

2007

SANTA MARTA’S HISTORY

construction works in Santa Marta

Governor Garotinho delivers a day nursery for 120 children, new water network, new sewage system and storm sewer, a new water tank with a capacity of 250 thousands liters, an other spot field with dressing rooms, and a leisure area on top of the hill, and 100 houses reformed

Sergio Cabral is elected governor of Rio de Janeiro’s State

PAC (Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento) is promoted by Federal Government of Brazil, and includes economical politics planned to improve the economical growth of the country, investing in infrastructure, sanitation, housing, transport, energy and others. Between these, a big investment provides new housing for people living in favelas all around the country. Pac inaugurates a new phase in economical politics of Lula Government: the topic of development and growth of the country, forgotten for years in precedent governments

construction works in Santa Marta

All the year is characterized by a war between Police and traffickers Police realizes the biggest apprehension of this year, founding a ton of marijuana, two guns, eight rifles, and an antiaircraft gun. At least two criminals die the apprehension Rafael Nunes da Silva, involved in drug trafficking is killed by police


2008 march

2008 mar. 6

The President Lula and Cities Minister Marcio Fortes de Almeida authorize the begin of the construction works for PAC-favelas in three big favelas of Rio de Janeiro: Complexo do Alemão, Manguinhos and Rocinha. The investment is about R$ 1,14 billion

may. 6

Sergio Cabral delivers the stations 1st and 2nd for a total of 198 m long

Governor Sergio Cabral presents UPP (Peacemaker Police Unit), to mantain order and safety in Rio’s favelas

nov. 19

Santa Marta is the first favela occupied by UPP (Peacemaker Police Unit), a new model of police created to fight against drugs trafficking in the poor communities of Rio. The community will be occupied for a not-determined time, and then government will enter with social actions. Santa Marta becomes a model of public interventions for other communities

2008 dec. 19

2009 jan

2009 feb. 3

Cabral and Paes visit the community model Santa Marta, inaugurating the UPP stations located at the 5th station of the funicular plan (originally built to become a day nursery, it never worked with this function because, for its position, it was always in the middle of shootings)

“When Police entered there were no criminals anymore. As this intervention was planned from a long time, all the criminals went away without any fight” Juan Silva, 28 years old, born and created in Santa Marta

Sergio Cabral in Santa Marta

Comlurb starts an operation called “Shoque de Limpeza” (Cleaning Shock), that promotes the remotion of 210 ton of garbage from the communities of Santa Marta, Cidade de Deus and Jacarepaguà

President Lula visits Santa Marta

“The investments that we are doing in this community have the purpose to change the face of this favela; what is more serious is that the most persecuted are always poor people living in favelas and we, as Sergio Cabral, as Eduardo Paes, are convinced that people need opportunities. We need to bring them culture, education, possibilities of leisure and of work. We are building citizens for our country, and not crminals and traffickers” Presisent Lula in Santa Marta

TIMING

2008

from the origin till nowadays

oct.

NOTES, COMMENTS, PHOTOS

Favela-Bairro third phase starts with a prevision of interventions in other 67 communities

2008 2008

SANTA MARTA’S HISTORY

045

PUBLIC POLITICS


046

2009

PUBLIC POLITICS

mar. 9

mar. 28

EMOP (Empresa de Obras Publicas) starts the construction of the concrete containment wall

José Saramago critics the construction of the walls around favelas, promoted by local government

2009 apr. 3 2009

One house collapses

apr. 16

Community leaders organizes a manifestation against the construction of containment walls around many communities in the city

2009

may. 4

2009 may. 6

2009

Governor delivers a new apartment block with 24 apartment in proximity to the third station of the funicular

Sergio Cabral delivers keys to a new dweller ONU accuses the construction of walls in favelas in Rio de Janeiro to start a geographical discrimination

jul. 7

2009

jul. 19

“We understood that favelas didn’t grow up only where there were physical barriers. The idea is to protect the community from a side, and the Atlantic Forest. It is easier to regulate, and helps to dimension actions in the communities” Ícaro Moreno , President of EMOP (Empresa de Obras Públicas)

“Cá para baixo, na Cidade Maravilhosa, a do samba e do carnaval, a situação não está melhor. A ideia, agora, é rodear as favelas com um muro de cimento armado de três metros de altura. Tivemos o muro de Berlim, temos os muros da Palestina, agora os do Rio. Entretanto, o crime organizado campeia por toda a parte, as cumplicidades verticais e horizontais penetram nos aparelhos de Estado e na sociedade em geral. A corrupção parece imbatível. Que fazer?” José Saramago, 30 March 2009

from the origin till nowadays

TIMING

mar. 30

NOTES, COMMENTS, PHOTOS

Wi-Fi Internet, through Projeto Santa Marta Digital, is installed in the community

2009

2009

SANTA MARTA’S HISTORY

Programa “Saude de Familia” (Family’s Health) is extended to the community providing a multi-professional team, sitting in “Polo de Inclusao Social Padre Velloso”(Social Inclusion Pole), responsible for all the families living in the community of Santa Marta. The team promotes prevention, recuperation, rehabilitation and maintenance of health For the first time in the history Police can forbid a manifestation in a community

The cultural group “Funk è cultura”, with APAFUNK and Visão da Favela organize a manifestation against the prohibition promoted by UPP’s captain Priscilla, to realize the event “Roda do Funk”, and to defend freedom of artist’s expression, criminalization of funk culture and of popular cultural.


aug.19

aug.21

Seven cameras, controlled by UPP police, are installed by Safety Secretary in strategic points of the community. Inhabitants react for privacy reasons

sep.26

nov. 10

2009

nov.13

2009

nov.13

Red Bull Bike competition take place in Santa Marta. Competitors face obstacles downing the narrow and steep stairs of the community with bikes

Red Bull competition in Santa Marta

Rio de Janeiro is elected as hosting city for Olympic Games 2016

ONU declares that death committed by Police in the last years in Rio represent an unacceptably high number that needs to be solvedin other 67 communities

Madonna visits the community with Sergio Cabral and Eduardo Paes

Madonna visits Santa Marta

Inhabitants manifestation: leaders of various groups of the community manifest their dissatisfaction about urbanization project financed by local government; after police occupation government promised to realize many other interventions to improve citizens’ lives, but after one year of occupation nothing happened. The major criticisms are about absence of participation to decisions, absence of promised interventions ; and strong criticism about investment that have been done in the containment wall, cameras installations, increasing taxes without any change in social/economical situation and in quality of services

Inhabitants manifestation in Santa Marta

TIMING

2009

“We are a safe community, why do they consider as as dangerous? Walls, 3 police stations, 120 policeman, cameras; Isn’t it an exaggeration? When will we be considered as citizens out of every suspects? The wall costed 2 million reais, cameras 500 thousands: this value could have been used to solve problems of houses and sewage and sewerage systems” Grupo Eco, document signed 14 october 2009

from the origin till nowadays

2009

oct. 02

NOTES, COMMENTS, PHOTOS

The Program “Telecurso”, educational program destined to adult people to get a diploma through tele-lessons, is inaugurated

2009

2009

SANTA MARTA’S HISTORY

047

2009

PUBLIC POLITICS


048

PUBLIC POLITICS

2009 dec. 9

SANTA MARTA’S HISTORY

NOTES, COMMENTS, PHOTOS

Human Rights Watch publishes the report “Lethal Force: Policy Violence and Public Safety in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo”, denouncing in the city of Rio the highest tax of the world of murders(1/5 is made by Police), especially for low-income communities

2010

feb. 9

Beyoncé and Alicia Keys shoot part of a video clip in Santa Marta

Alicia Keys in Santa Marta

from the origin till nowadays

TIMING

2010 feb. 9

An explosion of water and mud invades part of the community, causing fear and controversy between inhabitants. The apartment block delivered in 2006, July 20, is evacuated because the structure has been affected by the impressive mass of water and mud. The event sharpens a debate about quality of interventions in the community: all the buildings realized in the last urbanization works are already degraded and present important infiltrations. Inhabitants denunciate they are obliged to move from houses they built (so they function) to small apartments with no qualified public space, that besides this have important structural defects

The mud explosion in Santa Marta

2010

mar. 10

Various community leaders present the primer “Cartilha popular do Santa Marta: abordagem policial”(Popular primer of Santa Marta: police approach), about the police approach in the community. The document is born of the need for community residents to curb excesses and abuses of police action, by asserting their rights. His intention is to strengthen the awareness that the slum dweller should be respected by the government and its agents. The booklet describes the limits of police action and advises residents about how best to act in approach and in cases of violations of their rights

2010

mar26.30

The V World Urban Forum by UN-Habitat takes place in Rio de Janeiro. At the same time the Forum Urbano Social is organized by local NGO, with international interventions

The presentation of the popular primer


mar. 30

2010 april

2010 june 25

2010

After the strong rains 256 people die in different communities of Rio and Niteroi, opening again the debate about removing or re-urbanizing favelas: about 2.500 of the 11 thousands families that the Municipality declares that will be moved because are living in risked areas, are living in the neighborhood Barra da Tijuca, that received many new real estate investments. The fear of new politics of strategical remotion is back between “favelados”

A report by Philip Alston for ONU declares that Brazilian favelas suffers of allarming levels of extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions committed by Police

Sergio Cabral promotes workshops and courses in pacified communities

june 26

2010 aug. 1

2010 aug. 12

The presentation of the popular primer

Municipality of Rio de Janeiro officialized streets and paths in Santa Marta; as a formal neighborhood, inhabitants will receive their mail at the door, and not at inhabitants association as it was before.

With the inauguration of the elevator of Morro do Cantagalo, realized with PAC funds,and the new UPP Unit, the community become a touristic attraction for his special viewpoint

Development Secretary and Public Order Secretary promotes the Program “empre Bacana” in the favela Cidade de Deus. After pacification there was an increment of activities that need to be supported, so the program offers the possibility of legalization, and as a consequence the possibility of getting funding, to commercial activities acting in informal sector, and the capacitation of manager of the businesses.

Eduardo Paes presents the Program “Empresa Bacana”

TIMING

june 1

The project “Favela Painting” by Haas&Hahn (is the working title of the artistic duo from Netherlands Jeroen Koolhaas and Dre Urhahn) starts in Santa Marta. In 2005 they embarked on a journey to bring outrageous works of art to unexpected places, starting with painting enormous murals in the slums of Brazil together with the local youth. The project wants to transform the community into a landmark, a tourist attraction, and, most of all, an inspirational monument that assumes a place as an essential part of Rio's image, alongside the Sugarloaf and the statue of Christ the Redeemer

NOTES, COMMENTS, PHOTOS

from the origin till nowadays

2010

SANTA MARTA’S HISTORY

049

2010

PUBLIC POLITICS


050

2010 aug. 27

2010

from the origin till nowadays

TIMING

aug. 27

PUBLIC POLITICS

SANTA MARTA’S HISTORY

Municipality of Rio de Janeiro promotes the program “Morar Carioca”, as a continuation of the program Favela-Bairro, to promote interventions of urbanization and integration of all the favelas in the next ten years. Besides urbanization, the guidelines are aimed at conservation of public space, regularization of settlements, introduction of POUSO in every community and relocation of inhabitants living in risked areas.

NOTES, COMMENTS, PHOTOS

Eduardo Paes presents the Program “Morar Carioca”

Social Assistance and Human Rights Secretary promotes the program “UPP Social”. After disarmament of pacified communities, social and cultural projects can follow. Anthropologists and Social Assistants were contracted to be responsible for every pacified community to promote specific interventions. The first favelas to be benefited are Morro da Providencia and Cantagalo, then all the pacified favelas will be attended.

The presentation of the Program “UPP Social”

2010

aug. 30

President Lula presents in Santa Marta the project “Rio Top Tour, o Rio de Janeiro sob um outro ponto de vista” (Rio de janeiro under an other point of view). The program, promoted by Tourism Secretary wants to take advantage of the growing tourism in favelas, improving services offered to tourist through investments in qualification of local guides, touristic info points and touristic paths. The objective is to integrate all the pacified communities before 2016, to forget the idea of Rio de Janeiro as a divided city.

President Lula in Santa Marta

2010 aug. 31

Radio Santa Marta is founded with the collaboration of various cultural groups based in the community.

The logo of Radio Santa Mrta

2010 sept. 5

For the first time in the history of favelas, the bank group Bradesco, gives the possibility to stipulate an household insurance for buildings located inside the favela. The program, called “Favela segura”, offers an annual rate of 5 US$.


2010

sept. 26

2010 oct. 3

SANTA MARTA’S HISTORY

NOTES, COMMENTS, PHOTOS

051

PUBLIC POLITICS

Federal, statual, and Micipal Governments declared that in view of Rio 2016, will invest 3,7 billion R$ in public interventions, to improve infrastructure, sport equipments, and professional courses, urbanizations of all the communities.

The presidencial elections don’t get to a result at the first turn. The 31st of October brazilian people will choose between the candidate from Dilma Rousseff (PT) and José Serra (PSDB).

Dilma vs Serra

2010

Sergio Cabral (PMDB) is elected for the second time Governor of the State of Rio de Janeiro.

2010

oct.

The NGO “Atitude Social”, under the patronage of Tourism Secretary and Rio Top Tour, is promoting the jazz festival “Jazz nas 5 estaçoes” in Santa Marta. The concerts are organized in the narrow public spaces existing, and presents both local artists living in the community, and external artists.

Flayer of “Jazz nas 5 estaçoes”

TIMING

from the origin till nowadays

oct. 3


053

YEAR 1987 images from the movie “Duas semanas no morro”, directed by Eduardo Coutinho

YEAR 1999 images from the movie “Noticias de uma guerra particular” directed by Directed by Kátia Lund and João Moreira Salles

YEAR 2009 from my surveys in Santa Marta

TIMING

The chapter shows the comparison between pictures of the same places, taken in three different historical moments. Trough these collection of images, it is possible to understand the evolution and the development that characterized the community along the last thirty years.

from the origin till nowadays

TIMING BY IMAGES


054

VIEW OF “PICO DO MORRO”

from the origin till nowadays

TIMING

1987

from the movie “Duas semanas no morro” directed by Eduardo Coutinho

1999

2009

personal surveys in Santa Marta

The “Pico do Morro” represent the origins of the community: from the top the community grew down. Till the urbanization works (2003 and 2006), it was almost totally occupied by wooden huts. Then some new colored houses and a funicular were build.


055

VIEW OF RUA DA MATRIZ

Being the most visible part of the community from the surrounding neighborhoods, the houses around Rua da Matriz changed a lot during the last urbanization works (20072009): renewals and painted faced strongly characterized this strip of favela.

1987

directed by Eduardo Coutinho

1999

2009

personal surveys in Santa Marta

TIMING

from the origin till nowadays

from the movie “Duas semanas no morro�


056

VIEW OF THE MAIN ACCESS

from the origin till nowadays

TIMING

1987

from the movie “Duas semanas no morro� directed by Eduardo Coutinho

1999

2009

personal surveys in Santa Marta

The main access to the community, from Botafogo neighborhood, is possible via Street Francisco de Moura. The street does not present any significant change along the years.


057

VIEW OF ST. F. DE MOURA

At the first turn in Street Francisco de Moura, is at present located a municipality office, called POUSO (urbanistic and social orientation post), created by municipality during the works in 2009. From that point some informal commercial activies start.

1987

directed by Eduardo Coutinho

1999

from the movie “Noticias de uma guerra particular” directed by Kátia Lund and João Moreira Salles

2009

personal surveys in Santa Marta

TIMING

from the origin till nowadays

from the movie “Duas semanas no morro”


058

VIEW OF ST. F. DE MOURA

from the origin till nowadays

TIMING

1987

from the movie “Duas semanas no morro� directed by Eduardo Coutinho

1999

2009

personal surveys in Santa Marta

As an obligatory passage to enter the community, is always populated by people coming and going from/in Santa Marta. Many commercial stands appeared along the street during the last years.


059

VIEW OF ST. F. DE MOURA

This represent the real limit between formal and informal settlements. With the first step of the long stairs Santa Marta starts. Many small commercial activities and shops are now distribuited alongside of the stairs and many renewal of facades were done.

1987

directed by Eduardo Coutinho

1999

2009

personal surveys in Santa Marta

TIMING

from the origin till nowadays

from the movie “Duas semanas no morro�


060

VIEW OF “AO PE’ DAS ESCADAS”

from the origin till nowadays

TIMING

1987

from the movie “Duas semanas no morro” directed by Eduardo Coutinho

1999

from the movie “Noticias de uma guerra particular” directed by Directed by Kátia Lund and João Moreira Salles

2009

personal surveys in Santa Marta

From this view is clear how buildings grew in high along the years, strongly increasing density. The residencial building on the right was transformed into one of Police headquarter since the community has been pacified in november 2008.


061

VIEW OF CANTAO SQUARE

Second limit between formal and informal settlements, the main square of the community, Praça do Cantao, really changed: thirty years ago all the huts were made by wooden, while today the majority of buildings is made by bricks.

