Issuu on Google+

C:/ Decoding the Mystery of the World/>

[Learning About the Secrets and Mysteries of Different Types of Codes]


+

+

+ +

000

C:/ Decoding_the_Mystery_of_the_ World_Š2013_HARPERCOLLINS_PUBLISHERS/> </NOTICE_OF_RIGHTS/> </All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocoping, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher./>


[_Dedication_] C:/ To my professors who taught me everything about the world and of codes and also to my family for raising me to be the best I can be. I also would like to send a special thank you my best friend Aaron who help me see things in a different way. ///////////////////////////////////////

[005]


+

+ +

000

+


[007]

C:/_Solving the Code_>>>>>>>>>>>>>[016] C:/_Finding the Key_>>>>>>>>>>>>>>[018] C:/_The Entry Key_>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>[020] C:/_Deciphering the Code_>>>>>>>>>[022]

[002]

C:/_Copyright_>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>[002) C:/_Dedication_>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>[003] C:/_Table of Contents_>>>>>>>>>>>>[004] C:/_Introduction_>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>[006]

[000]

C:/_The Braile System_>>>>>>>>>>>>[036] C:/_Touchable Codes_>>>>>>>>>>>>>>[038] C:/_Cracking the Code_>>>>>>>>>>>>[040] C:/_Read Behind the Dots_>>>>>>>>>[042]

[004]

C:/_The Secret Numbers_>>>>>>>>>>>[026] C:/_Numbers_to_Letters_>>>>>>>>>>>[028] C:/_Translating Numbers_>>>>>>>>>>[030] C:/_The Numbers Game_>>>>>>>>>>>>>[032]

[003]

C:/_The Cipher Wheel_>>>>>>>>>>>>>[008] C:/_Intro to the Wheel_>>>>>>>>>>>[010] C:/_Usefulness of Ciphers_>>>>>>>>[012] C:/_Subsitution of the Wheel_>>>>>[014]

[001]


+

+ +

000

+


C:/ You are about to start a journey into a different world. A world of mysteries and secrets that have been with us for centries and been pass down. As the years change so have the meaning of codes. We started from swapping letters to feeling dots to numbers. The meaning of code hasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t changed but now there are so many types. In this book you will be exploring 4 different types of codes that ranges through out the centries. May your journey be solve many mysteries.////////////////////////////////////////

[009]


2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906

1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307

2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009

1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261 0981113 1511603 1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261 0981113 1511603 1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261 0981113 1511603 1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261 0981113 1511603 1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261 0981113 1511603 1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261 0981113 1511603 1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261 0981113 1511603 1540909 0651504

1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301

1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407

2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504

2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503

2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909

2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611

</The Cipher Wheel/>

2631 1251 0674 0981 1511 1540 0651 0462 2631 1251 0674 0981 1511 1540 0651 0462 2631 1251 0674 0981 1511 1540 0651 0462 2631 1251 0674 0981 1511 1540 0651 0462 2631 1251 0674 0981 1511 1540 0651 0462 2631 1251 0674 0981 1511 1540 0651 0462 2631 1251 0674 0981 1511 1540 0651 0462 2631 1251


1105 1303 4261 1113 1603 0909 1504 2604 1105 1303 4261 1113 1603 0909 1504 2604 1105 1303 4261 1113 1603 0909 1504 2604 1105 1303 4261 1113 1603 0909 1504 2604 1105 1303 4261 1113 1603 0909 1504 2604 1105 1303 4261 1113 1603 0909 1504 2604 1105 1303 4261 1113 1603 0909 1504 2604 1105 1303

1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111

1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504

1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901

1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504

1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105

2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803

0981113 1511603 1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261 0981113 1511603 1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261 0981113 1511603 1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261 0981113 1511603 1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261 0981113 1511603 1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261 0981113 1511603 1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261 0981113 1511603 1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261 0981113 1511603

0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514

0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304

2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302

001


+

+ +

001

+


[1001001]

[_Intro_] C:/ When you were a kid, did you have a “Captain Midnight” decoder ring? With it, you could send messages to a friends that no one else could read. Or perhaps you remember using special symbols to write notes to your “squeeze” in class. If the note was intercepted , your teacher, could learn nothing about your romance.//// In more serious uses, codes and ciphers are used by our military and diplomatic forces to keep confidential information from unauthorized eyes. Businesses also send data that has been encoded to try and protect trade secrets and back-room deals. After all, you wouldn’t want your competitor to know that you were about to acquire their company with a leveraged buy-out.////////////////////////////

