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A report of the Tigum-Aganan Watershed Management Board

A Metro Iloilo-Guimaras Sustainable Bioregion Initiative Province of Iloilo, Philippines

The Metro Iloilo-Guimaras Sustainable Bioregion Initiative was undertaken with the financial support of the Government of Canada

Copyright 2013 Tigum-Aganan Watershed Management Board & Canadian Urban Institute


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The State of the Tigum-Aganan Watershed Report is a first-of-its-kind tool for watershed management in the Philippines. It was developed under the Metro Iloilo-Guimaras (MIG) Sustainable Bioregion Initiative, a Philippines-Canada cooperation program managed by the Canadian Urban Institute (canurb.org) that received a generous financial contribution from the Government of Canada through its Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development (international.gc.ca). The Tigum-Aganan Watershed Management Board (TAWMB) through its Technical Working Group (TWG) spearheaded both the participatory and technical processes that made possible this diagnosis. The Toronto and Region Conservation Authority (trca.on.ca) infused the initiative with Canada’s rich experiences in watershed management. This initiative would not have been possible without the close collaboration of a great number of organizations and individuals, who provided their energy, resources, expertise, data and guidance to the process. The TAWMB wishes to acknowledge and extend its thanks to everyone who participated. Various national agencies worked together to converge their efforts to make this report a reality. The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) made available the services and expertise of its different bureaus, including the Environmental Management Bureau (EMB), the Forest Management Bureau (FMB), the Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau (ERDB), the Protected Area and Wildlife Bureau (PAWB), and the Community Environment and Natural Resource Office (CENRO). The Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) through its Region 6 office mobilized the resources within the local government system, and catalyzed the necessary inter-local governmental cooperation across the watershed. The National Convergence Initiative for Sustainable Rural Development brought the initiative into the fold of its efforts to restore the country’s 140 priority watersheds. Thanks to all of these agencies for sharing relevant data and mobilizing the expertise of their technical staff. Local chief executives across the city region provided the leadership that was so essential to the alignment of efforts on watershed revitalization. Words of appreciation go out to Governor Arthur Defensor Sr. of Iloilo Province; Governor Felipe Nava of Guimaras Province; Mayor Rolito C. Cajilig of the municipality of Leon; Mayor Mariano M. Malones of Maasin, Mayor Robert B. Maroma of Cabatuan; Mayor Dennis S. Superficial of Sta. Barbara; Mayor Arcadio H. Gorriceta of Pavia; Mayor Victor S. Saclauso of San Miguel; Mayor Vicente B. Flores Jr. of Oton, and Mayor Jed Patrick E. Mabilog of Iloilo City. Mayor Juanito T. Alipao from the Municipality of Alimodian, who served as Chair of the TAWMB during the timeframe of this initiative from 2010 to 2013, provided a steady hand of support throughout the process. During the course of this initiative, a group of leading academics in the city came together to form the Watershed Academic Consortium (WAC). This impressive collaboration involving key professors and their students concerned with watershed issues – drawn from the Central Philippine University (CPU), St. Paul’s University, University of Iloilo-PHINMA, University of the Philippines in the Visayas (UPV), and the Western Visayas College of Science and Technology (WVCST) – was established to direct the expertise of local academic institutions towards watershed research and the monitoring of indicators into the future.