1987

directed by Eduardo Coutinho

1999

2009

personal surveys in Santa Marta

TIMING

from the origin till nowadays

from the movie “Duas semanas no morro”


062

VIEW OF ST. PADRE HELIO

from the origin till nowadays

TIMING

1987

1999

from the movie “Noticias de uma guerra particular” directed by Kátia Lund and João Moreira Salles

2009

personal surveys in Santa Marta

This is the main street inside the community: due to verticalization it is now really narrow. The colored building on the right, seat of the ngo Grupo Eco, became famous after Michael Jackson shot the video-clip of the song “they don’t care about us”.


063

VIEW OF THE FOOTBALL FIELD

Land of wars, shootings and murders till 2008, the top of the community is at present occupyed by a football field. A second police headquarter, is dominating the area.

1987

from the movie “Noticias de uma guerra particular” directed by Kátia Lund and João Moreira Salles

2009

personal surveys in Santa Marta

TIMING

from the origin till nowadays

1999


064

VIEW OF ST. F. DE MOURA

from the origin till nowadays

TIMING

1987

from the movie “Duas semanas no morro” directed by Eduardo Coutinho

1999

2009

personal surveys in Santa Marta


065

The panoramic views show big differences in materials and height: in 1987 the only building made by bricks was the Inhabitants’ Association Seat. At present, just the 77% is made by bricks, and density increased because of verticalization of buildings.

TIMING

from the origin till nowadays


067

LIVING

BORDERING MEASURING DECOMPOSING SECTIONING SECTORIALIZING BUILDING | REFORMING | DEMOLISHING Interview with Emilio and Vitor HOUSING Housing typologies MATERIALIZING WORKING Working activities Interview with Francisco NETWORKING Networking buildings Interview with Pescarda MOVING Moving spaces Interview with Manuel MEETING Meeting spaces Meeting on the roof Interview with Thiago GOING OUT WASTING Interview with Alexandre

LIVING

POPULATING

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

The chapter analyzes the social/spatial reality of the community, with the objective of having a better understanding of the meaning of living inside the community. The description of daily actions, represented through maps and graphics that resumes the deep work done on the field, permits to have a complete comphension of the reality of the favela of Santa Marta viewed trought the point of view of inhabitants. The interviews realized with some inhabitants, deepen some specific topics, that more than others interest directly and strongly dwellers of Santa Marta.


068 Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

LIVING

BORDERING

CANTÃO SQ Access to S

MUNICIPALITY OF RIO D Major Office

CORCOVADO GERMAN SCHOOL

GURILANDIA Children’s club


069

DRIVEWAY ACCESS 220 mt

AO PÈ DA ESCADA

CULTURA INGLESA

Access to Santa Marta

Cultural Centre

1° FUNICULAR STATION Access to Santa Marta

RESIDENCIAL BUILDINGS FOREVER LIVING PRODUCTS

UARE

Multinational Society

Santa Marta

PANDA HOTEL

DE JANEIRO PADRE VELLOSO Social Centre

ST. FRANCISCO DE MOURA Main access to Santa Marta

SÃO BONIFACIO Charity Centre

RESIDENCIAL BUILDING

LIVING

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

RESIDENCIAL BUILDINGS


070

MEASURING

MARACANÃ Stadium High: 32 mt Surface: 77000 sq mt ground area Typology: Stadium Location: Rio de Janeiro

195 mt 170 mt

SANTA MARTA Favela

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

LIVING

0 mt

High: 220 mt Surface: 76000 sq mt ground area Typology: Mostly residencial Location: Rio de Janeiro

MIRANTE DO VALE, SP Brazilian highest building: High: 170 mt Surface: 75000 sq mt floor Typology: Offices building Location: São Paolo

0 mt


071

DECOMPOSING

WOODED AREAS STREETS AND PUBLIC AREAS

CONCRETE CONTAINMENT WALL

LIVING

FUNICULAR SYSTEM

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

BUILDINGS


Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

LIVING

SECTIONING

072


073

LIVING Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants


074

POPULATING

WOMEN 51% 49% MEN

INHABITANTS DISTRUBUTION FOR SEX

people

1438

520 409 330

386 143

0

5

10

15

25

50

65

100

age

INHABITANTS DISTRUBUTION FOR AGE

number of people

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

LIVING

878

600 575 550 525 500 475 450 425 400 375 350 325 300 275 250 225 200 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 00

3 grade (complete)

3 grade (incomplete)

2 grade (complete)

2 grade (incomplete)

1 grade (complete)

1 grade (incomplete)

just literate

illiterate 6-9

10-15

age

EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF INHABITANTS * sources: SSDU/SEMADUR

15-25

25-50

50-65

> 65


ESPIRITO SANTO SANTA CATARINA

RIO GRANDE DO SUL

BAHIA PARANA’

SAO PAULO

MINA GERAIS

GOIAS

RIO DE JANEIRO

PERNANBUCO ALAGOAS SERGIPE

RIO GRANDE DO NORTE

PARAIBA

PIAUI’ MATO GROSSO DO SUL

TOCANTINS MATO GROSSO

ACRE

RONDONIA

AMAZONAS

PARA’

RORAIMA

AMAPA’

MARANHAO

CEARA’

075

families

807

170 90 55

101

time of housing

< 1 year

1 year < 5 years

6 year < 10 years

>10 years

does not declare

families

FAMILY DISTRUBUTION FOR TIME OF HOUSING IN SANTA MARTA

1011

109 59

condition

31 13 owner (land + building

owner (just building)

tenant (owner in the community)

FAMILY DISTRUBUTION FOR CONDITION OF OCCUPATION OF BUILDINGS

tenant (owner in other community)

other condition

LIVING

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

PROVENANCE OF INHABITANTS


078

SECTORIALIZING DESCRIPTION

AREAS

BUILDINGS

ECONOMIC PROFILE

This is the area where Santa Marta started. It is the less dense and presents the best enlightenment and ventilation. The area is as well the most diversified concerning typology of housing: the most precarious huts co-exist next to the biggest buildings. It is occupied by the elder inhabitants, that have always lived in the most difficult situation, because of mobility, lack of water and electricity.

Pico Ambulatorio Segunda Mina Terreirinho

234 residencial 6 commerces 3 resid.+comm. 1 other

zero R$: 0-350 R$: 350-700 R$: 700-1050 R$: >1050 RS: doesn’t know:

3,1% 33% 39% 13% 3,4% 8,5%

SECTOR 5

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

LIVING

Being really visible from the neighboring quarters, this area received many investments along the years. It has a medium density and it is well reached by the funicular system. Not many commercial activities are present, but there is a nursery.

Pozinho Ceudida Campinho

164 residencial 5 commerces 1 resid.+comm. 3 other

zero R$: 0-350 R$: 350-700 R$: 700-1050 R$: >1050 RS: doesn’t know:

2,4% 27% 44% 13% 5,4% 8,2%

SECTOR 4 This area could be divided in three horizontal bands: the topper one has been largely renewed during the last years, always because of visibility; the middle one is mostly occupied by big rock, difficult to urbanize because of a difference in height. Around this rocks many wooden/mixed huts have been built, presenting at present unworthy conditions. The third band is really densified. Almost no commerce or other activities are present in the area.

Cerquinha Beirute Beco do Jabuti

170 residencial 1 commerces 3 resid.+comm. 2 other

zero R$: 1,1% 0-350 R$: 30,8% 350-700 R$: 44% 700-1050 R$: 14,7% >1050 RS: 4,7% doesn’t know: 4,7%

SECTOR 3 This sector, together with the first one, present the highest density. The phenomenon of verticalization exploded along the years. Building present between three and five floors. Paths are really narrow, but there are some public spaces realized during the last urbanization works. Majority of buildings present scarce enlightenment and ventilation. The area has some commerces

Mangueira Cantao Portinho Cruzeiro Primeira Mina

327 residencial 8 commerces 8 resid.+comm. 4 other

zero R$: 0-350 R$: 350-700 R$: 700-1050 R$: >1050 RS: doesn’t know:

2,7% 26% 36% 20% 9,5% 5,8%

SECTOR 2 This sector represent the entrance of the community. A steep stairs shows the limit between formal and informal settlement. Together with the second sector, it present the highest density, with three and five floors building. Paths are really narrow and winding. Majority of buildings present scarce enlightenment and ventilation. The area has many commerce, especially along the main path of entrance of the community.

Pe da escada Belem Lixao

328 residencial 18 commerces 6 resid.+comm. 4 other

zero R$: 0-350 R$: 350-700 R$: 700-1050 R$: >1050 RS: doesn’t know:

1,8% 25% 39% 15% 9,2% 10%

SECTOR 1 * sources: SSDU/SEMADUR


079

SECTOR 5

SECTOR 4

SECTOR 3

LIVING

25m

10

0

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

SECTOR 1 SECTOR 2


080

MATERIALIZING plaster mixed wooden

04% 09% 10% 77%

bricks

68%

5

32% 172

111

3

103

24

24

16 234

26%

9 168

21 5 170

41

60%

2 Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

18

74%

4

LIVING

28

40% 273

25

22 7 327

84%

1

16% 20 7 328

289 12

12%

88%

BUILDINGS MATERIALS others zinc ceramix

07% 06% 05% 21%

asbestos 61%

slab

5

45%

55% 114

77

2

1

53 10

103

60%

14

14

19 234

26%

48%

4

3

73

37 7

12

13

12 168

20 170

40% 229

* sources: SSDU/SEMADUR

20

22

71% 230

71%

ROOF MATERIALS

40

23 327

29% 56

13

16

13 328

29%


081

PLASTER

MIXED

WOODEN

25m

10

0

BRICKS

LIVING Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

BUILDINGS MATERIALS


082

HOUSING buildings

45

rooms

135

1

213

312

2

3

518

4

5-5+

buildings

ROOMS FOR BUILDING 76

91

309

windows

269

1

217

2

126

3

135

4

5

6-6+

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

LIVING

buildings

WINDOWS FOR BUILDING

people

269

199

164

3

2

1

228

176

4

135

5

6-6+

PEOPLE FOR BUILDING 320 300 280 260 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 00

5-5+

4

3

2

1

windows

1

2

3

4

5

6-6+

NUMBER OF WINDOWS FOR NUMBER OF ROOMS 120

5-5+

110 100 90

4

80 70 3

60 50 40

2

30 20 10

1

00

people

1

2

NUMBER OF PEOPLE FOR NUMBER OF ROOMS * sources: SSDU/SEMADUR

3

4

5

6-6+


083

4 FLOORS

3 FLOORS

2 FLOORS

25m

10

0

1 FLOOR

LIVING Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

5 FLOORS


084 Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

LIVING

HOUSING TYPOLOGIES

1 FLOOR WOODEN

1 FLOOR WOODEN

1 FLOOR MIXED

2 FLOORS BRICKS

2 FLOORS BRICKS

2 FLOORS BRICKS

3 FLOORS BRICKS

3 FLOORS BRICKS

3 FLOORS BRICKS

4 FLOORS BRICKS

4 FLOORS BRICKS

4 FLOORS BRICKS


085

1 FLOOR BRICKS 1 FLOOR WOODEN

2 FLOORS WOODEN

2 FLOORS WOODEN

1 FLOOR BRICKS 2 FLOORS WOODEN

3 FLOORS BRICKS

3 FLOORS BRICKS

4 FLOORS BRICKS

5 FLOORS BRICKS

5 FLOORS BRICKS

5 FLOORS BRICKS

LIVING

1 FLOOR BRICKS 1 FLOOR WOODEN

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

1 FLOOR BRICKS 1 FLOOR WOODEN


086 Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

LIVING

BUILDING REFORMING DEMOLISHING

A

TO BE DEMOLISHED: THE RISK AREA

B BUILT/REFORMED: THE CENTRAL AREA

C

REFORMED: PRAÇA DO CANTÃO

D

REFORMED: “AO PÈ DAS ESCADAS”


087

A

B

C

RISK AREA DEMOLISHED BUILDING TO BE DEMOLISHED REFORMED BUILDING NEW BUILDING

0

10

25m

LIVING

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

D


088

EMILIO AND VITOR 32 YEARS OLD, 28 YEARS OLD ALL THEIR LIFE IN SANTA MARTA LIVING ON TOP OF THE COMMUNITY IN THE RISK AREA TO BE DEMOLISHED

WHAT’S YOUR NAME?

They think we can live without light and water; from that point till the bottom they have light, and we don’t because is not in the urbanization project

HOW IS THE SITUATION IN THE TOP PART OF THE COMMUNITY?

Till now nobody officially came to speak with us about urbanization processes. We heard about it from our President of inhabitants Association. When somebody from Municipality comes, is just to warn that you need to leave your house, not to hear your opinion.

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

LIVING

As people living on top of the community, we don’t feel represented by Inhabitants Association; it happen a landslide behind my house some time ago; the first thing I did was going to the Association, to find resources and help, and in that period the urbanization work was active, but nobody never came, and I did everything by myself. The second time this happen, I went in the Pouso, and they came.

Right now nothing was solved in the top part of the community: we even don’t have light, and public water. There are no streets, but just small paths...

DO YOU FEEL REPRESENTED BY INHABITANTS ASSOCIATION?

You can see that my house has no problems: it was built by my grandfather, with time it would have been deteriorated, but I did a lot of improvements. For me this is what I need to survive; what they would like to offer to me, is not what I want. I’ve been created and I was born here: here is my place, not there at the bottom.

DO YOU THINK IS DANGEROUS TO LIVE IN YOUR HOUSE?

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE POSSIBILITY OF REMOTION?

The view I have here, the wind, my privacy; houses here are not as compressed as at the bottom; we have different habits of living, everyone has his own space.

WHAT’S DIFFERENT BETWEEN HERE AND THE BOTTOM?


089

For us here on the top, nothing changed in these years, no helps or projects arrived from local government; pavements, water drains and public lights would be the first necessities. But I’m not asking anything to them. I survived 28 years without any help, so I won’t ask anything now.

DID SOMETHING CHANGE WITH URBANIZATION PROCESS?

They deal with us as we were all ignorant, stupid, without any own thought, as a mass that can be politically moved according to public interests.

I say I survived, and just with my own strength because it is a rarety ifor young people living in a favelas to arrive till my age! I have many friends, colleagues, neighbours who already died; innocent people, but as well people involved with “Commando Vermelho”.

SURVIVE?!?

No! But I want to see somebody coming here and saying to me why do I need to be removed, and he needs to listen my reasons as well, and he needs to explain me which are the benefits of this operation

Such a change would modify all my routine, all my life; and nobody is taking this in consideration.

YOU WOULD NEVER LIKE TO CHANGE, ISN’T IT?

DO THEY EVER EXPLAIN THE REASONS TO DECLARE THIS “RISK AREA”?

Yes, and I would really like to know which is the interest of the govern on removing this area on top. What is the real interest they have?

DO YOU THINK THEY HAVE DIFFERENT INTERESTS?

LIVING

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

HOW DO POLITICIANS ACT?


090

Look at the wall: this is a separation of social classes! in this way they can contain the disadvantaged class, that has a low financial situation, and separate us from who’s is living at the bottom. Is a limit to our possible expansions, but as well to our thought, to keep us excluded in this “sub-mundo”, that is a favela.

DO YOU THINK POLITICIANS ALREADY ACTED WITH “HIDED INTERESTS?

THERE’S A HUGE POLEMIC ABOUT IT...

Before the entrance of UPP, there was more dialogue between the community and the public institutions, it was possible to express opinions and suggestions about interventions inside the community.

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

I explained him it’s nothing like that. Media promote just the nice face, they don’t speak about us. I live here, and the situation I live is horrible.

LIVING

The truth is that they want to limit favelas for the future: so if you have a son, he needs to live in the suburbs, in “Baixada Flulminense”; for them there’s no space anymore here for new generations. Is a form of containment of population growth, and exclusion of poor people from social elite

WHAT DID YOU SAY?

With Upp this reality disappear, so we feel safer in this sense, because before innocent people were shot because of stray bullet, and this doesn’t happen anymore. We arrived at this point with Parallel Power because of a lack in education, culture, family planning. As well nobody never did anything to help people that depend on drugs. So they did this “pacification”, but they didn’t bring any support to people.

DON’T YOU FEEL SAFER NOW?

WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT UPP OCCUPATION?

In the community there’s a lot of space that could be used. Here next to my house I had the intention to realize a workshop with children, creating a community kitchen garden; so I started first trying to sensitize people not to throw waste in empty areas, and then thinking about areas where it could be possible to realize vegetables gardens, or craftsmen works.

WOULD YOU PROPOSE ANY PROJECT TO IMPROVE THE COMMUNITY?


091

Favelas cannot stay in the South Zone, need to stay in the suburbs, places where you suffer even more discrimination, oppression, cowardice, and you don’t have visibility in relation with media. When things happens in the North Zone, nobody is looking; here everything is happening is in front of everybody, media and rich people.

DO YOU THINK THEY DID II BECAUSE OF VISIBILITY OF SANTA MARTA?

Now we are oppressed in relation with impositions: is peace without voice. Police keeps order, in their opinion: their order is oppressing every day more and more poor people in their places.

I had a conversation with my chief, he was asking me how is the situation in Santa Marta, because he’s a victim of media’s advertisement: he was saying that the situation should be optimal because in television they are promoting that are painting houses, that urbanization works were done, the police brought peace in the community.

DO YOU THINK MEDIA ARE GIVING A WRONG VISION?

