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BUILDING THE NEW YORK BUILDING AND THE WASHINGTON HOUSE WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 22, 2014 - PAGE TWO AND THREE -
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Defined by the elegant brownstone rowhouses, townhouses, and shabby tenements that were built during a period of rapid expansion.
New York has played a prominent role in the development of the skyscraper; structures in the city having held the title of world’s tallest building.
Buildings under construction that have already been topped out are also included, as are those whose construction has been suspended.
The skyscraper, which has controversially shifted many commercial and residential districts from low-rise to high-rise.
ew York City, the largest city in the United States, is home to 5,845 completed high-rises, 97 of which stand taller than 600 feet (183 m). The tallest building in New York is the underconstruction One World Trade Center, which rises 1,776 feet (541 m) and was topped out on May 10, 2013. The 104-story skyscraper also stands as the tallest building in the United States, the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, and the 4th-tallest building in the world. The tallest completed building in the city is the 102-story Empire State Building in Midtown Manhattan, which was finished in 1931 and rises to 1,250 feet (381 m), increased to 1,454 feet (443 m) by its antenna. It also is the fourth-tallest building in the United States and the 23rd-tallest building in the world. The Empire State Building stood as the tallest building in the world from its completion until 1972, when the 110-story North Tower of the original World Trade Center was completed. At 1,368 feet (417 m), One World Trade Center briefly held the title as the world’s tallest building until the completion of the
108-story Sears Tower (now known as the Willis Tower) in Chicago in 1974. The World Trade Center towers were destroyed by terrorist attacks in 2001, and the Empire State Building regained the title of tallest building in the City. The thirdtallest building in New York is the Bank of America Tower, which rises to 1,200 feet (366 m), including its spire. Tied for fourth-tallest are the 1,046-foot (319 m) Chrysler Building, which was the world’s tallest building from 1930 until 1931, and the New York Times Building, which was completed in 2007.New York City skyscrapers are concentrated in Midtown and Lower Manhattan, although other neighborhoods of Manhattan and the boroughs of Brooklyn, Queens and The Bronx also have significant numbers of high-rises. As of January 2011, the entire city has 228 buildings that rise at least 500 feet (152 m) in height, including those under construction, more than any other city in the United States. Since 2003, New York City has seen the completion of 23 buildings that rise at least 600 feet in height. Thirteen more are under construction, including One World Trade Center, which will be the tallest
building in the country when complete. One World Trade Center is part of the redevelopment of the World Trade Center, which also includes the 975-foot (297 m) 4 World Trade Center, 7 World Trade Center and the two under-construction buildings: the 1,350-foot (411 m) 2 World Trade Center and the 1,171-foot (357 m) 3 World Trade Center. Overall, as of November 2013, there were 170 high-rise buildings under construction or proposed for construction in New York City. The history of skyscrapers in New York City began with the completion of the World Building in 1890; the structure rose to 348 feet (106 m). Though not the city’s first high-rise, it was the first building to surpass the 284-foot (87 m) spire of Trinity Church.The World Building, which stood as the tallest in the city until 1899, was demolished in 1955 to allow for the construction of an expanded entrance to the Brooklyn Bridge. New York has played a prominent role in the development of the skyscraper; since 1890, eleven structures in the city having held the title of world’s tallest building. New York City went through a
very early high-rise construction boom that lasted from the early 1910s through the early 1930s, during which 16 of the city’s 82 tallest buildings were built-including the Woolworth Building, the Bank of Manhattan Trust Building, the Chrysler Building and the Empire State Building, each of which was the tallest in the world at the time of its completion. A second skyscraper boom began in the early 1960s. Since then, the city has seen the completion of nearly 70 structures rising at least 600 feet (183 m) high, including the twin towers of the World Trade Center. One World Trade Center, also known as the North Tower, was the tallest building in the world from 1972 until 1973 and the tallest building in New York City until 2001. The North Tower, as well as the other six buildings in the World Trade Center complex, were destroyed in the September 11 attacks of 2001. One World Trade Center began construction in 2006 as the lead building of the new World Trade Center complex; upon its topping out in May 2013, the 1,776-foot (541 m) skyscraper surpassed the Willis Tower to become the tallest building in the United States.