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The TAWMB Technical Working Group led the technical and participatory processes. Member agencies include the Tigum-Aganan Watershed Water Quality Management Area’s (TAWWQMA) Governing Board and Technical Working Group; the Provincial Environment and Natural Resource Office (PENRO) of the Province of Iloilo; the National Irrigation Administration (NIA); Metro Iloilo Water District (MIWD); the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH); the Philippine Information Agency (PIA); the Kahublagan sang Panimalay Foundation, Inc. (KSPFI); the Aganan Federation of Irrigators Association Inc.; the Watershed Academic Consortium (WAC); and the various community-based organizations working towards watershed protection under the umbrella of the Kahublagan sang Panimalay nga Naga Atipan sang Watershed-Maasin (KAPAWA-Maasin). The Metro Iloilo-Guimaras Economic Development Council (MIGEDC) is recognized for its active role, providing a Technical Working Group to backstop the project. A heartfelt gratitude goes to the Iloilo Watershed Management Council (IWMC) through the Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office (PENRO) and the Tigum-Aganan Watershed Water Quality Management Area’s (TAW-WQMA) Governing Board and Technical Working Group for the technical assistance and inputs extended in the preparation of this report. A number of individuals warrant recognition. Without their hard work, dedication and commitment to teamwork, the conceptualization and implementation of this initiative would not have been possible. Special words of appreciation go to the tremendous efforts of Sherwin Bering, Soledad Sucaldito, Apoy Corbal, Benjie Luz, Lisa Cavicchia and Andrew Farncombe who worked on the management and coordination of this initiative on behalf of TAWMB, Iloilo Province, DENR-PAMB and CUI respectively. Elmer Mercado served as our chief consultant and writer and is thanked for the professionalism and technical expertise he brought to this body of work. The TAWMB also salutes Gary Wilkins of TRCA for serving as lead international expert and ensuring that the project benefited from lessons learned in other places. The following is the full list of individuals for which credit is due: Ninfa Adolfo, Environmental Management Specialist, EMB- DENR Marriz B. Agbon, President and National Focal Person, National Convergence Initiative for Sustainable Rural Development Engr. Reno Alquisada, Environmental Management Specialist, Municipality of Alimodian Julian Amador, Regional Executive Director, DENR Region VI Sharon Rose B. Angelo, Research Assistant, CUI-Iloilo Evelyn Pearl Arroyo, Research Assistant, CUI-Iloilo Arlene Avenceña, Project Assistant, CUI-Iloilo Dr. Raul N. Banias, Provincial Administrator, Province of Iloilo Elena Basco, Supervising Engineer 3, NIA Sherwin Bering, Chairperson, TAWMB Technical Working Group Dave G. Bermudo, Community Extension Assistant, University of Iloilo-PHINMA Beate Bowron, Senior Associate, CUI Atty. Jonathan Bulos, OIC- Regional Director, EMB-DENR Feljean Cagape, Watershed Pointperson, Municipality of Leon Susan A. Calaor, Project Officer, CUI-Iloilo Arjunn Marven J. Calvo, Technical Staff, Water Quality Management Section, EMB-DENR Jerilee P. Cameña, Project Officer, CUI-Iloilo José Canjura, Senior Project Officer, CUI Remia Capistrano, Environmental Management Specialist II, Municipality of Sta. Barbara Rubenie Castellanes, Chairman, KAPAWA-Maasin Lisa Cavicchia, Program Manager, International Partnerships, CUI Greg Cooper, CUI Intern ii