Of course many things changed: before we were living in a war between Parallel Power and Public Power, and inhabitants were in the middle of this war. Because of the position of the place I live, at the West side I had the Parallel Power, and at the East the public one with police: I was in the middle of fights and shootings, my house has been already shot and damaged many times.

DO YOU THINK SOMETHING IMPROVED WITH UPP?

I would like to start cleaning some areas, starting from this one next to my house, and then prepare the ground for cultivations with children and other people in the community. It would be possible to cultivate legumes and friuts, to create a vivarium of plants that are disappearing from Atlantic forest with the purpose of re-forest in the future, cultivate ornamental plants as well, and think about vertical gardens.

This project could be useful both to generate income, but as well to sensitize socially inhabitants to environmental themes. But with a long term, it could be a good way of getting income, and to reinvest in our community expanding the project to other areas. This was the idea; then because of lack of attention, risk of demolition of this area, we didn’t really start.

HOW WOULD YOU DO IT?

INTERESTING...DID YOU TRY TO CONCRETISE IT?

LIVING

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

AND NOW?


092

WORKING

481

342

195

81

96

families

28

zero incomes

> 350 R$

350 R$ < 700 R$

700 R$ < 1050 R$

> 1050 R$

doesn’t know

INCOMES DISTRUBUTION

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

k

tor

LIVING

in g bank

cler

llec co ok co er ak sm er es dr wk ha

EMPLOYEE WITH FORMAL CONTRACT

m er ch an t se lle r wa ite r

EMPLOYEE WITH INFORMAL CONTRACT

r ye la k ic r r br nte a to r e e p rp ca eo n i ch ma nic cha e m r nte pai

PENSIONEER UNEMPLOYED AUTONOMOUS WORKER

n ow n’t k s e do

n

b le lica p p ot a

nts de u t s

u

att e

OTHER cle

STUDENT

ed loy p m ne

dr iv

ro evel p sup. l

MAIN ACTIVITIES AND TYPOLOGY OF CONTRACT * sources: SSDU/SEMADUR

er

m

an ing

an

r ee oy pl em ld t ho e t an us sis ho as ice off r so fes pro ar y ret sec y urit se c er eep t-sw stree r fesso

HOUSEWIFE

do or

nd a

nt

lad y


093

BAR

BAR

BAR

BAR

BAR MINI-MARKET MINI-MARKET

BEAUTICIAN

MINI-MARKET

INTERNET-POINT PIZZERIA-RENT A ROOM PARTIES’S SHOP AÇAI JUICE SNACK BAR

SNACK BAR PC-PHONE MARKET

MINI-MARKET

IRONMONGER’S MINI-MARKET MINI-MARKET BAR / MUSIC-BAR

BAR JUICE BAR BARBER’S MINI-MARKET

BAKER’S

BAR / MUSIC-BAR

BARBER’S CLOTHES’ SHOP BAR

SNACK BAR BAR PIZZERIA

HAIR-DRESSER BAR-MUSIC BAR BRAZILIAN FAST FOOD

SNACK BARS

MINI-MARKET

INTERNET-POINT

LIVING

SNACK BAR

BAR

MINI-MARKET

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

BAKER’S BAR

SNACK BARS

TAILOR PHARMACY AÇAI JUICE BAR

BAR ICE-CREAM PARLOUR FRUIT STAND KITCHEN FITTINGS BAR

SECOND-HAND SHOES

FRUIT STAND

CLOTHES STAND COCONUT JUICE KEYS’S COPY

0

10

25m

50m


094 Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

LIVING

WORKING ACTIVITIES

BRAZILIAN FAST-FOOD

BRAZILIAN FAST-FOOD

PIZZERIA

BAR-MUSIC BAR

BAR-MUSIC BAR

BAR

MINI-MARKET

MINI-MARKET

MINI-MARKET

FRUIT STAND

KITCHEN FITTINGS STAND

IRONMONGER’S SHOP


095

SNACK-BAR

BAR

MINI-MARKET

MINI-MARKET

MINI-MARKET

MINI-MARKET

MINI-MARKET

PC-PHONE MARKET

BARBER’S SHOP

BARBER’S SHOP

LIVING

SNACK-BAR

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

PIZZERIA-RENT A ROOM


096

FRANCISCO 62 YEARS OLD 44 YEARS IN SANTA MARTA OWNER OF AN “INFORMAL BAR” COOK IN A “FORMAL RESTAURANT”

WHAT’S YOUR NAME?

WHEN DID YOU ARRIVE IN SANTA MARTA?

It existed just a water tap, and nobody even didn’t know from where that water came, and you can imagine how long was the queue to get the water. It was even worse than in North-East.

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

LIVING

The situation was really bad: there were nothing; we didn’t have water, we didn’t have electricity and light, television didn’t exist, telephone didn’t exist. Around here there was just rubbish, it was a dump, the huts were just on the top.

I arrived in Rio 44 years ago from Cearà, in the NorthEast, when I was just 18; I came directly here in St. Marta. I’ve always lived and worked here, and here I built my family. I have a wife and three sons; all of them, thanks God, were never involved in bad affairs.

HOW WAS SANTA MARTA WHEN YOU ARRIVE?

In the beginning I was living on top of the commuity, but since 25 years ago I’m living on the stairs at the bottom. Look, I built my house there!

WHERE DO YOU LIVE IN THE COMMUNITY?

HOW COULD YOU LIVE WITHOUT WATER?

I work in this bar, but I’m as well cook in a restaurant in Botafogo. I work all day long, I stay here from 7 a.m. till 10.30 a.m., and then from 15 p.m till 18 p.m; while I’m in the other restaurant a younger gay takes care of this activity.

DO YOU WORK ONLY IN THIS BAR?


097

Many, many people from North-East here. When you would send them away, the community would be almost empty!

Because I had relatives and friends already living here.

WHY DID YOU CHOOSE SANTA MARTA?

Then people from Cearà, Paraiba, North-East in general went on coming, and building, coming and building, and the community expanded till the down part.

ARE THERE MANY PEOPLE FROM NORTH-EAST?

And finally things started having an evolution: through government interventions and of course with the will tof inhabitants. When things would have depended just on inhabitants, it would have been difficult to improve the situation, because we earn just a few money

Guaranà or Caju?

CAN I HAVE A “REFRESCO”?

WHERE DO YOU LIVE IN THE COMMUNITY?

In my life nothing really changed in the community, as I’ve always lived quite, I’ve never been involved with criminality. Of course now life is easier, when the traffic was present, we were really scared, because you knew you could have always been in the middle of shootings. We needed to be hided because it was always possible to be hit by a lost bullet.

HOW DID YOU CHOOSE SANTA MARTA?

LIVING

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

HOW DID YOU CHOOSE SANTA MARTA?


NO

PARTICIPATION TO INHABITANTS ASSOCIATION: IN WHICH FORM DO YOU PARTICIPATE?

* sources: SSDU/SEMADUR

DIR EC TIO N

YES RE LIG IO US INS TIT UT IO NS

SP OR T

CU LTU RA LG RO UP S

YES

AS SE MB LY

ME TT ING

NO

DO ES NO TA PP LY

US ES ER VIC ES

INH AB ITA NT SA SS OC IAT IO N

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

LIVING

SE RV ICE

GR OU PS

NG O

CH UR CH

RE S+ CO MM ER CE

CO MM ER CE

RE SID EN CIA L OT HE RS

NETWORKING

BUILDING’S USE

YES

YES

NO NO

PARTICIPATION TO ACTIVITIES: DO YOU PARTICIPATE TO....?

098


099

FOOTBALL FIELD CHANGING ROOM CHURCH “IGREJA DO NAZARENO”

1ST UPP POLICE HEADQUARTERS 3RD UPP POLICE HEADQUARTERS

CHURCH “SANTA MARTA”

MULTI-FUNCTIONAL SPACES

NGO “ATITUDE SOCIAL”

CHURCH “ASSEMBLEIA DE DEUS”

CHURCH “IGREJA UNIVERSAL”

NURSERY “MUNDO INFANTIL”

“SALÃO DE FESTAS” GYMNASIUM/MULTI-FUNCTIONAL ROOM

CO-OPERATIVE “COSTURANDO IDEAIS”

CHURCH “IGREJA PENTECOSTAL”

“SOL NASCENTE” LIBRARY CHURCH “SÃO JOÃO BATISTA” INHABITANTS ASSOCIATION “CASA MARIA E MARTA”

NGO “VISÃO DA FAVELA”

(STUDENTS DAILY CENTER)

CHURCH “IGREJA BATISTA” 2ND UPP POLICE HEADQUARTERS NURSERY “CASA SANTA MARTA” SAMBA SCHOOL COURT

CETEP TECHNOLOGICAL AND PROFESSONAL EDUCATIONAL SCHOOL

NURSERY “PONSA”

POUSO (POSTO DE ORIENTAÇÃO URBANÍSTICA E SOCIAL)

PSF SANTA MARTA (PÓLO DE INCLUSÃO SOCIAL PADRE VELLOSO)

0

10

25m

LIVING

CHURCH “NAZARENO”

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

NGO “GRUPO ECO”


100 Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

LIVING

NETWORKING BUILDINGS

3RD UPP POLICE HEADQUARTERS

CHURCH “SANTA MARTA”

FOOTBALL FIELD CHANGING ROOM

NGO “ATITUDE SOCIAL”

CHURCH “ASSEMBLEIA DE DEUS”

CHURCH “IGREJA UNIVERSAL”MARTA”

NGO “GRUPO ECO”

INHABITANTS ASSOCIATION

CHURCH “IGREJA BATISTA”

CETEP

NURSERY “CASA SANTA MARTA”

SAMBA SCHOOL COURT


101

MULTI-FUNCTIONAL SPACES

NURSERY “MUNDO INFANTIL”

“SALÃO DE FESTAS”

“SOL NASCENTE” LIBRARY

CHURCH “SÃO JOÃO BATISTA”

CO-OPERATIVE “COSTURANDO IDEAIS”

2ND UPP POLICE HEADQUARTERS

NURSERY “PONSA”

POUSO

CHURCH “IGREJA BATISTA”

LIVING

1ST UPP POLICE HEADQUARTERS

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

CHURCH “IGREJA DO NAZARENO”


102

PESCARDA

I’m a volunteer teacher in this “gymnasium” since 6 months; with other people we give lessons, during the day and in the night, so that both children and adults could join our sportive activity. I decided to collaborate at this activity because when I was younger I had a teacher who taught me that trough sport I could dream and fight for a better future.

31 YEARS OLD LIVING IN SANTA MARTA MUAY THAI TEACHER

WHAT’S YOUR NAME?

Yes, many people born with a talent, in sport, in art, whatever, but here they never have possibility to express it because they’re always in front of a choice: or I find a way to survive, or I do what I like, but then??

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

LIVING

We try to give discipline to children trough sport, they need to be educated understanding that is necessary to put will and wishes to obtain objectives. And this principles need to be applied as well in studies, in works activities. You need to practise, and with constancy, as well to reach a good level inside society. So we try to teach since childhood to believe in future trough will. With our work we show that is possible to do positive things, even living in low-income communities.

WHAT DO YOU DO HERE?

WHAT’S THE PURPOSE OF YOUR PROJECT?

I fought a lot with my parents because they pushed me to start working as soon as possible, and in the end I even didn’t finish the second level of school. The problem as well is that with 20 years many times you already have sons, you’re living with a girl, and so you need to work because otherwise you don’t have conditions to survive.

WHAT HAPPEN TO YOU?

IS IT DIFFICULT FOR “FAVELADOS” TO GET OPPORTUNITIES?

I think it will improve with the next generations. Because at present there are still many young people with 12-14 years, that just finish the first level of school, and then they stop and start to work. But this depends as well a lot on the family you have.

DO YOU THINK THINGS ARE IMPROVING WITH NEW GENERATIONS?


103

When we started in this place there was nothing, it was all open, then we started working on this place. There were just rubbish and waste in this area before. Then with a lot of affords we created this place, and found the materials that are very expensive. It hasn’t been easy...

Yes, when projects come from outside there always problems trelated with limits, especially temporally: they last for two years for example, and then they stop. And this create a feeling of disillusionment in people living in communities because they realized that all the affords they put with objectives vanish. Being part of the community we want to keep continuity.

HOW DID YOU START?

It is really difficult for example to go to university when your background is a favela, because to enter in public university, that are the best ones, you need to be a really well prepared student, and when you come from a public high school, your level of preparation is really low, so it’s almost impossible...

THE FACT THAT YOU’RE LIVING IN SANTA MARTA HELPED YOU?

a lot of money!!tIt means that to enter you need to work to incure the costs of your studies, or your parents need to put many many afford investing on you, just on a technical course. It is really difficult to succeed.

Not anymore: things improved a lot here, before everybody had just the dream of succeeding on escaping from the community, now that things are going better and better, we just want to fight to improve our lives conditions.

WOULD PEOPLE GO AWAY WHEN THEY WOULD IMPROVE CONDITIONS?

AND WITH PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES YOU NEED MONEY...

There’s a common sense to think that people living in favelas are just stupid and ignorant, so when you don’t study sufficiently you know you would suffer more with chief of works. So you can have hope just to work as labourer, used as a machine, to get just a minimum salary.

ARE THERE PREJUDICE ABOUT PEOPLE LIVING IN FAVELAS?

LIVING

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

HOW IS EDUCATION IN COMMUNITIES?


104

MOVING

CONSTRUCTION TRUCKS

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

LIVING

UPP UNIT

HEALTH OPERATORS

REPORTERS AND MOVIE-MAKERS WORKERS FAVELA TOURS TOURISTS

BUYERS

STUDENTS

NGO VOLUNTEERS

RESEARCHERS


105

PATH TO THE FUNICULAR PATH MAIN PATH SQUARE PEDESTRIAN ENTRANCE DRIVEWAY 0

10

25m

LIVING

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

FUNICULAR ENTRANCE


106 Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

LIVING

MOVING SPACES

NARROW STREET

NARROW STREET

NARROW STREET

PORCH

PORCH

PORCH

STAIRS

STAIRS

OLD STAIRS

FUNICULAR STATION 1

FUNICULAR STATION 2

FUNICULAR STATION 3


107

NARROW STREET

BLIND ALLEY

BLIND ALLEY

BLIND ALLEY

ENLARGEMENT

ENLARGEMENT

NEW STREET

FUNICULAR STATION 4

FUNICULAR STATION 5

CHURCH “IGREJA BATISTA”

LIVING

NARROW STREET

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

NARROW STREET


108

MANUEL 78 YEARS OLD 57 YEARS IN SANTA MARTA EX PRESIDENT OF THE ASSOCIATION OF INHABITANTS OF SANTA MARTA

WHAT’S YOUR NAME?

WHEN DID YOU ARRIVE IN SANTA MARTA?

They wanted to shut me up, I said I was just an inhabitants, and they explained me that the situation at that moment was critic, a building that was a drug laboratory was on fire, and then I stayed in my daughter home, and a bomb exploded not far, people saw policeman killing three man in the football field on top... Many bad things happened here...

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

LIVING

Years ago, when I was working till 10 in the night, I needed to climb walking as a cat in the dark, hided and silent, and when I was hearing shootings, I needed to stop, wait to see if others came, if not I could go up a bit more. Once I arrived in front of my door, and Police was there

I came here in 1953, when I was eighteen, from the North of the country to work in construction sites. In the beginning I was living in the construction site itself, then the owner started asking workers to pay a rent, and I decide with my brother to come to live in Morro Dona Marta. I arranged an hut for rent here on top of the hill. In 1955 I get married with my first wife that came from North-East to Santa Marta

HOW COULD YOU RICH YOUR HOUSE DURING THE NIGHT?

AND WHAT HAPPENED?

Yes, a social assistant came, offering to pay a social rent for my family, but I didn’t accept, because they pay it for six months, perhaps one year, and then or you pay by yourself, or you go living in the street.

We are still here, but there’s a project that plan to remove all the huts up to the last funicular station: I counted 52 huts in total in this area. There are still a lot of huts made by wood, or half by bricks, and then a second floor made by wood that tehy want to demolish. What are searching???

DON’T THEY NEED TO OFFER YOU AN ALTERNATIVE?

AND HOW IS THE SITUATION NOW?


109

55 years in the community are a lot; many things happen from 1953 right now: many positive, but many negative. When I arrived here there were no water, so we needed to carry it from Laranjeiras till here; and with construction materials was the same. To buy food it was necessary to go even till Largo do Machado, because before the 60’s there was nothing nearer, and then carry on shoulders 10 kilos of food or more and climb the hill.

WHAT DID IT CHANGED IN THE COMMUNITY ALONG ALL THESE YEARS?

One day two person from Campo Grande came to advise me they want to demolish my house, I said I didn’t have any other place to stay, that there were no construction works in the community for new apartments, I had four sons and my wife, and under my apartment was living an other daughter with her sons.

Consider that from this step to enter in my house till the bottom of the community, there are 875 steps. It was really heavy. I have many problems on my knees because of so many stairs during all my life. The funicular improved a lot mobility conditions

EVERYDAY FROM LARANJEIRAS IS A LONG WALK...