AMERICAN BUILDING NEWSPAPER - WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 22, 2014
THE RUN TO HIGHNESS
his list ranks completed and topped out New York City skyscrapers that stand at least 600 feet (183 m) tall, based on standard height measurement. This includes spires and architectural details but does not include antenna masts. An equal sign following a rank indicates the same height between two or more buildings. The “Year” column indicates the year in which a building was completed. One World Trade Center, Is the 4th-tallest building in the world and the tallest building in the United States since its topping out on May 10, 2013. It is also the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere and the tallest all-office building in the world. The Empire State Building is a 103-story skyscraper located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street. It has a roof height of 1,250 feet (381 meters), and with its antenna spire included, it stands a total of 1,454 ft (443.2 m) high. Its name is derived from the nickname for New York, the Empire State. It stood as the world’s tallest building for nearly 40 years, from its completion in early 1931 until the topping out of the World Trade Center’s North Tower in late 1970. Following the September 11 attacks in 2001, the Empire State Building was again the tallest building in New York (although it was no longer the tallest in the US or the world), until One World Trade Center reached a greater height on April 30, 2012. The Empire State Building is currently the fourth-tallest completed skyscraper in the United States (after the One World Trade Center, the Willis Tower and Trump International Hotel and Tower, both in Chicago), and the 23rd-tallest in the world (the tallest now is Burj Khalifa, located in Dubai). It is also the fourth-tallest freestanding structure in the Americas. The Empire State Building is generally thought of as an American cultural icon. It is designed in the distinctive Art Deco style and has been named as one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World by the American Society of Civil Engineers. The building and its street floor interior are designated landmarks of the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, and confirmed by the New York City Board of Estimate. It was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1986.In 2007, it was ranked number one on the List of America’s Favorite Architecture according to the AIA. The building is owned by the 2,800 investors in Empire State Building Associates LLC.
AMERICAN BUILDING NEWSPAPER - WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 22, 2014 the Empire State Building is the tallest LEED certified building in the United States Bank of America Tower at One Bryant Park is a 1,200 ft (366 m) skyscraper in the Midtown district of Manhattan in New York City, in the United States. It is located on Sixth Avenue, between 42nd and 43rd Streets, opposite Bryant Park. The US$1 billion project was designed by COOKFOX Architects, and advertised to be one of the most efficient and ecologically friendly buildings in the world. It is the third tallest building in New York City, after One World Trade Center and the Empire State Building, and the fifth tallest building in the United States. Construction was completed in 2009. In October 2009, the building featured on episode 100 of the National Geographic Channel television series MegaStructures. In June 2010, the Bank of America Tower was the recipient of the 2010 Best Tall Building Americas award by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. The Chrysler Building is an Art Deco style skyscraper in New York City, located on the east side of Manhattan in the Turtle Bay area at the intersection of 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue. At 1,046 feet (319 m), the structure was the world’s tallest building for 11 months before it was surpassed by the Empire State Building in 1931. It is still the tallest brick building in the world, albeit with an internal steel skeleton. After the destruction of the World Trade Center, it was again the second-tallest building in New York City until December 2007, when the spire was raised on the 1,200-foot (365.8 m) Bank of America Tower, pushing the Chrysler Building into third position. In addition, The New
York Times Building, which opened in 2007, is exactly level with the Chrysler Building in height. Both buildings were then pushed into 4th position, when the under construction One World Trade Center surpassed their height. The New York Times Building is a skyscraper on the west side of Midtown Manhattan that was completed in 2007. Its chief tenant is The New York Times Company, publisher of The New York Times as well as the International New York Times, and other newspapers. Construction was a joint venture of The New York Times Company, Forest City Ratner Companies (the New York subsidiary of Forest City Enterprises, the Cleveland-based real estate firm redeveloping the Brooklyn Atlantic rail yards) and ING Real Estate. Four World Trade Center (also known by its street address, 150 Greenwich Street) is a skyscraper that is part of the new World Trade Center complex in New York City. It opened to tenants and the public on November 13, 2013. It is located on the southeast corner of the 16-acre World Trade Center site, where the original nine-story 4 World Trade Center stood. Pritzker Prize-winning architect Fumihiko Maki was awarded the contract to design the building, which will be 978 feet (298 m) tall. As of 2013 it is the second tallest skyscraper in the rebuilt World Trade Center,
THE TALLEST behind One World Trade Center, although 2 World Trade Center and 3 World Trade Center are planned to surpass the building’s height upon completion. The total floor space of the building is expected to include 1.8 million square feet (167,000 square meters) of office and retail space. The building’s groundbreaking took place in January 2008. 70 Pine Street – formerly known as the American International Building, 60 Wall Tower and originally as the Cities Service Building – is a 66-story, 952-foot (290 m) office building located at the corner of Pearl Street and running to Cedar Street in the Financial District of Manhattan, New York City. It was built in 1931-32 by the Cities Service Company for the oil and gas baron Henry Latham Doherty, and was designed by the firms of Clinton & Russell and Holton & George in the Art Deco style. The building was designated a New York City Landmark and Interior Landmark in June 2011.
The Condé Nast Building, officially 4 Times Square, is a modern skyscraper in Times Square in Midtown Manhattan. Located on Broadway between 42nd Street and 43rd, the structure was finished in January 2000 as part of a larger project to redevelop 42nd Street. The building has 48 stories reaching 809 ft (247 m) to make it the 12th tallest building in New York City and the 41st tallest in the United States. The size of the tower raised concerns from the city about what impact it would have on Times Square. The major office space tenants are magazine publishing company Condé Nast and Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom, a prominent U.S. law firm. Duane Reade is a major retail tenant. H&M has leased the space formerly occupied by ESPNZone.