C:/

[013]


+

+ +

001

+

[_Usefullness_of_Ciphers_] C:/ The study of enciphering and encoding (on the C:/ The selection of the above three items sending end), and deciphering and decoding (on the

- algorithm, key and period - depend on

receiving end) is called cryptography from the Greek

your needs. If you are in the battlefield

(kryptos), or hidden and (graphia), or writing. If

and are receiving current tactical data,

you donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know Greek (and not many of us do) the

you want an algorithm that makes it easy

above letters could be a form of code themselves!

to decipher the message in the heat of

Although the distinction is fuzzy, ciphers are

battle. On the other hand, you must also

different from codes. When you substitute one word

assume that your opponent has intercepted

for another word or sentence, like using a foreign

your enciphered message and is busy trying

language dictionary, you are using a code. When you

to break it. Therefore you must choose an

mix up or substitute existing letters, you are using

algorithm (method) that is complicated

a cipher. (I told you the difference was fuzzy, and

enough so that by the time your opponent

you can combine codes and ciphers by substituting

figures it out, the data will be worthless.

one word for another and then mixing up the result.]

The easier the algorithm you choose, the

Weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll concentrate on ciphers.///////////////////

more often you will have to change the key

C:/ For a cipher to be useful, several things must

that unlocks the code - if you want to keep

be known at both the sending and receiving ends. The

your enemy in the dark./////////////////

algorithm or method used to encipher the original

C:/ Ciphers are broken into two main

message (known as the plaintext). The key used with

categories; substitution ciphers and

the algorithm to allow the plaintext to be both en-

transposition ciphers. Substitution

ciphered and deciphered.//////////////////////

ciphers replace letters in the plaintext

C:/ By way of analogy, to get into your home you

with other letters or symbols, keeping

would put a key in a lock to open the door. This

the order in which the symbols fall the

process (the use of a key and a lock) is the method

same. Transposition ciphers keep all of

or algorithm. Now this method only works if you

the original letters intact, but mix up

have the proper key to stick in the lock, and your

their order. The resulting text of either

key will be valid only as long as you are the res-

enciphering method is called the cipher-

ident of the particular abode. The next resident

text. Of course, you can use both methods,

will have the locks changed to a different key to

one after the other, to further confuse

make sure that you cannot enter even though you

an unintended receiver as well. To get a

may know the method.//////////////////////////

feel for these methods, letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s take a look at some ciphers.//////////////////////


[_subsitutions_ciphers_ and_decoder_rings_] </_We use substitution ciphers all the time. (Actually, substitution ciphers could properly be called codes in most cases.) Morse code, shorthand, semaphore, and the ASCII code with which these characters are being stored in inside my Macintosh are all examples. (ASCII stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange, just in case you’re interested.) The only difference between these and the spy codes is that the above examples are standardized so that everybody knows them._/> </_The Captain Midnight decoder ring (which is an “encoder” ring as well) allows you to do a simple substitution cipher. It usually has two concentric wheels of letters, A through Z. You rotate the outside ring and substitute the letters in your message found on the outside ring with the letters directly below on the inside ring (see diagram). Here, the algorithm is to offset the alphabet and the key is the number of characters to offset it. Julius Caesar used this simple scheme, offsetting by 3 characters (He would have put the “A” on the outer ring of letters over the “D” on the inner ring if he had owned a Captain Midnight decoder ring.) The word “EXPLORATORIUM” thus becomes “HASORUDWRULXP.” Such a scheme was easily broken and showed a certain level of naivete on Caesar’s part concerning the enemy’s intelligence._/>

[015]


+

+

+

[_subsitutions_ ciphers_wheel_]

+

C:/ Place the smaller wheel on top of the larger wheel and rotate them so your “key letter” on the small wheel is beneath the “A” of the large wheel. Now you can encipher your plaintext and pass it to your friend who knows the proper key letter./////////