Where should I have gone without this house? Under a bridge?!? Even under bridges is impossible to stay anymore, because they put plants and barriers to avoid it.

This favela wasn’t destroyed in the past because the land was particular: it was owned by Dona Marta; after her it passed being owned by Dona Laura, that ordered the construction of the church. Rio de Janeiro’s State and Municipality couldn’t move this community because it was located in a private land.

Look! There the project they want to do! I’ve found it on the newspaper and I keep it.

IT’S THE PROJECT PUBLISHED ON “ O GLOBO”...

AND WHERE SHOULD HAVE YOU GO?

Yes, in the begenning was “Dona Laura” the owner, and responsible for the community; when people needed to build something, needed to ask permission to her. And then the community grew up and grew up

A PRIVATE LAND?

LIVING

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

DID ANYBODY COME TO ADVISE YOU ABOUT DEMOLITIONS?


110

MEETING

PLAYGROUND

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

LIVING

LEISURE AREA

PING-PONG TABLE AREA

LEISURE AREA

LEISURE AREA


111

PATH

FOOTBALL FIELD

PLAYGROUND

LEASURE AREA

SQUARE

25m

10

0

LIVING Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

THREES


112 Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

LIVING

MEETING SPACES

“CANTAO” SQUARE

PLAYGROUND

FOOTBALL FIELD

“MICHAEL JACKSON” SQUARE

REST AREA

REST AREA

REST AREA

REST AREA

REST AREA

FUNICULAR STATION 1

“CANTAO” SQUARE

“CANTAO” SQUARE


113

PING-PONG AREA

REST AREA

“MINA” SQUARE

“MINA” SQUARE

SQUARE

MUSIC STAGE

“CANTAO” SQUARE

“SANTA MARTA” SQUARE

“CORUMBA’” SQUARE

“CORUMBA’” SQUARE

LIVING

VIEWPOINT

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

VIEWPOINT


122

ALEXANDRE 40 YEARS OLD ALL HIS LIFE IN SANTA MARTA

So for me at present the biggest problem of the community is the garbage collect, and the absence of collaboration of inhabitants.

WHAT’S YOUR NAME?

Cantao Valley is a dump in the middle of houses, and when it rains, the garbage come till the square.

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

So when it rains, all the garbage starts descending, going inside valleys, running into sewage system.

LIVING

WHAT DO YOU THINK IS THE BIGGEST PROBLEM IN SANTA MARTA?

AND WHEN IT RAINS?

What would be the correct process is that inhabitants should bring their rubbish till the funicular stations, where the are collection points, and then community operator would just bring it till the bottom.

WHAT SHOULD INHABITANTS DO TO COLLECT WASTE?

WHERE FOR EXAMPLE?

People were never educated, so they’re used to leave garbage, even electro-domestics, fridge, mattresses, stoves, beds in the middle of the streets.

BUT THEY DON’T...


123

There’s a lot of garbage everywhere, accumulated for so many years; with the only 18 community operator, it seems that nobody is collecting it because there’s such a big quantity from the past, but as well increasing due to daily refuses, that it seems nobody is taking care about it.

The consequence is that the community is full of rats and other rodents, but as well cats and dogs, that open the bags, spreading all the contents around.

COULD YOU EXPLAIN THE SITUATION?

Everything get even more difficult because it’s not easy to reach these places to recollect garbage once it is located in valleys or slopes.

WICH ARE THE CONSEQUENCES?

Have you seen after rains? This community looks horrible.

For example, at the first station should exist a recycling station, with difference collection.

WHAT WOULD BE NECESSARY TO IMPROVE THE SITUATION?

YES, I SAW IT...

Then there are a lot of animals, and dogs, lost in the community. And they contribute as well in the process of dirtying our favela. There should be a farm for them, or some handcrafts possibilities.

SOMETHING ELSE?

LIVING

Santa Marta: the social/spacial reality of inhabitants

ONCE IT IS IN VALLEYS NOBODY COLLECT IT ANYMORE?


125

OBSERVING The chapter has the objective of evaluating the interventions already promoted by local government in Santa Marta, and understanding which are the intentions and priorities for a future development of the community. The complexity of problematics of Santa Marta is defined trough the interviews realized with politicians, ngo representatives and researchers. The different disciplines and background characterizing every interviewee, permit to have a multi-disciplinary comprehension of every topic analyzed. Every “debate” is preceded by an explanation page, that synthetically resumes the analyzed topic. DISCUSSING WITH: POLITICIANS, NGO REPRESENTATIVES, RESEARCHERS What do you think are the biggest problems?

OBSERVING: URBANIZATION PROCESS What do you think about urbanizatons works? What do you think about participation to urbanization process? Is there a lack of investments about culture, health and education?

OBSERVING: THE CONTAINMENT WALL

What do you think about the risk area?

OBSERVING: PEACEMAKER POLICE UNIT What do you think about UPP?

OBSERVING: INHABITANTS MANIFESTATION What do you think about inhabitants manifestation?

OBSERVING: SANTA MARTA “FAVELA MODELO OR POLITICAL PROPAGANDA? Do you think it is a model of interventions or a political propaganda?

OBSERVING

OBSERVING: THE RISK AREA

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

What do you think about the wall? What will happen to the area between the wall and the last houses?


126

DISCUSSING WITH: POLITICIANS NGO REPRESENTATIVES REASERCHERS

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

OBSERVING

Name: Robespierre Surname: Avila Azevedo Profession: Musician and President of the NGO “Atitude Social”,, located in Santa Marta Link with Santa Marta: He has the purpose, through the cultural projects promoted with the ngo, to promote socialization and improvement of young people living in the community through cultural initiatives linked to music. Together with the community, he stimulates intellectual, moral, civic and cultural growth. Date of the inteview: 06/01/2010

Name: Andrè Surname: Gonsalves Profession: Ingeneer Ingene Link with Santa Marta: He’s responsible for Pouso Santa Marta (that is a Urbanism and Social Orientation Post); the main function of the office is to maintain the community under the local law that establish building rules (as number of floors that can be constructed, illegal occupied areas, etc.). He, together with an architect, orientates people of the community, assures taxation of the area in order to respect laws. Day by day they check if illegals works are occurring, and attend people who declare to have structural problems in their buildings, giving statical and structural consults. Date of the inteview: 06/01/2010

PIERRE AVILA

ANDRE GONSALVES

Name: Itamar Surname: Silva Profession: journalist and co-ordinator of Ibase ( Brazilian Institute for Social and Economical Analysis) Link with Santa Marta: He lives in Santa Marta, he’s President of the NGO “Grupo Eco”, he’s politically active about urbanization process in the community. His work has a strong involvement with the favela, since his family transferred there in 1955. His involved in many cultural and social initiatives about human rights and public politics especially in the field of childhood and adolescence. Grupo Eco, founded by himself in 1977, is an educational and cultural institution, finalized to promote in the Community of Santa Marta, activities and initiatives that promote human development of people living in the community, with special attention to children and young people, in order to promote human dignity of people. Date of the inteview: 26/02/2010

Name: Glauce Surname: Amaral De Magalhaes Social Profession: S ocial Assistant Link with Santa Marta: She’s social assistant in the structure Polo de inclusao social Padre Velloso, linked to Prefeitura of Rio de Janeiro. The structure has the objective to give access to public politics in assistance. Here in Brazil, we have a national public politic, that is the program Bolsa-Familia, that is a program of income transference. An other responsability of her is to follow the process of a family that is obliged to move from his house because various causes My work is to interview people to check if their family profile could fix with required profiles for National/Local Government Financing or Assistance Programs. Date of the inteview: 25/01/2010

Name: Padre Valdeci Surname: Profession: Priest of the church “Igreja do Nazareno” Link with Santa Marta: He worked in the community for 17 years, and was always politically involved in the urbanization processes. Date of the inteview: 11/01/2010

ITAMAR SILVA

GLAUCE MAGALHAES

PADRE VALDECI

U P


127

Name: Alexander Surname: Rojas Profession: Engineer Engineer and Professor in UERJ, Department of Informatics and Computing Science Link with Santa Marta: with the past government, Uerj was invited to participate to a project in Santa Marta, and as well in other communities. Inicially the project was called “Educaçao sanitaria e ambiental”. The objective was basically to teach to low-income community population, to use elementary sanitary instruments and waste’s treatment. In the case of Santa Marta, the project was major: it has been done a census with all the people living in the community. The objective of this census, besides giving a training about sanitary uses, was to count all the people from the community, and to collect all personal datas, with a socialeconomical, educational, and environmental profile, with the objective, for the future, with the purpose to have a base on what elaborate bills, even symbolic and granted, that could have been issued by Light (the energy company). Besides this, this act gave a new vision of citizenship: the fact that people could have received their bill with their name and address, sent by a State Company, should have given a new vision of membership to citizens. Date of the inteview: 13/01/2010

Name: ----------Surname: S urname: ----------Profession: UPP Policeman n Link with Santa Marta: He’s working in the UPP since the implantation of the Unit Date of the inteview: 26/02/2010

Name: Josè Mario Surname: Hilario Profession: Community politician Link with Santa Marta: President of Inhabitants Association, living in the community. Date of the inteview: 07/01/2010

ZE’MARIO HILARIO

NELSON MOREIRA

MARIO DEL REI

OBSERVING

ALEXANDRE ROJAS

Name: Mario Surname: Del Rei UndersecreP f Profession: i P liti i Politician, U d tary of Integration and Special Specia Projects for Municipality of Rio de d Janeiro. Link with Santa Marta: Militant of PSB (Partido Socialista Brasileiro), was always involved in valorization of ethical principles. He fights for development and improvement of quality life of low-income population. He denounced the abandon in which public health and education are manifesting in Rio. Promoted projects for homeless, excluded as invisible, as social restaurants. He collaborated with Governor Garotinho during the remotion of many people living in risked areas, offering them worthy houses, with water, light, and basic sanitation. He’s at present responsible for Integration and Special Projects in the communities of Rio. Date of the inteview: 15/01/2010

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

UPP POLICEMAN

Name: Nelson Surname: Surname: Moreira Profession: Economist and Climate Change Manager for Environment Environm ment Secretary Secretary of Rio’s Municipality (SMAC) Link with Santa Marta: He takes care about all the political sector linked to global overheating, not only in environmental impacts, but as well in economical and social sectors. In Rio de Janeiro has been decreed a law, that states that every building with more that 180 sq mt of surface, need to provide an environmental compensation: this means that every 180 sq mt built, is necessary to plant a tree, and then an other one every 60 sq mt extra. This is an educational process, that tries tries to sensitize people to collaborate with public power. These themes are extended to communities as well: it exists a politic about sanitation in social housing, focused on decreasing emissions and improving quality of life. For Santa Marta, with SMAC, he proposed a project of green roofing. Date of the inteview: 27/01/2010


128

WHAT DO YOU THINK ARE THE BIGGEST PROBLEMS? “Integration is for sure the main one, there’s a kind of egoistic behaviour, and then a problem of violence: if they have still many problems of co-existence inside the community itself, and pre-concepts from people living outside. Now that the community is pacified things are going better in this sense, but before many possible investors came to know our project thinking about investing in it, but then preferred to do it in the formal city”

“I go back to the same concept: it is missing a discussion about an integral urbanization’s project. From the moment we started discussing in 2000, we were speaking about a real intervention that could have changed the community, and with this purpose, the topic of participation n was fundamental. When you loose the possibility to participate, the interaction of inhabitants is dissolved, you realize that this time between 2000 and 2010 is a really long time, without a real information about what is really happening, you loose as well the idea of which are the final objectives and results for Santa Marta.

“Difficulties of poorness, and access to workk are one of the biggest one, but not the only ones. In my opinion, the topic of housing g and employment are the ones that have the major detachment, because work is determinant in adult’s lives, and housing is a safety port. So is not possible to have a work without an house, and is not possible to have a house without a work.

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

OBSERVING

“The community still suffers for really low income, or zero income. This is due to the fact that is missing a qualification that could afford people to have a better level of employmentt. Having a low level of instruction or work’s ability, makes difficult for inhabitants to find formal employment with a good remuneration. The biggest problem is so related to social problems, instruction n and education.

PIERRE AVILA

ANDRE GONSALVES

ITAMAR SILVA

GLAUCE MAGALHAES

PADRE VALDECI

U P


129

“The community of Santa Marta is characterized by regions: as well in our work we divided the community to have a better comparison of socio-economical profile of every region: the region next to the main street, Rua Sao Clemente, is reacher, and present almost a middle-class, as much as you go on top of the mount, population turn poorer and poorer, till arriving on top, where there are houses made with wooden, around 4 sq mt, with just a unique space, without a bathroom or kitchen, like a cave, or a barrackk. The biggest problem of this region on top is waste, that is accumulated in the region, attracting rats and infections.”

“I think it would be a better relation between UPP P and inhabitants, because now we are living a really chaotic moment. In the last year we assisted to many events of violence, many people died, there were a tense situation in the community before police came. So my hope is that we could find a better relation between public safety and Santa Marta, to maintain order in the community... An other point is health, because as I said before there are missing some health structures.”

“The biggest one for me is garbage. There’s still a huge quantity of garbage all around the favela....we have a lot of problems due to years of accumulation of garbage in centuries of negligence from the state... Exist places were garbage has been there for fifty years.”

ALEXANDRE ROJAS

ZE’MARIO HILARIO

NELSON MOREIRA

MARIO DEL REI

OBSERVING

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

UPP POLICEMAN


130

OBSERVING: THE URBANIZATION PROCESS FOOTBALL FIELD concrete football field

COMMUNITARY NURSERY INFRASTRUCTURE

100 children nursery

4500 mt of streets 4500 mt of sewege system

FOOTBALL FIELD concrete football field

INFRASTRUCTURE funicular system with 3 stations

HOUSING apartment block with 15 units

HOUSING 14 one-family housing

FOOTBALL FIELD concrete football field

URBAIZATION PROJECTS PROMOTED DURING ROSINHA GAROTINHO GOVERNANCE FOOTBALL FIELD modification of the field with syntetic grass

UPP UNIT reform of the building as police headquarter

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

OBSERVING

CONTAINMENT WALL construction of the concrete wall eco-limit

HOUSING buildings reform

HOUSING buildings reform

INFRASTRUCTURE HOUSING 14 one-family housing

500 mt of streets 500 mt of sewege system

TECHNOLOGY free whireless internet installation

COMMUNITARY NURSERY enlargement and reform of Jabuti nursery

HOUSING buildings reforms

URBAIZATION PROJECTS PROMOTED DURING SERGIO CABRAL GOVERNANCE


131

These colourfull one-family houses, designed by the office Fernanda Salles Arquitetos, were really well received from new dwellers: they are equipped with small open air area, and interiors are confortable

HOUSING 14 one-family housing

This apartment block caused many controversies: it wasn’t included in the discussed urbanization plan, but was built without any consultation. The apartments are really small (32 sq mt) while the minimal size for law is 42 sq mt

HOUSING apartment block with 15 units

In March 2009 this apartment-block has been evacuated because an impressive mass of water and mud, coming from the foundations, affected the structure. “This building has been built on top of a tunnel where a water source was passing”, denounced one of the 70 occupants. This event sharpened a debate, already animated in the

favela, about quality of interventions in the community: all the buildings realized in the last urbanization works are already degraded and present important infiltrations. Inhabitants denunciate they are obliged to move from houses they built (so they function) to small apartments with no qualified public space, that besides this have important structural defects.

HOUSING apartment block with 15 units

2003 | 2006

UPP UNIT modification of the building as main police headquarter

The buiding was originaly conceived as a community nursery, then was turned in UPP headquarter when Safety Secretary decided to install a permanent unit of policeman causing disappointment in inhabitants that fighted for many years to obtain a nursery on top of the community

2007 | 2009

OBSERVING

INFRASTRUCTURE funicular system with 2 stations

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

The five stations of the funicular improved a lot the conditions of mobility for inhabitants. Just a critic: the system is broken at least once a week


132

WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT URBANIZATION WORKS?

“Around 1999 Major Conde and Governor Garotinho, make an accord, that generated the idea of a project of urbanization for Santa Marta. They instituted a competition for different brazilian architects, and the office Fernanda Salles Arquitetos won. This project was commemorated a lot from the community in the beginning, but then some changes occurred, especially due to the change of the Governance of the Municipality; this happened between the first and the second phase, so many works didn’t finish, and the second part has never been completed as it was designed. The commission that was articulating the project, together with Municipality and Rio de Janeiro’s State, fall down and was dissolved, because of an opposition between the two governments, so in the end the project was developed by State alone, but some difficulties made all the process really slow and not completed.”