Apolinario Corbal, Protected Area Superintendent, Community Environment Natural Resource Officer, DENR-Maasin Engr. Corazon Corbal, Director, Extension Service Division, Western Visayas College of Science and Technology (WVCST) Gary Davidson, Senior Associate, CUI Levi O. De Los Santos, Jr., Director, University Outreach Center, Central Philippine University, (Extension Committee, WAC) Maria Lea Escantilla, Technical Officer, Provincial Environment Natural Resources Office, Iloilo Provincial Government Engr. José Renan Escoto, Environmental Management Specialist, City ENRO, Iloilo City Michael Esteras, CUI Intern Andrew Farncombe, Vice President, International Partnerships, CUI Pepito R. Fernandez, Professor in Political Science, Division of Social Sciences-CAS, University of the Philippines Visayas (Chair, WAC) Josh Franks, CUI Intern Francisco Gallego, Jr., Forester, Community Environment Natural Resources Office, Iloilo (2012) Ildefonso T. Tulliva, OIC, Community Environment Natural Resources Office, Iloilo City (2013) Bernabe Garnace, Forester, Community Environment Natural Resources Office, Iloilo City Francis Gentoral, Philippine Program Director, CUI-Manila Engr. Stephen Geroche, Watershed Pointperson, Municipality of Oton Kerry Girvan, CUI Intern Grace Gorosin, Finance Officer, CUI-Iloilo Ronie Jagorin, Hydrologist, National Irrigation Administration (NIA) Rosalie Joven, Research Assistant, CUI-Iloilo Irem Khan, CUI Intern Savannah Kuchera, CUI Intern Olivia Corazon Ledesma, Senior Information Officer, Metro Iloilo Water District (MIWD) Engr. Aurora Lim, Representative, Central Philippine University (CPU) Nereo Lujan, Communications Officer, CUI-Iloilo Alicia Lustica, Regional Technical Director, ERDB, DENR Region VI Alia Luz, CUI Intern Benjamin Gregory M. Luz, Project Manager, CUI-Iloilo Maita G. Magalong, Director, Center for Student Development and Leadership / Community Extension Manager, University of Iloilo-PHINMA Teresa D. Mallare, Pollution Control Officer and Professor, Science Department, St. Paul University Iloilo (Research Committee, WAC) Elmer Mercado, Chief Consultant and Writer Engr. Jeriel G. Militar, MIS Administrator, Central Philippine University (Extension Committee, WAC) Imelda L. Olaguer, Director, University Research Center; St. Paul University Iloilo (Research Committee, WAC) Louielyn Ong, Research Assistant, CUI-Iloilo Engr. Amado Ortaliz, Watershed Pointperson, Municipality of Pavia Dr. Andres Ortega, Jr., Chairperson of College of Arts and Sciences/ Extension Council, WVCST Ashley Parks, CUI Intern José Roni Peñalosa, Executive Director, MIGEDC Engr. Ma. Lucilla Pinero, Asst. Chief Planning and Design Division, DPWH Region VI Ruth Prado, Supervising Environmental Management Specialist, City ENRO, Iloilo City Jay Presaldo, Senior Project Officer, CUI-Iloilo iii


Mike Price, President, Mike Price & Associates Inc. and former General Manager, Toronto Water, City of Toronto Engr. Juan Rentoy, Municipal Planning and Development Officer, Municipality of Maasin Marlena Rogowska, CUI Intern Joelle Rondeau, CUI Intern Cirilo Rosal, MENRO, Municipality of San Miguel Emily Rosen, CUI Intern Sarah Rotz, CUI Intern Jessica Salas, President, Philippine Watershed Management Coalition and Managing Director, Kahublagan Sang Panimalay Foundation, Inc. Olga Semenovych, Project Officer, CUI Dr. Adeluisa G. Siapno, Regional Executive Director, DENR Region VI Rodelio F. Subade, Professor in Economics, Division of Social Sciences-CAS, University of the Philippines Visayas (Research Committee, WAC) Elsa Subong, Iloilo Infocen Manager, PIA Region VI Soledad R. Sucaldito, PGDH- Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Officer, Province of Iloilo Jee Grace Suyo, Research Assistant, CUI-Iloilo Engr. Nelida L. Tayong, Planning Development Officer 3, PPDO, Province of Iloilo Evelyn A. Trompeta, Regional Director, DILG Region VI Engr. Ric Armando Valenzuela, Watershed Pointperson, Municipality of Cabatuan Engr. Mary Jeanne Villagracia, Manager, Water Surface Division, MIWD Susan Warren-Mercado, Editor Gary Wilkins, Watershed Management Specialist, Toronto and Region Conservation Authority