C:/ You could make your ciphertext a little tougher to decode if you threw 26 pieces of paper into a hat, each with a letter of the alphabet written on it, drew them out one at a time, and put them side-by-side under a normal alphabet. The result might look like this (I just used the order of the keys on my keyboard, so you might call this a “Qwerty” code):///////////////////

001

C:/ Plaintext letter /////////////////////////// A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ///////

C:/ Ciphertext letter ////////////////////////// Q W E R T Y U I O P A S D F G H J K L Z X C V B N M //////

C:/ You can construct a secret message from the above table. Every time you see an “I” you would substitute the “O” beneath and so on for the other characters. The message “Meet me after school behind the gym,” would read ////////////////////////////////

C:/ “DTTZ DT QYZTK LEIGGS WTIOFR ZIT UND.”/////// C:/ Word lengths - especially the short words - give great clues as to the nature of the code (see frequency charts). To help conceal your message, ignore the spaces and break the message up into equal-sized chunks. Five letters are customary in the spy biz, so your message comes out like this (Note that an extra “dummy” character “M” is added at the end to make it come out with a 5-letter group. Your recipient should have no trouble with the extra character.):////////

C:/ DTTZD TQYZT KLEIG GSWTI OFRZI TUNDM //////////


_CIPHERS_WHEEL_ _PVCUREF_JURRY_ letters on the outside wheel is plaintext letters inside the wheel is the ciphertext. wheel inside to decode the message on the to know what it says.

fghij

x

l

r

w

d

ef

stuv

gh

ij

e

r

stuvw

op

q

k

lm

d

x

a yzn bc

k

C:/ The and the Use the outside

yz abcq

mnop

C:/ Plaintext Wheel meaning the letters of the true message.

C:/ Cipher Wheel meaning the letters of the coded message. [017]


A B

C

D E

F

R S

T

U V

W

I J

K

L M

N

Z A

B

C D

E

Q R

A

T S

V

H I

J

V L

M

002 Y Z

A

B T D

P Q

R

P T

U

G H

I

J K

Z

X Y

Z

A B

C

O P

Q

T S

T

F G

H

I E

K

W X

Y

Z A

B

N O

P

F R

S

E F

G

H I

O

V W

X

Y Z

A


F

G H

I

J K

L M N O

P Q

W

X Y

Z

A B

C D E F

G H

N

O P

Q

R S

T U V W

X Y

E

F G

H

I J

K T M N

O P

V

W O

Y

Z A

L C D E

F G

M

E

O

P

Q R

S T U V

W X

D

E H

G

E I H

J K L M

N O

U

V W

U

Y Z

A B C D

E F

Z

M N

O

L Q

E S T U

V W

C

A E

F

G T

I J K L

M N

T

U H

W

X E

Z A B C

D E

K

L M

N

O P

Q R S T

U V

B

C D

E

F

U O I J K

L M

S

B U

V

O

L Y Z A B

C D

O

K L

M

N O

K Q R S

T U

A

B C

D

E F

G H I J

K L


+

+ +

002

+


[1001002]

[_Finding_the_Key_] Baconian cipher is a method of steganography (a method of hiding a secret message as opposed to a true cipher) devised by Francis Bacon in 1605. A message is concealed in the presentation of text, rather than its content. To encode a message, each letter of the plaintext is replaced by a group of five of the letters ‘A’ or ‘B’. This replacement is a binary encoding and is done according to the alphabet of the Baconian cipher. A second version of Bacon’s cipher uses a unique code for each letter. In other words, I and J each has its own pattern.////////

C:/

[023]


+

+

+

[_The_Entry_Key_]

+

C:/ The writer must make use of two different type- C:/ The word ‘steganography’, encoded

002

faces for this cipher. After preparing a false message

with padding, where text in italics

with the same number of letters as all of the As and

represents “typeface 2” and standard

Bs in the real, secret message, two typefaces are

text represents “typeface 1”: To encode

chosen, one to represent As and the other Bs. Then

a message each letter of the plaintext

each letter of the false message must be presented in

is replaced by a group of five of the

the appropriate typeface, according to whether it

letters ‘A’ or ‘B’.//////////////////

stands for an A or a B.////////////////////////////

C:/ Some people have suggested that

C:/ To decode the message, the reverse method is

the plays attributed to William Shake-

applied. Each “typeface 1” letter in the false

speare were in fact written by Francis

message is replaced with an A and each “typeface 2”

