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eBOOK PROJECT REPORT Hong Kong Polytechnic University School of Design 2009 | Master of Interaction design

Next generation eBook - opus Team member: Cheng Wing Yin Ellena Shao Zhou Yi Joy Wang Zhi Wei Eva


TEAM

Cheng WingYin, Ellena (Left) Shao ZhouYi, Joy (Middle) Wang ZhiWei, Eva (Right) 2009-2010 Master of Interaction Design School of Design Hong Kong Polytechnic University


CONTENTS Team members /02 1 Project Background /06 2 Project Objective /08

RESEARCH

3

Research Process

/ 12

7

Competitive Analysis

/ 32

7.1 Rationale /32

4

Persona

7.2 Matrix of Competitor Comparison /33

/ 14

7.3 Advantages and Disadvantages /34

4.1 Rationale /14 4.2 OPUS’ Persona /16

5

Secondary Research

/ 18

5.1 Rationale /18

8

Design Objectives and Criteria

9

Design Opportunities

/ 40

9.1 Physical Freedom /42

6

Design Direction

/ 22

9.2 Pleasant Reading Experience /44 9.3 Communicate with Others /48

6.1 Physical /24

Psychological /24

Social /24 6.2 Design Direction /26 6.3 Ideas /30

10

Visits & Interviews

/ 52

10.1 Rationale /52 10.2 First and Second visits /54 10.3 Third visits /58 10.4 Fourth visits /62

/ 36


DESIGN

11

Scenarios

14

/ 69

14.2 Evolution of Interaction Models /82

11.2 Scenarios /70

14.3 Interaction Models /83

Brainstorm and Sketches

/ 72

12.1 Rationale /75

15

Information Architecture

15.2 Information Architecture /88

Task Analysis

/ 78

13.1 Rationale /78 13.2 Envisioned /79 13.3 Task Analysis /80

OPUS

16

Final Design

/ 93

16.1 Interface /94 16.2 Physical Form /98 16.3 Technology /99

17

/ 86

15.1 Rationale /87

12.2 Refinement of Sketches /76

13

/ 82

14.1 Rationale /82

11.1 Rationale /69

12

Interaction Models

Lessons Learned /100

18

Acknowledgements /102

19

References /104

20

Appendix /106


ASTRI collaborated with Hong Kong Polytechnic University on eBooks for children education.

There are 4 projects altogether as part of a larger collaboration between ASTRI and Hong Kong Polytechnic Univeristy:

1) A tough and durable “learning-to-read� eBook for children around 7 years old 2) A tough and durable generic subject eBook for grade 3 or 4 students 3) A very tough and durable science book for children around 11-12 years old

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1

PROJECT BACKGROUND

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PROJECT OBJECTI

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2

VE

The project’s objective is to design a tough and durable eBook for children 7 years of age that

allows children to learn to read. The workshop is designed to follow an iterative design process and have the students follow through an entire design cycle. The workshop goes from understanding the design problem all the way to creating a final design.

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R

ESEARCH

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SI

TE

IN

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TS

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IE

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12

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Make sure the design’s usability and aesthetics are well done

VI

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Refine the design and interactions

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Help the team understand the stakeholder’s activities Ensure that the direction was correct


RESEARCH PROCESS

3

The research process allows designers to start with a

vague and undetermined problem and refining it to the final product and interactions. Through the entire process, the design is refined based on new findings and insights. By testing it iteratively, the design had a chance to be improved step by step.

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PERSONA

Rationale A persona is a representation of a typical user that will use the system. It includes various information, such as demographics, interests, and life style, etc. The reason to have a persona is to design for a specific person and avoid designing features that will not be used by the target users. By having a concrete person in mind, the design team can be more focused and the design will be more grounded on real scenarios.