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

OBSERVING

“The urbanization process for me is still in progress: it started in 1999, when we started the discussion; then in 2001 there was a competition to select the architectural office that should have developed the masterplan; then followed public presentations of the project. The result in the beginning was a basic project, that needed to orientate all the specific interventions; but in the end just half of them have been realized: the State painted a band of buildings, but many more houses should have been improved; but the first urbanization project included as well to improve sanitary conditions, social structures and services, in a certain timing. The funicular was for sure the most important thing that happen in the community but as it is a positive event, it is impossible to discuss and make critics: it took a long time to be built, then it stayed for one year in test, and now nobody can complain about the time is taking to move till the top, about the high temperature that there’s inside; nobody can complain because it is considered as it was a present, and not as a public transport, as a right. It is a really interesting project, but needs to be qualified, improved: the time to move is too long, the number of times a month it is broken is impressive; but as it was recognized as an improvement, cannot be criticized in anyway, because otherwise it seems you are against that “present”. There are positive things, but done for an half, and so loose importance. I think the biggest problem is that the possibility to test a public politic, a way to intervene with a public politic with results that go besides one government, and stay for the future is lost.For sure the community acquired along the years: we came from a long process, started even before the government interventions: in the ‘80s inhabitants built paths, stairs, and this was the first step; then arrived other urbanization processes, and this for sure represents a sum of positive projects and improvements for the community. For people that are living there, it’s visible a big change in the community along the years. What I think is negative is the incomprehension from inhabitants that what we obtained has been conquered, that there’s a story, that it was not a benefit arrived from this government, but the results of years of fights and resistance.”

PIERRE AVILA

ANDRE GONSALVES

ITAMAR SILVA

GLAUCE MAGALHAES

PADRE VALDECI

U P


133

“Santa Marta is involved in a urbanization process since eight years ago, and this process counts investments for approximately 40 million R$, with improvements of infrastructure, construction of apartment blocks for people that were living in risk areas, protection of the environmental preserved area of the region. This urbanization work is quite advanced already, because it was one of first community where it started, and it is a quite small community, with around 10.000 inhabitants, well delimitated. 90% of the urban work has been already done: establishment of funicular to give a better access, improvements of water supply and sewage system, identification of all the risked areas, and replacement of some of them in worthy apartments. It is missing just a 10% of the plan of urbanization, that will start again in february 2010. Beyond the urban intervention, other aspects have been involved in social and cultural areas: Social Action Secretary developed programs with young, elderly and adult people, searching for a rescue especially for people living in risk situations, for people who need a public support to go on with their lives, to have a profession, to keep health, to get an education; in the cultural area, we punctually developed project with people from the community itself, that already has cultural programs,. For the future we have a big cultural project, in partnership with Federal Government, that will develop cultural points, as lecture room, music room, collective memory room, always starting from what the community is asking. This project will be part of a bigger Program, called PAC (Plano de Acceleraçao do Crescimento), making big investments in cultural field in informal settlements. We pretend this year, starting from March, to begin the urbanization again in Santa Marta. One of the first objective is to eliminate areas that are considered dangerous for inhabitants lives, or for the environment; then taking care about water supply, sewerage system, energy, quality of housing and equipments (as libraries, cultural centers, workshops rooms), protection of the part of society called risk population, that needs help to rescue his situation to journeying alone; all this actions are already promoted by Municipality, what is missing are means, because Municipality by itself cannot provide everything. For the first time after many years, there’s a partnership between the three main government entities: City, State, and Federal Government, are all together with the same objectives.”

ALEXANDRE ROJAS

ZE’MARIO HILARIO

NELSON MOREIRA

MARIO DEL REI

OBSERVING

UPP POLICEMAN

“The funicular was a great work: it gave a huge benefit to inhabitants because now the access between Botafogo and Laranjeiras is closed, everybody , disabled, elder, pregnant, can circulate in the community in a easily way; so many things are happening and people are satisfied with it.”

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

”Regarding the part of the process I took part, a really strong interaction with the community has been perseverated, and all the decisions were taken together with the community, with periodical meetings. To succeed in a better improvement of relations with community, even musical and theatre events were organized. There was a real research of interaction to eliminate the resistances of inhabitants, through a better relation through arts as well. During the research people who were questioned reacted in a really positive way, so there were a really good receptivity. The first phase of the urbanization process provided the demolition of many houses located in a risk area (that would be today located at the east side of the funicular), and the reallocation of these families to new apartments located inside the community itself, because it was considered really important to keep a social dimension of the community where people lived all their life, and where they have family and friends. So they received better houses in the community, already equipped. For some other cases, were wasn’t necessary a demolition, were done some improvements in structures. The funicular than promoted a better urban mobility, for example people could bring their children to school, because one of the justification that was done for children not going to school, was due to the difficulty to descend, and then climb the favela.”


134

WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT PARTICIPATION TO URBANIZATION PROCESS?

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

OBSERVING

“ As Grupo Eco, we denunciate the absence of participation of inhabitants in government’s decision about the favela and about all urbanization works at present. In the beginning we started the discussion that produced a basic project as result. But this project has been just partially followed and realized. And the participatory logic stopped because government chose a different logic of approach: in 2004 we had inside the community a urbanization committee,that accompanied choices made by government; inside Government’s Institution there was a specific department, a team, that was taking care of coordinating urbanization works according to community’s exigences. With the entrance of Sergio Cabral, the new leader, this department existing in the State disappeared, and urbanization passed to be directly subordinated by Icaro Moreno, EMOP’s director (Public Works Developer); disappearing the intermediate technical team (social and urban) able to coordinate this work, everything started to be controlled directly by EMOP and builders. The result is that there’s no discussion and debate about projects. Due to this, even inside the community committee itself there were some problems, so our team lose power, because of an internal fragmentation and personal interests with government. So this committee disappeared as well. 2009 reflects this gap, between a favela that was announced to be a model of public interventions, and the beginning of an absence of communication and debate in the urbanization’s process. We don’t know anything about the new urbanization’s phase. What will happen starting from 2010 has never been presented to the community, the change that will occur in the favela, were not discussed with inhabitants, but just imposed from the top. There’s no space to react, to disagree, to debate ideas; it’s a really authoritarian logic, that I think will remove the idea of a city as a space for everybody, submitted to the logic of safety (because of the fear due to drug trafficking), that is at present used to permit actuation of State in this places.”

PIERRE AVILA

ANDRE GONSALVES

ITAMAR SILVA

GLAUCE MAGALHAES

PADRE VALDECI

U P


135

“With the associations of inhabitants, other churches, institutions, Grupo Eco, we were part of a commission to think and debate about urbanization in Santa Marta proposed by Prefeitura and Rio de Janeiro’s State Government. In the first phase of the process the commission was articulating the project, debating with Municipality and Rio de Janeiro’s State; then the commission fell down and was dissolved, because of a opposition between the two governments, so in the end the project was developed by State alone, with some difficulties. Now we are in a new phase, through Sergio Cabral Government, and with UPP. I think it will be easier to take decisions and to insert and plan other social equipments.”

ALEXANDRE ROJAS

ZE’MARIO HILARIO

NELSON MOREIRA

MARIO DEL REI

OBSERVING

UPP POLICEMAN

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

“We always had a lot of meetings and discussions with Governments, and now with Emop (Public Works State Developer) as well, and we are planning to have others debates, hoping that in a soon future these projects we are discussing will be concretely realized. It exists a good relation with the Secretaries of Rio de Janeiro’s State and Municipality, even because most of the representatives are friends of mine, so we are well attended.”

“In Santa Marta the process has been conducted with the collaboration of the community, trough meetings, discussions about problems, and development of solutions approved by inhabitants. The urbanization process started with a survey of existing problems, asking collaboration to local leaders, so that community participated directly to decisions, always taken joint community and public power. The majority of problems were identified by local institutions and inhabitants, as they know the place they live in a deep way, and then technicians from Municipality tried to find solutions.”


136

IS THERE A LACK OF INVESTMENTS ON CULTURE, EDUCATION AND HEALTH?

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

OBSERVING

“With the entrance of the new Municipal Government, it was indicated as a priority a cultural investment; they promise that Santa Marta would have had some cultural points; this was in the plan of Prefeitura, but concretely I don’t know what this will be: if a square, some cultural points, some systemic cultural programs... I knew there was the proposal for a cultural centre, but I don’t know if it will be a concrete physical space, or different actions.”

“The ngo “Atitude Social” I represent is the only cultural centre that is present in Santa Marta right now. It is working with children and young people, from 3 years old till 17 years old, giving them possibility to express and practice music for free, with professional musicians that give lessons as a voluntary work. During the day the building works as a school of music, theatre and library as well; during the night it works as a school with a “Telecurso”, educational program directed by Instituto Educação and Fundação Roberto Marinho, financed by Rio de Janeiro’s State, that promote free lessons of various disciplines to young and adult people to get a diploma. It exists a project already approved by Prefeitura for renewing the building, that is now in crumbling and unhealthy conditions, but is still not clear if the project will start. The building became famous when Micheal Jackson recorded the video on the roof terrace of this building. That space is already an important public space for the community, so it should be designed as a public square.”

PIERRE AVILA

ANDRE GONSALVES

ITAMAR SILVA

“I’m working in the structure “Polo de inclusao social “Padre Velloso”, that is linked to the Municipality of Rio de Janeiro, and has the objective to give access to public politics in assistance. In Brazil we have many national public politics programs, to help low-income population. As social assistant, I interview people to check if their profile could enter in some Public Assistance Program. Concerning health system, the service is working, with its difficulties, but it is a universal service, all people can access. The biggest health problems for people living in favelas result by the fact that many houses, originally built with stilts, are modified to host other families in the basement, so that the original seller can earn some money more; these spaces are a kind of cave, with humidity, open air sewage system, provoking many diseases in inhabitants.”

GLAUCE MAGALHAES

PADRE VALDECI

U P


137

“At present the community can take advantage of Health Secretary, with a Family Doctor, 18 nursing assistance, a nursing technician, a nurse; Technology Secretary, with a wi-fi internet for free for all the inhabitants of Santa Marta; Educational Secretary, with a project called “Telecurso”, promoting education for adults, “Proderj”, promoting digital and informatics classes, “Faetec”, promoting technical formations in different professional fields (english, french, informatics, electrician, plumber, fire-man, beautician, gastronomy); Sport Secretary, promoting mai-thai, football, volleyball, gymnastic for the elderly, Public Works Secretary, and Tourism Secretary. These agencies are acting in the community since 2008, but they are acting in the community without structures located in the community itself. The Cultural Secretary is creating cultural points in the community. In 2010 it should invest 1 milion R$ in one cultural point, that will be the already existing “Casa da Cultura” that needs to be reformed, and then a new building should receive all the workshops.”

ZE’MARIO HILARIO

NELSON MOREIRA

MARIO DEL REI

OBSERVING

ALEXANDRE ROJAS

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

UPP POLICEMAN

“Concerning the cultural field, we should have been definitely more advanced nowadays in Santa Marta, because at present, what is culturally done in the community, is the result of inhabitants efforts, that is normally really rich as a production, but rather supported. Rio de Janeiro is considered the cultural capital of the country, and is not only because of South Zone products, but as well because in these communities it exist a cultural richness that contaminate the city, but that has always been developed without any help. So we are conscious that a necessity exists, and we are trying to accelerate this process to implant all these projects. Our Educational Secretary offers five schools in the region, then there are academic reinforcement courses; concerning health area, in Santa Marta there’s a team that works with the most serious situations, suggesting the right procedures and health centre where people can be treated; in the region there are three Health Posts, a UPA (Public Emergency Center), and public hospital. So education and health has a strong structure in Botafogo, and now with the new administration a major attention is directed to these fields, trying to fill deficiencies that were existing, especially for what is concerning quality of these services. We are still at the beginning of this process, but there are already showing really strong improvements that are bringing satisfaction to the population.”


138

OBSERVING: THE CONTAINMENT WALL

THE STATISTICAL The government asserts the walls are accepted from mostly of Rio's inhabitants, presenting a statistical achieved by Datafolha institute, that interviewed 644 inhabitants. The results were published on the newspaper O Globo in the article “Muro em favelas é defendido por mais pobres”(14th April 2009, p. 15)

60% is FAVOURABLE to the walls

51% of inhabitants with low-income (till 2 living wage) is FAVOURABLE

39% The barriers along “Linha Vermelha”, one of the two main paths to rich the city.

of inhabitants with low-income (till 2 living wage) is CONTRARY

50% THE FACT

of inhabitants with high-income (more than 10 living wage) is CONTRARY

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

OBSERVING

45% In 2009 Sérgio Cabral, Governor of the State of Rio de Janeiro, together to Eduardo Paes, the Mayor of the capital fluminense, both affiliated to the traditionalist PMDB, promoted the projects for walls surrounding 19 communities (especially located in the rich South Zone of the city), for a total of 11 kilometers long, 40.000.000 R$, and 550 removed families. The declared purpose of the project is the protection of the Atlantic Forest, in fact is the further separation between rich and poor. The arguments presented by public power (environmental preservation) shows immediately their fragility: first of all the occupations of environmental preserved areas over 100 m high, according to IPP (Instituto Pereira Passos), are for the 69,7% due to middle/high class constructions, and just the 30,3% for favelas, and besides this is interesting to notice that no public politics orientated to supply the housing deficit in order to avoid slums expansion have been promoted. It is not openly declared from the

government, that the walls in the favelas have also the purpose to fight the crime, restricting the movements of the drug smugglers in route of escape in the neighbouring forest during the raids of the police. In the middle of the economic world crisis, the whole cost for building the Rio wall around the "morros", amounting to 18 millions dollars, is a huge investment. The Rio walls provoked a great discussion among politicians and intellectuals, not only in Brazil, sharpened by an extension of the program for others communities, started in March 2010. Besides these concrete walls, “Sound barriers” are being built along the two main express way of access to the city (Linha Vermelha and Linha Amarela), separating the streets from all the favelas around. The three meters high barriers are going to isolate communities, and according to Rio’s Governors are going to protect many communities from noise and risk to be invested by cars. Internationals reactions, from ONU representants as well, arrived immediately.

of inhabitants with high-income (more than 10 living wage) is FAVOURABLE

47% of interviewed is FAVOURABLE

44% of interviewed is FAVOURABLE

47% of interviewed people living in favelas is FAVOURABLE

46% of people living in favelas is

CONTRARY In Rocinha the direction of the Association made a internal statistic:

1167 persons voted

95% of voter is CONTRARY

0,5% of voters is FAVOURABLE


139

RIO’S WALLS

Santa Marta Ladeira dos Tabajaras Benjamin Constant Chapéu Mangueira Babilônia Pavão-Pavãozinho Cantagalo Morro dos Cabritos Parque da Cidade Vidigal Rocinha

The eleven favelas bordered with the wall are all located in the South Zone of Rio

THE INTERNATIONAL DEBATE

THE DEFENCE

LU PETERSEN

LÚCIO CASTELO BRANCO

ICARO MORENO JUNIOR

brazilian, architect and urban planner, with 24 years of experience in favelas, special councillor of César Maia, for implementation of Favela-Bairro.

brazilian, sociologist of Brasilia University

President of EMOP (Emprese de Obras Publicas de Rio de Janeiro)

"It's a lot of money, with the same cost it could be given city planning infrastructures at least two shantytowns" «The favelas have had in the last years a vertical growth, certainly, they are not advanced, they have a vegetated rhythm of growth» "The South side of Rio de Janeiro, where they want to build the walls, it is the greater tank of votes in town. The Governor Cabral wishes to become the next deputy president at the next presidential election to be held in 2010 in Brazil».

JOSÉ SARAMAGO portuguese, writer, Nobel-prize in literature in 2008 "We had the wall of Berlin, we have walls in Palestine, and now we will have also the walls of Rio de Janeiro "

“First, of all the wall is illegal and unconstitutional. It's a stupid segregation, besides to be a great waste of public money. The walls will not serve to contain the favelas, since the walls easily could be pulled down or open breaches. For the slums need structural measures"

GUSTAVO MEL brazilian, member of Justiça Global, human rights organization that sends to ONU reports about abuses committed by the Brazilian police in slums “As wrote Philip Alston (the special officer sent by ONU to Rio de Janeiro to investigate the death of 19 people killed last year during the military police's raid in the Complexo do Alemão slum) the authoritarian initiatives could be approved by the people because they might give the impression that the government does something to resolve the problem of the violence”

MARCELO FREIXO ANTONIO FERREIRA DE MELLO

“It’s a construction to make invisible a not so marvelous part of the city. The fact that this is done for sound protection, is just an excuse, because no investments have been realized in this area before.”

OBSERVING

“The wall is a symbol of apartheid, the governor should develop a political of integration and not ghetto in Rio de Janeiro”

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

brazilian, Rocinha’s responsible for Inhabitants Association.

brazilian, President of Human Right Commission of Law Assembly of Rio

“Being responsible for the execution of the walls surrounding favelas, I attended with attention every manifestation about our “eco-limits”, erected as a protection for our ecosystem. I gave the same value to all the different opinions I’ve received...Counting the opinions, I verify that the average index of approval is more than the 80%. And with arguments showed that who knows our city, is scared about the worst possibility that could happen if we don’t adopt urgent systems of containment of our favelas, located on the hills. Between many contrary opinion, there are comparison with the wall of Berlin, or the Palestinian one, affirming that we are making a cruel segregation. The program is just applying the 11.428/2006 law, that forbid the removal of Atlantic Forest with urban purposes or building scope in metropolitan and urban region. In Rio this practice is due to the growing tax of favelas, which occupation grew 7% between 1999 and 2008. The existing limits showed their inefficiency in many points, and he necessity of building barriers, but not the hope the walls will solve social and urban problems of communities. The State hopes that this tools could work to protect our forests, as it happened in the favela Santa Marta.”


