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ACADEMIC LITERATURE REVIEW WRITING EXAMPLE


ACADEMIC LITERATURE REVIEW WRITING EXAMPLE EVERYDAY MOBILITY „It sometimes seems as if all the world is on the move“ is a sentence by John Urry in the book Mobilities (2007), one of the key works in the area of mobility in social sciences. Indeed, today it's hard to imagine some type of social action that is not in one way or another mobile. Modern society precisely distinguishes mobility from pre-modern (Simmel, cited by Frisby, 2004). The dynamics of modernity, among other things, is what Giddens calls the eradication of social relations (Giddens, 1990). In pre-modern societies, social relations were determined by the location, or the geographical position of an individual. All social interactions of an individual were carried out mainly in a particular area. Modern society, the emergence of various forms of mobility, has allowed the spreading of these interactions, both spatial and temporal. In order to interact with someone, the individual no longer has to be in a certain place at a certain time. It is possible to "draw" the social relation from the context of space and time, or it is possible to eradicate social relations. From day to day there is a growing need for the movement of information, goods, people, and ideas. Therefore, we can say that mobility today is an integral part of everyday social life, and the question arises as to whether in the modern world it is possible at all to be unbearable. Problems of movement or lack of movement, problems of the curve of the type of movement or of the wrong course ... All of these are problems of a large number of people and organizations. (Sheller & Urry, 2006: 208) „Asylumseekers, international students, terrorists, members of diasporas, holiday makers, business people, sportsstars, refugees, backpackers, commuters, the early retired, young mobile professionals, prostitutes, armed forces. These and many others fill the world's airports, buses, ships, and trains. The scale of this travelling is immense“ (Sheller & Urry, 2006:207) The societies are always mobile. Migration as a form of spatial mobility is a feature of all nations in the history of mankind. But what exactly mobility is it? Vincent Kaufmann is also, like John Urry, a key author in the field of mobility. Kaufmann's most significant contribution comes in the form of a new concept that he introduced into the mobility area - motility (Kaufmann, 2002). Motility is a type of capital, that is, the possibility of staying mobile. Such motility can mean possession of a driver's license, access to the Internet, knowledge of English, etc. In other words, everything that someone can do mobile. According to Kaufman, mobility in social sciences is first mentioned in the 1920s in the works of the Sorokin Prayer and the Chicago School, which defined mobility as a social change but also as a movement (Kaufmann, 2011: 24). Here, the main emphasis was on the social system and on the changes within itself, but the focus slowly shifted to the interplay of cities, that is to geographical mobility, which, of course, was only relevant if it implied a change in social status. This change in social status, that is, vertical mobility, signified climbing and lowering according to the social hierarchy, but as we see it, in this early stage of development of mobility as a relevant paradigm in social sciences geographic (spatial), mobility is one of the main topics, and began to be an integral part of urban life.


ACADEMIC LITERATURE REVIEW WRITING EXAMPLE The physical movement of people, after all, is the first thing that comes to mind to most people in memory of mobility. But what attracted special attention, not the Chicago school, but the new so-called. Transport science is the occurrence of cars, or motorized forms of transport. With the advent of massive car use, mobility has assumed previously unknown characteristics. Mobility has become a private daily activity, accessible to a much larger number of people, and has erased the barriers that the geographical distance has previously represented for social activity. Thus, after the Second World War, the mobility area was divided into two parts. While the Chicago School looked at mobility as a change of position, role and social status, the newly developed transport science, which had detached from the then current Chicago school, looked at mobility as a flow of space, based on fluid dynamic models, and defined mobility as a movement in physical space, or flows of particles, individuals, cars, motorcycles in the area that we call today. As such, it has become a basis for the development of a geographic approach to mobility. The geographic approach was based on four main types of spatial mobility: daily mobility (which will be more talkative later), travel, housing mobility, and migration. Each of the four new disciplines in the period from World War II to the early 1990s evolved into a distinct, autonomous spatial mobility branch and provided a major scientific contribution to the study of mobility (ibid.). In this way mobility regained its division, but the basic idea of mobility as a movement from the starting point to the destination remained common to all four branches. The problem with this division is that although each of them gave a good scientific contribution, mobility continued to be observed through the prism of the Chicago school and the division of mobility into social change and movement. The need for an integrated approach to mobility in scientific circles was getting louder. Kaufmann (2011: 32) lists several arguments for the redefinition of mobility that had emerged from the crowd at the beginning of the 2000s: 1. Need for the separation of movement and mobility. As spatial mobility was mostly concerned with movement, it automatically implied a change, but it became clear that distance does not mean a change. The emergence of the Internet and mobile technologies has led people to change roles on a daily basis without moving anywhere, and to make it possible to change locations without actually making a change (for example, business people traveling around the world from the hotel to the hotel, from meeting to meeting). 2. Until then, the use of some form of mobility, especially in daily mobility, it was assumed that the selection of this form was the most rational choice. It turned out that this does not have to be the case, and that time and money are not the only factors affecting mobility. In daily mobilities, this is especially the case because they are characterized by the way of life of the individual and personal preferences that do not have to be economically most rational, for example, students who decide to use a train to go to college because the journey by train is more comfortable than traveling by bus, even though it is cheaper or faster to travel by bus.