AMERICAN BUILDING NEWSPAPER - WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 22, 2014
SEVERALS DISTRICTS THE BRONX
Density : 12,507/km2
Area : 150 km2
The Bronx is the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City. Coextensive with Bronx County, it was the last of the 62 counties of New York State to be incorporated. Located north of Manhattan and Queens, and south of Westchester County, the Bronx is the only borough that is located primarily on the mainland.The Bronx’s population is 1,385,108 according to the 2010 United States Census. The borough has a land area of 42 square miles (109 km2), making it the fourth-largest in land area of the five boroughs, the fourth most populated, and the thirdhighest in population density. The Bronx is divided by the Bronx River into a hillier section in the west, closer to Manhattan, and the flatter eastern section, closer to Long Island. Technically, the West Bronx is divided from the East Bronx by Jerome Avenue making the West Bronx roughly one-eighth the size of the East Bronx. With the same
boundaries as the borough, was separated from New York County (afterwards coextensive with the Borough of Manhattan) as of January 1, 1914. Although the Bronx is the third most densely populated county in the U.S., about a quarter of its area is open space, including Woodlawn Cemetery, Van Cortlandt Park, Pelham Bay Park, the New York Botanical Garden and the Bronx Zoo in the borough’s north and center, on land deliberately reserved in the late 19th century as urban development progressed northwards and eastwards from Manhattan with the building of roads, bridges and railways. The Bronx River was named after Jonas Bronck, who created the first settlement as part of the New Netherland colony in 1639, and eventually lent its name to the entire borough. The native Lenape were progressively displaced after 1643 by settlers. The Bronx received many Irish, German, Jewish and Italian
Population : 1,408,473 immigrants as its once-rural population exploded between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries. They were succeeded after 1945 by African Americans and Hispanic Americans from the Caribbean basin especially Puerto Rico and later the Dominican Republic, and Jamaica. In recent years, this cultural mix has made the Bronx a wellspring of both Latin music and hip hop.The Bronx contains one of the five poorest Congressional Districts in the U.S., the 16th, but its wide variety of neighborhoods also includes the affluent and middle to upper income Riverdale, Schuylerville and Country Club. The Bronx, particularly the South Bronx, saw a sharp decline in population, livable housing, and the quality of life in the late 1960s and the 1970s, culminating in a wave of arson. Since then the communities have shown significant redevelopment starting in the late 1980s before picking up pace in the 1990s into today.
Density : 14,037/km2
Area : 251 km2
Brooklyn is the most populous of New York City’s five boroughs, with about 2.5 million people, and the second-largest in area. Since 1896, Brooklyn has had the same boundaries as Kings County, which is the most populous county in New York and the second-most densely populated county in the United States, after New York County (Manhattan). It is also the westernmost county of the City of New York on Long Island. Today, if it were an independent city, Brooklyn would rank as the fourth most populous city in the U.S., behind only the other boroughs of New York combined, Los Angeles, and Chicago. Brooklyn was an independent city until January 1, 1898 when, according to the Charter of “Greater New York”, Brooklyn was consolidated with the other boroughs to form the modern “City of New York”. It continues to maintain a distinct culture. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves where
particular ethnic groups and cultures predominate. Brooklyn’s official motto is Eendraght Maeckt Maght. Written in the Dutch language, it is inspired by the motto of the United Dutch Provinces and translated “In unity, there is strength.” The motto is displayed on the borough seal and flag, which also feature a young robed woman bearing fasces, a traditional emblem of Republicanism. Brooklyn’s official colors are blue and gold. The history of Brooklyn spans more than 350 years. The settlement began in the 17th century as the small Dutch-founded town of “Breuckelen” on the East River shore of Long Island, grew to be a sizable city in the 19th century, and was consolidated in 1898 with New York City (then confined to Manhattan and part of the Bronx), the remaining rural areas of Kings County, and the largely rural areas of Queens and Staten Island, to form the modern City of New York. In 1883, the
Density : 8,153/km2
Area : 462 km2
Queens is the easternmost of the five boroughs of New York City, the largest in area, and the second-largest in population. The borough of Queens has been coterminous with Queens County since 1899. The county is now the second most populous county in New York State (behind neighboring Kings County [the borough of Brooklyn]), as well as the fourth-most densely populated county in the United States. Queens (and Brooklyn) sit on the west end of geographic Long Island. Queens is the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world with a population of over 2.2 million, 48% of whom are foreign-born, representing over 100 different nations and speaking over 138 different languages. If each New York City borough were an independent city, Queens would be America’s fourth most populous city, after Los Angeles, Chicago, and Brooklyn.Queens has the secondlargest and most diversified