140

OBSERVING: THE CONTAINMENT WALL

THE WALL OF SANTA MARTA

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

OBSERVING

Santa Marta, as “model” in Rio de Janeiro public politics, has been the first community receiving the wall: in April 2009 EMOP (Empresa de Obras Publicas do Estado do Rio de Janeiro) began to build the 3 meters high and 634 meters long wall, to contain, according to the state, the expansion of the Santa Marta slum, towards the Atlantic forest that dominates the rich district of Botafogo. The wall has been raised only at the South side of the slum, dividing from the "Palácio da Cidade", the seat of the Rio de Janeiro state government, because the North side was already protected by a pre-existent long wall built by private initiative and separating the slum from the tropical forest present in the seat of “Forever Living”, the multinational based in the district of Botafogo. The objective of the wall is to contain a possible expansion of the favela at the west side of the community, justification that is immediately denied by a research realized by Pereira Passos Institute. According to them, from 1999 to 2008, slums of Rio de Janeiro altogether grew up with a tax 6.88%, but in the case of

Santa Marta the increase was just the 0.99%. While the debate is strongly reacting against the wall, as a segregation and exclusion tool, completely contrary to the idea of an integrated city, the President of Inhabitant’s Association reacted in a passive way, saying that “It has always existed a lateral wall here in Santa Marta, if people were well educated and civilized, they wouldn’t make invasions in the forest. In the way things are happening, it was necessary to do something more drastic”. Besides ideological questions, the wall includes a big area, not yet built, located between the last houses and the new barrier. At present it is almost entirely abounded, partially covered by rubbish or spontaneous vegetation, except for two huts, and a “rudimentary recycling centre”. The future for this area is quite uncertain: the construction of new buildings could be read as an expansion, that Government wants to limit; at the other side the area should be improved for new public spaces or public buildings necessary for the community.

THE REACTIONS

“The wall is segragation”

“The wall for whom?”

“The wall of shame: against cowardice of walls, for the protection of favela”


141

THE WALL OF SANTA MARTA

The three main steps of evolution of the borders around the community

TILL 2008

FROM 2009

FUTURE PLAN

THE IMPACT OF THE WALL OF SANTA MARTA

The impact of the wall, especially from the neighborhood Botafogo, is really impressive. A thick gray line is dividing the community, keeping an abounded empty area inbetween the last houses and the new limit. The barrier, insourmontable because of its height, exclude any possibility of relation with the neighbouring forest. In case that the top part of the community would be removed, an extention of the wall would close the community and the access to the forest and the viewpoint “Mirante Dona Marta”.

SIZE OF THE WALL

HEIGHT: 3 meters

LENGHT 634 meters

MATERIALS concrete structure concrete bricks

OBSERVING

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems


142

WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT THE WALL?

“The arguments presented [for the wall] are not justified: Santa Marta is a favela that even for official data, decreases in number of inhabitants in the last 30 years and the community never expands in the area occupied by Atlantic Forest, but always used the space between the last buildings and the forest to play, to cultivate and to breed. There was no need to build it. The State thought that the wall was necessary, but this was more to answer to a request of a politic of control, to show to society out of the community that the State is keeping controlled the favela itself, for citizens safety, but as well in a physical way to avoid a possible future expansion.”

“Our community has always been an ordered community, never crossing the limits that were already existing, but I think that Prefeitura, and Rio de Janeiro’s State looked at the future: a community that is defined as a model, will attract a lot of people to live, so there’s a high probability of an expansion. My personal critic is that it would have been thought an other kind of project as a limit. ”

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

OBSERVING

“I think that the community here in Santa Marta, didn’t grow along the years, and already had a well defined limit, and it existed a collective consciousness of not expanding, exactly not to attract other government actions. In my personal opinion, I’m against every kind of wall. In this specific case, the wall create a strip that is land of nobody. ”

PIERRE AVILA

“I’m favorable to the wall. Now that it is existing it is easier to keep control on the community: the only two ways out of favela are not closed, but they are watched over by UPP all the time.”

ANDRE GONSALVES

ITAMAR SILVA

GLAUCE MAGALHAES

PADRE VALDECI

U P


143

“I’m favorable to the wall. That wall is not new, it was already existing from a lot of years. So the limit of the community is good as well for inhabitants. The controversy is not from inhabitants, it is from whom cannot intend the community, that is composed by honest people, that doesn’t want as well that the community expands. So that wall, besides preserving “mata atlantica”(atlantic forest), is preserving as well stability of the mountain that is quite unstable in the region, and that caused deaths in the past, in the community, and in the formal city. So this wall is preserving lives.”

“The wall has been created inside the land of propriety of Municipality, but it has not been realized as it was previously discussed during some meetings between inhabitants and government. We agreed a sixty centimeters concrete wall, with a net to reach 3 meters high, covered by plants; they realized a 3 meters high concrete wall, without any plant in front. It was supposed to be a mix between a concrete structure and nature, but this did not happen; many inhabitants felt this project as a symbol of segregation.”

ZE’MARIO HILARIO

NELSON MOREIRA

MARIO DEL REI

OBSERVING

ALEXANDRE ROJAS

“This concrete wall discussion represents a certain hypocrisy: all around the world there are walls; this is not a segregation of the city, but is a containment, is just a delimitation. I don’t see any other solution: I’m against that kind of cold wall, but when it would be decorated by plants insertions, by a leisure area next to it, and with the possibility to enter and exit, I wouldn’t see any problem. An other question is that we need to preserve Mata Atlantica not to have other illegal occupations.”

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

UPP POLICEMAN

“I’m personally against the wall, and against every kind of wall. It is a clear manifest of social segregation and division; It could have been realized a shorter wall, with a more delicate intervention, with a garden in that area to improve leisure and sports structures for the community. That was combined with the community, but then a high wall was built, that is the new limit of the community. As representative of the Government, I need to support superior choices, but personally i think it is the worst solution between all the options.”


144

WHAT WILL HAPPEN TO THE AREA BETWEEN THE WALL AND THE LAST HOUSES?

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

OBSERVING

“What we know is that there’s a possibility to built an other funicular on that side, but I read it on the newspaper, so I don’t know if it is true; somebody else says that in that area will be built some other apartment blocks, to dislocate people from the centre of the community to that new area. Both the proposals should be discussed with inhabitants, but at present there isn’t any dialogue about this. It seems like the State is hiding some news about Santa Marta, that are presented periodically, now is time to present the program favela painting, tomorrow new apartment blocks, after tomorrow an other project; so it is never possible to discuss the complexity of projects.”

“The wall create a strip that is land of nobody, occupyed just by a football field on top, and then a big abounded land. It existed a project for some new housing buildings for that area, but Prefeitura didn’t approve, because it says that it was a clear expansion of the community. So there was a big problem of communication and a big contradiction, because with the wall an other part of land has been clearly included in the community, but now this area cannot be used to build or the community seems to be expanding... So Rio de Janeiro’s Government tried to expand the territory with this new strip, to build in future some new housing blocks, but Prefeitura is against.”

PIERRE AVILA

ANDRE GONSALVES

ITAMAR SILVA

GLAUCE MAGALHAES

PADRE VALDECI

U P


145

“There’s a project that contemplate to build in that area some new apartment blocks, that would be used to reallocate the families that should be moved from the risk area on top of the community. The typology of the buildings should be four floors high, with approximately 16 apartments for block, and in total should accommodate 70 families. It exist as well a project that propose an other funicular to reach the west part of the community, in the area between the wall and the last buildings.”

“The idea is to promote a reforestation there, I think is not possible that an other funicular would be built: there’s already one, we should make investments in other communities, even because Santa Marta has 8.000 inhabitants, and Rocinha for example has 200.000.”

“A garden or a cohabitation ambiance should be realized for that area, with squares, playground and meeting point to have some public spaces in the community, that at present don’t exist; apart the two sport fields, the rest of public space is constituted just by stairs and tight passages. It is really important that this could happen soon, because with Governments change, not necessarily the preoccupations of a Government will be as well interests for an other one, and as well because population could build in this area, when not occupied by functions or structure, and the wall itself could be used as house’s wall. This part is responsibility of Environmental Secretary: Carlos Muniz already presented a project for that area, including some hanging gardens, taking advantage of all the slabs that cover all the existing buildings. People have a strong culture of using slabs as a social place to meet; as they don’t have other public spaces at ground level, slabs turns as the only possible public spaces usable.”

ALEXANDRE ROJAS

ZE’MARIO HILARIO

NELSON MOREIRA

MARIO DEL REI

OBSERVING

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

UPP POLICEMAN


146

OBSERVING: THE RISK AREA

THE SELECTION

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

OBSERVING

It is considered as area of risk from Municipality, the area located at the top part of the community. This area represent the beginning of Santa Marta: differently from almost all the other favelas, the first immigrants arrived here on the top and started building their huts, hided from the neighboring regions. Then the community grew along the hill till the bottom. The top area has always been the one that most suffered in its history: in the beginning it was really heavy to live there because it was necessary to climb the hill, covered by a thick vegetation. With the implantation of the funicular system, life of inhabitants improved, at least concerning mobility, but all the other problems stayed: no interventions have been done on this area. The elder inhabitants are so living in the worst conditions, without public light, public water, or public paths. Anyway, not all the buildings located in that area present precarious situation: as

the density is really lower that the rest of the community, here are located also the biggest houses, with the best enlightenment and ventilation, and a marvelous view on the city. The selection made by Municipality, has not been selectively orientated in demolishing only the precarious huts, still made by wooden or by mixed materials, but generically orientated in demolishing all that are, probably to reduce the impact of the community from the formal neighborhoods around. The justification of this intervention is the frailty of the ground, that geological research denied. Other buildings, spread in the dense built up, have been selected to be removed. The criteria of selection seems to be based on structural insecurity, unworthy conditions or desire to reduce high density, enlarge main paths, and create some public space between the dense built up inside the community.

RISK AREA BUILDINGS OTHER BUILDINGS TO BE DEMOLISHED


147

SANTA MARTA

The three main steps previewed by local governments for the risk area of St. Marta

ACTUAL SITUATION

STEP 1

STEP 2

The article from the newspaper “O Globo” , in the agenda of one of the inhabitants of the risk area

THE PROJECT ICARO MORENO JUNIOR, President of EMOP (Emprese de Obras Publicas de Rio de Janeiro), descsribes the project. The 23rd September 2009 the President of EMOP (Empresa de Obras Publicas do Rio de Janeiro), announced that it exist a project for Santa Marta, that would promote the demolition of 133 houses in total (52 of them located in the risk area situated on the top of the community), and the consequent new construction of apartment-blocks, located inside the community itself, to be destined to dislodged families. The declarations are reported on the newspaper “O Globo”, 23/09/09. “We still need to define the building areas in Santa Marta, and how many

buildings we are going to build” said Icaro Moreno, adding that besides these works, the access streets will be paved, and sidewalks will be created, so that in one year the community could be really defined as a model of intervention. “In one year this community will be the standard community. There won’t be anymore wooden houses, and all the buildings will be reached by public water and sewage system” said EMOP President, affirming as well that in 2010 all the

buildings will be as well painted. He informed that for sure 4 buildings, with 16 apartment each, will be built to receive the 52 families that are living in the risk area located at the top of the community. The area will be expropriated and probably re-florested because it is considered by technicians of GeoRio as an high risk area. The new buildings, designed by the architect Jorge Abrantes, will be located next to the 650 meters of concrete wall.

OBSERVING

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems


148

WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT THE RISK AREA?

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

OBSERVING

“This debate about risk area is really delicate, because it has born as a reason to remove favelas from the city. Everything was considered a risk area; Santa Marta, till ’85 was considered all as a risked area. In that period I was President of Inhabitants’ Association, and we conquered to have a deep study about geotechnology: this study declared that it was not true that the area is dangerous, because the ground is rocky. There was just a risk area in Santa Marta, where in ’88 happened a landslide, that was an area characterized by ancient unstable garbage build-up. Houses in that area were removed, and a containment of the mountain was realized. For that area on top, I’m doubting about the question of risk: there’s always been an attempt from Municipality, to reduce the height of the community, and plan a park and a reforestation in that area on top. So in my opinion, the State is more interested in keeping this argument as true, and reduce the impact of the favela from the formal city. If is a dangerous area, the containment needs to be done anyway, with or without inhabitants. And when this would be done, then the area would be safe even for houses. But with or without inhabitants depends on local politics.”

“At the time of our research, we realized that the community is characterized by regions with a different socioeconomical profile: going till the top of the mount, population turns poorer and poorer. The area is characterized by houses made with wooden, around 4 sq mt, just a unique space, without a bathroom or kitchen, like a cave, or a barrack. At that time we could not promote any intervention, especially in the direction of remotion and reallocation , because we realized that the biggest problem of that part was that these people would have needed a major intervention from the State than what we were realizing for the rest: this area is full of people sitting in front of their door, looking at nothing, without any hope. So what was important for these people, was a new hope, more than a new house, with work, income, health treatment. These people are not able to move without an external help. It would be necessary a multi-disciplinary intervention.”

“The community has been divided in three different areas, later on the studies made by the POUSO team and the new rules repealed by local governement for informal settlements. These areas are: first one: from the bottom part till the third station of the funicular; second one:from the third station till the fifth; third one: over the fifth station till the top. This last area is considered a risk area, and the plan for the future is the remotion. In this days one house collapsed because of a small landslide: with PUSO here the process is dynamic, so we checked immediately with geologist and geotechnical the situation, that is not yet emergent. Anyway for the future dwellers will be re-located in the community. The idea is to build vertical buildings, but no official projects are still ready. “

PIERRE AVILA

ANDRE GONSALVES

ITAMAR SILVA

GLAUCE MAGALHAES

PADRE VALDECI

U P


149

“This area is the area where Santa Marta started. Here live the elder inhabitants, that are actually living in the worst condition. They’ve been the first occupying the community, and unluckily are being the last to be considered. Beyond the housing problems, we are offering other projects that involve social areas, trying to give opportunities to improve lives conditions through a better instruction and education for labor market. Government as well cannot promote to sustain these people for the rest of their lives, so what is offered to them, are instruments and tools that could interfere in life conditions: nowadays we organize informatics and languages classes, professionals classes that guarantee people to survive as autonomous worker, or inserted in labor market. The courses are determined by local requests, inhabitants express their interests, and Science and Technology Secretary provides the implantation; then Social Assistance Secretary gives support to the fragile part of the population, giving psychologic support or social assistance, so that in the end of the process people could be ready for labor market.”

“The area on top will be demolished, and then an other wall should be built to delimitate other possible expansions, and the area will be afforested. We hope this project will be done soon, because with the strong rain of December and beginning of January some landslides already occurred, so I would prefer to reallocate these families as soon as possible.”

“For what is concerning Environmental Secretary, that area will be reforested, with a park and co-existence place. But a certain plan is not existing yet, and we are not autonomous because responsibility for this is from Rio’s State Governement.”

ALEXANDRE ROJAS

ZE’MARIO HILARIO

NELSON MOREIRA

MARIO DEL REI

OBSERVING

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

UPP POLICEMAN


150

OBSERVING: PEACEMAKER POLICE UNIT

THE REACTIONS

THE GOVERNMENT PURPOSE

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

OBSERVING

The project has been promoted by Security Secretary José Mariano Beltrame, that affirms: “We want Police officers with both technical and humanitarian formation; The Peacemaker Police Unit (UPP) is a new model of Public Security and policing that intends to bring police and population closer together, as well as to strengthen social policies inside communities. By reestablishing control over areas that for decades were occupied by traffic and, recently, also by militias, the UPPs bring peace to communities. Created by the current administration of Rio’s Security Department, the UPPs work with the principle of the Community Police. This is a concept and a strategy based on the partnership between the population and public security institutions. Rio’s government is investing R$ 15

million (US$ 8 million) in the qualification of the Police Academy, so that by 2016 the contingent will have been enlarged by 60 thousand officers. Until 2010, 3.5 thousand new officers will be sent to the Peacemaker Divisions. We want to break the logic of territoriality imposed by armed drug dealers and return these areas to the real owners (people living there).The success of the project lies not in the police but in public services entering the freed territories, and this isn’t happening enough” Beltrame admits. “Many public services came together with the peacemaker forces, but in some places, like the City of God slum, we still have legions of young people without jobs (it’s incredible the state of abandonment they’re in). The state needs to do much more than this. This is just a first step”

“Cartilha Popular do Santa Marta: Abordagem Policial”

Starting from 19th November 2008, day back when Peacemaker Police Unit has been installed in Santa Marta, almost all the media presented this unit as a marvelous tool to fight against the organized crime, bringing peace and happiness to the community of Santa Marta. Just a few people spoke about abuses and aggressions denounced by inhabitants to civil organizations, and to Human Rights Commission of ALERJ (Assembléia Legislativa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro). One of the inhabitants, the rapper and cineast Fiell, after being abused by Policemen various times, promoted a booklet entitled “Cartilha Popular do Santa Marta: Abordagem Policial” (Santa Marta Popular Booklet: Police Approach). The book explains rights and duties of inhabitants in situation of involvement with Upp Policeman. The book has been presented in collaboration with various groups (Justiça Global, Brasil; Centro de Defesa de Dereitos Humanos, DDH, Amnesty International; Inhabitants Association, Ngo Grupo Eco and others), and will be soon distributed in all the others pacified communities.


