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ďż˝ All You Need Is

Type A Guide From A-Z

Lisa Danielson, Editor

Howling Lighthouse Publishing


All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z

I


II

All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z


All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z

Lisa Danielson, Editor

Howling Lighthouse


Š Copyright 2010 Howlng Lighthouse Publishing

IV

All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z


Acknowledgements I’d like to thank Craig Jobson for his expertise and wisdom in teaching and critiquing my designs throughout the course of making this book. I would also like to thank my classmates for their contributions, input and hard work. Finally, thank you to my family, friends and co-workers, for being so patient and supportive throughout throughout this process.

Acknowledgements

All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z

V


Table of Contents Introduction

VIII - IX

A

Advertising

Lauren Kosiara

B

2-3

John Baskerville Linn Boyd/Morris Benton Giambattista Bodoni

Heather Fugate

William Caslon William Caxton

Francis MacLeod Brittany Carter

10-11 12-13

Francois & Firmin Didot

Brittany Carter

14-15

Vincent Figgins Pierre Simon Fournier Adrian Frutiger

Miriam Mai

Claude Garamond Eric Gill Johannes Gutenburg

Lisa Danielson

Zuzana Licko Herb Lubalin William I. Ludlow

Lauren Headley

C

D F

G L

VI

Rachel Moore

Mariella Cinquegrani

Sevonne Tuvia Jillian Barthold

James Case Adriana Mendez

Francis MacLeod Betsy Lambright

Table Of Contents

All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z

4-5 6-7 8-9

16-17 18-19 20-21 22-23 24-25 26-27 28-29 30-31 32-33


M

Aldus Manutius Ottmar Mergenthaler Max Miedinger Stanley Morison William Morris

Adriana Mendez

34-35 36-37 38-39 40-41 42-43

Punchcutting

Luis H. Cardenas

44-45

Paul Renner

Luis H. Cardenas

46-47

Schoeffer &Faust

Heather Fugate

48-49

Lauren Kosiara

Tayler Westlake James Case

50-51 52-53 54-55

Karissa Moll

56-57

P

R S

T

William Thorowgood Jan Tschichold Carol Twombly

Z

Hermann Zapf Appendix

Matthew Bruce Lisa Danielson Matthew Bruce Betsy Lambright

59-70

Table Of Contents

All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z

VII


Introduction

VIII

Table Of Contents

All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z


Man is an innovator. There is a part of human nature which compels us to better ourselves and improve our way of life. A life which once was a constant struggle to survive has evolved to one rich in emotional and material comforts. This progression has been possible through the transference of knowledge. We have learned from our mistakes and have been able to benefit from our forefather’s wisdom. Perhaps man’s greatest innovation has been that of written language, the tool that has allowed us to record what we have learned for our posterity’s benefit. Started as a method of identifying goods in Mesopotamia, written language consisted primarily of single symbols stamped to the sides of barrels and pottery. These stamps eventually evolved into pictographs, where in Egypt when used in sequence told tales on the great columns of Egyptian temples. The invention of papyrus met the need for a more efficient way of recording information. Hieroglyphs were replaced by hieratics. This laborious method of communicating was further modified by the Phoenicians who developed the alphabet. The Greeks borrowing from the merchant Phoenicians, improved the alphabet, passed it on to the Etruscans who gave it to the Romans, who made it a thing of beauty although with three less letters (J,U,and W) than what we currently use. Their eloquent buildings were ornamented with the characters we still use today.

With the passing of the Roman Empire culture, education, governance, philosophy became the providence of the church. During much of what is now referred to as Medieval Ages, much education and bookmaking was relegated to monks and the other individuals in religious life. Books were painstakingly copied by hand and illustrated in full color by a select few who had the skills to make a book. Books were rare and expensive items. Scholasticism and later the Renaissance created a need for broader and more efficient communications first on behalf of the church and then later as a means of advancing humanist interests. The invention in the West of movable typography, papermaking and printing met that need. Books could be made by the thousands and their information available to an ever increasing audience. With this increase of knowledge came a renewed interest in the classics, the glory of Rome and the beauty of the Roman characters. Classical letterforms were studied and analyzed. That research, in the 15th century, resulted in the letterforms we use today, their shape having been fixed in hot-metal in the later half of the Renaissance. The developments in communications from then to now have been great though the alphabet has remained largely the same. This work honors the designers who have made those changes and in doing so, changed the way we read and learn.

Introduction

All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z

IX


X

All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z


All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z

Lisa Danielson, Editor

Typographers

All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z

1


1810

Advertising History of Advertising in America: Advertising has responded to changing business demands, media technologies, and cultural contexts. In the late 19th century, ads still hadn’t picked up their characteristic colorful, eye-catching designs. Typefaces were typically plain and small. In the 1880s, industries ranging from soap to canned food to cigarettes introduced new production and sought to find and persuade buyers. National advertising of branded goods emerged in this period. Along with changes in what was to be advertised, changes to how advertisements were produced improved as well. The Rise of the Lithograph: Alois Senefelder invented the lithograph in 1799, although it wasn’t seen in America until 1819. Senefelder is also credited with the discovery of the transfer process. This was a great discovery as it allowed people to ‘copy’ previously existing text and images.

learned any fool can “ I’ve write a bad ad, but it takes a real genius to keep his hands off a good one.”

~ Leo Burnett

Typefaces: As printed material began to branch out from the familiar realm of books, new typefaces were needed for use in advertising, posters, and flyers. Vincent Figgins first commercially introduced slab serif type under the name “Antique,” dated 1815 and 1817. They are often called, “Egyptian” because at the time, Napoleon had just returned from Egypt and a lot of

Above: Magazine Cover: Lippincott’s Monthly Catalog (slab serif), 1896

discoveries were being made. The name has nothing to do with the type relating to Egyptian letterforms at all. Slab serifs are characterized by thick, block like serifs, angular or rounded terminals, and they are generally displayed without a bracket. Another kind of display type are the fat faces, which further exaggerate the modern feel of slab serif type. Fat faces were introduced in 1820. They place extra emphasis on any vertical serifs, which often acquire a wedge shape. Bodoni Ultra, Normande and Elephant are all examples of fat face types which are closely based on early to mid-19th Century originals. Wood type was developed in 1870-1900. It gets its name from the fact that it was generally cut out wood, rather than metal. Wood type letterfoms generally have overall dark lines and are often associated with the “Old West” time period because they were so iconic of America at that time. These kinds of advertising display typefaces are still used today, although in more modernized forms. ~ Lauren Kosiara

Above: Lithograph Printing in Progress, 1920

Advertising

All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z

3


b

b

B

"Died. On Monday last, at Easy Hill in thisTown, Mr John Baskerville; whose memory will be perpetuated, by the Beauty and Elegance of his Printing, which he carried to a very great Perfection."

-- 23rd January.1775


Baskerville

1706

John

John Baskerville was born on January 28, 1706 in town of Wolverly, England. Little is known of Baskerville’s early life. We do know that in 1757 he opened a printing house and published his first work. The work was an edition of Virgil. Baskerville’s printing style became known for being clean and clear. He was known for careful, quality work. Baskerville’s style was also known for using very minimal ornamentation. Baskerville served as a printer to Cambridge University in 1758. He later printed a folio bible in 1763, which some found a bit contradictory because he was a known atheist. Baskerville was also known his advancements in the field of paper making. He was able to develop a new technique that lead to a smoother, whiter paper then had been used previously. This paper was also an excellent was to better showcase Baskerville’s striking black type. Baskerville was also one of the earliest printers to experiment with typography by widening the margins, and increasing the line leading of the work he printed. This also helped to add emphasis to his typefaces.

printed a “ [Baskerville] folio bible in 1763, which some found a bit contradictory because he was a known atheist.”

Baskerville was a man of many trades, and is very well known, not only for his papers and printing techniques, but also for the typefaces he designed. Since the 1920’s, many of the typefaces designed by Baskerville saw a new wave of popularity, with Linotype, Monotype, and various other type foundries

Above: Typography designed by John Baskerville.

releasing his work. The typefaces Baskerville designed were modern, having level serifs, and placing emphasis on the contrast of heavy and light lines. In fact, his typefaces found favor in the eyes of Benjamin Franklin, who brought them over with him to America. These typefaces then became used for most federal government publishing. The type foundry Emigre released one of Baskerville’s typefaces in 1996, calling it Mrs. Eaves, after his wife. Baskerville’s work was innovative for his time, and has had the lasting strength to remain popular in the world of design today. ~ Heather Fugate

Above: Portrait of John Baskerville.

John Baskerville

All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z

5


DESIGN FREEDOM

Benton

claims that THIS machine, “with one man operating it, could cast MORE spacing material in a 10 hour day than 10 men working the same period could turn out with other methods!�

Punch Cutting Machine


1844/1872

Linn Boyd/Morris

Benton

  Linn Boyd Benton (1844 -1932) and his son Morris Fuller Benton (1872–1948) were a memorable American type team. Linn Boyd Benton is one of the founders of ATF (American Type Founders Company), which began in 1892 as a unified group of typographers. His son, Morris, who was one of the key figures in the company, created type that is still widely used today.   Being an engineer, Linn made huge success from his invention of a pantographic punch-cutting machine, which industrialized the production of type. This machine was intelligible in the simplification of matrix production. The pantograph punch-cutting machine allowed typographers to cut matrices in their own unique design, which can be in an array of sizes with less effort. Designers were now able to easily dabble with the scale of type from a master template. The form of the letter was traced through a pantographic aparatus to engrave a punch. Therefore, the punch was a direct execution of the drawing. As an inventor and businessman, Linn laid the ground work for future type technologies, as well as forever changed the process of American typography.

most successful “ The face was created in 1924, Century Schoolbook, which exceeded expectations.

Above: Sales room in American Type Founders Company.

The first Century typeface was cut by Linn Boyd Benton working with T. L. De Vinne for Century magazine to replace the unfit typeface they had previously used. A few years later, Century Expanded followed it. Morris Fuller Benton made several other versions of Century, as well as versions of Schoolbook for ATF, starting around 1919. The most successful face

was created in 1924, Century Schoolbook, which exceeded expectations. It is described as round, open, and durable, and appears heavier than most serif fonts. It is composed of well defined counters, bracketed serifs, a high x-height, and short descenders. Because of it’s legibility, it is commonly used in publishing, and in particular, as the titles implies, educational publishing. With Century Schoolbook, generations of children have learned to read. Morris designed around fifty typefaces which range from reviving historical models as well as original work. Some of these well-known fonts consist of Cloister, American Garamond, Bulmer, Cheltenham, ATF Bodoni, and Linoscript. Morris also designed two of the most sturdy sans serif faces of the 20th century in Franklin Gotic and News Gothic. ~ Rachel Moore

Above: Printer’s typecase of Century Schoolbook moveable lead type at the San Francisco Center for the Book.