economy of all the five boroughs of New York City. The differing character in the neighborhoods of Queens is reflected by its diverse housing stock ranging from high-density apartment buildings, especially prominent in the more urban areas of central and western Queens, such as Astoria, Long Island City, and Ridgewood, to large freestanding single-family homes, common in the eastern part of the borough, in neighborhoods that have a more suburban layout like neighboring Nassau County, such as Little Neck, Douglaston, and Bayside. Queens is home to two of the three major New York City area airports (and both major airports in New York City proper), JFK International Airport and LaGuardia Airport. These airports are among the busiest in the world, causing the airspace above Queens to be the most congested in the country. Attractions in Queens include Flushing Meadows Park( home
Population : 2,565,635 Brooklyn Bridge was completed, transportation to Manhattan was no longer by water only, and the City of Brooklyn’s ties to the City of New York were strengthened. The question became whether Brooklyn was prepared to engage in the still-grander process of consolidation then developing throughout the region, whether to join with the county of New York, the county of Richmond and the western portion of Queens County to form the five boroughs of a united City of New York. Andrew Haskell Green and other progressives said Yes, and eventually they prevailed against the Daily Eagle and other conservative forces. Residents of Brooklyn and the other counties voted by a slight majority to merge, effective in 1898. Kings County retained its status as one of New York State’s counties, but the loss of Brooklyn’s separate identity as a city was met with consternation by some residents at the time.
Population : 2,272,771 to the New York Mets baseball team and the US Open tennis tournament) Kaufman Astoria Studios, Silvercup Studios, and Aqueduct Racetrack. Queens was established in 1683 as one of the original 12 counties of New York and was named for the Portuguese princess Catherine of Braganza (1638–1705), who was at the time queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland.Queens became a borough of New York City in 1898. From 1683 until 1899, the County of Queens included what is now Nassau County. Four United States Postal Service post offices serve Queens, based roughly on those serving the towns in existence at the consolidation of the five boroughs into New York City. Each of these main post offices have neighborhood stations with individual ZIP codes, and unlike the other boroughs, these station names are often used in addressing letters.
Density : 27,227/km2 Manhattan is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City. The borough is coterminous with New York County, an original county of the U.S. state of New York. The borough mostly consists of Manhattan Island, bounded by the East, Hudson and Harlem Rivers, but also includes several small adjacent islands and a small area on the mainland. Manhattan has been described as the economic and cultural center of the United States and is home to the United Nations Headquarters. Wall Street in Lower Manhattan is one of the financial capitals of the world, has an estimated GDP of over $1.2 trillion, and is home of both the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Manhattan’s real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, and many multinational media conglomerates are based in the borough. New York County is the most densely populated county in the United States,
Area : 87,5 km2 more dense than any individual American city. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a 2010 population of 1,585,873 living in a land area of 22.96 square miles (59.5 km2), or about 69,071 residents per square mile.On business days, the influx of commuters increases that number to over 3.9 Million, or around 170,000 people per square mile. It is also one of the wealthiest counties in the United States, with a 2005 per capita income above $100,000. Manhattan is the third-largest of New York’s five boroughs in population, after Brooklyn and Queens, and it is the smallest borough in land area. Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan have become well known to New York City’s approximately 50 million annual visitors. Times Square, iconified as “The Crossroads of the World” and “The Center of the Universe”, is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway theatre district,one of the world’s
Population : 1,619,090 busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world’s entertainment industry. The borough hosts many worldrenowned bridges, skyscrapers, and parks. Manhattan’s is the Chinatow incorporate the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere.The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village served as the catalyst for the modern gay rights movement. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan,including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 50 in the world. The construction of the New York City Subway, which opened in 1904, helped bind the new city together, as did additional bridges to Brooklyn. In the 1920s, Manhattan experienced large arrivals of African-Americans as part of the Great Migration from the southern United States, and the Harlem Renaissance.