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4

Brainstorming MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook

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OPUS’s Persona

Sit Sleep Walk around

Parents Friends Toys

Read aloud Read whisper Read quite

WH O

W H EN

W HY

W O H

Learn new knowlege For interesting Hierarch Pleasure Engage Boring

Teachers Relatives Alone

Peter 7 years old

On the bus Walking Eating Working Bed time Spare time Weekend

PERSONA WH A T 16

RE

HOBBY Hong Kong Polytechnic University Love cartoon

Make friends Play games

HE

Fairy Pictures Craftbook

W

Textbook Words Cartoon

Home Park Toilet Class Library Bookstore Reading room

PERSONALITY

PET PEEVE

Friendly Curious

Doing homework Being alone


WHO

- Peter is a 7 years old who likes to read

WHAT

- He enjoys reading story books workshop

WHERE- He mainly reads at home or in school, but he would like to have the option to read anywhere

WHEN

- He wants to read books that he likes during his free time

WHY

- He enjoys reading and wants to share his knowledge with friends

HOW

- He likes to read a traditional storybook, but sometimes he reads on the family computer too.

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SECONDARY

RESEARCH

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5 Rationale Secondary research includes research that others have done prior to this project. It includes resources like books, journals, internet articles, and more. It is used to give the design team a basic understanding of the issues and what previous work can they leverage and what areas require primary research. With a basic understanding of issues regarding designing for children physically, psychologically, and socially, the design team can be better prepared to exploring the details in the right areas. The secondary research gave the team a preliminary view of the design directions.

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DESIGN DIRECTI 22

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6 Based on the secondary research, the findings were categorized into three categories: physical, psychological, and social.

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There are a total of three design directions for the eBook. For the physical aspect, it was determined that children have very rich movement and the physical form of the eBook must accommodate for the children’s movements.

Psychologically, there are many differences between children and adults. The eBook will have to keep in mind of the persona and how he can benefit from the design of the eBook.

For the social aspect, studies have shown that students learn much better among peers (reference required). Reading has raditionally been a private activity and little interaction is shared among the children. This project wants to leverage the improved learning based on communication and make reading a social experience. With these directions determined, the design can be more focused and the initial ideas of what the eBook can be began to be shaped.

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DESIGN DIRECTION

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Encourage interaction between parents and children Encourage parents to read with children

Use with different people and environments

Encourage children to ask questions and develop critical thinking

Relate the content of the book to the children’s social world in reality

SOC IA L

Encourage children to communicate in groups and share infomation

DE DIRE

Teach the children rules that should understand and follow

O G Y

Easy to use, or else the children won’t be motivated to use it

a Re

Help the child understand the book better

Readi

di ng

Pr oc ess

Emot

Make the process of reading feel like a journey

Allow the children to be involved in what they are reading

Allow children to look up words they are interested in learning

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Emotionally attached to the eBook

Use the children’s own views to ask questions


Accommodate the children’s rich movements Allow children to use both hands

Maintain the child’s health while using the eBook

P

SIC HY

Low cost hardware --accessibility

AL

ESIGN ECTION

Multi-channel feedback (e.g. sound, touch, visual)

Hardware is light, easy to carry, and durable to encourage face-to-face interaction

th er s

ing for Interest

Show all options available to the children. Don’t hide any items.

O

YCHO PS

Allow the children to express themselves through the eBook

ce tional Experien Design the eBook to be suitable for the child’s personality Provide encouragements and assistance to children

Provide a means to explore new books

Motivate children by providing an appropriate reading level and rewards

Keep the children consistently interacting with the eBook

Show to the users that they are respected (including children users) MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook

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IDEAS According to secondary research based on design direction

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Encourage interaction between parents and children Encourage parents to read with children

ID

Use with different people and environments

Encourage children to communicate in groups and share infomation

Setup to obtain the personality and reading levelof the child to make the reading material more appropriate.

Encourage children to ask questions and develop critical thinking

Relate the content of the book to the children’s social world in reality

Teach the children rules that should understand and follow

Create a schedule that the children can follow to advance their reading.

Provide an avatar in the eBook that can be a companion to the child and provide guidance Less information on one page. Clear and simple visual icons.