Bacon, and that the published plays

letter is replaced with a B. The Baconian alphabet

contain enciphered messages to that

is then used to recover the original message.////

effect. Both Ignatius L. Donnelly and

C:/ A ny

met hod of writing t he message t hat

Elizabeth Wells Gallup attempted to

allows two distinct representations for each char-

find such messages by looking for the

a c t e r c a n b e u se d fo r t h e B a c o n Cip h e r.

use of Bacon’s cipher in early printed

Bacon himself prepared a Biliteral Alphabet

editions of the plays./////////////

for handwritten capital and small letters with each

C:/ However, American cryptologists

having two alternative forms, one to be used as A

William and Elizebeth Friedman refuted

and the other as B. This was published as an illus-

the claims that the works of Shake-

trated plate in his De Augmentis Scientiarum (The

speare contain hidden ciphers that

Advancement of Learning)./////////////////////////

disclose Bacon’s or any other candi-

C:/ Because any message of the right length can

date’s secret authorship in their The

be used to carry the encoding, the secret message is effectively hidden in plain sight. The false message can be on any topic and thus can distract a person seeking to find the real message. Many people still use ciphers today./////////////////

Shakespeare Ciphers Examined.//////


[_sir_francis_bacon_]

</_ Francis himself was a secretive person both by choice and by necessity. He learnt the use of ciphers early in his youth when he was employed by Lord Burghley and Sir Francis Walsingham, on behalf of the Queen, on intelligence matters both at home and abroad. Francis’ brother Anthony likewise was employed on intelligence matters and was sent as an intelligencer to France and elsewhere for over twelve years. When Anthony finally returned to England in 1592 Francis ‘knit’ his services to Essex, by request of the Queen. Anthony thereafter acted as a virtual ‘Secretary of State’ to the Earl, running his own network of spies and, with the help of Francis, feeding both the Earl and the Queen with intelligence._/>

[025]


+

+ +

002

+ >_ To be or not to be that is the question. Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune or to take arms against a sea of troubles and by opposing end them?

[_dEciPher_ tHe_cOde_]

>_ Francis Bacon created one of the more interesting substitution ciphers. He used two different type faces slightly differing in weight (boldness). He broke up his ciphertext into 5 character groups, each of which would represent one character in his plaintext. Depending on which characters of the group were bold, one could

determine the plaintext character using the following table (* stands for a plain character and B for a bold character)

>_ Our same secret message as above would appear thusly (Bacon's bold and plain characters were less obvious than those above]


>_ A=***** E=**B** I=*B*** M=*BB** Q=B**** U=B*B** Y=BB***

B=****B F=**B*B J=*B**B N=*BB*B R=B***B V=B*B*B Z=BB**B

C=***B* G=**BB* K=*B*B* O=*BBB* S=B**B* W=B*BB*

D=***BB H=**BBB L=*B*BB P=*BBBB T=B**BB X=B*BBB

>_ M E E T M E B E Tobeo rnott obeth atist heque stion Wheth ertis H I N D T H E G noble rinth emind tosuf ferth eslin gsand arrow Y M A F T E R S sofou trage ousfo rtune ortot akear msaga insta C H O O L seaof troub lesan dbyop posin gendt hem?

>_ To decipher, we just break the characters into groups of 5 and use the key above to find the plaintext message.

>_ To decipher, we just break the characters into groups of 5 and use the key above to find the plaintext message.

[027]


2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504

1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105

2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803

1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261 0981113 1511603 1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261 0981113 1511603 1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261 0981113 1511603 1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261 0981113 1511603 1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261 0981113 1511603 1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261 0981113 1511603 1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261 0981113 1511603

1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514

1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304

2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302

2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301

2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113

2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503

2631 1251 0674 0981 1511 1540 0651 0462 2631 1251 0674 0981 1511 1540 0651 0462 2631 1251 0674 0981 1511 1540 0651 0462 2631 1251 0674 0981 1511 1540 0651 0462 2631 1251 0674 0981 1511 1540 0651 0462 2631 1251 0674 0981 1511 1540 0651 0462 2631 1251 0674 0981 1511 1540 0651 0462