AMERICAN BUILDING NEWSPAPER - WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 22, 2014
he building form most closely associated with New York City is the skyscraper, which has controversially shifted many commercial and residential districts from low-rise to high-rise. Surrounded mostly by water, the city has amassed one of the largest and most varied collection of skyscrapers in the world. New York has architecturally significant buildings in a wide range of styles spanning distinct historical and cultural periods. These include the Woolworth Building (1913), an early Gothic revival skyscraper with large-scale gothic architectural detail. The 1916 Zoning Resolution required setback in new buildings, and restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size, to allow sunlight to reach the streets below. The Art Deco design of the Chrysler Building (1930) and Empire State Building (1931), with their tapered tops and steel spires, reflected the zoning requirements. The Chrysler building is considered by many historians and architects to be one of New York’s finest, with its distinctive ornamentation such as V-shaped lighting inserts capped by a steel spire at the tower’s crown. An early influential example of the international style in the United States is the Seagram Building (1957), distinctive for its facade using visible bronze-toned I-beams to evoke the building’s structure. The Condé Nast Building (2000) is an important example of green design in American skyscrapers. The character of New York’s large residential districts is often defined by the elegant brownstone rowhouses, townhouses, and shabby tenements that were built during a period of rapid expansion from 1870 to 1930. In contrast, New York City also has neighborhoods that are less densely populated and feature free-standing dwellings. In the outer boroughs, large singlefamily homes are common in various architectural styles such as Tudor Revival and Victorian.Split two-family homes are also widely available across the outer boroughs, especially in the Flushing area. Stone and brick became the city’s building materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of 1835.Unlike Paris, which for centuries was built from its own limestone bedrock, New York has always drawn its building stone from a far-flung network of quarries and its stone buildings have a variety of textures and hues. A distinctive feature of many of the city’s buildings is the presence of wooden roof-mounted water towers. In the 19th century, the city required their installation on buildings higher than six stories to prevent the need for excessively high water pressures at lower elevations, which could burst municipal water pipes. Garden apartments became popular during the 1920s in outlying areas, including Jackson Heights in Queens, which became more accessible with expansion of the subway.
- A POWERFUL CONCENTRATION -
New York has two main concentrations of high-rise buildings: Midtown Manhattan and Lower Manhattan, each with its own uniquely recognizable skyline. Midtown Manhattan, the largest central business district in the world, is home to such notable buildings as the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building, Citigroup Center and Rockefeller Center. Lower Manhattan comprises the third largest central business district in the United States (after Midtown and Chicago’s Loop). Lower Manhattan was characterized by the omnipresence of the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center from its completion in 1973 until its destruction in the September 11 attacks, 2001.
In the first decade of the 21st century, Lower Manhattan saw rapid reconstruction to include the new One World Trade Center. The Downtown skyline received new designs from such architects as Santiago Calatrava and Frank Gehry. Goldman Sachs is building a 225-metre-tall (738 ft), 43-floor building across the street from the World Trade Center site. New York City has a long history of tall buildings. It has been home to 10 buildings that have held the world’s tallest fully habitable building title at some point in history, although half have since been demolished. The first building to bring the world’s tallest title to New York was the New York World Building, in 1890. Later, New York City was home to the world’s tallest building for 75 continuous years, starting with the Park Row Building in 1899 and ending with 1 World Trade Center upon completion of the Sears Tower in 1974. One of the world’s earliest skyscrapers, still standing in the city, is the Park Row Building, built in 1899. The high-rise buildings of Brooklyn constitute a third, much smaller skyline. The highrise buildings in downtown Brooklyn are centered around a major NYC subway hub. Downtown Brooklyn is also experiencing an extensive building boom, with new high rise luxury residential towers, commercial space and a new arena in the planning stages. The building boom in Brooklyn has had a great deal of opposition from local civic and environmental groups which contend that Brooklyn needs to maintain its human scale. The borough of Queens has also been developing its own skyline in
recent years with a Citigroup office building (which is currently the tallest building in NYC outside Manhattan), and the Queens West development of several residential towers along the East River waterfront. The 1916 Zoning Resolution required setback in new buildings, and restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size, to allow sunlight to reach the streets below. The Empire State Building, a 102-story contemporary Art Deco style building, was designed by Shreve, Lamb and Harmon and finished in 1931. It was the world’s tallest building for a record 42 years. The tower takes its name from the nickname of New York State and is currently the tallest building in the city. It was the first building to go beyond the 100+ story mark, and has one of the world’s most visited observation decks, which over 110 million have visited since its completion. The building was built in a record 14 months. Completed in 1930, the Chrysler Building is a distinctive symbol of New York, standing 1,048 feet (319 m) high on the east side of Manhattan. Originally built for the Chrysler Corporation, the building is presently co-owned by TMW Real Estate (75%) and Tishman Speyer Properties (25%). The Chrysler Building was the first structure in the world to surpass the 1,000 foot threshold. The GE Building is a slim Art Deco skyscraper and the focal point of Rockefeller Center. At 850 ft (259 m) with 70 floors, it is the seventh tallest building in New York and the 30th tallest in the United States. Built in 1933 and originally called the RCA Building, it is one of the most famous and recognized skyscrapers in New York. The frieze above the main entrance was executed by Lee Lawrie and depicts Wisdom,
along with a phrase from scripture that reads “Wisdom and Knowledge shall be the stability of thy times”, originally found in the Book of Isaiah, 33:6. The International Style was a groundbreaking exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art that completely changed the face of architecture in New York and the world. Mies Van Der Rohe, a focus of the show, later built the Seagram Building on Park Ave at 53rd Street. One of the most important buildings for modern architecture, the Seagram Building transformed its midtown site, the development of tall buildings, and the history of architecture. Other architects replicated details from Seagram within New York and around the world for decades following its completion in the late 1950s. The bronze extrusions attached to the mullions are exemplary of this trend in tall building design and can be seen in many cities.The MetLife Building, formerly the Pan Am Building, was the largest commercial office building in the world when it opened on 7 March 1963. It is an important part of the Manhattan skyline and one of the fifty tallest buildings in the USA. The World Trade Center’s twin towers were the city’s tallest buildings from 1973 until their destruction in the September 11 attacks. The towers rose 1,368 feet (417 m) and 1,362 feet (415 m) respectively, both 110 Floors. The North Tower’s 360 foot antenna housed most of the city’s communications, while the South Tower was home to a popular observation deck. They were the tallest buildings in the world until Chicago’s 1,454-foot Sears Tower was completed in 1974.