Allow children to write their own stories to increase their involvement Help the child understand the book better Easy to use, or else the children won’t be motivated to use it Make the process of reading feel like a journey

Allow the children to be involved in what they are reading

Allow children to look up words they are interested in learning

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Extra resources for children to learn more. E.g. an encyclopedia with images and sound built in

Emotionally attached to the eBook

Use the children’s own views to ask questions


Accommodate the children’s rich movements Allow children to use both hands

DEAS

Maintain the child’s health while using the eBook

Provide different modes that allow the eBook to be used alone, with parents, with peers, or with teachers. Create some accessories with the eBook that the children can interact with.

Low cost hardware --accessibility

Multi-channel feedback (e.g. sound, touch, visual)

Hardware is light, easy to carry, and durable to encourage face-to-face interaction

Provide personalized plastic protective cover for durability and attractiveness of the eBook. Contain speakers to talk to the children.

Provide small games during loading. Show the loading progress and option to cancel. Provide a toolbox for children to express themselves through dairies, pictures, etc.

Show all options available to the children. Don’t hide any items.

Allow the children to express themselves through the eBook

Design the eBook to be suitable for the child’s personality Provide encouragements and assistance to children Show to the users that they are respected (including children users)

Provide a means to explore new books

Motivate children by providing an appropriate reading level and rewards

Keep the children consistently interacting with the eBook

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COMPETITIVE

ANALYSIS

7

Rationale By understanding the existing competition for eBooks, it gives the team a view of which areas are fulfilled and which area requires a better design solution.

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Matrix of Competitor Comparison There were two main competitors identified for the project. The first group is existing eBooks that is mainly geared towards adults. The second group is the existing learn-to-read toys for children. It was identified that the eBooks can hold a high volume of content, but the fun factor is really low. On the opposite spectrum, the toys are fun to read and suitable for children, but parents must buy a new toy in order to teach their children new content. The solution is an eBook for children that is more fun to use than existing toys and has a high volume of content.

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Advantages & Disadvantages The advantages and disadvantages of the existing eBooks were evaluated. This provides insight for opportunities and pitfalls that the current project should consider.

+ + Light, thin, and portable (Kindle/Sony) + Usage with both hands (Kindle) + Provides highlighting and annotations (Sony) + Touch screen (Sony) + Large amount of books (K/S) + Books are never out of print (K/S) + Simulates real paper (K/S) + Large amount of content available (K) + Simple to use and add additional books(K) + Shop for new books anywhere (K) + Free wireless internet (limited to USA) (K) + Low book prices (K) + Supports PDF (S) + Front and back lights available (S) + Doesn’t need to be recharged often (S)

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Kindle

Sony Reader

_ - Lack of touch screen (Kindle) - Opinion of many users that is it not attractive (Kindle) - Screen has refresh lag (1 second for each page turn).(Sony)

- ebook is only “borrowed� (K) - ebooks cannot be read on computer (K) - Low resolution small screen (6 in)(S) - Cannot search book text(S) - Cannot jump to page(S)

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DESIGN

OBJECTIVES & CRITERIA

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Based on the previous research, we creat the design criteria.

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w

o ti h

SOC IA L

Improve com mu nic ati on

The eBook shall encourage interaction with others because children learn better with peers.

rs e th

OBJEC &CRITE

Improve English & habits by readin

OLO G Y ing exper i e n ce

The design of the eBook shall co provide motivation to 38

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Giv ec

hil dr en

ep or dom to use it l free

AL

reading skill ng for pleasure

ica hys

SIC HY

CTIVE ERIA

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The eBook shall give the children the ability to read an unlimited amount of content at anytime, anywhere, and with anyone they chose.

PS

YC

t rea asan Ple

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DESIGN OPPORT Current issues were identified and design opportunities were suggested based on the specific issue. Any new issues that can be created by the new design opportunity are also explored to avoid creating a new problem when solving an existing one. This allowed the team to understand what the user lacks in the present and design an eBook with an improved experience.