What w you hi the wo of cod


1105 1303 4261 1113 1603 0909 1504 2604 1105 1303 4261 1113 1603 0909 1504 2604 1105 1303 4261 1113 1603 0909 1504 2604 1105 1303 4261 1113 1603 0909 1504 2604 1105 1303 4261 1113 1603 0909 1504 2604 1105 1303 4261 1113 1603 0909 1504 2604 1105 1303 4261 1113 1603 0909 1504 2604

1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601

1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906

1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307

1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009 1192304 2431504 2120407 0631906 2151301 2161504 2432503 0272009

1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504 1421302 2631105 1431504 1022307 0981113 2411901 1540909 0651504

2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301 2151301 1771803 2432503 0272009 0351503 2431504 1742611 2191301

0981113 1511603 1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261 0981113 1511603 1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261 0981113 1511603 1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261 0981113 1511603 1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261 0981113 1511603 1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261 0981113 1511603 1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261 0981113 1511603 1540909 0651504 0462604 2631105 1251303 0674261

0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509 0351503 1432514 1742611 2191301 2540601 1771803 2512111 2410509

0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112 0462604 1192304 1251303 2120407 0631906 1511603 2161504 0752112

2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005 2540601 1421302 2512111 1431504 1022307 1432514 2411901 1581005

would ide in orld des?


[The Secret Numbers]

003 003 003 003 003 003 003 003 003 003


+

+ +

003

+


[1001003]

[_Numbers_to_Letters_] C:/ When you think of spies and secret agents, you might think of lots of things; nifty gadgets, foreign travel, dangerous missiles, fast cars and being shaken but not stirred. You probably wouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t think of mathematics. But you should. Cracking codes and unravelling the true meaning of secret messages involves loads of maths, from simple addition and subtraction, to data handling and logical thinking. In fact, some of the most famous code breakers in history have been mathematicians who have been able to use quite simple maths to uncovered plots, identify traitors and influence battles.///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

[033]


+

+

+

[_Translating_Numbers_]

+

C:/ Let me give you an example. Nearly 2000 years ago, C:/ This type of code was used by Mary

003

Julius Caesar was busy taking over the world, invading

Queen of Scots when she was plotting

countries to increase the size of the Roman Empire.

against Elizabeth the First. Mary wanted

He needed a way of communicating his battle plans and

to kill Elizabeth so that she herself

tactics to everyone on his side without the enemy

could become Queen of England and was

finding out. So Caesar would write messages to his

sending coded messages of this sort to

generals in code. Instead of writing the letter ‘A’,

her co-conspirator Anthony Babington.

he would write the letter that comes three places

Unfortunately for Mary, there is a very

further on in the alphabet, the letter ‘D’. Instead

simple way of cracking this code that

of a ‘B’, he would write an ‘E’, instead of a ‘C’, he

doesn’t involve trial and error, but which

would write an ‘F’ and so on. When he got to the end of

does involve, surprise, surprise, maths.

the alphabet, however, he would have to go right back

C:/ Letters in a language are pretty

to the beginning, so instead of an ‘X’, he would write

unusual because some get used more often

an ‘A’, instead of a ‘Y’, he’d write a ‘B’ and instead

than other letters. An easy experiment

of ‘Z’, he’d write a ‘C’.//////////////////////////

you can do to test this out is to get ev-

C:/ Have a go at coding your name by adding 3 to every

eryone in your class to raise their hand

letter. Then have a go at coding your name by shifting

if they have the letter ‘E’ in their name.

the alphabet forward by more places by adding greater

Then get all those with a ‘Z’ to raise

numbers eg adding 5, then adding 10. Then have a go at

their hand, then a ‘Q’, then an ‘A’. You

decoding. If your letters are numbers and encoding is

will probably find that ‘E’ and ‘A’ are

addition, then decoding is subtraction, so if you’ve

more common than ‘Z’ and ‘Q’. The graph

coded a message by adding 5, you will have to decode

below shows the average frequency of

the message by subtracting 5.// //////////////////

letters in English. To compile the in-

C:/ If you’ve got the hang of coding messages by

formation, people looked through thou-

shifting the alphabet forward, then you might have

sands and thousands of books, magazines

realised that it is actually pretty simple to crack

and newspapers, and counted the number

this type of code. It can easily be done just by trial

of times each letter came up./////////

and error. An enemy code breaker would only have to try out 25 different possible shifts before they were able to read your messages, which means that your messages wouldn’t be secret for very long./////////

