GLOSSARY OF GRAMMATICAL TERMS
direct speech The writing down of the actual words that were spoken, in contrast to reported, or indirect, speech in which they are reworded or otherwise not rendered verbatim: “Hand me the gun,” said the police officer. disjunct A category of adverbs in which the writer comments on the content or style of a clause or sentence: Personally, I could not see the difference. double negative The presence of two negatives in a single sentence, as a result of which they cancel out each other: She didn’t see nothing. ellipsis
The omission of part of a sentence in order to avoid repetition:
We expected her to come, but she didn’t [come]. Also, the punctuation mark (. . .), which indicates that material has been omitted, and is used in quoted passages to indicate that the extract has been shortened by omission of words: The tour guide reminded us, when in Rome . . . In the letter she wrote, “Although not well, . . . I will travel tomorrow.” emphatic pronoun A reflexive pronoun that is positioned within a sentence in order to add emphasis: I myself have seen the ghost on a number of occasions. equivalence The comparison of two people or things that are judged to be equal, employing the structure as . . . as: This bag is as heavy as that one. exclamation A word, clause, or sentence expressing surprise, anger, approval, delight, etc.: Heavens! What a beautiful baby! exclamation point delight, etc.
A symbol (!) denoting surprise, anger, approval,
expletive An exclamatory word or phrase, typically of an obscene or profane nature. The term may also be used to refer to a syllable, word, or phrase that is inserted in a sentence without adding to the sense: We need to make it clear that bad behavior will not be tolerated. etymology
The study of words and their historical origins.