Linn Boyd Benton/Morris Benton

All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z

7


“A unique letterform of

“A unique BODONI letterform of “A suchunique beuty to letterform be admiredoffor such beauty to its own sake” be admired for its own sake”


1740

Giambattista

Bodoni Bodoni has been a highly admired and utilized family of typefaces since 1790. The type family was named after its creator, Giambattista Bodoni. The son of an Italian printer, Bodoni was born in Saluzzo, Piedmont, Italy in 1740. He was an aspiring type designer very early in life, as he began to engrave his first letters in wood as a child. He soon went to Rome to work as an apprentice for the Press of the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith, the missionary arm of the Roman Catholic Church. There he made extraordinary progress and showed his devotion to the art of printmaking by mastering ancient languages and type faces. Bodoni soon proved himself to be an unprecedented typographer, engraver, type designer and printer.

best known [book of “ the Bodoni’s] is his Manuale

tipografico (‘Inventory of Types’).”

In Bodoni’s early type design, he used old-style typefaces with decorative embellishments and fine detail. Bodoni was influenced by the typefaces of John Baskerville and examined in great depth the designs of French type founders Pierre Simon Fournier and Firmin Didot. Bodoni’s style slowly transformed as he began to admire the typographical theories of the French printer, Pierre Didot. He was soon printing pages lacking decoration and incorporating modern style typefaces of his own design. The typeface family that claimed the Bodoni name appeared in 1790. Of the many books that he produced during this period, the best known is his Manuale tipografico (“Inventory of Types”) in 1788. This

Above: Bodoni specimine page

publication was an anthology of 291 roman and italic typefaces, along with samples of Russian, Greek, and other type designs of his own collection. Bodoni’s typefaces are known for an unmarked level of refinement. Bodoni typefaces are characterized as having extreme thicks and thins. His craft was so precise it allowed him to produce letterforms with delicate “hairline” thin strokes, creating sharp contrast to the bold lines of the main stems of each letterform. The more highly styled of this group have been claimed “to be admired for typeface and layout, not to be studied or read.” Admittedly, his books were praised more for their artistry than for textual validity. He printed a considerable number of important works to include editions of the writings of Horace and Virgil in 1791, and Homer’s Iliad in 1808. Bodoni died at Padua in 1813. However, his influence on typography can still be seen in present day type and design. In 1963, the Bodoni Museum was opened in Parma, Italy. ~ Mariella Cinquegrani

Above: Box of Bodoni Poster metal punches

Giambattista Bodoni

All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z

9


when

in doubt use

c a SLo N the founding document oĆ’ the united States, the declaration of independence, was set in Caslon types when it was Ĺżirst printed and distributed throughout the insurgent colonies. George bernard Shaw Ĺżamously insisted that all his books must be set in Caslon. William Caslon was the preeminent punch-cutter and type supplier of 18th century England, and his types crossed the Atlantic to become the standard medium or the printed word in the American colonies as well.


1692

William

Caslon Although William Caslon was a trained type cutter based in London, his work has long been associated with Colonial American printing. The distinction and readability of his characters secured the patronage of leading printers of the day in England and America. Caslon’s typefaces were used for the most important printed works in the mid-1700’s, including the United States’ Declaration of Independence. The declaration was printed in Caslon at the request of printer Benjamin Franklin, who hardly used any other typeface.

“ when in doubt, use Caslon”

Caslon began his work with letters as a young apprentice to an engraver of gunlocks in London, and subsequently set up his own foundry in 1716 at the relatively young age of 24. When his work came to the attention of the printer John Watts, Caslon was given the task of cutting type punches for various presses in London. The Caslon Foundry became the leading English type foundry of the 18th and early 19th century. After his death, the foundry was passed on to succeeding generations through William Caslon IV. The merits of Caslon’s types were rediscovered after a brief eclipse in the popularity of John Baskerville’s types. Caslon’s individual letters are less impressive than those of Baskerville and Giambattista Bodoni, but their regularity, legibility, and sensitive proportions constituted were a remarkable achievement in design of the day.

Above: A portion of a specimen printed by Caslon to showcase the options available. These specimen sheets were used by printers until the onset of digital type.

Caslon’s types became so popular that the expression about typeface choice, “when in doubt, use Caslon,” came about. William Caslon was important not because of the ground breaking design of his types—he largely followed the Dutch and French designs of the day— but because of the quality of his punch-cutting and engraving. His letters were attractive and carefully made, echoing the aesthetics evidenced in his training as a gun-barrel engraver. He paid attention to the relationships between letters on the page with a detail and care not seen in Britain at the time. Caslon continues to be a favored for book work due to its legibility and readability at text size. Although when viewed individually they appear somewhat homely, when set, they are comfortably readable in varying sizes, weights, and line lengths and widths. ~ Frances MacLeod

Above: A selection of Caslon steel punches. Only sixteen punches carved by Caslon remain in existence.

William Caslon

All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z

11


“He that wil wynne he muste laboure and aventure.”

William Caxton’s Reynard the Fox


1422

William

Caxton William Caxton is considered the first and most influential English printer. Throughout his professional career, he printed over 108 books and is responsible for making significant improvements to English literature. Among these achievements, he is most famous for introducing the printing press to England in 1475. William Caxton was born in the Weald of Kent in 1422. When he was sixteen, he moved to London to fulfill an apprenticeship with the influential merchant and member of the Worshipful Company of Mercers, Robert Large. After Larges death in 1441, Caxton journeyed to Bruges to become a merchant. While in Bruges, Caxton broaden his skills in oversea trading and contemporary politics and became an established merchant. However, in 1463 trade relations between the English and Burgundy became substandard because of the restriction on the sale of English cloth imposed in Burgundy.

History of Troy was the “ The first book to be printed in English.”

Consequently, in 1464, William Caxton lefts Flanders and moved to Utrecht, where he was was appointed Governor of the English Nation in 1465. Caxton eventually gave up his title and moved to Cologne in 1471. With the intentions of expanding his business, he decided to start printing and selling his

Above: Prologue from Game and Playe of the Chess, 1474.

own books. He formed a partnership with printer and type cutter, Johnnes Veldener. This partnership allowed them to print larger volumes of the material. At the time, there was an obsession with a need to elevate the English language to a more sophisticated level like French and Latin. Caxton was the first to translate classics novels in French and Latin into English and therefore established a monopoly. Although he was not well educated, he published what he believed were great works of art. In Cologne, he was able to obtain a printing press and learned more about the publishing business. The History of Troy was the first book to be printed in English. On March 31 1474, Caxton released his next book, Game and Playe of the Chess. Caxton soon ran into problems with the time management associated with translating books. As a result, the next four books he published were in French. Caxton’s final career move brought him to Westminster England in 1476. In Westminster, Caxton issued the edition princeps of The Canterbury Tales along with releasing his own translations of select English Poets. Caxton eventually married and had one daughter named Elizabeth. He died in March of 1492. ~ Brittany Carter

Above: William Caxton’s printers’ mark, after 1477

William Caxton

All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z

13


Paris,

France

Family of French printers, punch-cutters and publishers. François Didot m François-Ambroise Didot Pierre-François Didot m Pierre Didot m Firmin Didot m Henri Didot m Saint-Léger Didot Jules Didot m Ambroise-Firmin Didot m Edouard Didot

FRANCOIS-AMBROISE DIDOT, 1730-1804. Francois Ambroise learned the art of printing, and was even said to be “The best printer of his time” by Ben Franklin

First licensed French printer.

DIDOT FIRMIN DIDOT, 1764-1836. In 1781 he designed and popularized his first typeface ‘Didot’. The typeface Didot is considered the first modern roman typeface

Didot invented a new form of printing, stereotyping. The first book Didot stereotyped was Callet’s Tables of Logarithms in 1795. The typeface family known as Didot was designed by Firmin Didot in Paris in 1783. The Didot types defined the characteristics of the modern (or Didone) roman type style, with their substantial stems flowing into extremely thin hairlines; the serifs are straight across with virtually no bracketing. Because of the very fine hairlines that are characteristic of modern romans, their use was somewhat restricted in metal types.


1730 & 1764

Francois & Firmin

Didot

The Didot family consisted of learned 18th and 19th century printers, publishers and type founders. The House of Didot was responsible for the first modern typeface in 1784 and is most famously known today for housing the most influential French typographers. Francois Ambrose Didot was a second generation Didot born in 1730. His father, Francois Didot (1689-1757) was a printer and bookseller in Paris, France and the founder of The House of Didot.

“the best printer of his time.”

~ Ben Franklin

Following in his father’s footsteps, Francois Ambroise learned the art of printing, and was even said to be “The best printer of his time” by Ben Franklin. Taking inspiration from John Baskerville, he became the first licensed French printer in 1753. However, Francois Ambrose’s most significant contribution was in the 1770s when he perfected the 72-point system. Basing the point system on the French foot (piedde-roi), Didot’s improvements to the typographic point system standardized the art of typography. His accomplishments in typography also led him to become the printer to the clergy in 1788. Firmin Didot was Francois Ambroise Didot’s second son. Firmin was born in Paris, France in 1764 and was quickly brought into the family business. In 1781 he designed and popularized his first typeface ‘Didot’. With the hopes of improving typography, Didot discarded the rococo style and floral patterns that typography once was. Instead, he designed his typeface on neoclassical

Above: Francois Ambroise Didot, Biblilorum Sacrorum, 1785

characteristics, focusing on lucidity and legibility. The typeface Didot is considered the first modern roman typeface. Characterized by having a high contrast between thick and thin letter, the typeface was adored for its effortless symmetry and clean lines. Firmin Didot was also responsible for innovations in book publishing. In order to lower the price of publishing books, Didot invented a new form of printing, stereotyping. A stereotype is a relief printing plate cast in a mold made from composed type or an original plate. With this process he was able to cheaply publish books in English, French and Italian. The first book Didot stereotyped was Callet’s Tables of Logarithms in 1795. He also was the author of two tragedies: La Reine de Portugal and La Mort d’Annibal. Napoleon appointed Didot director of the Imperial Foundry for his achievements in printing and he was later named the “Royal Printer” in 1814. After a long career, Firmin Didot passed the family business to his sons in 1827. ~ Brittany Carter

Above: Firmin Didot, Epitre sur Les Progres De Limpreimerie, 1784

Francois & Firmin Didot

All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z

15


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1712

Pierre Simon

Fournier Pierre Simon Fournier was not only a Parisian typefounder, but an engraver, punch-cutter and typographic theoretician as well. He was the son of a printer and grew up wood-engraving, but eventually decided to put all his energy into type design. Fournier contributed many important attributes to the world of typography in the mid-eighteenth century, many of which are still a vital part of our everyday interactions with type.

typographic “ Fournier’s skills lay in his modernization of typeforms.”