The twelve favelas controlled by UPP Peacemaker Units in Rio de Janeiro

UPP SANTA MARTA

151

RIO’S UPP UNIT

Favela do Batam Favela do Andaraì Favela do Borel Morro do Turano Morro da Providencia Salgueiro Favela da Formiga Santa Marta Chapéu Mangueira/ Babilônia Morro dos Cabritos/Ladeira dos Tabajaras Pavão-Pavãozinho/ Cantagalo Cidade de Deus

“We’re trying to change the culture her; The most important thing is not just getting rid of the criminals, but convincing locals that it’s not good to live alongside crime.” (According to Azeredo, the streets are controlled by criminals, which make up two per cent of the favela’s population, though it is estimated that there are about 100,000 people working for the drugs cartels in Rio.) “People who live with something bad for so long end up seeing it as something good since they don’t know anything else. We’re trying to show them that it’s possible to have a proper job, with a salary, and live in an honest way. At first we met with a lot of resistance but locals have gradually come to respect the work of the military police, which is a huge change.”

POLICE CAPTAIN PRISCILLA AZEVEDO WOMAN, 31 YEARS OLD

120 POLICEMAN ALL MEN, YOUNG AVARAGE AGE, MOSTLY NEW FORMED IN POLICE

7 SAFETY CAMERAS

LOCATED AT THE DRIVEWAY ENTRANCES 24H A DAY

3 HEADQUARTERS LOCATED AT THE TOP, THE MIDDLE AND THE BOTTOM OF ST. MARTA

OBSERVING

7 POLICE CARS

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

LOCATED IN STRATEGICAL POINTS, RECORDING 24H A DAY


152

WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT UPP?

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

OBSERVING

“Sergio Cabral decided to put this police stations here. UPP is a new unit, composed by new young policeman (to avoid corruption) learning how to communicate and relate with inhabitants: there are 120 units in total, distributed with turns of 30 units each. Santa Marta was the first community to receive this new safety system, and it worked very well.It doesn’t have any sense that police just comes, kills, and goes back away, without staying and keeping order. Now we are fighting in advance crimes that could happen. Repression and prevention are working in a good way for the community. The implantation of this unit wasn’t easy: before it was necessary to remove the organized crime, so BOPE came, made cleaning, and then we could enter. We have a camera system, so we can monitor 24h a day the community, in nine different strategic points: we know everything is happening in Santa Marta.It’s a probation: they need to know what is their space, and that when they would do something wrong, we would intervene immediately. Unfortunately a society that doesn’t have a limit, is self-destructing. Police has limits as well, every action is done between law’s limits, regulated by penal code. When authority’s abuse happens, is because the community put police in the condition to act in this way. Society has the police that deserves. If a society is right, police as well can be right; but do you think that when a society has participation in wrong affairs, police could be honest? If a society is corrupt, could police be honest? After pacification there were cases of aggression to policemen made by inhabitants, that were found in the middle of the night, in the places where before pacification there were drugs selling. They didn’t like to be frisked, and they reacted with violence. I would have beaten them. And what would have been this act? Police violence, or an educational process for who lives in the community? Policeman can be aggressive, it’s an educational process. We are educating a society, that sadly, even being already adult, is not yet polite. When everybody would be educated here, we wouldn’t need to use the strong arm of the law. And when we cannot correct a human being, what’s the only way to eradicate a disease? The only way is to act in a strong way. I worked for many years in favelas, what changed with UPP is that I don’t need to kill anymore, but I liked doing it. I was killing somebody everyday. I like to clean my city, obviously always being inside the limits permitted by the law: self-defense, regular exercise of right. I didn’t do anything arbitrary. Obviously all the wars has innocent victims, and it has always been a war. But now we have solders just to maintain peace. What is peace for me? It’ absence of conflicts.”

“In the past, it was really difficult to take decisions because there were not only Municipality, State, and Inhabitants, but as well there were crime’s rules and internal informal laws; UPP brought a lot of freedom in the community, as well for what is concerning public works and construction sites. UPP is here to maintain safety, so needs to respect inhabitants, and inhabitants need to be tolerant. We are in the beginning of this new relation. there’s a kind of diffidence between the parts, due mostly because of general idea of police’s corruption. So community reacts with a step back, and policeman are diffident with inhabitants. Every small event, comes into discussion, but i think is because nothing is yet consolidated.”

“The worst thing is that after occupation of UPP, everything turned to be a question of safety, Police became the big star; but I’ve nothing to see with police, they can do whatever they like, eliminate trafficking; problems of Santa Marta are previous: urban question, interventions, social plans... It is not true that the State could not carry out in Santa Marta because of traffickers; it has never been impeded to act in Santa Marta so much so construction works start in 2003, when there was still trafficking, and everything was working without any problem. This logic sold to population irritates me a lot because is not true: it is a form to deviate attention to avoid a debate regarding topics that really interest inhabitants.”

PIERRE AVILA

ANDRE GONSALVES

ITAMAR SILVA

GLAUCE MAGALHAES

PADRE VALDECI

P


153

“All this change process in Santa Marta, has been really well received from population: we don’t have anymore an extensive criminality there, there aren’t anymore arms apart the ones from UPP. This Police, that is a new one, has been created from Rio State Governement and is well related with the community; all the actions now are discussed with inhabitants and with UPP, and everybody is believing that this new proposal could decrease this violence that has always determined rules in these poor areas. With the support of all political entities and society, already five communities have been occupied with this process, that provides first UPP entrance with disarmament of traffickers, and then urbanization works, social actions, culture, and all the services that every society needs. Sadly during a long period these areas grew without any official support, and because of this they arrived at the actual point. Now, in function of the proportion that this violence get, we hope to eliminate in a medium term at least a big part of this problem. We know that violence will always exist, drugs as well, but is not necessary to have a parallel army, making wars, invading enemies areas, killing and dying. They’re all poor people, majority young, majority black, people who stayed at the border of society, that destroy them-self one against the other, but that as well bring to the rest of the population sufferings and fear. We arrived to a point that need to be stopped and changed, and we believe that this politics is the right one.“

“Now we are living with a new model of policemen, that is really different from other units that were working previously. Government wants to extend this model to all the communities of Rio, and Santa Marta has been chosen as a pilot. I’m here to defend the interests of the community, if a policemen is wrong, I would accuse him, if an inhabitants is, he will be punished for what he did. In the beginning it was difficult for the community to accept this new presence, as well because it suffered for decades for negligence, sufference and violence. But now it is a different.”

“Santa Marta was a pilot project, it was the first community benefitted by Local Government intervention with UPP. This project has been promoted not only to improve Rio de Janeiro’s inhabitants safety, but as well to improve conditions of favelados, to permit them to have a rescue of citizenship. What happen in favelas where traffickers have control, is that there is a parallel power inside the society, adjusted by different rules, habits and traditions, where public power cannot enter. So Local Government adopted a politic of effective actuation: it fights against organized crime, and then promotes a rescue for inhabitants, that are in 99% honest workers, and deserve better conditions as people living on the asphalt have.”

ALEXANDRE ROJAS

ZE’MARIO HILARIO

NELSON MOREIRA

MARIO DEL REI

OBSERVING

UPP POLICEMAN

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

“It was an excellent tool: the community is thanking for this intervention, because before the intervention of police, there was drug’s selling in the middle of the street Sao Clemente, and this was a problem as well because people were consuming drugs there, causing a lot of problems due to drug’s user attitude. So the entrance of UPP improved a lot citizenship of inhabitants in Santa Marta. ”


154

OBSERVING: ST. MARTA MODEL OF INTERVENTION OR POLITICAL PROPAGANDA? RJ Comunidade volta à Favela Santa Marta para cobrar autoridades

Moradores do Morro Santa Marta promovem projetos culturais A capoeira, a aula de percussão e de hip hop são iniciativas que partiram dos próprios moradores do morro. Mas nem todas contam com o apoio financeiro. 20 March 2009

O RJ Comunidade mostrou os problemas da Favela Santa Marta. As autoridades prometeram obras de melhorias. E nós vamos ficar de olho e cobrar as soluções 21 January 2009

Light apresenta plano para modernizar rede de energia elétrica no Santa Marta Projeto também prevê implantar a medição do consumo. Hoje, apenas 10% dos moradores recebem conta de luz, mas só metade paga. 26 March 2009

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

OBSERVING

Projeto arquitetônico promete revitalizar a comunidade Santa Marta Serviços e projetos sociais estão sendo implantados para resgatar a cidadania de quem vive na favela. Algumas dessas transformações já podem ser percebidas. 09 April 2009

Morro Santa Marta recebe projeto Justiça Cidadã pela primeira vez

Ecobarreiras limitam crescimento desordenado no Santa Marta

São 75 profissionais envolvidos nessa ação social, que inclui promotores e juízes. Moradores podem entradas em processos referentes à Vara de Família e também sobre os direitos do consumidor.

Um dos grandes problemas de quem vive nas favelas é a falta de orientação na construção e ampliação das casas. No Santa Marta, uma parceria de arquitetos com moradores vem dando resultados.

21 March 2009

23 March 2009

Muros começam a ser construídos no Dona Marta Até o fim deste ano 11 comunidades da Zona Sul do Rio, entre elas a Rocinha, terão muros de concreto no entorno para impedir o crescimento desordenado. 28 March 2009

Um mês de desafios e mudanças na Favela Santa Marta O RJ Comunidade desta sexta-feira é especial. É um balanço de quase um mês de convivência com os moradores da Favela Santa Marta, em Botafogo. 10 April 2009

Projeto leva cinema dentro de caminhão para crianças da Santa Marta O veículo estacionou na manhã deste domingo (26) em frente ao Batalhão da Polícia Militar, perto da comunidade em Botafogo. 27 April 2009

Cerca-viva : eco-limite da Santa Marta Começoua plantação de uma cerca-viva no muro construído para impedir que a Favela Santa Marta avance sobre a mata. 28 April 2009

Moradores da comunidade Santa Marta comemoram entrega de novas casas A prioridade é para aquelas pessoas que moravam em barracos de madeira perto da área de risco ou que têm problemas de locomoção.

04 May 2009 * sources: http://oglobo.globo.com

Qualidade de sinal de internet gratuita melhora no Santa Marta A promessa de melhorar o sinal da rede de computadores foi feita no início de abril, pelo Governo do Estado e foi 16 May 2009 cumprida.


Since the moment it has been pacified, Santa Marta has been exhibited by Local Government as a model for public politics on communities. Inhabitants sustain that this definition is really far from reality, but media, especially newspaper and tv Globo, are promoting an incredibly positive propaganda for all the interventions happening in the community.

155

“O GLOBO” ARTICLES

3231 ARTICLES ON GLOBO ABOUT

900 FAVELAS IN RIO

3000 ARTICLES ABOUT OTHER FAVELAS

86% OF ARTICLES ABOUT OTHER FAVELAS

231 ARTICLES ABOUT SANTA MARTA

14% OF ARTICLES ABOUT SANTA MARTA

FAVELAS OF RIO

Maioria dos moradores da CDD e Santa Marta aprova policiamento Cinco comunidades do Rio de Janeiro já contam com o novo sistema de policiamento comunitário. São policiais treinados para atender moradores e combater a violência e o tráfico. 26 June 2009

Moradores do Morro Santa Marta já podem tirar o Habite-se Os moradores devem comparecer ao posto da prefeitura que fica na entrada do morro, para esclarecer as dúvidas e ajudar na preparação das plantas das residências. 06 July 2009

Programa Saúde da Família chega à Favela Santa Marta

Lixo ainda incomoda moradores da comunidade do Santa Marta

Ficam à disposição 30 profissionais, de segunda a sexta-feira. São cinco consultórios com dentista, uma sala para vacinação e outra para pequenos procedimentos. 15 July 2009

A Comlurb prometeu fazer um mutirão de limpeza e aumentar o número de garis comunitários de 11 para 17. Até agora isso não aconteceu. 23 July 2009

Festa ressalta a cultura e resgatar o orgulho de ser morador do Santa Marta

Moradores da comunidade Santa Marta podem legalizar seus imóveis Uma boa notícia para moradores da comunidade Santa Marta, em Botafogo. Eles ganharam direito ao Habite-se, documento que legaliza as construções e oficializa a ocupação das casas. 07 July 2009

Santa Marta vive semana de muitas atividades culturais A comunidade está em festa. É diversão, arte e cultura para os moradores, que também cobram uma verba prometida pela prefeitura para projetos culturais.

São mais de 20 atrações, em diversos pontos da comunidade. Algumas são de graça, outras custam R$ 1 ou a doação de um quilo de alimento, que vai ser evado para a creche que funciona no morro. 27 July 2009

25 July 2009

Programa – uma parceria do Instituto Educação, da Fundação Roberto Marinho, com apoio do governo do estado – leva educação e cidadania aos estudantes da comunidade. 19 August 2009

No projeto Costurando Ideais, roupas os acessórios são feitos em uma oficina que existe há quase dez anos no morro. Há desfiles na favela e no Fashion Rio. 31 July 2009

Psicólogas ensinam a cuidar melhor das crianças na Favela Santa Marta Iniciativa ajuda professoras, monitoras e famílias a cuidar melhor da educação das crianças, desde os primeiros passos. Projeto supre deficiência profissional. 11 September 2009

Moradores da Favela Santa Marta ganham geladeiras novas Programa – uma parceria do Instituto Educação, da Fundação Roberto Marinho, com apoio do governo do estado – leva educação e cidadania aos estudantes da comunidade. 21 August 2009

Moradores do Santa Marta comemoram chegada do Telecurso à comunidade Com a sala de aula mais perto de casa, muita gente se animou para voltar a estudar. O projeto vai levar educação e cidadania para 300 jovens e adultos. 28 August 2009

OBSERVING

O glamour da moda está presente na comunidade do Santa Marta

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

Telecurso chega à Santa Marta


156

Governo do RJ instala câmeras de segurança no Santa Marta Ao todo, sete câmeras serão instaladas no morro. Monitoramento será feito do alto da comunidade 24 horas por dia.

Santa Marta vira palco de competição internacional de mountain-bike

21 August 2009

Moradores da parte alta do Santa Marta vivem preocupados com desabamento

Moradores do Morro Santa Marta reclamam de falta de iluminação

As 52 famílias que vivem no local foram cadastradas e vão receber casas novas na segunda fase do programa de habitação da comunidade.

A reclamação é antiga. Morador diz que, desde que a Light cortou os fios para colocar a rede nova, acomunidade está iluminação pública. 06 October 2009

30 September 2009

Professores ingleses visitam o Santa Marta e copiam ensino para Londres Os professores vieram conhecer aulas do Telecurso que acontece na comunidade desde agosto. A troca de experiência vai ajudar nas escolas públicas de Londres. 28 October 2009

Madonna passa tarde no Morro Santa Marta, em Botafogo A passagem de Madonna pelo Rio de Janeiro foi cercada de mistérios. Não se sabe se ela já deixou a cidade. Ontem a cantora passou o fim de tarde no Morro Santa Marta, em Botafogo. 14 November 2009

Primeira do estado, UPP do Morro Santa Marta completa um ano

Essa é a primeira vez que uma comunidade do Rio vira sede de um evento esportivo internacional. Competidores descem a 50 km/h em uma pista de 760 metros de cumprimento, cortando vielas. 26 September 2009

Polícia Militar faz festa para Dia das Crianças na Santa Marta Os policiais vão fazer uma série de atividades em todas as comunidades ocupadas pela PM, até a quinta-feira (15). 09 October 2009

Moradores da Santa Marta se reúnem para discutir problemas A reunião, essa manhã, foi realizada para encontrar soluções de problemas apontados pelos próprios moradores, depois de um ano da ocupação pela Polícia Militar. 19 November 2009

Casamento comunitário reúne 12 casais na favela Santa Marta Cerimônia aconteceu na escola de samba Unidos do Santa Marta. Troca de alianças foi ao som de Roberto Carlos. 27 November 2009

Comunidade da Zona Sul comemora o fim dos tiroteios depois de um ano de Unidade da Polícia Pacificadora.

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

OBSERVING

19 December 2009

Morro Santa Marta vira rota de celebridades no Rio Comunidade foi visitada por Madonna, Michael Jackson e Hugh Jackman. Alicia Keys gravou cenas de videoclipe no morro na manhã desta terça (9).

Policiais de UPP fazem parto de jovem no Morro Santa Marta

Fornecimento de água interrompido prejudica moradores do Santa Marta

Segundo a polícia, mulher foi levada para quadra da escola de samba. Mãe e filho foram encaminhados para o Miguel Couto e passam bem.

Segundo denúncias dos moradores, o desabastecimento fez quatro dias no domingo (24). Juntou a falta d'água com o calor. O banho foi ao ar livre, em bicas onde ainda havia água. 25 January 2010

06 January 2010

09 February 2010

Alicia Keys grava clipe no morro Santa Marta, no Rio Fernando Henrique grava documentário sobre drogas no Morro Santa Marta Ex-presidente esteve também na sede da Polícia Civil, no Centro. Ele ficou impressionado com a quantidade de armas apreendidas. 25 February 2010

* sources: http://oglobo.globo.com

Cantora filmou na comunidade em que também esteve Michael Jackson. Vídeo da música 'Put it in a love song' foi feito nesta terça-feira (9).