AMERICAN BUILDING NEWSPAPER - WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 22, 2014
he founding of the Architectural League on January 18, 1881 by a group of young architects led by Cass Gilbert exemplifies the ferment and ambition of New York’s architecture community towards the end of the nineteenth century. At a time when formal architectural education was still rare, the establishment of a voluntary association for “the purposes…of architectural study” was an acknowledgement on the part of young American architects that if they were to evolve creatively and intellectually, they would need to create the environment in which to do so themselves. Over the course of more than one hundred twenty-five years, that voluntary spirit of association and education has remained constant and continues to drive the League today. The architects, artists and others who shape the League’s programs today are as motivated by a desire to enrich themselves and the practice of architecture as the twenty-six young architects who met in January 1881, and it is their creativity and commitment that help the League fulfill its mission to advance the art of architecture. In its earliest years, the League’s activities were confined to monthly sketch sessions, at which design problems, such as an “American Country House” or a “Turkish Fountain,” were assigned and then critiqued by senior members of the profession. In 1886, after a couple of dormant years, a group of architects that included Henry Avery, Richard Morris Hunt, William R. Ware, and Frederick Withers organized an exhibition of architectural drawings as part of the annual exhibition of the Salmagundi Club. This became known as the first Annual Exhibi tion of the Architectural League and its success led to the League’s reorganization. Under the presidency of noted architect and critic Russell Sturgis (1889–1893), the League instituted a program of lectures, dinners and exhibitions which it has presented uninterrupted ever since and which has established it as one of the most important forums for architecture and the arts in the United States. From its inception, the League’s programs have been characterized by an emphasis on architecture as an art and on the connection of architecture to the other arts. The
League’s vice presidencies (for visual arts, land scape architecture, photography, graphic design, industrial design, urban design, engineering, and history and theory) represent not only a reminder of the historic goals and structure of the organization, but a commitment to interdisciplinary conversation.
- SEVERAL BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTIONS -
The League’s Annual Exhibitions, held from 1886 to1938, became events of national importance, in part, because they brought together the best new work in architecture, sculpture, painting, crafts, and landscape design. In the early 1890s, the League joined with the Art Students League and the Society of American Artists to build the American Fine Arts building at 215 West 57th Street, a bricksand-mortar testament to the importance of collaboration among the arts. In the 1960s and 1970s, interdisciplinarity manifested itself in a series of avant garde installations and projects by artists and architects such as John Giorno, John Lobell, Les Levine, and Alan Sonfist. The League’s centennial exhibition, Collaboration: Artists & Architects, and 1995’s Architectures of Display carried this tradition forward in the 1980s and 1990s. Notwithstanding its commitment to interdisciplinary exchange, the art of architecture has always been at the core of the League’s activities. Beginning with the Gold Medal awards of its Annual Exhibitions up to the more recent Young Architects Forum and Emerging Voices series, a cornerstone of the League’s mission has been to identify and recognize talented and accomplished architects and encourage their creative development. Additionally, the League’s lectures and exhibitions have created a forum for the presentation and discussion of work and ideas that have been central to the development of American archi tecture. Whether the topic was the evolution of the skyscraper in the late nineteenth century or the conflicted transition to modernism in the 1920s and 1930s, the League has been the scene for key figures in architecture and design to discuss and debate the major issues of the day.