For example, Fournier is probably best known for creating the first point system in 1737. The French government thought that there needed to be a type standard, so Fournier created it, with 72 points to the french inch. This system was later revised and picas were added to the system. Fournier was also played a key role to help revive the concept of type

Above: Fournier’s grosses de fonte.

ornaments from the 1500s with his publication Modèles des Caractères, which had rococo and fleurons adorning the pages. He was always looking to be inovative and create new things. He created many typefaces in which the line strokes varied from very thinck to very thin lines, which put the letters in hugh risk of breaking. Fournier was actually comissioned by Louis XIV to create new types for use during his rein with punishments in place for unauthorized use. He had great interest in music, so it’s no surprise that he went on in his career to create music typestyle that changed the way music could be read. The printing of music up to that point had been quite difficult to read, but with Fournier’s interpretation of the notes, it was easier to read and far more elegant. Pierre Simon Fournier’s stamp on typography is irrefutable, as it set a standard for future design. ~ Jilian Barthold

Above: Fournier’s petite musique used in the Anthologic françoise

Pierre Simon Fournier

All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z

17


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1928

Adrian

Frutiger Adrian Frutiger is seen as a French typographer, but he was actually born and educated in Switzerland. Even at a young age he had an understanding of graphic techniques and was interested in painting and sculpture. He had many ideas and was viewed as a uniquely talented individual. In 1944, he started a four-year apprenticeship in Interlaken, while also taking courses at the Zurich School of Arts and Crafts.

it is a good design, “ When the reader has to feel comfortable because the letter is both banal and beautiful.”

~ Adrian Frutiger

Frutiger moved to France after a few years of studying in Switzerland because the strict Swiss culture was wearing him down. He took a position at a typecasting company called Deberny & Peignot, where he was able to express himself freely. Peignot wanted to create a linear sans serif antiqua that had many weights, but wanted to just modify an old font. Frutiger was opposed to this, and in the end, used old sketches from school to form this new font, Univers. The sketches were extremely concerned with positivenegative forms, as well as being highly legible. Frutiger developed them into a family of 21 font styles. They became a portion of the while and could be used interchangeably with one another. The fonts displayed order and sophistication, while other fonts that tried to encourage order, like Helvetica, fell short of having a

Above: Frutiger’s method for establishing widths and weights of the Univers family.

personality. Univers quickly gained fame and was recognized for its versatility. Most notably, it was used as the corporate image for the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich, Germany. Later on, as Univers became more and more popular, Linotype Library AG hired Frutiger to redesign Univers so that it could compete with other digital fonts. Because of this effort, Univers now is comprised of 59 fonts and is used by contemporary designers and agencies throughout the universe. The success of Univers led to many commissions for Frutiger. Sometime in 1975, he started working on the directional signs for the Charles de Gaulle Airport. He needed something that was practical and sans serif. He decided to create a typeface specifically for the airport. The font mirrored aspects of Univers, but Frutiger wanted it to be more personable and reflect the curves of the terminal’s architecture. At first, the type was called Roissy (the town in which the airport stood), but was later changed to Frutiger when Linotype adapted it. Even though this font was supposed to have a specific purpose, it was seen as a very timeless font because of Frutiger’s mastery of graphic communication. ~ Sevonne Tuvia

Above: An information system at the Charles De Gaulle Airport. Frutiger typeface is used here.

Adrian Frutiger

All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z

19


r a m r a a a moonndd

G

was one of the first

punch cutters

to work independently

1480


Garamond

1480

Claude

Claude Garamond was a french publisher born in Paris, France in 1480. His name was originally spelled with a ‘t’ at the end, but under the influence of standardized French spelling, the ‘d’ became customary and stuck. Garamond was one of the leading type designers his time. Several typefaces show his influence such as, Garamond, Granjon, and Sabon. He based his ROMAIN DE L’UNIVERSITE’ on designs by Aldus Manutius. Garamond also introduced the apostrophe, the accent and the cedilla to the French language, and was considered a renaissance man. His authentic Roman was completed in one size (24 point), in 1922. In about 1510, he started out his career as an apprentice to Antoine Augereau, who was a teacher, punchcutter, printer and publisher in France. Garamond was the first to specialize in type design, punch cutting, and type-founding in Paris as a service to many famous publishers.

was the first to “ Garamond specialize in type design, punch cutting, and type-founding in Paris as a service to many famous publishers.”

Above: Garamond Roman 6 point to 12 point.

Angelo Vergecio; the librarian to King Francis I. Garamond also based his type on Griffo, a Roman typeface. Garamond’s Romans were closely modeled after Aldus Manutius’ designs, who he admired. In 1545, Garamond began publishing books with his printer, Pierre Gaultier. He also began featuring his own typefaces, including a new italic typeface. Garamond started working with French humanGaramond’s first book published was titled, Pia et ist and engraver, Geofroy Tory by 1520, as his assistant. religiosa Medditatio of David Chambellan. As a Garamond started to become a prominent figure in type publisher, Garamond prided himself on his creativity design around 1541. This was when three of his Greek and discipline to produce well crafted products. He typefaces were requested for a book series by Robert modeled his book publishing to the Venetian printers Estienne, who was the royal typographer in Paris. In who catered to the elites of high society. Garamond this case, Garamond was commissioned to create a always insisted on clarity in design, generous page typeface for the French king, Francis I. This typeface was margins, quality composition, paper and printing and later adopted for France’s printing. The classification for great binding. Garamond was the first to make type Garamond is old style serif. The lowercase letters of available to printers at an affordable price. Some more Garamond were influenced by the handwriting of contemporary uses of Garamond can be seen in the popular Dr. Seuss books, Harry Potter books, and Apple, Inc. ~ Lisa Danielson

Above: Roman text face by Claude Garamond.

Claude Garamond

All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z

21


Eric Gill “If you look after goodness and truth, beauty will take care of itself—Eric Gill”


1882

Eric

Gill Eric was born in Brighton, Essex the second child of a large family. Early on, his ability in drawing was notable and so he attended Chichester Technical and Art School, located near his family’s new home in Chichester. At seventeen years of age, his interest in architecture and letter form design led to him being apprenticed to the architect to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners in Westminster, W.H. Caroë. At around this time, Gill also began letter carving under the principle of the Central School of Arts and Crafts, W.R. Lethaby: this led to him getting commissions. At the Central School, Gill attended lettering classes taught by Edward Johnston, a follower of William Morris. Gill was greatly influenced by Johnston’s approach to type, which held well-crafted, simple design over decorative, late-victorian styles.

was commissioned “ [Gill] by Stanley Morison to develop Gill Sans typeface.”

The two men worked and even shared a room at Lincoln’s Inn, until Johnston’s marriage in 1903. Gill married shortly after and began a life-long career as a freelance craftsman, with success. Early in his career he was commissioned by various people to paint business signs, as well as draw and engrave lettering for book designs. With concern for providing for his young family, he moved out of his workshop in Hammersmith and relocated to the Sussex village of Ditchling, in 1907. Here he began to carve sculpture, and receive commissions for large projects such as his work for the BBC on Broadcasting House in Portland Place, London: this particular job made him famous. In 1913 Gill and his wife were received into the Roman Catholic Church,

Above: Sample of Gill Sans Regular.

and even did work for Cathedral in Westminster. Then in 1916, Hilary Pepler, an acquaintance of his from Hammersmith, set up a small hand-press workshop where much of Gill’s early engravings were done. In 1924, Gill moved his business to an abandoned monastery in the Welsh mountains at Capel-y-ffin.   Eventually, Gill began developing type designs for monotype production, and was commissioned by Stanley Morison to develop Gill Sans typeface, which was based off the lettering painted for Douglas Cleverdon’s bookshop in 1926. The face became widely popular when Cecil Dandridge commissioned Gill to produce it for used in the London and North Eastern Railway. Throughout his whole career, he produced several other typefaces, some of which include Perpetua, Joanna, Pilgrim, and Jubilee. Despite his success as a typographer, he described himself as a stone carver on his own gravestone. ~ James Case

Above: Gill’s drawing of a ‘constructed’ capital I, and a natural one, with comments, in a letter to Stanley Morison, November 1926.

Eric Gill

All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z

23


Gutenberg

1398

Johannes

Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg was born in the German city of Mainz, around 1398. He was a German inventor, engraver and printer who created movable type printing in approximately 1439, and also attributed with inventing the mechanical printing press. His masterpiece was completed c. 1450; the design consisted of two 42-line columns per page. Also known as the Mazarin Bible, it was printed as two volumes and contains 1,200 pages. About 180 copies were produced, of which 48 are known to have survived to the present day. The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible) has been acclaimed for its high aesthetic and technical quality.

admirable art of “ The typography was invented by the ingenious Johannes Gutenberg at Mainz in 1450 . ”

He also is the inventor of a process for mass-producing movable type, the use of oil-based ink, and the use of a wooden printing press similar to the screw olive and wine presses of the period. His truly epochal invention was the combination of these elements into a practical system. Gutenberg may have been Above: Page from Gutenberg’s 42 line Bible. familiar with printing. It is claimed that he had worked on copper engravings with an artist known as the Master of the Playing Cards. Gutenberg’s method for making type is traditionally considered to have included a type The use of movable type was a marked metal alloy and a hand mould for casting type. improvement on the handwritten manuscript, woodblock printing, and revolutionized European book making. Gutenberg’s printing technology spread rapidly throughout Europe and is considered a key factor in the European Renaissance. Gutenberg died on February 3, 1468. ~ Adriana Mendez

Above: Photograph of Gutenberg’s mechanical printing press.

Johannes Gutenberg

All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z

25


No. 89

Licko designs Emigre fonts


1961

Zuzana

Licko The forms of digital fonts completely changed when Zuzana Licko became a type designer. She decided to make a few rebellious moves towards typography. A few of her most popular designs are her interpretation of previous designed typefaces, such as Baskerville and Bodoni with a more modern flare. When the first Macintosh came out in 1984, she took her ideas into the digital world of design and everything just exploded from there.

“ You read best what you read most.”

~ Zuzana Licko

Licko is originally from Czechoslovia, but moved to the United States as a young girl. She then went on to study at the University of California at Berkeley, receiving a degree in graphic communications. While there she met Rudy VanderLans while he was a graduate student studying photography. Not only was he her partner in the founding of Emigre, he is also her husband. Licko is the co-founder, but has contributed quite her share to the essence of what makes the magazine so great. She has designed over two dozen typeface families specifically while working with Emigre. The Emigre foundry has been recognized for many prestigious awards including, Chrysler Award, AIGA gold medals and a Charles Nypels Award for Innovation in Typography.