C:/ So, what about coding messages another way? Instead of writing a letter, we could write a symbol, or draw a picture. Instead of an ‘A’ we could write *, instead of a ‘B’ write + etc. For a long time, people thought this type of code would be really hard to crack. It would take the enemy far too long to figure out what letter of the alphabet each symbol stood for just by trying all the possible combinations of letters and symbols. There are 400 million billion billion possible combinations!///////////////////////////


[_intriguing_number_fact_]

</_In English, E is the most commonly used letter. In any piece of writing, we use E about 13% of the time on average. ‘T’ is the second most common letter and ‘A’ is the third most commonly used letter. And it’s this information that can help you to crack codes. All Elizabeth the First’s Spy-Master had to do to crack Mary’s code, was to look through the coded message and count the number of times each symbol came up. The symbol that came up the most would probably stand for the letter ‘E’. Look at our Ancient Runes problem for another code that could be deciphered by counting how often each symbol appears. When you crack codes like this, by looking for the most common letter, it’s called ‘frequency analysis’, and it was this clever method of cracking codes that resulted in Mary having her head cut off. CHOP!_/>

</_9 14 5 14 7 12 9 19 8 , 5 9 19 20 8 5 13 15 19 20 3 15 13 13 15 14 12 25 21 19 5 4 12 5 20 20 5 18 . 9 14 1 14 25 16 9 5 3 5 15 6 23 18 9 20 9 14 7 , 23 5 21 19 5 5 1 2 15 21 20 13% 15 6 20 8 5 20 9 13 5 15 14 1 22 5 18 1 7 5 . ‘20 ’ 9 19 20 8 5 19 5 3 15 14 4 13 15 19 20 3 15 13 13 15 14 12 5 20 20 5 18 1 14 4 ‘1 ’ 9 19 20 8 5 20 8 9 18 4 13 15 19 20 3 15 13 13 15 14 12 25 21 19 5 4 12 5 20 20 5 18 . 1 14 4 9 20 ’19 20 8 9 19 9 14 6 15 18 13 1 20 9 15 14 20 8 1 20 3 1 14 8 5 12 16 25 15 21 20 15 3 18 1 3 11 3 15 4 5 19 . 1 12 12 5 12 9 26 1 2 5 20 8 20 8 5 6 9 18 19 20 ’19 19 16 25 -13 1 19 20 5 18 8 1 4 20 15 4 15 20 15 3 18 1 3 11 13 1 18 25 ’19 3 15 4 5 , 23 1 19 20 15 12 15 15 11 20 8 18 15 21 7 8 20 8 5 3 15 4 5 4 13 5 19 19 1 7 5 1 14 4 3 15 21 14 20 20 8 5 14 21 13 2 5 18 15 6 20 9 13 5 19 5 1 3 8 19 25 13 2 15 12 3 1 13 5 21 16 . 20 8 5 19 25 13 2 15 12 20 8 1 20 3 1 13 5 21 16 20 8 5 13 15 19 20 23 15 21 12 4 16 18 15 2 1 2 12 25 19 20 1 14 4 6 15 18 20 8 5 12 5 20 20 5 18 ‘5 ’. 12 15 15 11 1 20 15 21 18 1 14 3 9 5 14 20 18 21 14 5 19 16 18 15 2 12 5 13 6 15 18 1 14 15 20 8 5 18 3 15 4 5 20 8 1 20 3 15 21 12 4 2 5 4 5 3 9 16 8 5 18 5 4 2 25 3 15 21 14 20 9 14 7 8 15 23 15 6 20 5 14 5 1 3 8 19 25 13 2 15 12 1 16 16 5 1 18 19 . 23 8 5 14 25 15 21 3 18 1 3 11 3 15 4 5 19 12 9 11 5 20 8 9 19 , 2 25 12 15 15 11 9 14 7 6 15 18 20 8 5 13 15 19 20 3 15 13 13 15 14 12 5 20 20 5 18 , 9 20 ’19 3 1 12 12 5 4 ‘6 18 5 17 21 5 14 3 25 1 14 1 12 25 19 9 19 ’, 1 14 4 9 20 23 1 19 20 8 9 19 3 12 5 22 5 18 13 5 20 8 15 4 15 6 3 18 1 3 11 9 14 7 3 15 4 5 19 20 8 1 20 18 5 19 21 12 20 5 4 9 14 13 1 18 25 8 1 22 9 14 7 8 5 18 8 5 1 4 3 21 20 15 6 6 . 3 8 15 16 !_/>