AMERICAN BUILDING NEWSPAPER - WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 22, 2014
ew York City in the 18th Century : In 1664, the British seized New Amsterdam from the Dutch and gave it a new name: New York City. For the next century, the population of New York City grew larger and more diverse: It included immigrants from the Netherlands, England, France and Germany; indentured servants; and African slaves. During the 1760s and 1770s, the city was a center of anti-British activity--for instance, after the British Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765, New Yorkers closed their businesses in protest and burned the royal governor in effigy. However, the city was also strategically important, and the British tried to seize it almost as soon as the Revolutionary War began. In August 1776, despite the best efforts of George Washington’s Continental Army in Brooklyn and Harlem Heights, New York City fell to the British. It served as a British military base until 1783. New York City in the 19th Century The city recovered quickly from the war, and by 1810 it was one of the nation’s most important ports. It played a particularly significant role in the cotton economy: Southern planters sent their crop to the East River docks, where it was shipped to the mills of Manchester and other English industrial cities. Then, textile manufacturers shipped their
finished goods back to New York. But there was no easy way to carry goods back and forth from the growing agricultural hinterlands to the north and west until 1817, when work began on a 363mile canal from the Hudson River to Lake Erie. The Erie Canal was completed in 1825. At last, New York City was the trading capital of the nation. As the city grew, it made other infrastructural improvements. In 1811, the “Commissioner’s Plan” established an orderly grid of streets and avenues for the undeveloped parts of Manhattan north of Houston Street. In 1837, construction began on the Croton Aqueduct, which provided clean water for the city’s growing population. Eight years after that, the city established its first municipal agency: the New York City Police Department. Meanwhile, increasing number of immigrants, first from Germany and Ireland during the 1840s and 50s and then from Southern and Eastern Europe, changed the face of the city. They settled in distinct ethnic neighborhoods, started businesses, joined trade unions and political organizations and built churches and social clubs. For example, the predominantly Irish-American Democratic club known as Tammany Hall became the city’s most powerful political machine by trading favors such as jobs, services and other kinds.
New York City in the 20th Century : At the turn of the 20th century, New York City became the city we know today. In 1895, residents of Queens, the Bronx, Staten Island and Brooklyn-all independent cities at that time--voted to “consolidate” with Manhattan to form a fiveborough “Greater New York.” As a result, on December 31, 1897, New York City had an area of 60 square miles and a population of a little more than 2 million people; on January 1, 1898, when the consolidation plan took effect, New York City had an area of 360 square miles and a population of about 3,350,000 people.
- A NEW CENTURY FOR A NEW CITY -
The 20th century was an era of great struggle for American cities, and New York was no exception. The construction of interstate highways and suburbs after World War II encouraged affluent people to leave the city, which combined with deindustri alization and other economic changes to lower the tax base and diminish public services. This, in turn, led to more out-migration and “white flight.” However, the Hart-Cellar Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 made it possible for immigrants from Asia, Africa, the Caribbean and Latin America to come to the United States. Many of these newcomers settled in New York City, revitalizing many neighborhoods. New York City in the New Millennium : On September 11, 2001, New York City suffered the deadliest terrorist attack in the history of the United States when a group of terrorists crashed two hijacked jets into the city’s tallest buildings: the twin towers of the World Trade Center. The buildings were destroyed and nearly 3,000 people were killed. In the wake of the disaster, the city remained a major financial capital and tourist magnet, with over 40 million tourists visiting the city each year. Today, more than 8 million New Yorkers live in the five boroughs--more than one-third of whom were born outside the United States. Thanks to the city’s diversity and vibrant intellectual life, it
remains the cultural capital of the United States. New York has architecturally significant buildings in a wide range of styles spanning distinct historical and cultural periods. These include the Woolworth Building (1913), an early Gothic revival skyscraper with large-scale gothic architectural detail. The 1916 Zoning Resolution required setback in new buildings, and restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size, to allow sunlight to reach the streets below. The Art Deco design of the Chrysler Building (1930) and Empire State Building (1931), with their tapered tops and steel spires, reflected the zoning requirements. The Chrysler building is considered by many historians and architects to be one of New York’s finest, with its distinctive ornamentation such as V-shaped lighting inserts capped by a steel spire at the tower’s crown. An early influential example of the international style in the United States is the Seagram Building (1957), distinctive for its facade using visible bronze-toned I-beams to evoke the building’s structure. The Condé Nast Building (2000) is an important example of green design in American skyscrapers. An early influential example of the international style. The World Trade Center’s twin towers were the city’s tallest buildings from 1973 until their destruction in the September 11 attacks. The towers rose 1,368 feet (417 m) and 1,362 feet (415 m) respectively, both 110 Floors. The North Tower’s 360 foot antenna housed most of the city’s communications, while the South Tower was home to a popular observation deck. They were the tallest buildings in the world until Chicago’s 1,454-foot Sears Tower was completed in 1974. Citigroup Center is 59-story office tower located at 53rd Street and Lexington Avenue in Midtown Manhattan. It is considered one of the most important post-war skyscrapers to be in erected in New York City. The striking design of the steeply slanted roof, the sleek aluminum-clad façade, and its base on four stilts over a church also on the site made the skyscraper an instant architectural icon. The sloping roof houses the building’s mechanical and ventilation systems. The designers settled on an aluminum-clad façade to reduce the weight load on the building’s foundation and support structures, since its entire weight would.