Above: Excerpt from the exhibit at the MOMA in New York.

Emperor, Emigre and Oakland were some of her first typefaces to be sold. Her more popular typeface, Mrs. Eaves, was based off of the more classical typeface, Baskerville. Plus more recently she has created a Mr. Eaves as well, which resembles similar techniques and styles. Since the start of digitally creating typefaces, Licko keeps trying to find a happy medium between the machine, the design, and style. Licko’s font Citizen did just that in getting a smoother bitmap print from the new laser printers. The fonts were designed to be a companion to the printers with the new Macintosh. Emigre’s content, or particular issue, has changed from theory to music-orientated. One thing has remained the same over the years. Every publication becomes a testing ground for type designers to show their work and see a reaction. Licko and VanderLans still operate the Emigre Foundry today, much of the merchandise and magazine copies can be purchased through the website. ~ Lauren Headley

Above: Page from Emigre the book.

Zuzana Licko

All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z

27


Herb LubaLin 1918-1981


1918

Herb

Lubalin Herb Lubalin was an art director, graphic designer, and typographer whose expressive typography and unique style changed the way designers approached letter forms. Lubalin avoided the limitations of specialization, and his innovative design encompassed everything from postage stamps to packaging to advertising to travelling exhibits for the United States Government. During his undergraduate studies at Cooper Union, Lubalin became enamored with typography, and this love had far-reaching effects on the world of graphic design.

typographic genius of “ the his time.”

~ anonymous

He was fascinated by the look and sound of words, and he expanded on their message with typographic impact. Idea preceded design in his work, and he used available production methods to underline the drama present in the message. While many of his contemporaries despised the new technology that emerged in the 1960’s and 70’s, Lubalin embraced the changing mechanical constraints and used photographic typography to his advantage. Lubalin’s private studio allowed him to undertake a large variety of projects, including several magazines published by Ralph Ginzburg: Eros, Fact, and Avant

Above: Herb Lubalin’s Avant Garde is recognized as one of the most successful new typefaces of the 20th century. The typeface contains many glyphs and ligatures that allow the letters to nest in Lubalin’s characteristic style.

Garde. Each was controversial for the time, and Ginzburg was sent to prison for violating obscenity laws. The publications subsequently folded but were widely respected for their graphic impact and controversial topics. The typeface Avant Garde was an outgrowth of the masthead logo for Avant Garde magazine. Avant Garde was intended for use only in the magazine, and only in upper case. Lower case characters had to be developed before the typeface was made available for commercial distribution after 1970. Lubalin worked with associates to complete Lubalin Graph as a serif version of Avant Garde that was released through his International Typeface Corporation (ITC). The ITC was one of the world’s first type foundries to design, license and market typefaces for film setting. Lubalin found his ultimate niche as editor and designer of U&lc, a trade newspaper for the typographic industry with a large international readership. From 1973 until his death in 1981, Lubalin tested the limits of expressive lettering and showcased the work of fellow typographers. ~ Frances MacLeod

Above:Lubalin designed every aspect of U&Ic, including this cover from 1976 that highlighted America’s celebration of the bicentennial.

Herb Lubalin

All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z

29


Ludlow The Ludlow Typograph was invented in 1904, and completed for manufacturing in 1912 by the Ludlow Typograph Company. The Ludlow Typograph, created by William I. Ludlow is a metal typesetting system utilized in early 20th Century letterpress printing. The Typograph was a unique semimechanical machine exhibiting all of the advantages of hand-setting and slug composition, without any of the disadvantages associated with these types of letterpress techniques. This innovated invention consisted of a casting utility, matrices, cabinets, a stick, and spaces. The matrices were arranged and justified by hand in a matrix stick.

1920 the [typograph] “ bymachine was in service in

over 350 printing offices.”

The benefit of assembling type by hand was that there were no mechanical problems associated with a keyboard, which was prevalent among machines of this nature. The arranged lines of type matrices would be locked into a wooden groove on the device. The machine had a heated crucible of liquid metal, primarily lead, that was injected into the casting mould and matrices to create a slug. After the metal was cooled by water, it was then released from the matrices and moved onto a galley automatically by the machine. This machine was favored over the Linotype for many reasons. The most important of which was that the printer always had clean type to work with,

Above: Photo of the Ludlow Typograph.

and the machine created an unlimited supply of new typefaces. In comparison, it required much less floor space, and was a simpler machine with less movable parts. Also, the Ludlow was an inexpensive alternative to the Linotype, and was also capable of relatively speedy typesetting. The composer could justify type faster than foundry type while still producing the highest quality typefaces. The Ludlow was capable of setting type from 4 to 96 point. It was also able to set type up to 144 point by simply arranging the larger letter blocks vertically before casting. The Ludlow Typograph’s conveniences were noticed by many typesetters, and by 1920 the machine was in service in over 350 printing offices. However, with new technologies came the collapse of relevance and demand of Letterpress Printing. Most manufacturers of line casters and type casters have since mostly been extinct. However, Ludlow continues to stay in business in Chicago, where the original Ludlow Typograph Company began in 1912, supplying matrices and casting machines to rubber stamp manufacturers, and private pressmen who continue to use metal printing techniques. ~ Betsy Lambright

Above: Letters set in matrix stick for the typograph machine.

William Ludlow

All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z

31

1843

William


ALDUS MANUTIUS 15th Century Publisher Inventor of the semicolon, developer of the first paper back book, commissioner of the first italic type, the fonts Bembo, Poliphilus and Aldus, and cofounder of the Aldine press.


1450

Aldus

Manutius Born sometime in 1450 in Italy, Aldus Manutius , (the Elder), is known as the developer of the semi colon and the first italicized type . He also gained recognition for producing smaller vellum bound books called the “portable octavo” that were affordable to the public, and may have influenced what is known as the paper back book today. Italicized type was more condensed than roman type, so his pocket sized books were economical. Manutius received his education in Rome and began his career as a humanist teacher. Manutius was the tutor two of his cousins, princes of Capri, and it was one such cousin who later on provided him with funds for his printing press. In 1489, with his own printing press, Manutius moved to Venice where his talents were put to good use. He was made leading publisher and printer of the Venetian High Renaissance.

of nothing but business, “ Talk and dispatch that business quickly.”

~Aldus Manutius

In his time working under this position, Aldus commissioned punch-cutter Francesco Griffo to develop the first italicized cursive type, introduced a standardized system of punctuation and made significant changes to book formatting at the time. He also developed his personal publishing logo, a Dolphin wrapped around an anchor, which is used today by the publishing company Doubleday. Manutius had a great admiration for Greek classics and humanist authors, and printed the works of Aristotle, Pliny, Virgil, Plutarch, Thuscydides, Cicero, Aristophaes, Euripides, etc. His first edition was Dante in 1502. Along

Above: The book, Hypernerotomachia Poliphili, printed by Aldus Manutius in Venice in 1499.

with classics, Manutius published scientific and religious essays, grammars and political writings. Manutius printed mainly in Greek and apprenticed a team of Greek scholars to help him. Inspired by culture and his own intellectual goals, in 1502 he founded the New Academy, an academy of Hellenists to promote Greek Studies. In 1494, Aldus joined firms with business partner Andrea Torresano of Asola, and created the Aldine Press. The Aldine Press is famous in the history of Typography and over 127 editions were printed from it during Aldus’s life alone. After Manutius’s death in 1515, the company was carried on by Andrea Torresano’s two sons, and then in 1533 by Aldus’s son Paulus . Antique books are still being printed from the Aldine Press, and are now known as Aldines. ~ Betsy Lambright

Above: Aldus Manutius believed that all of his books should be clearly identified by his publishers logo, a dolphin wrapped around an anchor.

Aldus Manutius

All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z

33


INTRODUCING THE

LINOTYPE MACHINE!

Invented by Ottmar Mergenthaler, the Linotype machine makes printing easier and faster than ever before! This revolutionary new machine allows one operator to be a machinist, type-setter, justifier, typefounder, and type-distributor at the same time. Makes books, magazines and newspapers much more affordable!

Ottmar Mergenthaler


1854

Ottmar

Mergenthaler Ottmar Mergenthaler was a German inventor, born in 1854 in Hachtel, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany. He was the third son of a school teacher. Mergenthaler originally wanted to become a watchmaker, even though his father opposed the idea. After much hesitation, his father apprenticed him to a relative named Hahl. He was apprenticed to Hahl, a watchmaker in Bietigheim at the age of 14, before moving to Baltimore, Maryland in 1872. He also attended technical school classes at night, since his father was not financially able to send him to study engineering at a formal school. In the beginning of Mergenthaler’s career before moving to the States, Mergenthaler worked on knives and tools in Hahl’s shop, and obtained his first patent at the age of 20. In 1876, he was asked by Charles Moore to construct a better model of a machine that would eliminate type-setting by hand. After 4 years of working with Hahl, Mergenthaler immigrated to the United States and became a naturalized citizen in 1878. While working in a machine shop, he began experimenting with type molds. He worked on plans for a device to make type molds out of paper mache.

Before Mergenthaler’s “invention of the linotype

Above: The same type of Lithograph machine that was invented by Mergenthaler

machine, newspapers never had no more than eight pages to them.”

Mergenthaler has been called a second Gutenburg, because of his invention of the linotype machine. He invented the linotype machine in 1886, at the age of 32. This machine made it faster and easier to set complete lines of test for printing. It allowed an operator to automatically set metal type, and revolutionized the whole printing industry and the art of printing much like Gutenburg. It also allowed just one

operator to be a machinist, type-setter, justifier, typefounder, and type-distributor at the same time. With the linotype machine, the two operations of setting and casting type in leaden lines were performed by touching the keys of a board, similar to a keyboard on a typewriter. Before Mergenthaler’s invention of the linotype machine, newspapers never had no more than eight pages to them. With the machine’s help, books and magazines were printed much quicker. This invention lead to more affordable books and magazines in the decades that followed. Mergenthaler’s invention of the linotype machine is said to be the greatest advance in the printing industry since the invention of movable type 400 years earlier. Ottmar Mergenthaler died of tuberculosis at the age of 44 in Baltimore, Maryland in 1899. At the time of his death, there were more than 7,000 linotype machines in use at newspapers and printing houses worldwide. ~ Lisa Danielson

Above: Photograph of Ottmar Mergenthaler

Ottmar Mergenthaler

All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z

35


1910

Max

Miedinger Max Miedinger was a twentieth century type designer responsible for the design of the typeface Helvetica. Miedinger started working with design in Zurich, Sitzerland at the age of 16. In Zurich, he did did various typeography work for Zurich based companies while attending classes at night. Between 1947 and 1956, Miedinger worked as a type sales consultant for the company that would later hire him as a type designer. In 1956, Eduard Hoffmann, of Haas’sche Schriftgiesserei, recruited Miedinger to design a new san serif typeface. Die Neue Haas Grotesk was born from the assignment. The two men continued work and revision of the new typeface with a mission to create a universal typeface that would be suitable for nearly any application. After meticulous studies of various weights, point sizes, and word combinations, Hass Grotesk was complete in 1959 and it’s name was changed to Helvetica (Which is part of the latin name for Switzerland).

typefaces, historyical “ Few or contemporary, can say

they get the same exposure as Helvetica.”