[035]


[_the_numbers_game_] C:/ When Caesar’s generals came to decipher the messages, they knew that all they had to do was go back three places in the alphabet. Have a go at trying to work out these messages which could have been sent by Caesar or his generals.

C:/ This all seems very clever, but so far it’s all been letters and no numbers. So where’s the maths? The maths comes if you think of the letters as numbers from 0 to 25 with A being 0, B being 1, C being 2 etc. Then encoding, shifting the alphabet forward three places, is the same as adding three to your starting number. </_For example, encoding the letter ‘A’ is 0+3=3, which is a ‘D’._/> </_Coding ‘I’ is: 8+3=11, which is ‘L’._/> </_However, you do have to be careful when you get to the end of the alphabet,

003

because there is no letter number 26, so you have to go back to number 0. In maths we call this ‘MOD 26’, instead of writing 26, we go back to 0._/> </_Have a go at coding your name by adding 3 to every letter. Then have a go at coding your name by shifting the alphabet forward by more places by adding greater numbers eg adding 5, then adding 10. Then have a go at decoding. If your letters are numbers and encoding is addition, then decoding is subtraction, so if you’ve coded a message by adding 5, you will have to decode the message by subtracting 5 and there you will find your answer._/>


Caesarâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Message

S

E

N D

A

T

T

A

C

K

Transition 1

T

F

O E

B

U

U

B

D

L

Transition 2

U

G

P

F

C

V

V

C

E

M

Coded Message

V

H

Q G

D

W W D

F

N

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7 8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

[037]


0 0 4

C:/The Braille System


+

+ +

004

+


[1001004]

[_Touchable_Codes_] C:/ Braille code is a writing system which enables blind and partially sighted people to read and write through touch. The braille alphabet was invented by Louis Braille (18091852), a French teacher of the blind. It consists of patterns of raised dots arranged in cells of up to six dots in a 3 x 2 configuration. Each cell represents a braille letter, numeral or punctuation mark. Some frequently used words and letter combinations also have their own single cell patterns.///////////////////////////////////////////////////////

[043]


[_Cracking_the_Code_] C:/ Braille is a tactile writing system used by the C:/ In the face of screen-reader soft-

004

blind and the visually impaired that is used for

ware, braille usage has declined.

books, menus, signs, elevator buttons, and currency.

Braille education remains important

Braille-users can read computer screens and other

for developing reading skills among

electronic supports thanks to refreshable braille

blind and visually impaired children

displays. They can write braille with the original

as braille literacy correlates with

slate and stylus or type it on a braille writer, such

higher employment rates.///////////

as a portable braille note-taker, or on a computer

C:/ Braille is derived from the Latin

that prints with a braille embosser.//////////////

alphabet, albeit indirectly. In Braille's

C:/ Braille is named after its creator, Frenchman

original system, the points were as-

Louis Braille, who went blind following a childhood

signed according to the position of the

accident. At the age of 15, Braille developed his code

letter within the alphabetic order of

for the French alphabet in 1824 as an improvement on

the French alphabet, with diacritic

night writing. He published his system, which subse-

letters and sorted at the end.//////////

quently included musical notation, in 1829. The second

C:/ Originally there had been nine

revision, published in 1837, was the first digital

decades. The fifth through ninth used

(binary) form of writing./////////////////////////

dashes as well as dots, but proved to be

C:/ Braille characters are small rectangular blocks

impractical and were soon abandoned.

called cells that contain tiny palpable bumps called

These could be indicated by what we now

raised dots. The number and arrangement of these dots

know as the number sign, though that only

distinguish one character from another. Since the

caught on for the digits (1st Âą 5th

various braille alphabets originated as transcription

decade). The dash of the sixth decade

codes of printed writing systems, the mappings (sets

was simply dropped, producing the modern

of character designations) vary from language to lan-

fifth decade. See 1829 braille.///////

guage. Furthermore, in English Braille there are three levels of encoding: Grade 1, a letter-by-letter transcription used for basic literacy; Grade 2, an addition of abbreviations and contractions; and Grade 3, various non-standardized personal shorthands./////////////