AMERICAN BUILDING NEWSPAPER - WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 22, 2014
432 Park Avenue is a supertall residential project by CIM Group in midtown Manhattan in New York City. With a height of 1,398 feet (426.11 m), 125 condominium apartments, it will become the 3rd tallest tower in the United States, with the One World Trade Center being taller, as judged by the height of its pinnacle, although 432 Park Avenue is taller if One World Trade Center is measured by roof height.
he site beame one of New York’s most valuable development sites due to its location in the heart of the city. Designed by Rafael Viñoly around “the purest geometric form: the square,” the tower will have eighty-four 93-foot-square stories, each with six 100-square-foot windows per face. The tower’s condominium units will range from a 351-square-foot studio to a six-bedroom, seven-bath penthouse with a library, already under agreement for $95 million. The building’s amenities will include 12 ft (3.7 m) high ceilings, golf training facilities, and private dining and screening rooms.When completed, 432 Park Avenue is expected to become the second-tallest building in New York City and the tallest residential building in the Western Hemisphere. The tower has a foot print of approximately 33,000 square feet.Two World Trade Center, also known by its street address, 200 Greenwich Street, is a new office building on hold and is part of the World Trade Center reconstruction in New York City. When completed, the tower will be located on the east side of Greenwich Street, across the street from the original location of the Twin Towers that were destroyed during the September 11, 2001 attacks. The 79-story building was designed by Foster and Partners, London. The building will have a height of 1,270 feet (387 m), with a tripod-shaped antenna that allows the building to reach a total height of 1,350 feet (411). In comparison, the Empire State Building’s
roof at the 102nd floor is 1,250 feet (381 m) tall, and its antenna is 1,472 ft (448 m), and the original 2 World Trade Center (often referred to as the “South Tower”) was 1,362 feet (415 m). The structural engineer for the building is WSP Cantor Seinuk, New York City. The Curtain Wall/Cladding consultant for the building is Permasteelisa SPA. When constructed, the tower will be the second–tallest skyscraper on the World Trade Center site and in New York City, following One World Trade Center. The sloping roof consisting of four diamonds inclined toward the memorial will provide a visual marker around the skyline of just where the original towers were. The tower is designed to resemble a diamond, with cross bracing intersects and indentations breaking up the sides. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey said the following about 200 Greenwich Street’s wedged rooftop: “Designed by Lord Norman Foster, the tower incorporates WTC master planner Daniel Libeskind’s ‘wedge of light’ concept, and will cast no shadow on the memorial park on September 11.” The total floor space of 200 Greenwich Street is anticipated to include 2.4 million square feet (220,000 square meters) of office space and another 130,000 square feet (12,000 square meters) for retail shops and access areas to the underground Excavation for 200 Greenwich Street commenced in 2008 and the building was originally scheduled to be completed sometime between 2011 and
2016. On May 11, 2009, however, it was announced that the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was seeking to reduce the tower to a “stump” building of approximately four stories. The overall plan, which also calls for a similar reduction in height for 175 Greenwich Street and the cancellation of World Trade Center Tower 5, would halve the amount of office space available in the fully reconstructed World Trade Center to 5 million square feet (465,000 square meters).
- A FUTURE NEW AREA -
The agency cited the recession and disagreements with developer Larry Silverstein as reasons for the proposed reduction. The plan has seen some opposition; a May 2009 piece in the New York Post challenged the necessity of the office space reduction, given Lower Manhattan’s low commercial vacancy rate compared to other U.S. cities and overall demand for modern office properties. Silverstein is opposed to the plan, and filed a notice of dispute on July 7, 2009. By doing so, the development firm began a two-week period during which renegotiated settlements and a binding arbitration regarding the construction of the four World Trade Center towers can be made. Silver-
stein Properties, which has paid the Port Authority over $2.75 billion in financing, noted the organization’s inability to meet construction obligations in its official complaint. The development firm has proposed further government intervention in the project as a way of settling the dispute. On December 2, 2009, US$2.6 billion tax-free bond for the building’s construction was approved by the state of New York to continue construction on the World Trade Center site. The construction of Two World Trade Center, however, remains on-hold. 3 World Trade Center is the name of two buildings at the World Trade Center site in New York City. The original 3 World Trade Center, Marriott World Trade Center, was a 22-story steel-framed hotel with 825 rooms, which was destroyed in the September 11 attacks. The new building, also known as 175 Greenwich Street, is a skyscraper currently under construction as part of the rebuilding of the World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The project lies on the east side of Greenwich Street, across the street from the previous location of the Twin Towers, which were destroyed during the September 11 attacks. Pritzker Prize-winning architect Richard Rogers, of Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners, was awarded the contract to design the building, which is planned to be 352 m (1,155 ft) tall with 71 stories. As of October 2013, its below-grade foundations are complete, and several floors have been built above street level.