So what makes Helvetica such a big deal? The typeface was designed at a time when when the notion of corporate identity was on the rise. Many advertisements contain hand designed type that looked, to say the least, unprofessional. Corporate identity, or lack there of, consisted of multiple typefaces that were typically embellished or overly ornate. There was no consistency, until Helvetica was born. To many designers, the arrival of Helvetica was the arrival of an ideal that had not yet been set. With its even stroke weights, tall x-height, dynamic contrast, and all horizontal terminals, it was a clean and highly legible typeface. Corporations would come to a design agency with folders of current design

Above: Nike shoe specifications set in Helvetica. Note the “Less is more” at the bottom. The type choice for this display reflects that sentiment.

solutions. The agency could now make a simple, yet aesthetically appealing, revision to their solution using Helvetica and place the two solutions side-by-side. As you may suspect, the solution set in Helvetica won more times than not and is now the typeface for the word marks of handfuls of major corporations (3M, American Airlines, AT&T, Apple, NASA, Microsoft, Toyota, Verizon… and the list goes on). Few typefaces, historyical or contemporary, can say they get the same exposure as Helvetica. It is seen everywhere from a variety of corporate identities, to the New York City and Chicago public transportation systems, to every iPod. If Max Miedinger’s goal was to create a typeface that was more legible and universal than and existing type, I would argue his success has yet to be overcome. ~ Matthew Bruce

Above: Revision pages from original Helvetica drawing.

Max Miedinger

All You Need Is Type A Guide From A-Z

37


ALL THE NEWS ALL THE TIME LARGEST HOME DELIVERED CIRCULATION LARGEST ADVERTISING VOLUME

MADISON 4829 THE TIMES TELEPHONE NUMBER

VOL. LIX

The Times

IN THREE PARTS-48 PAGES

PART 1 GENERAL NEWS-26 PAGES

SUNDAY MORNING, NOVEMBER 23rd 1932

Typographer Creates new Typeface the Times New Roman, Changes Readability of Printed News

peared in the newspapers (above) -- did so, without a smile on Frank’s face.

Volorro omnis sam dit, qui dolorpor arum expliquam quas ium dicia sam quo doluptatius. Consenis apissit aut ullame aut et faccabo remquaspedi re ommoditatia que nonecae. Dant porempor aut aborem esci atquosa et quam faccabora qui od ulparia necae. Nametur sum et omnihilla eliquod magnis mos exerro blaut volorehendit aceperi id esto voloreh endant a et facerchilla sequat entium. Voluptae re, utempel lendunt lacipsum as esed que dus, sum nemqui dustis nulparc hillese rferum ratust renia numet laborectem qui il ipid ea volorro officiet faceseque ped qui omnieni. Squatas eum volo eum harcimus in cumeni ad ex et quo volupta temperovid mi, erecest, quaest, incteni muscipienim quam quo tem. Dolorio restrum qui ommolor archil isim fuga. Tus dolest eriaectatur sit, ommo quiam ima poreptatur? Solut fugiam expero cum res non ped mod ut volorep erepudae ene cusam fugiae ma saperias eat inume consedit laut. Dendi beris moloreped unti conseque aut ad quae porumenditae sa dolende ne poribus dolor ad quat. Ique quiam et que et labori dolenis aut mil estiatem in pe con preiur? Quidit quae optatus, consequi bea is et aligendi temporro temquatius. Audi re iditatur ma dis voluptati num volorerum volorem natet utempor ad endi dolupta speres vid eos ma dolor maiori officimin nulpa estrunda quam, que quis rem quam qui volorem re venimus. Ictur autat. Por aliquae maio. Agnihil laccabo. Exerum num imusae. Nam voluptatur rereici mpernatat.Ehendes. Nihilitaqui ius. Ugiam, nectemo lupidicius maximus il ipsam coratisciur, volorest, es sum eos inum atem serroviducid quunt earcien impellis. Remperores aut hitat aut earumquaspel moluptat dest aliamus as solorrum voluptates utas endaeptatur rem. Incillitis doluptas mod mo coraepero te nimus etum archill aborem fugita vidunt ea parumqui. Tem que nobitat enihicaerum qui omnis dest liquias andiam, id et labo. Uptaecaborio ommolorum is es vel int prorendit arumquis maio eos sum di nusa etur autem. Quatemperunt laboreicatem istio qui aut unt eum inullac eatiosto quiae que etur modigenis aut est eaquam quatemporum fuga. Nemporeped que eiciendae posam voluptur? Mus, qui consequi imus pro eatiosa perupta sperovit, qui dolorem

Elmiran Lost with Titanic 20 Years Ago.

Stanley Morison of Monotype

LONDON Friday November 21st, the Times office, 1334 9th Avenue.

After publicly critisizing the quality of typeface in printed news, typographer and graphic designer Stanley Morison wowed all of London this week with his unveiling of new typeface Times New Roman.

Immediately accepted by the public as the new standard in printed news and culture, Times New Roman is being incorprated by printing agencies all accross the U.K. Ximi, occust distias es arum hilla voluptati dem quis post laboreptatur asinum et ant assimi, aspient. Quist, il excest anditio nseque core pliquunt offic to id modit labore sinctur renis apitatur sequibus et inciust et veniti dis dem dolor magnitate volorumet quas recab iust, simolorest, volorrum vit et la doloratet etur? Poresto cori commodicatur autas aliquo totam, omnis. Mo cum nis ut aut aut rererumqui inctur aut aut volorpo rerae. Ut errum et et quibus. Tem fuga. Ibus velis dolut dit poratusam eium volenim aionsec torehent volenitatquo que suscipsam. Tem derrum quatiur sum re, que omni officia tusciatum explam, sit que eos aut liquatem am re dolutem et maio. Et qui ut est volorum eventium venihil iquidelis non corum qui dios renis ea corest, nos ulparum sapid exeriae pa conseriam num. Volentur, voluptaquo volla iust, voloreh eniam, coreiuntem raestia inciant. Pid exerum etur, nis re dolorest et as ut eumquun ditaerum aperibus magnatus rem hicim quis aut lamendu sapellabore num et rerat. Giant etus, cum qui consequia

Bit, ut etum quiae as eum res ut ut ommoditi. Doluptatius, vendi aut anteceribus conemolor magnim fugit, quide volorum quatiam, voluptam derum expedicto magnihi litaeror mi, tet laces doluptur se nat eosa. Aut rem ut praepe et quatur sinvent orpore licium ilique ratinum. Omnimil is as et esediandant, optaepuditae estiume ndandi repedi temporiam, sim nossitaepe con. Et aped que por abor resenim voloriam, que voluptatis quasperis minis deliatquiat vid mos aut eos maxim facearuptium volore latatet quam remque es. Dolore autatur seque rem qui dolupis volorest, et omnimus, ut quiae.

Injuries Sustained Downhearted Wykoff’s Dream of Competing in the 1932 Olympics by: Terri Wykoff In April of 1932, Frank seriously sprained his back and hip at a track meet; and by May, the pain worsened, and his personal physician ordered him to skip classes at U. S. C. (University of Southern California) for the next few days. On May 9, 1932 -- Frank was roaming around his home wearing his comfortable loose fitting housecoat, and decided to take the opportunity to polish the hundreds of medals and trophies that he had achieved since 1927 in Track and Field competition. A few hours later, there was a knock at the door; and to Frank’s surprise there were reporters with cameras wanting to know if he was just playing hooky; and grilled him with questions as to why he wasn’t at his classes or at track practice that day -- after all, the 1932 Olympic tryouts were just around the corner. After he explained that he seriously sprained his back attempting a javelin throw, and hoped to himself that the nosey reporters would just leave -- except they insisted on an interview, and requested a photograph of him displaying his medals and trophies. Frank told the reporters that it was too much effort for him to change his clothes for a news photo, but they insisted it was alright to take a photo of him with his housecoat on because he was recuperating. Frank was a very proper person, and no one was going to snap photographs of him wearing his housecoat; and as painful as it was for him to dress formally, he did; and the photograph that ap-

W. Hull Botsford 1 of 1,595 Passengers & Crew to Sink - Disaster Caused Ice Patrol of North Atlantic to Avert More Calamities. Thurday was the 20th anniversary of the sinking of the Titanic, chronicled in history as one of the worst disasters in a half century. An Elmiran, W. Hull BOTSFORD, whose home was at Davis & Fifth Streets, was lost when the ill-fated White Star liner struck an iceberg. He was returning from a trip through Europe and Egypt, on which he had studied architecture. First reports said the vessel was safe, but the next day came the startling news that 1,595 lives of passengers and crew had been lost. A total of 2,340 persons, including the crew, were on board. The Carpathia, which went to the rescue, saved 739. If the man on the street ever asks himself why this disaster has never been repeated, he may find his answer in a small item in the German Government budget. This item is never omitted, regardless of crisis at home or abroad. The entry calls for payment of 80,000 marks annually to the American Government (roughly $20,000) for the ice patrol in the North Atlantic. The patrol is maintained by 14 nations whose liners ply the North Atlantic, and was instituted because so many lives were lost when the Titanic crashed with an unseen “berg”.