1 Provide Freedom 2 Pleasant Reading Experience 3 Communicate with Others 40

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UNITIES

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Provide Freedom

--Give children more physical freedom to use it

CURRENT PROBLEMS & DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES

Can only read and write on the book

--Provide different interactions on the eBook

eBook issues to be addressed: Accessory can be lost Shortage of battery

Each book only contains one story

--Store various books on the book

eBook issues to be addressed:

Small screen space Tired to read---- make sure they don’t read too much

Can’t modify the physical book

--Allow children to manipulate content of the eBook

eBook issues to be addressed: Durable physical form

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CURRENT SCENARIO

NEW SCENARIO

1 Peter had an interesting class about dinosaurs in the morning. He found the topic really interesting and wanted to find out more

with his best friend Steve.

2 He had lunch with Steve and they wanted to read about dinosaurs together, but they don’t have access to any books about dinosaurs.

2 ...so Peter took out his eBook and they read about dinosaurs and learned the names of a dozen of dinosaurs together by the end of lunch.

3 So they played hide

and seek instead. MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook

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Pleasant Reading Experience --Consider children’s emotion, provide motivation to read, easy to use

CURRENT PROBLEMS & DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES

The avatar’s emotion will signify when the children should read. Two avatars can act as the ‘angel’ and ‘devil’ exemplars. Help create plan habitually. Assists in reflection of the book. Encourage children to ask questions.

• Make the text for the bottom text smaller and emphasize the “Avatar can help” instead? We didn’t really use avatar in the final design • For the Current and New scenarios, can we do something similar to the above? E.g. arrows that points sideways to the other side of the flap, and identify “current scenario” and “new scenario” beside the arrow?

eBook issues to be addressed: Avatar should not be intrusive. Must be easy to use.

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Can’t find answers to their questions

--Built-in encyclopedia and dictionary can help find the answer.

Bored with the content

--Switch from text to pictures or animations

eBook issues to be addressed:

Make sure that children still read -- text follow the pictures and cartoon.

Passively absorbing the content

--Create stories using pictures and the eBook turned it into text. At the end, there is a game for Peter to see if he learned what was in his story.

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1

After school, Peter is deciding if he should play games or read.

watch television,

2

He decides that he wants to start reading Harry Potter because his friend said it’s interesting. However, there are too much text and too difficult for him.

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3 So he gave

up and went to watch TV.

CURRENT SCENARIO NEW SCENARIO

3 He picked up his eBook and sees

what his avatar, Jerry, has in store for him.

--Jerry reminded Peter that he planned to read Harry Potter today, so Peter started reading it with Jerry. --Jerry asked questions throughout the story and looked up answers in the encyclopedia with Peter.

He turned the book into an

animation that reads the story with him.

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Communicate with others --Encourage interaction with others

because studies have shown that children learn better with peers

CURRENT PROBLEMS & DESIGN OPPORTUNITIES

Difficult to find friends to read together

--Provide a list to show friends that are available to read Display of book(s) that friends want to read eBook issues to be addressed: Make sure that they are reading and not chatting

Difficult to find a book to read

--A list of books that friends recommends

Different stage and speed of reading between children

--Provide mini-reading-games around 10-15 min about previous reading while the faster friend waits 48

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Can’t find answers to the questions

--Encourage asking friends or group discussions through eBook

Can’t share book with too many people

--Provide a remote control to allow more children to view it. Each children has one eBook and they read the same story together remotely.

Can’t communicate with friends in small screen

--Connect eBook into one big screen

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1 Later that day, Peter found a book about dinosaurs and wanted to

go find Steve to read.

2 But his mom thinks it’s

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too late.


CURRENT SCENARIO

3 So Peter stayed

home and read a book about dinosaurs alone.

3 ...So Peter went on his eBook to see if Steve was available to read with him. He saw that Steve was free and also wanted to read dinosaurs, so he contacted Steve and they read dinosaurs together.