[_history_of_braille_]

</_Braille was based on a tactile military code called night writing, developed by Charles Barbier in response to Napoleon's demand for a means for soldiers to communicate silently at night and without light. In Barbier's system, sets of 12 embossed dots encoded 36 different sounds. It proved to be too difficult for soldiers to recognize by touch, and was rejected by the military. In 1821 Barbier visited the Royal Institute for the Blind in Paris, where he met Louis Braille. Braille identified two major defects of the code: first, by representing only sounds, the code was unable to render the orthography of the words; second, the human finger could not encompass the whole 12-dot symbol without moving, and so could not move rapidly from one symbol to another. Braille's solution was to use 6-dot cells and to assign a specific pattern to each letter of the alphabet. At first, braille was a one-to-one transliteration of French orthography, but soon various abbreviations, contractions, and even logograms were developed, creating a system much more like shorthand. The expanded English system, called Grade 2 Braille, was complete by 1905. For the blind today, braille is an independent writing system rather than a code of printed orthography._/>

[045]


[_reading_behind_the_dots_] C:/ Braille can be seen as the world's first binary encoding scheme for representing the characters of a writing system. The system as devised by Braille consists of two parts://////////////////////////////////////////////////////// </_A character encoding for mapping characters of the French alphabet to tuples of six bits or dots._/> </_A way of physically representing six-bit characters as raised dots in a braille cell._/>

C:/ Within an individual cell, the possible dot positions are organized into two columns of three positions each. A raised dot can appear in any of the six positions to form sixty-four possible subsets, including the arrangement in which there are no raised dots. For reference purposes, a particular arrangement may be described by naming the positions where dots are raised, the positions being

004

universally numbered 1 to 3, from top to bottom, on the left, and 4 to 6, from top to bottom, on the right. For example, dots 1-3-4 would describe a cell with three dots raised, at the top and bottom in the left column and on top of the right column, i.e., the letter m. The lines of horizontal braille text are separated by a space, much like visible printed text, so that the dots of one line can be differentiated from the braille text above and below. Punctuation is represented by its own unique set of characters.Today different braille codes (or code pages) are used to map character sets of different languages to the six bit cells. Different braille codes are also used for different uses like mathematics and music. However, because the six-dot braille cell only offers 64 patterns (26, including the space), many braille characters have different meanings based on their context. That is, character mapping is not one-to-one.////////////////////////////////////// [In addition to simple encoding, modern braille transcription uses contractions to increase reading speed.]


[_braille_codes_key_] a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

m

n

o

p

q

r

s

t

u

v

w

x

y

z

for

the

and

entire word capitalized

1 letter capitalized

#

1

2

3

8

9

0

,

4

5

6

7

[047]


+

+ +

000

+


C:/ The original source for this book is from "The Secret Lanugage" by Ron Hipschman. Images are all vector created or photography altered. The typography used in this book are Kettler Family and Uni Sans Family. The book was printed on Brilliant matte paper, double sided, 230gsm, 9.5 mils, 90 ISO brightness, and 98% opacity. It was printed through 1100 Epson Workforce Printer and is perfect binding.///////////////////////////////// </_Production Software: Adobe Indesign CS6, Adobe Illustrator CS6, Adobe Photoshop CS6, iMac, and Macbook Pro with Retina Display._/> </_Book Data: 52 pages, 30 vector created images, and 6 photography images._/>

[049]


[051]


C:/ The study of enciphering and encoding is a world that have been started to build centries ago. There are many mystries in the world. Though codes are one of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s biggest and famous mystries of them all. They used from cave drawing to teach us to read and to secret messages to coding our technology that we use this day. Different types of codes have arrived in this world and so many more will form. They have told history and help those who lost sight to read. In this book you get learn about different type of codes we have gone through the centries and learn how to use and decipher them yourselves. Maybe at the end you will be able to create your own code with your hidden message.////////////////////////////////


Decoding the Mystery of the World