Discoverer of Tyler County Black Lands 100 Years Ago Called ‘Panther’ After Hunt By Dean Tevis Early in 1836, when thousands in the old states were (first) speaking the name of Texas, James Barnes of Mississippi, who had been born in an American fort in North Carolina during the Revolution, struck the immigrant trail to Texas. He was a man who felt it almost a sacred duty to follow the American frontier as it moved westward. With him were 11 black slaves. His trail end for a little while was in Angelina county where he built his cabin between Buck and Biloxi creeks. There, in one hunting expedition, he killed 14 panthers and won the name of “Panther Barnes,” which

TIMES OFFICE 1334 9th AVENUE

DAILY, 5 CENTS remained with him until he died. In thirty-seven, following the Texas revolution and the eviction of Mexicans from between the rivers of east Texas, he discovered the black lands of northern Tyler county--Cauble Prairie--and there he settled. He founded Mount Hope Methodist church, which was among the first few Methodist churches in Texas, and about which grew the present peaceful, sleepy little community of Mount Hope. James Barnes’ story, rich in detail, mellowed by almost a century bring him out as one of the great east Texas pioneers--of the company of men who built a country--dauntless, sturdy, Godfearing, the pathfinder. Mount Hope lies but a mile or two from Peach Tree Village, the birthplace of the Kirbys, once the home of Governor Ross Sterling’s forebears, and famous as the camping ground of the Alabama Indians--Texas’ last redmen--who now live on a reservation in Polk county. Both are near the sunny village of Chester, on the highway from Woodville to Nacogdoches, and the three communities in reality form one. It is a charming oasis of east Texas, with charming people, descendants of the early Barnes, Barclays, and other pioneer families. It bears perhaps more of the true flavor of old east Texas than any other spot. Anderson Barclay left here to join Deaf Smith at San Jacinto. The Barnes stood ready with sturdy rifles in sturdy hands to defend their newfound homeland. Here you drink from Barnes Spring, near the site of one of the first homes in northern Tyler, which has been flowing and quenching thirst for nearly a hundred years. Here you are intrigued to let your feet tarry a while at Wishing Rock, where the ladies of the early Barnes generations sat, on the narrow woods road from Peach Tree to Mount Hope, and wept silently with homesickness for their friends in old Mississippi--far, far to the east. Here you find the old log schoolhouse where Bob Barnes went to school with John Henry Kirby, and they spat tobacco between the cracks in the logs. Here you see four or five of the most interesting pioneer graveyards in Texas. Here you cross and re-cross the famous old Beef Trail--the only east and west road through east Texas, which ran from San Antonio to far east of the Sabine. And here your drink from old cups, and old wells, while you hear, from the lips of grandchildren and great-grandchildren, who cherish the stories, and repeat them with solemn accuracy, tales of the very begin calendars come and go, yet Chester(Continued on page 5)


1889

Stanley

Morison One of the most remarkable British scholars and Typographers of the 20th century, Stanley Morison was born in Essex UK on May 6th 1889. Also a notable historian of print, book cover designer and editor, Morison became entirely self taught after leaving school to work at the age of 14 when his father abandoned the family. Morison obtained a plethora of publication jobs, beginning as an editorial assistant for Imprint magazine in 1913. In 1918 he obtained a job as supervisor of design for Pelican Press in and later in 1921 holding a similar position at the Cloister Press. In 1922 Morison helped found Fleuron Magazine, a typographical publication that won international acclaim. The Fleuron was named after typographic ornaments. Later from 1923-1967 he worked adapting historic types such as revivals of Baskerville, Garamond, Bell and Bembo and conducting research for the Monotype Corporation, a leading typesetting machine company. In 1928 Morison commissioned typographer Eric Gill to design a modern sans serif type comparable to Futura. Gill developed the still famous Gill Sans which was later released by the Monotype Corporation.

“ Type design moves at the pace of the most conservative reader.�

~ Stanley Morison

Morison also worked for the Times newspaper, and during his his time there from 1929-1960, developed

Above: The chancery types of Italy and France, by A. F. Johnson and Stanley Morison, published by Fleuron in 1924.

an easy to read and well printed typeface called Times New Roman after publishing a critique on the quality of the newspapers printing and difficult to read typeface. Designed to promote the strength of the publication and legibility, Times New Roman is immensely popular to this day, and remains a 1st choice for many publications, books and other documents. In 1930 Morison published a noteworthy essay about the fundamentals of Typography called the First Principles of Typography. In addition, Morison has written extensively on the history of type. In 1960 Morison was made a distinguished member of the Royal Designers for the industry, and a year later was asked to sit on the board of editors for the Encyclopedia Brittanica. Before his death, Morison published his masterpiece, the 300 page handset book John Fell: the University Press and the Fell Types. Morison passed away in October of 1967 but his great achievements in typography touch our lives every single day. ~ Betsy Lambright

Above: John Fell, by Stanley Morison published by the O

Stanley Morison

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Have nothing in your house that you do not know to be useful, or believe to be beautiful. � William Morris


1834

William

Morris William Morris was a poet and a novelist, a craftsman, a weaver, designer of wallpapers patters and textiles of brilliant originality, a calligrapher and a book designer, a pioneer socialist and political activist and a medievalist. He was born in Walthamstow in East London, on March 24, 1834. While in the university, Morris met Edward Burne-Jones and became associated with the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, a group of artists whose inspiration was the middle ages, early renaissance, as well as the English Arts and Crafts Movement. Morris wrote and published poetry, fiction, and translations of ancient and medieval texts throughout his life. His best-known works include (The Defence of Guenevere and Other Poems 1858), (The Earthly Paradise) (1868–1870), (A Dream of John Ball) and the Utopian (News from Nowhere.)

History has remembered “ the kings and warriors,

because they destroyed: art has remembed the people, because they created.” ~ William Morris In 1861, Morris founded a design firm in partnership with the artist Edward Burne-Jones. The poet and artist Dante Gabriel Rossetti together they profoundly influenced the decoration of churches and houses into the early 20th century. His chief contribution to the arts was being a designer of repeating patterns for

Above: Jensen Revival example of golden type in use.

wallpapers, furniture, stained glass and textiles. He was also a major contributor to the resurgence of traditional textile arts and methods of production. Morris was an important figure in the emergence of socialism in Britain, founding the Socialist League in 1884, but breaking with the movement over goals and methods by the end of that decade. He devoted much of the rest of his life to the Kelmscott Press, which he founded in 1891. The 1896 Kelmscott edition of the (Works of Geoffrey Chaucer) is considered a masterpiece of book design. William Morris died on October 3, 1896. ~ Adriana Mendez.

Above: William Morris’ hand operated printing press.

William Morris

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1878

Punchcutting Punch-cutting is focused on the reproduction of metal type which was traditionally done by hand. Very few people were involved in the process; a designer was quite capable of doing all the work by himself. Many tools were needed that were capable of cutting through steel, such as gravers and chisels. This process also allowed for a designer to be involved in every step of the design and production and made it easier to accurately copy a typeface. He could also take all of its different needs into account, such as books, newspapers, and ads, and modified a typeface for each medium. All letter punches were hand cut, and the printing types were derived from them.

is always a new person “ There involved in each step of the process.”

After the onslaught of the Industrial Revolution, ease of production further distanced the designer from the final work. This also separated the designer from the the work man. The work man became intellectually irresponsible while the designer was technically incapable. There was still a need for them to co-operate. Demand increased, and at the time, enlarging a typeface involved recreating a new one by hand to that specific size. Although automation greatly improved speeds and productivity, it came with new problems stemming from how overgrown production had become. From this point, punch cutting functions on the pantographic principle. The operator traces around the shape with the pencil end of the machine, while the cutting end cuts the punch to whatever size is needed. Mechanical punch cutting allows for fast, cheap, and accurate reproduction

Above: Various tools used to cut into steel and create punches.

of type. It has a really high turn over rate which translates into a higher profit margin. Even with all of the inherent benefits presented by mechanical punch cutting, the process has created its own unique problems. There is always a new person involved in each step of the process. This increases the likelihood of an error. The errors only affect the faithfulness of the finished product to the original design. A skilled worker cares more about doing their job well; they don’t care about carrying out the designer’s vision. ~ Luis H. Cardenas

Above: Examples of a punch and counter-punch used in replicating letterforms.

Punchcutting

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1878

Paul

Renner Paul Renner (August 9, 1878 - April 25, 1956) was a German typeface designer. While his most memorable work was the typeface Futura, he did so much more for the world of typography and design. He followed the Bauhaus movement closely, and strongly believed in the return of artists to craft work and the healing value of creative labor. He also foresaw the marriage of art and technology. Renner emphasized the importance of utilizing hand skills as a means of prototyping letterforms. These types of characteristics helped to modernize the burgeoning urban centers of Berlin and Frankfurt. This came in the form of pre-fabricated and serialized products.

was publicly “ Renner chastised for his radical thinking.”

Essentially, Germany was rebuilding itself on American principles after the first World War. While Renner had helped to revive the bibliophile culture, he couldn’t have foreseen the economic downturn that came after. People simply did not have enough money for frivolous things like expensive collector’s books. He was also now competing with new leisure technologies like the radio, and the television. Since people no longer cared about books as much, their production quality went way down to make them cheaper and affordable. This forced the new typography of the 1920’s and 30’s to redefine itself. As such, a new

Above: Paul Renner’s Futura Medium Condensed.

breed of artist typographers emerged. They shifted their focus away from traditional painting, and onto graphic design. Meanwhile, Paul Renner continued to develop Futura. He envisioned it as a model alphabet for public signage. He was stimulated by socially driven design. The idea that better design could better mankind stuck with him for years. This motivated him to take part in public gatherings to protest the Nazi movement. Renner was publicly chastised for his radical thinking. Munich wanted to retain its prevailing historicism. He continued to fight and eventually created a school where he was able to instill his beliefs on a new generation of people. However, Renner felt that New Typography did not offer the best solution to all problems. His classical training made him want to step back and figure out where this new movement stood historically. Paul Renner was ahead of his time in that he believed that technology and art were one and the same. To him good design is timeless: it would never go out of style. ~ Luis H. Cardenas

Above: An ad for KOH-I-NOOR drawing pencils, set in Futura.

Paul Renner

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printing press

&

Faust Schoeffer


1425

Peter/Johann

Schoeffer/Faust Peter Schoeffer was born in 1425 in the town of Gernsheim, Germany. He was a German printer who worked in Paris for some time as a manuscript copyist. Later, Schoeffer became an apprentice under Johanne Gutenberg, working in Gutenbergs print workshop. Johann Faust was born in 1503 in the city of Mainz, Germany. Faust was born into a wealthy family. He was rumored to be a goldsmith, but was known as a lawyer and a money lender.

lent Gutenberg “ Faust money, and in 1455 he took

Gutenberg to court to reclaim the money.”