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VISITS & INTERVIEWS Rationale There were 4 visits altogether. The interviews and visits provided the chance for the team to observe the behavior and perspectives of the children and teachers. Being able to talk with the users and experts gave a lot of insights. The primary research and feedback provided by the students and teachers greatly improved the design by allowing the design team to make informed decisions. The visits are done throughout the entire design process and provided more insghts during the design iterations.

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First visit Methodology The first visit was a home visit to a family and the team had the chance to interview a girl and her parents about her reading habits and daily life. This provided a chance for the team to look at the artifacts, understand her reading level, capabilities of a child around 7 years old, and see the interests of the child. During the first visit, the child’s home life was understood. The child’s life was very busy and she had many choices of what to learn. She showed that she was very excited in reading, which provided some more input to the persona as a child who is intrinsically interested in reading.

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Second visit Methodology

The second visit was at the school. The team prepared questions for the students and requested that the children draw how their dream eBook would look. The teachers were also interviewed separately to understand how they motivate children to learn and what materials are being taught in class. It was obvious that the children are excited by technology, as demonstrated by their usage of the first generation eBooks from ASTRI. They are also very creative and comfortable with advanced technology such as portable game consoles. This gave the design team confidence that more advanced technology could be used and children are capable of learning complex interactive designs.

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Insights

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1

A lot of pictures in textbooks

2

All their books are different sizes

3

Love using their existing eBook

4

Familiar with portable game consoles

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Solutions

1

Same amount of pictures and text ratio in reading

2

Doesn’t need to follow standard A4 sizes

3

Acceptance of technology with learning

4

Can design more complex interactions

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Third visit Methodology By the third visit, the paper prototypes and a foam model of the physical prototype were tested. The benefit of using a low fidelity prototype is to test the interaction model and not be concerned with the aesthetics at the moment. Once the interaction model of the eBook is confirmed, the team can go onto creating more detailed designs. During the usability test, we tested to see how they would interact with the eBook and if they would be able to operate and understand the concepts. The children were tested in pairs of two to encourage more communication between each other, since children have the tendency to be shy and not think aloud during a usability test. To test both the physical prototype and workflow at the same time, the paper prototype was slotted into a clear film attached to the physical prototype. When the children touches the screen, the facilitator would manually remove the appropriate screens, so that the proper screen would be showing after every action performed by the children. The interaction model was the main area of focus during this visit. By testing the paper prototype with the physical prototype, the design team can observe how the children would hold onto the eBook during usage and if that changes overtime due to fatigue or other unanticipated reasons. The children were very capable in understanding the workflow. They were also highly intrigued by the game portion of the eBook. Having seen that, it was important for the eBook to encourage the children to learn new material first before they go onto the games and test their knowledge.

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Insights

1

Reading is private activity, children share their thoughts.

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2

No concept of looking up dictionary.

3

More proficient in Chinese

4

Ask parents if they have questions.

5

Focus on games

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Solutions

1

Discuss after finish reading

2

Link words to pictures directly

3

Chinese in UI and explanations

4

Keep allowing children to ask questions at the end

5

Remove game from homepage

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Fourth visit This was the final visit and the workflow and features were fairly stable. From this visit, we understood that children do not understand tabs, and it would help if items that they see on one screen are persisted to the next one. While the overall workflow was understood, they children did not understand how some of the features were represented and required some explanation before they can continue on their tasks.

Methodology In the fourth visit, a high fidelity prototype was created and a more refined physical form was also available. The high fidelity prototype provided insight to the usability of the design and how children understood the controls used. Once again, the children were tested in pairs and they walked through a Flash prototype by completing some predefined tasks. The main focus of this visit was about the interface design and ease of use.