ACADEMIC LITERATURE REVIEW WRITING EXAMPLE 3. There are also some new forms of spatial mobility that do not belong to any of the four categories mentioned above. An example of this is weekly business migration (weekly commuting). Such people go to another location every two weeks due to work, which is hundreds of miles away. Examples can be found in the Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland and Germany in the early 1990s. 4. Mobility is no longer considered a freedom. Convinced that mobility is a positive social phenomenon and how it also means freedom of movement in time and space began to be rejected. Zygmunt Bauman says mobility is fundamentally both positive and negative (Bauman, 2000). For example. The fact that someone uses a train to go to a fax does not mean that he prefers it. It is necessary to consider a complex network of obligations and social pressures on an individual. Therefore, some new patterns of mobility have been created, and radical changes in the way people move and change are changing the world and changing it from day to day. A new paradigm of mobility has emerged that studies the movement of people, objects and information in all their mutual forms. Today, mobility is quite different from that of Chicago school or transport science. The world is moving differently, faster, more dynamic, more complex than ever before. Due to the accelerated lifestyle in which the pace dictates, among other things, new forms of mobility are difficult to define mobility in general, or it is difficult to give an exact definition. One of the problems lies in the fact that mobility is an interdisciplinary phenomenon. Mobility of geographers means moving through space, for example sociologists change their social status or role. What Urry (2007) mentions as mobility is the movement of people, ideas, objects and information, while Kaufmann (2011) states that mobility is the ability, or the ability to live, in a physical or virtual sense, which involves access to various types of mobility. Modern societies are characterized by a high degree of spatial mobility. Spatial mobility is one of the main factors in the way society organizes space. Social sciences define spatial mobility as a tendency to be mobile through any method in order to reach a place where some social activity takes place (Colleoni, 2015). As we have seen, spatial mobility (as a component of mobility in general) is a topic of discussion from the very beginnings of the consideration of mobility in social sciences. For a long time, spatial mobility came in par with social mobility, and they were seen as two sides of a coin. Later, the situation slowly changed, and as a result of the major changes on the global level, a new mobility paradigm emerged that discarded society as a system, and introduced mobility as a system. But after the Second World War, when the geographical approach to mobility was divided into the four categories mentioned above, one of these categories is called daily mobility, and for the purposes of this paper it is of particular importance. Daily mobility as a separate branch of spatial mobility in social sciences began to be explored in the 1970s. Daily mobilities are closely related to urban societies, and urban societies are closely related to the expansion of cars. Expansion of cars due to low prices of cars and fuels, especially in the 1970s, marked the emergence of private mobile assets, which created new levels of mobility on a daily basis.


ACADEMIC LITERATURE REVIEW WRITING EXAMPLE Metropolis development has also developed new options for people outside the metropolis, which is a daily journey to work in another city, Eng. commuting. A larger supply of jobs in metropolises combined with access to these metropolises, in the first place, access to the car, has created commuters. Since then, up to now in mobility research, daily mobility has remained one of the categories. So Urry (2007) gives a definition of mobility, as one of twelve types of mobility also lists daily trips to work. Other eleven species should also be listed here: migrations (e.g. refugees), business trips, student and youth travel, medical travel (hospitals, spa, etc.), military mobility, retirement mobility, "accompanying trips" (family, servicemen), overseas travel and migration (through key nodes of the diaspora, for example, the Chinese), travel among service workers among global cities, tourist trips to famous tourist destinations, visits to friends and relatives who are also on the move. REFERENCES Urry, J. (2007) Mobilities. London: Polity. Frisby, D. ed. (2004) Georg Simmel: the philosophy of money. (3rd). London: Routledge. Giddens, A. (1990) The Consequences of Modernity, London: Polity. Sheller, M. & Urry, J. (2006) The new mobilities paradigm. Environment and Planning, vol. 38: 207-226. Kaufmann, V. (2002) Re-thinking mobility, Burlington: Ashgate. Kaufmann, V. (2011) Rethinking the City: Urban Dynamics and Motility, Lausanne: Routledge. Buman, Z. (2000). Liquid Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press. Colleoni, M. (2016) A Social science approach to the Study of Mobility. in Pucci, P. & Colleoni, M. Understanding Mobilities for Designing Contemporary Cities. Milan: Springer.

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