Faust and Schoeffer came to know each other when they both began working with Johannes Gutenberg. As an apprentice, Schoeffer was the main workman for the printer. Faust’s relationship with him is more debatable, as we are not sure if he was a partner, or a supporter of the printer. We do know was one of the main financial supporters of Gutenberg’s work. There are a few different ideas of the role Faust played in the invention of the printing press. Some feel that he was merely a supporter, who lent financial support to Gutenberg, because he believed in the printer. Some feel that he was taking advantage of the printer, recognizing how innovative the printer’s methods were, and how much profit there would be in his work. It is known that Faust lent Gutenberg money, and in 1455 he took Gutenberg to court to reclaim the money. At the Schoeffer testified against Gutenberg in

Above: An image of the printing press design by Johannes Gutenberg, and used by both Peter Schoeffer and Johann Faust

court. He took Fausts side of the argument, which ended up working to his benefit. After the trial, Faust and Shoeffer ended up opening a firm together. Faust and Schoeffer seized Gutenberg’s printing press and materials and continued to print on their own after the trial. The first book that Schoeffer and Faust printed was the Psalter, published in August of 1457. This was the first printed book that included a complete date, and printed with colored ink. It is known for the large initial lettering, printed in color, from types made in two pieces. Schoeffer later became independently known for using colored inks in his print work, and has also been credited for the founding of punch cutting and typefounding. ~ Heather Fugate

Above: An image of what a print shop would have looked like when Peter Schoeffer and Johann Faust were printing.

Peter Schoffer & Johann Faust

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1820

William

Thorowgood In 1794, Robert Thorne had purchased the foundry of Thomas Cottrell, a former employee of William Caslo. It had originally been founded in 1757 when Cottrell and Joseph Jackson were fired in a wage dispute. Upon Thorne’s death in 1820 the foundry was purchased at auction by William Thorowgood using money he had won in a lottery. Though he was never involved in the type founding business before this, Thorowgood made the foundry initially successful by publicizing Thorne’s typefaces. Many of the types identified as Thorowgood’s are actually the designs of Robert Thorne. One of the typefaces for which Thorowgood is credited is “Thorowgood.” It is a distinctly fat style typeface and gets a lot of its inspiration from slab serif typefaces and sans serif typefaces. These fat typefaces were said to have changed the entire poster industry for the time period. Thorowgood was also the first person to invent a sans-serif typeface using lowercase letters.

added “ Thorowgood numerous oriental and

learned fonts including book fonts, blacks, titling and flower fonts.”

Above: Russian Poster (sans serif): Inspired Works of Thorowgood.

Thorowgood is also credited for coining the term “grotesque.” The name came from the Italian word ‘grottesco’, meaning “belonging to the cave.” In Germany, the name became Grotesk. German Thorowgood went on to issue new specimens and typefounders adopted the term from the nomenclature added more typefaces including Frakturs, Greeks, and of Fann Street Foundry, which took on the meaning of Russian types which he obtained from the Breitkopf and cave (or grotto) art. Nevertheless, some explained the Härtel foundry of Leipzig, Germany. In 1828, he also term was derived from the surprising response from purchased the Edmund Fry foundry which had a large the typographers. Robert Besley became a partner in the collection of foreign language types as well. In Fann Street Foundry in 1828, and upon Thorowgood’s Thorowgood’s ownership of the foundry and of Thorne’s retirement in 1849, Besley took over the foundry. stock, he made many additions to it. Thorowgood added numerous oriental and learned fonts including book ~ Lauren Kosiara fonts, blacks, titling and flower fonts.

Above: Irish soap Ad (fat font and slab serif), 1892.

William Thorowgood

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he in t y. y l c e in tur ina a rt ulp bst e s c . Sc in o i y rts it h ap ll a ear r g fa n o s p o ty ive me t o c us c e f l ne r e e t P s alo o m ne sto

D OL ICH CH TS

n a j


Tschichold

1902

Jan

When Modernism was just beginning, a whole generation of designers eagerly embraced its ideas of simplicity and the escape from conventional design. One in particular was graphic designer and typographer Jan Tschichold. Tschichold was born in 1902 in Leipzig, Germany. He was trained in calligraphy, and having an intense love of letters, wanted to be an artist but instead went to school to become a teacher of drawing.

1966 and 1967 “ InTschichold designed Sabon, a ‘universal’ typeface.”

In 1923 Tschichold visited the Bauhaus exhibition of Modern ideas. He was inspired by the new typography he saw and began to use sans-serif typefaces and designed simplified layouts. Tschichold became a leading advocate of Modernist design which lead him to publish his manifesto Die Neue Typographie, or, The New Typography. In his book, Tschichold pressed the importance of serifless fonts (condemning all others) and the idea of non-centered design, stating that “asymmetry is the rhythmic expression of functional design.” In the book, Tschichold also advocated for the use of standardized paper sizes and talked about how effective the use of different sizes and weights of a single typeface could clearly and quickly communicate information. These ideas were revolutionary for the time. Meanwhile, the Nazis began to garner dislike for Modernist ideas like the ones Tschichold represented.

Above: Tschichold’s sketch of a Q as it appeared in Das Alphabet des Damianus Moyllus. Tschichold designed books as well as writing and illustrating them, especially ones that had to do with typography and book design.

They considered the Modernist movement to be decadent and preferred that all printing and lettering be done in blackletter. After Tschichold took up a teaching post with Paul Renner in Munich, Jan and his wife were arrested by the Nazis in March 1933 and declared them “cultural Bolshevists.” In August 1933, Tschichold escaped to Switzerland, where he remained for most of his life. While there, Tschichold began to abandon his earlier beliefs about Modernism and asymmetry, claiming his book to be “too extreme.” He now preferred a more classically-influenced style. For the remainder of his life, Tschichold helped to redesign over 500 books for Penguin, developing a new standard for English book publishing by focusing on each book’s design as a representation of the book. In 1966 and 1967 Tschichold designed Sabon, a “universal” typeface that could be used on both monotype and linotype machines. Tschichold died in 1974 of cancer but left behind a book that is a classic for design, and a legacy of typographic experiment. ~ Tayler Westlake

Above: A book containing Chinese color prints written and designed by Jan Tschichold. Tschichold was very interested in Japanese, but more especially, Chinese calligraphy and printing.

Jan Tschichold

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Carol Twombly

t ype designer Trajan ABCDEFGHIJKLM NOPQRSTUVWXYZ 0123456789


1959

Carol

Twombly Carol was born in Bedford, Massachusetts into a family of seven. In a town with little exposure to art and culture, she spent much of her spare time playing sports with her brothers with whom she was very close to. In school, Carol studied hard and was an A-student, however her greatest interest was in the arts. When it was time for her to go to college, she attended the Rhode Island School of Design. Although initially planning to study sculpture, she chose graphic design as her major, as it provided a way for her to greater express herself. Under the instruction of Charles Bigelow, along with his studio partner, Kris Holmes, Carol became increasing interested in typography.   In her junior year, Charles would give her class typographic problems that the students would have to solve in nine different ways using only the metal type available to the school. Projects such as these showed her the power that typography has in a design. At around this very time, Gerard Unger was developing digital type and was asked to teach at RISD by Bigelow.

of “ Restrictions two-dimensional

Above: Sample poster using Trajan Regular and Bold.

communication appealed to my need for structure.”

~ Carol Twombly

Under his instruction, Unger’s students would draw out type on graph paper: this was to simulate using pixels to build type. Carol chose to transform a chancery italic which she drew herself. While continuing her studies, Carol did digital type production freelace for Bigelow & Holmes. Then after a year of working in a design firm in Boston, she entered into a master’s program in digital typography developed by Bigelow at Stanford. Shortly

after her schooling, Twombly developed her first typeface called Mirarae, which was an upright italic face on a three degree slant. She sent her design to the International Typeface Competition in 1984, sponsored by Morisawa & Company Ltd. from Japan and won first prize in the Latin text division. Morisawa then asked her to license the face to them for their photo-typesetting machine and she agreed.   After this, Carol began to work for Adobe part time, and in 1988 she went to full time. She developed a number of popular faces such as Lithos, Trajan, Charlemange, and collaborated on Myriad with another typographer Robert Slimbach. Many of Twombly’s designs are inspired by Roman style typography: Adobe Trajan face was based off of the Trajan column in Rome (built in AD 114). Although working much on display type, Carol also developed a Garalde typeface called Adobe Caslon, based off of the typefaces created by William Caslon. ~ James Case

Above: Inscription cut in stone at the base of the Trajan column in Rome.

Carol Twombly

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darius wells LATERAL ROUTER

COMPLEX CURVES & SHAPES

LARGER LETTERS AMERICAN AFFORDABLE, HIGH-QUALITY, EVEN SURFACES

ENDLESS POSSIBILITIES


1800

Darius

Wells Darius Wells lived a notable life as an American inventor. Wells was born on April 26, 1800 in Johnston, New York and passed on May 27, 1875 in Paterson, New Jersey. Wells is most widely known for the invention of wood type and the lateral router. Wood has been used to create letterforms and illustrations since the small, ancient, wooden stamps used in China, which is very similar to modern rubber stamps. Chinese wood block print dates back to 868 BCE.

published the first “ [Wells] known wood type catalog in the United States.”

  For hundreds of years before the 19th century, wood has been used as a material in printing for producing type. The increase in the commercial printing industry in America in the first years of the 19th century called for an inexpensive process for creating large letters. Broadsides needed to be posted and read from a far distance, and therefore, larger type was required. However, metal type, which was commanly used, could not be cast larger than an inch or so and was terribly heavy to work with. Wells found wood to be the adequate solution because it’s light weight, readily available, and has high printing quality. In 1827, Wells succeeded in finding a way to mass-produce letters. He published the first known wood type catalog in the United States in 1828. Wells discovered the many

Above: Wood block images from American Wood Types 1828 - 1900 Volume 1 printed by Rob Roy Kelly.

advantages of wood type. It was half the cost of metal type, and had more even surfaces, unlike the lead that was able to distort from unequal cooling. Wood type also gave designers the ability to now use larger than twelve line pica at an affordable price. Wells mimicked the process of engravers by using crosshatched sections.   Later, Wells created another invention known as the lateral router, which allowed for cutting wood into complex curves and shapes. The lateral router increased mass-production and was economically smart. In 1834 the router was combined with William Leavenworth’s pantograph to create decorative wooden letters of all sizes and shapes. These brilliant inventions made a huge impact on the wood type industry and allowed broader type possibilities. ~ Brittany Carter

Above: Wood block type example from American Wood Types 1828 - 1900 Volume 1 printed by Rob Roy Kelly.

Darius Wells

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nk thi  i  e.

re a cc u mo is 

f   –Herman Zap te. ra


1918

Herman

Zapf Born into a politically hostile Germany, Hermann Zapf avoided society’s unrest as a child by escaping to an alternate world using a secret language he developed with his brother. Years later, Zapf’s love for language was reignited, and he found a successful career as a type designer. Creating over 200 typefaces, Zapf’s work revolves around a central unity; letter-fit that establishes a clear bond amongst each letter of the alphabet.

are two fonts in “ There particular that made Zapf a household name.”