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Insights

1

Didn’t understand why there is a book beside friend

2

Not interested in friend’s reading progress

3

Directly to games after reading

4

Hold eBook from bottom corners

5

Children proficient in using pens

6

Didn’t understand tabs Didn’t understand ask parents later Didn’t understand “calling” feature Only understood next and previous arrows Confirmed all children understood reading aloud Put eBook on lap or table while reading Smaller sizes did not affect task

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Solutions

1

Allow children to select books together

2

Removed progress, but can talk and share notes anytime

3

Automatically allow children to discuss book before allowing them to play games

4

Made bottom corners larger. Earphones on the bottom to avoid cables tangling

5

Provide pen to take notes and draw during reading

6

12

Go to Home for navigate Simplify wording to “ask questions� Simplify metaphor to knocking for communication Removed pagination Keep reading aloud Earphone is indented Selected smaller size for physical freedom

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SCENARIOS Rationale Scenarios provide an easy method to describe the eBook’s context of use. These are high level scenarios that provide the context but not the actual usage of the eBook.

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Peter goes home after school.

There are many activities that he could do and it is hard to choose.

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He decides to read with Steve, his best friend. They read a story together and discussed it. They played some games that are related to the story and had lots of fun. The children improved their eading skills just by having fun and enjoying themselves.

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BRAINSTORM & SKETCH 1 Rationale 2 Refinement of Sketches 72

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ES

12

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Rationale The brainstorming process provides a chance to generate design ideas. By going through the brainstorming process, it provides a chance for creative ideas to be born and those ideas can be refined after the braining storming session. The sketches were a rough and quick means for the team to contemplate about possible physical forms. Given the roughness and amount that was generated, the team can openly critique all of the designs and improve those with potential. Brainstorming sessions happened throughout the entire design process with more general brainstorms in the beginning and more detailed idea generation at the end.

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Refinement of Sketches

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13

TASK ANALYSIS

Rationale The task analysis involves steps that the user will have to take before reading, during reading, and after reading. By understanding all the steps and decisions that a user have to take to finish the task makes the design more grounded based on the user’s behavior.

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Current • Children may read alone or with different companions • Books may be misplaced or not available and the child cannot read the book • Reading process is linear and rigid • Questions may not be answered

Envisioned • Simplified process of finding a book • The children can decide on how to reading • Children can read at a comfortable pace while still sharing their experience with a friend • Simple access to answers to understand content better

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Hong Kong Polytechnic University

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eading

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Rationale The interaction model describes the relationship between different aspects of the eBook. By examining the relationship between them, the interaction that has to happen becomes apparent and clear.

Evolution of Interaction Models On the final interaction model, the children are having their individual experience that mirrors each other until they start reading. Once they begin reading, they share their experience of the same content and they get to exchange notes and thought with each other in the process to improve each other’s experience.

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14

INTERACTION MODEL >

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Avater

Encourage & reminds

Peter

Stores

ebook

Distance

Interacts with

Goes on

Allow users to communicate

Distance

Read & Share

Steve

Goes on

Interacts with

Encourage & reminds

Avater 84

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ebook

Stores


Stores

n

n

Interactive dictionary

Animated notes Internet

Interacts with

Stores

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15 INFORMATION

ARCHITECTURE 86

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Rationale The information architecture provides a holistic view of what the eBook involves. All features are listed out in their hierarchical order. By seeing how the eBook is organized, it gives a better sense of what the children can do on the eBook.

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Save Notes

Send Notes

Finished reading Avatar Grant Award

Discussion

Settings

Internet

Skins

My Awards

Awards

Friends’ Awards

News

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Take Notes Read

Talk with Friend

Read Together

Wait All Books* Friends Recommend

Call Friend

Added Books Recommend &Questions

Select Friend

My Books

Select Book

HOME My Word Bank

My Report

My Exercises

My Games

Exercises

Games

Optional Steps MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook

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O


O PUS

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FINAL DESIGN MDes Interaction Design - Next Generation eBook

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Interface The interface creates a simple and interactive means for the children to learn to read. During the interviews, it was apparent that the students are comfortable with using a pen while interacting with a digital device. Therefore OPUS uses a pen that allows drag and drop on many of the features. The interface also wants to create a sense of discovery for the children, therefore the information does not show up until the children ‘discovers’ it. On demand and in context assistance provides the least interruption to the children’s reading experience. If they don’t understand the content or don’t know how to pronounce a word, they can find on without leaving the context of what they are currently reading. They can also write and exchange notes at any point during their reading.