09 February 2010

Defesa Civil interdita prédio de três andares no Santa Marta Ao todo, 15 famílias precisaram evacuar o local após queda de barreira. Técnicos estão na comunidade para avaliar estrutura do prédio.

03 March 2010


157

Mãe, mulher e policial: como conciliar salto e maquiagem com armas e crimes Hoje elas viram ícones com as capitãs Priscila Azevedo e Rosana Alves, comandantes das UPPs do Santa Marta e do Tabajaras 04 March 2010

Santa Marta ganha novo colorido A grande obra de arte está sendo feita pelo próprios moradores. No projeto, iniciativa de dois artistas holandeses, 27 casas da comunidade vão se transformar num imenso painel. 31 March 2010

Após interdição de prédio, fornecimento de água é suspenso no Santa Marta Ao todo, 15 famílias precisaram evacuar o local após queda de barreira. Técnicos estão na comunidade para avaliar estrutura do prédio. 03 March 2010

Famílias devem voltar para prédio interditado no Santa Marta em 15 dias Vazamento foi detectado durante uma vistoria. Edifício de três andares foi interditado pela Defesa Civil. 05 March 2010

Artistas plásticos holandeses vão pintar casas de favela carioca Depois da Vila Cruzeiro, dupla começa a atuar no Santa Marta. Fachadas vão servir para obras com desenhos em 16 cores. 10 March 2010

Governador de Buenos Aires quer importar UPA do Rio Daniel Sciolli visitou a UPP do Morro Santa Marta, em Botafogo. Ele elogiou aproximação de PMs e moradores da favela.

Depois de segurança, comunidades com UPPs pedem serviços de saúde Moradores de favelas reclama que faltam médicos em postos. UPAs de bairros próximos também não suprem necessidade. 29 April 2010

Troca de acusações entre PM e rapper esquenta clima no Santa Marta MC Fiell acusa policiais de agressão e abuso de autoridade. Polícia Militar rebate e diz que organizador de eventos é baderneiro.

05 April 2010

Rapper diz ter sido espancado por policiais de UPP na Zona Sul do Rio

Polícia diz que rapper que acusa PMs de agressão faz protesto contra UPPs

Confusão teria começado por causa de som em bar no Morro Santa Marta. Segundo a PM, se ficar comprovado, policiais serão punidos.

MC Fiell diz que foi retirado de bar de forma agressiva. PM diz que recebeu muitas reclamações de moradores por som alto.

24 May 2010

24 May 2010

Jovens da Inglaterra visitam UPP do Santa Marta Nesta quarta-feira, às 15h, trinta estudantes ingleses, de 18 e 19 anos, vão conhecer a UPP da comunidade Santa Marta. 27 July 2010

26 May 2010

12 August 2010

31 July 2010

Lula está no Santa Marta para lançar programa de turismo comunitário O presidente Lula está na manhã desta segunda-feira no Morro Santa Marta, em Botafogo, para o lançamento de um programa de turismo comunitário. A favela será a primeira em que será implantado o projeto "Rio Top Tour: o Rio de Janeiro sob um novo ponto de vista". 30 August 2010

‘Empresa Bacana’ permite que empresário tire documentos gratuitamente. Comerciantes do Borel serão os próximos a serem beneficiados. 19 August 2010

OBSERVING

Melhoria da infraestrutura possibilitou maior presença de turistas. Moradores já receberam visitas de Madonna e Michael Jackson.

Um projeto que vai levar melhorias na educação, esporte, lazer e atividades culturais às comunidades beneficiadas pelas Unidades de Polícia Pacificadora (UPPs) foi lançado nesta quinta-feira.

Projeto prevê regularizar pequenos comércios em comunidades do Rio

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

Comunidade Santa Marta é o programão para o fim de semana

Projeto vai levar melhorias às comunidades com UPPs


158

DO YOU THINK SANTA MARTA IS A MODEL OR POLITICAL PROPAGANDA?

“The community of Santa Marta is now living a new phase, after the occupation of UPP, that is a conquest for all the inhabitants, and whose who dreamt a different community, for all who fought, persevered, hoped for having a free community. We never thought to be a model community, but we all had a dream to became a “better favela”.”

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

OBSERVING

“As every model it is complicated to define, and as well a model is not compatible with reality. My big preoccupation is about the future of this model: we have such a strong control from the State happening in Santa Marta now, but will it always be as it is now? Is it necessary such a strong control? What will happen with this population? Politics change, but what will happen in 10 years? If we don’t defend our territory now, with its specific aspects and problems, we’ll never have the conditions to define it in the future. So for me this is the biggest problem that we have, we have totally lost the capacity to interfere with politics. Everybody is having particular interests, sometimes really specifics, so we risk to loose the identity of the community.” Then there’s an exaggerate tendency to focus on these problems from the media: I’ve never seen since the ’70’s in television and newspaper from “O Globo”, such a positive attitude to evaluate public politics in favelas, as it’s happening with Santa Marta. If you read Globo, it’s terrific to realise that there are no critics. How can you be against this, when all the media, and so many people are saying that this place is really cool to live? That so many investments have been done? Inhabitants have no instruments to react; there’s a big difficulty to debate with inhabitants about problems, about things that are rights for the community. What in the beginning could have been considered as a model of intervention, respecting diversities and participation, thinking about a favela as an alternative space of living, that was a resistance of inhabitants and so needs to be preserved, has been replaced by a logic that starts from the fact that is not possible anymore to remove favelas”

PIERRE AVILA

ANDRE GONSALVES

ITAMAR SILVA

GLAUCE MAGALHAES

PADRE VALDECI

U P


159

“For sure it is. The State already invested many millions R$ there. With that amount, you could have given an apartment with two rooms for every people of the community. The quantity of money invested per capita in Santa Marta, is superior than every else investments in other communities. It is for sure a business card for our governor. If you compare relation costs/ benefits, the first project costed around 30 million R$, when you would have given an apartment for all the people that are living in a community, it would have been theoretically cheaper. We are saying that every house in Santa Marta received 30.000 R$. The problem is: do these people want to change the place they live, and the way they live? And the answer is no. They don’t want to change the place, they don’t want to change their form of life. They were created there, they were born there, they grew up there. So the action of the State is not determined by the costs, but more by the porpose of keeping a social dimension.”

ALEXANDRE ROJAS

ZE’MARIO HILARIO

NELSON MOREIRA

MARIO DEL REI

OBSERVING

UPP POLICEMAN

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

We are now entering a dark tunnel, and we don’t know how we’ll go out from this, now i’m looking at light of hope in the end, I hope that the works will be realized till the end, till the last inhabitants being satisfied and benefited, so that people could live with dignity, without being ashamed to invite somebody at their place; so people wants that this projects would be extended all, with improvements of the buildings, reallocation of families, till the end, so that in five years Santa Marta could be really considered as a favela model, really inserted in the formal city as a new neighborhood.”


160

OBSERVING: INHABITANTS MANIFESTATION

The manifestation taking place the 19th november 2009

THE FACT

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

OBSERVING

The 19th November 2009, exactly one year after the UPP (Peacemaker Police Unit) occupation promoted by Sergio Cabral Government, various groups from Santa Marta organized a public manifestation, with the purpose of focusing on the many problems that the community still presents. After one year of pacification, inhabitants complained that no other interventions has been done, besides safety programs, differently from what was discussed and promised by local government before occupation. The aim of UPP was in fact to first create a safe environment for external actions, and then to intervene working about all the others aspects of inhabitants lives: housing, culture, education,

health, public illumination, etc. But no interventions in this way has been realized, and nether debated, but instead other kind of investments have been realized in the community without any participation to decisions: the construction of the concrete wall to delimitate a possible expansion of the community and the installation of a camera system, to keep under surveillance 24 h on 24 the inhabitants. These two actions accentuate a debate about public investments: big amount of money were spent on these works while there are still many people living in precarious conditions. The problem of participation was emerging in the manifestation as the main one, especially because 2009

reflected a gap year, between a previous politics (with Governor Garotinho), that was involving the community trough debates and discussion meetings, and the actual government (with Sergio Cabral) that orientated all his politics about public safety, eliminating all the department that were coordinating urbanization works according to communities’ exigences. This fact create a break-up even inside the community discussion team, that loose all his power. The manifestation reflected the exigence of an urgent debate all the future of the community, but didn’t succeed in any result, because Government didn’t answer to the requests, and media did not publish any critic has been done.


161

2009 INHABITANTS MANIFESTATIONS

27/06/2009 Inhabitants manifest against the prohibition done by UPP Captain to realize the traditional “baile funk” in Santa Marta. Apafunk, the cultural association for funk, support the manifestation.

19/11/2009

One year after police occupation, inhabitants manifest their dissatisfaction about public interventions that didn’t follow the safety program as it was promised.

THE MANIFESTED POINTS

THE PARTICIPANTS

The main topics faced during the manifestation were concerning urbanization works realized during the last ten years, finalities of public investments and preoccupation about the future of the community, mostly due to a lack of partipation to decisions, and an absence of a timetable, declaring the plans for next years interventions. From the speeches of the participants to the manifestation, ten main point of discussion and criticism could resume the event.

03

Critics about the last apartments delivered in Santa Marta: these apartments have 32 sq. mt. surface, while social movement for housing regulate a minimum size of 42 sq.mt, and other initiatives declares as minimum 37 sq. mt.

04

Lack of public illumination (finally installed in the beginning of 2010 in all the community exept the top of the hill, considered risk area to be removed).

05

Cultural repression through UPP limits and new rules about events in the community

06

Lack of public interventions about public spaces, new housing, culture, education and health

07

Wireless internet installed by Municipality for free, and promoted as one of the interventions done for the community, is not working

08

Abuses of power done by UPP policeman, especially against young people of the community

09

Fear is paralyzing the community, impeding critical expressions, just as an exercise of human rights and freedom

10

Make aware inhabitants (and media) that although media themselves are presenting Santa Marta as a “model of slum”, many problems are still present, need to be discussed, and need to be shared by all inhabitants to have a stronger result.

NGO Grupo Eco

NANAN Social centre Ana Maria Vieira Pinto

PADRE VALDECI Baptist Church

ZE’ MARIO Inhabitants’ Association

FIEL NGO Visão da Favela

OBSERVING

02

Critics about the last investments done by public power: 2.000.000 R$ spent on a containment wall, and 500.000 R$ for safety cameras, while this amount could have been used for different priorities, as sewage and sewerage systems.

ITAMAR SILVA

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

01

Lack of dialogue and participation to government decisions about the community, desire of knowledge about urbanization process for the future of the community and discussion about priorities


162

WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT INHABITANTS MANIFESTATION?

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

OBSERVING

“We decided to manifest after one year of UPP entrance in the community; we used this anniversary to bring attention to what is still missing in Santa Marta: we were and we are still worried because everything turned into a safety question, forgetting all the other urban and social themes that are important for the community. Santa Marta is part of a urbanization process since 2003: it is not a novelty from the last year, and this process is really late. What we were exactly denunciating in November was that inhabitants stopped to participate and to be part of the urbanization process, of all the proposal of urbanization and changing inside the community implemented by local government. So we denunciated the absence of participation of inhabitants in government’s decision about the favela and about all urbanization works. Even with this manifestation, we could not open any space for critics. Media are creating an imaginary that inhabitants themselves will finish to believe. Santa Marta is in tele series, in musical videos; Madonna came to visit it, New York’s mayor came as well. How can you be against this, when all the media, and so many people are saying that this place is really cool? That so many investments have been done? Inhabitants have no instruments to react; there’s a big difficulty to debate with inhabitants about problems, about things that are rights for the community and we tried through this event.”

“We decided, together with all the other ngo and the association, to manifest because there are still many problematics that need to be discussed, and we wanted to show that we are all fighting to have a better community.”

“We understand these denounces, but we are acting now in a situation that lived for 120 years in a illegal and totally informal way, so the public power cannot do everything in one year, in a community with almost 10.000 inhabitants, more than 1.500 buildings, more than 100 streets. The improvement process cannot be done in a short time.”

PIERRE AVILA

ANDRE GONSALVES

ITAMAR SILVA

GLAUCE MAGALHAES

PADRE VALDECI

U P


163

“We are not proposing miracles: public power action mostly of the time is slow, and anxiety of population sometimes cannot wait. We intend this normal process, because the public power absence has a long history, so there’s a series of necessities that need time to be satisfied. The fear of inhabitants that these interventions stayed just in police interventions are understandable, because they already suffer a lot for violence and war, so they’re scared that solved this problem that effected all the city, they can stay with all the other problems. But this won’t happen, and the cultural area will be implemented soon. As well in the last year Brazil, even suffering less than other countries, we needed to afford the global crisis, so many investments stopped for a while, causing consequences and reflexes; but now this problem has been overcome, so projects will be realized soon.”

“All repressive institutions cause revolts. They were used to smoke marijuana in the street, keep music with a loud level, organize “baile funk”. But now everything has a limit, and they don’t want this limit: they want to smoke, to snort cocaine, to rape somebody’s daughter. People who does this kind of manifestations were for sure involved with trafficking, and even if they were not directly, as they were consenting because not denouncing. Many complains in this manifestation arrived because we forbid events, especially “baile funk”, because everytime this events are occurring, there’s actuation of pushing, argues, brawls, many safety problems in general. All the time there were a “baile funk”, there was confusion, drunk or wounded people. There’s need of limits: I have my own, as they don’t, they need to have external rules. ”

“This demonstration has been asked from the community, but in reality there were no inhabitants taking part, so something was wrong. As President of the Association, i needed to represent all the inhabitants, but it wasn’t my proposal, it was the proposal of a group from the Community that is seeing problems that for me are not existing.”

ALEXANDRE ROJAS

ZE’MARIO HILARIO

NELSON MOREIRA

MARIO DEL REI

OBSERVING

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

UPP POLICEMAN


164

SYSTEMATIZING NEEDS

BRAZILIAN GOVERNMENT

CAIXA BANK

INHABITANTS

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

OBSERVING

NGO /CULTURAL GROUPS

RIO’S GOVERNMENT


165

avoid the demolition of the “at-risk area” on the top

apply a safety politics to fight against “parallel power”

encourage economic development and enterpreses

establish a better census

facilitate access to services, and basic infrastructure

formalize informal settlements and taxation system

improve cultural activities

improve commerce system

investments in missing services

less money for more development

more participation to political and urban decisions

more social and cultural integration

reduce the impact demolishing the at-risk area

reduce the negative impact of favelas

re-location of families livings in wooden huts

reforest where possible

the own good for the community

OBSERVING

reduce and bridge the urban divide

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

protect the atlantic forest from future invasions


166

RESUMING

RISK AREA TO BE DEMOLISHED AND CONSEQUENTLY REFOREST

Cleaning some areas occupyed by garbage would permit to cultivate legumes and friuts, to create a vivarium of plants that are disappearing from Atlantic forest with the purpose of re-forest in the future, increaing income possibilities

3 METERS HIGH CONCRETE WALL USABLE AS CONSTRUCTION WALL FOR NEW INTERVENTIONS

The community has almost no public spaces. We don’t have any public open air place to meet.

POSSIBILITY OF CONSTRUCTION OF A NEW FUNICULAR SYSTEM TO IMPROVE MOBILITY

There’s still a huge quantity of garbage all around the favela....

NEW APARTMENT BLOCK TO ALLOCATE PEOPLE LIVING IN THE RISK AREA

There are almost no spaces for children; they should have designed a park for children in the land here in front, where there were an hut before. But nothing is sure.

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

OBSERVING

There should be a market in the community

After urbanization works follow taxes about light and water, and there are many people that don’t have conditions to pay this taxes. We don’t have conditions even for eating, how can we pay normal taxes?

“the cultural area will be implemented soon... projects will be realized soon.”

There should be a medical ambulatory


167

There are missing some health structures.”

Every time they demolish an hut, the land turns into state propriety, so there are many free spaces that could be

FREE AREAS PROPERTY OF MUNICIPALITY OF RIO DE JANEIRO

Things that should be improved at present are demolish the wooden huts still existing, and re-locate dwellers

“Difficulties of poorness, and access to work are one of the biggest one, but not the only ones. The topic of housing and employment are the ones that have the major detachment.

At the first station should exist a recycling station, with differentiate collection.

A school would improve a lot quality of life in the community,

VOICE FROM THE COMMUNITY

abc

VOICE FROM GOVERNMENTAL AUTHORITY

abc

NEW APARTMENT-BLOCK UNITS BUILDINGS TO BE DEMOLISHED RISK AREA FREE AREAS

OBSERVING

Santa Marta: the complexity of problems

“The community still suffers for really low income, or zero income.

Profile for Livia Minoja

Favelascape | part 1  

Tools of integration for the favela Santa Marta in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Master Thesis in Landscape Architecture by Livia Minoja

Favelascape | part 1  

Tools of integration for the favela Santa Marta in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Master Thesis in Landscape Architecture by Livia Minoja

Advertisement