As a teenager, Zapf followed advice from art teachers and pursued a path in lithography. His artistic talent was clear, however it wasn’t until Zapf attended a memorial exhibition for Rudolf Koch that he became truly inspired. Following the exhibit, Zapf taught himself the art of calligraphy using a book by Randolf and another by Edward Johnston. He soon secured a job designing types for Stempel, a typefoundry established in 1897. At the age of 20, his first font, Gilgenart, was released. A frakur black-letter type, this font served as a minor stepping stone toward the sea of fame Zapf would encounter as a type designer.   There are two fonts in particular that made Zapf a household name. The first, Palatino, was released in 1950. It was a metal typeface reflecting types of northern Italy in the late 1400s. A calligraphic roman face, the font is named after Giambattista Palatino, a 16th century Italian writer. The font received almost immediate popularity and is one of the most widely used fonts in the world today. The second font, Optima, unites roman and sans-serif typefaces in an elegant way. Optima was Zaph’s personal favorite and was inspired by inscriptional lettering he saw in Florence. Years later, Optima was selected to engrave the names on the Vietnam Memorial.

Above: Palatino and Palatino Kursiv, designed by Herman Zapf. Words by Rudolf Schmidt-Mannheim. Illustrated by Erwin Poell. Stemple AG 1960.

  During the 1950s and 60s, Zaph began to take favor in the more radical design environment of the US, and he created a series of fonts exclusively for Hallmark Cards, Inc. In 1967, Hallmark produced “The Art of Hermann Zapf,” a short instructional film where Zaph explained the basics of calligraphy through proper pen techniques.   Unwilling to be left behind with changing times, Zapf continued to reinvent his trade in correspondence with advancing technologies. He mastered hot metal printing, phototypesetting, and even digital typography. Zapf personally oversaw the conversion of his typefaces into digital form, and even assisted with the move of othert pre-digital fonts. Now, many of Zapf’s fonts are found on every personal computer, ensuring an eternal destiny. ~ Karissa Moll

Above: Linotype melior speciman.

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HUMANIST In typographic terms, the label Humanist refers to the design of the strokes of the letterforms. They were created using the handwriting found in Italy in the late 15th century. Their relatively small body size, irregular outlines, and smaller counters; all of which Humanist typefaces less legible at smaller point sizes. Historically, Humanist typefaces enjoyed only a short run before falling away for nearly 500 years.

Typefaces: Centaur, Kennerley, Brioso Pro, Adobe Jensen, Horley Old Style, Cloister, Deepdene, ITC Berkeley Old Style, ITC Golden Type, Erasmus, Hollandse Medieval, ITC Legacy Serif, Hadriano, Trajanus Jenson, Stempel Schneidler, Verona, Lutetia, Jersey, Lynton.

Characterisitcs of Humanist typefaces include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Gradual contrasts between heavy and light strokes Slanted crossbars, such as the lowercase ‘e’ Ascenders that match capital letter heights Small counters Oblique serifs on lowercase and foot

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GARALDE Typefaces: Galliard, Bembo, Sabon, Palatino, Hoefler, Adobe Caslon, Dante, Adobe Garamond, Minion, Granjon, Van Dijck, Janson, Clifford, ITC Founders Caslon, Lucida, MT Ehrhardt, Berling, ITC Garamond, Stempel Garamond, Goudy Old Style, Plantin, American Garamond, Le Monde Livre, Aldus, Reminga, Big Caslon.

GARALDE typefaces were the next evolutionary step in the development of type during the 16th century. When analyzing Garalde typefaces, it is apparent that there is still a subtle influence from the penstrokes of the written word, however, the advancement in techonolgy is cleary visible. Garlde typefaces have a considerable variation of form according to their point size. Garalde typefaces had a lifespan of about 200 years and are still used today because of their high legibility.

Characterisitcs of Garalde typefaces include: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Medium contrast between stokes Horizontal crossbars Tapered ear Generous counters

Agd 1

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TRANSITIONAL Typefaces: New Baskerville, Century Schoolbook, Electra, Melior, Baskerville, Bulmer, Times New Roman, ITC Charter, Monotype Bell, ITC Slimbach, Fournier, Perpetua, Mrs Eaves, Warnock, Joanna, Dutch 811, Celeste, Cheltenham, Cochin, ITC Clearface, Poppl Pontifex, ITC Zapf International, Stone Serif, Comenius.

In typography the term Transitional refers to the transition from the Garalde typefaces to the Didone typefaces. Transitional typefaces primarily emerged during the 18th entury inFrance and England. They exude the refinement of form and greater detail that was made possible by the developments in printing techonology.

Characteristics of Transitional typefaces include: 1. Medium to high contrast between thick and thin letterstrokes 2. Horizontal bar on lowercase ‘e’ 3. The serifs of ascenders of lowercase letters are slightly slanted 4. Generous counters 5. Serifs are generally sharp and bracketed

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DIDONE Typefaces: Bauer Bodoni, Linotype Didot, Fairfield, Walbaum, Acanthus, Caledonia, Photina, Kepler, Ellington, HTF Didot, Bodoni, Monotype Bodoni, ITC Fence, Scotch Roman.

DIDONE typefaces, also known as Modern, emerged during the late 18th and early 19th century primiarily in Italy and France. Increased precision in printing techonology allowed for the development ofthis new genre of typefaces. Didone typefaces exude qualities that relate to sophistication and exclusivity.

Characteristics of Didone typefaces include: 1. Stress is vertical 2. Abrupt contrast between thick and thing letterstrokes 3. Ascender and foot serifs of lowercase letters are horizontal 4. Horizontal serifs are fine (almost hairline) and usually bracketed 5. Narrow set width in most cases

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SLAB SERIF Typefaces: Clarendon, Rockwell, Scala, Officina, Egyptienne F, Seria, Silica, Serifa, Beton, Aachen, Sherrif, Memphis, ITC American Typewriter, ITC Tactile.

SLAB SERIF typefaces, which include the bracketed Claredon and unbracketed Egyptian styles, were first created by Robert Besleyof London in 1845. Their typically heavier weights and hefty serifsmade these faces ideal candidates for use in early 20th century engineering projects, as well as being used for many promotional items of that period. Their sturdiness when being used in reveral made them a popular choice in the 50’s and 60’s for poster, advertising, and publishing designs and projects.

Characteristics of Slab Serif typefaces include: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Vertical stress Short descenders and pronounced drop forms Low contrast Serifs of equal weight of letterform stroke

1

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HUMANIST SANS Typefaces: Gill Sans, Syntax, Bliss, Legacy Sans, ITC Eras, Lucida Sans, Myriad, Stone Sans, Cronos, Rotis, ITC Johnston, Optima, Foundry Sans, Quadraat Sans.

The period of Humanist Sans faces are based on classical or early Humanist model, in which the proportions are based off of the Roman capital letter. These typefaces function well for the setting of extended lines of texts, even though they do not, as a rule, provide for very economical setting because most have a lower x-height than the Grotestques. Humanist Sans heavier weights make it quite effective for them to be used for smaller quantities of text, and benefit from generous leading.

Characteristics of Humanist Sans typefaces include: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Minimal contrast Medium x-heights Wide lower bowl Light weight

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GROTESQUE Typefaces: Franklin Gothic, Akzidenz Grotesk, Knockout, News Gothic, Gothic 821, Gothic 13, Tempo, Bureau Grotesque, Trade Gothic, Monotype Grotesque, Monotype Grotesque Bold, Gotham, Abadi, Erbar.

The early faces were developed in the 19th century and evolved from display type, signwriting, and architectual lettering. Although some features are modern, the main structuring of the letters go back to classical times. Grotesques combine great legibility with visual interest and are quite adapted to a variety of functions. Their origins as large-size display types mean that they work quite well at scale.

Characteristics of Grotesque typefaces include: 1. Little contrast 2. Some variation in stoke width at junctions 3. Sans serif

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NEO-GROTESQUE Typefaces: Helvetica, Univers, Meta, Bell Centennial, This period highlights the second generation, designed in the 1950’s and included a key component of Swiss Antique Olive, Bell Gothic, Folio, Arial, Letter Gothic Text, Govan, ITC Conduit, ITC Tabula, Tahoma, Verdana. Typography and international modernist style. This period appears to be more mechanical than the earlier forms. Neo-grotesque typefaces function better at smaller sizes than most of the other forms of sans serif, and they’re among the most suitable sans serif faces for long text settings. Their extended typeface families and range of weights suit them for particular display work.

Characteristics of Neo-grotesque typefaces include: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Little variation of stroke width Slightly condensed form High x-height Well-defined counters

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GLYPHIC Typefaces: Trajan, Albertus, Lithos, Neuland, Copperplate Gothic, Mezz, Friz Quadrata, Rusticana, Augustea Open, Craft, ITC Werkstatte, Sophia, Pompeia, Berlinsans.

GLYPHIC typefaces are so named due to their resemblance to cut or chisled letterforms. Designers have been creating Glyphic typefaces since 1902 and continue to do so to this day. The letterforms graphically straddle between Roman and Blackletter vocabularies. They characteristically all-capital letters designs make the Glyphic category ideal for such things as posters, book covers and jacket, or wother display type uses.

Characteristics of Glyphic typefaces include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Half serif on base of diagonals All-capital letterforms Open bowl Fine pointed serifs Narrow set

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SCRIPT Typefaces: Snell Roundhand, Ex Ponto, Zaphino, Poetica, Zapf Chancery, Linoscript, Bickham Script, Mercurius, Delphin, Shelley Script, Nuptial Script, Kaufman, Cataneo, Amazone, Caflisch Script, Sanvito.

SCRIPT typefaces echo the traditions of calligraphy, pen and brush lettering. However, script typefaces lack the vitality and spontaneity of handwritten letterforms. By virtue of digital typeface design, script typefaces make up for what they lack by having the ability to have extensive ranges of swashes, ligatures, alternates and letters. Script typefaces are primarily used as a decorative contrast and are not suitable for extended passages of text.

Characteristics of Script typefaces include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Angled forms Deep descenders and high ascenders Contrasting stroke widths Calligraphic inflection Low x-height

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GRAPHIC Typefaces: Scala Jewel, Moonglow, Pepperwood, Zaragoza, Castellar, Saphir, Zebrawood, Arnold Boecklin, Sassafras, Cabarga Cursiva, Jazz, Milano, Bodoni Classic Shadow, Flash.

GRAPHIC typefaces emerged in the late 20th century and remain some of the most playful and unique typefaces today. They remain interesting and popular because they question traditional aestheticsof type design and provoke debate. Graphic typefaces are most commonly used for display faces because their legibility and reability is next to none when set in smaller point sizes.

Characteristics of Graphic typefaces include: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Contradictory features Inconsistent forms Abstracted profiles Hybridized features

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