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8:30 PM

+

+

Doraemon and I take plane to make a snow man.

+ We play baseball and read a book together.

8:30 PM

8:30 PM

Today

wants to

to

M cdou

8:30 PM

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The games focus on testing if the children understood the content. 1) Examines if the children remembered the content 2) Examines if the children can apply the content 3) Examines if the children can use the content in a new context Once the children understand the content, their reading level is automatically adjusted and more challenging material will be provided in the future. The actual appearance of the interface is customizable by the children to increase their sense of attachment to the OPUS.

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Physical Form The corners of the form is larger and rounded because the usability tests found that is where children tends to hold the eBook. The rubber around the edges makes the eBook more tough and durable as well as provides a more aesthetically pleasing appearance.

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Technology Wi-Fi 3G Multi-touch screen Stylus Webcam Microphone Speakers Earphone outlets USB connection

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Throughout the entire process of designing the eBook, it was ap-

parent that user’s involvement is crucial. Without the visits and interviews, the design team cannot understand the users’ needs and therefore cannot make informed decisions. Starting with a board scope and then refining the ideas until the final design was born was a very interesting process and it provides the knowledge of how a process can iteratively improve the design.

LESSONS

LEARNED 100

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ACKNOW MENTS 102

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Special thanks to Price Memorial Catholic Primary School and Principal Fung for their contribution to our project. The students and teachers have provided many insights for the design teams. We would like to thank ASTRI for sponsoring the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and creating this wonderful opportunity for our class to participate in the development of the next generation eBooks.

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LEDGE-

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19

REFERENCE

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[1] Click and Jane ---What are kids learning to read when they learn to read online? Virginia Heffernan New York Times Magazine; Feb 1, 2009; Alumni - Research Library pg. 13

[2] Defending Young Children’s Play as the Ladder to Literacy Charles H. Wolfgang Tobie S. Sanders

[3] Learning to read words (EPS Prize Lecture) Kate Nation, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK The Quarterly Journal of Experiemental Psychology, Psychology Press

[4] Promoting Reading: Using eBooks With Gifted and Advanced Readers Christine L Weber; Terence W Cavanaugh Gifted Child Today; Fall 2006; 29, 4; Alumni - Research Library pg. 56

[5] PUBLISHING; eBooks catching on with children; Undaunted by technology, young readers are embracing digital storytelling. Alana Semuels. Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, Calif.: Dec 25. 2008. pg. C. 1

[6] The Dimensions of Reading Attitudes for Turkish Children Ann W. Engin & Fred H. Wallbrown University of South Carolina and Kent State University The Journal of Social Psychology, 1983, 120, 169-181.

[7] The efficacy of electronic books in fostering kindergarten children’s emergent story understanding Maria T. De Jong & Adriana G. Bus Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands Reading Research Quarterly. Vol. 39, No. 4. October/November/December 2004

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20 APPENDIX DESIGN 10 Vists and interviews / Low fidelity interface

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DESIGN 14 Interaction Model / Original Interaction Model

Interacts with

Stores

Read & Share

Creates & Reads

1. Provide Freedom

-- Give children more physical freedom to use it

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Share info with Reminds & Accompanies

asks Stores answers Becomes Stores Provides info to

Gathers info from

Encyclop edia

2. Pleansant Experience

-- Provide pleasant reading experience

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DISTANCE

Read + Communicate together Through eBook

Interact with

Interact with STEP 1.See if friends available STEP 2.See books that friend wants to read STEP 3.Start the story

Allows users to communicate

Goes on

3. Communicate with friends

-- Improve communication with others

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Goes on


OPUS 16 Final Design / Physcial Form

Original Physical Form

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2009 . 10 - 2010. 2

2009.10-2010.1


OPUS