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PREFACE Sometimes it takes a disaster to bring about transformational change. When Typhoon Frank hit the Philippines in 2008, the fast-growing Iloilo urban region was unprepared for a climatic event of this magnitude. It was one of the deadliest tropical cyclones ever in the country. It hit the city region particularly hard, destroying lives, homes, livelihoods and infrastructure, as rivers spilled their banks. Typhoon Frank was not the first major storm event to affect the Iloilo region, nor will it be the last. But that particular disaster caused an awakening among community and local government leaders who collectively decided that it was time to act. In the aftermath of the flooding, there was a realization that, to sustain the region’s economic competitiveness, to grow the economy and to safeguard communities, dramatic improvements to watershed management, disaster planning and climate change adaptation would be necessary. Improving urban and regional resilience had become a priority. Attention would need to be directed to upland forest conservation, naturalization of riparian zones, preservation of farmlands for local food production, water quality improvements, and strengthening land use planning to contain urban sprawl, to name a few. Securing a safe and reliable source of water for domestic consumption and irrigation was also on the radar screen, with local planners pointing out that the emerging pattern of either too much water during the rainy season or not enough during the dry season had put the urban region on a trajectory to critical water shortages. There was also the recognition that certain aspects of watershed degradation were linked to poverty. Poor communities in the upper reaches of the watershed would need support to pursue different forms of livelihood, ones that do not contribute to deforestation. The Metro Iloilo-Guimaras Sustainable Bioregion Initiative was launched in 2010 to improve the region’s watershed management practices. The initial focus of the initiative has been on the Tigum-Aganan Watershed, which is the largest in the urban region, the source of water for most domestic consumption and agriculture, and the cause of much of the flooding in recent years. The initiative involves a collaborative partnership between the Tigum-Aganan Watershed Management Board (TAWMB), the Metro-Iloilo Guimaras Economic Development Council (MIGEDC), and the Province of Iloilo, with national-level involvement through the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) and the National Convergence Initiative for Sustainable Rural Development. Financial support from the Government of Canada made possible a unique collaboration with the Canadian Urban Institute (canurb.org) and the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority (trca.on.ca), bringing expert technical assistance and innovative urban management practices from Canada. The Sustainable Bioregion Initiative builds on various legislative and institutional mechanisms, both national and local, that have been put in place over the past decade to improve environmental management, respond to climate change issues and bring about inclusive economic growth. At the national level these include: 1) the Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010 and its corresponding national plan, which is promoting safer, adaptive and disaster resilient communities; 2) the Climate Change Act of 2009, which led to the establishment of the National Climate Change Commission that has formulated a National Climate Change Action Plan and is guiding the formulation of local climate change action plans all over the country; 3) the Clean Water Act of 2004, which aims to protect the country’s water bodies from pollution from land-based sources and led to the establishment of local governing boards on a watershed basis; 4) the National Convergence Initiative on Sustainable Rural v


Development, which involves the Department of Agriculture (DA), Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR), DENR and DILG working collaboratively to advance rural development programming in 140 priority watersheds using an ecosystem management approach; 5) the National Greening Program, a massive reforestation effort focused on lands in the public domain, including upland forest reserves; and 6) the Local Economic Development (LED) program of the DILG, which is building the capacity of local government units (LGUs) to work collaboratively with the private sector and communities to grow the economy in sustainable and inclusive ways. The Initiative has been anchored to the Tigum-Aganan Watershed Management Board (TAWMB), formed by Iloilo Provincial Ordinance in 2002. TAWMB is a special purpose body with a mandate to plan and manage the Tigum-Aganan watershed. It is composed of LGUs including Iloilo City and the outlying municipalities of Alimodian, Cabatuan, Leon, Maasin, Oton, Pavia, San Miguel and Santa Barbara. Other members of the body are the Provincial Government of Iloilo, DENR, DILG, Philippine Information Agency (PIA), National Irrigation Administration (NIA), Metro Iloilo Water District (MIWD) and key civil society organizations such as the Kahublagan sang Panimalay Foundation, Inc. (KSPFI), the Katilingban sang Pumuluyo nga Naga-Atipan sang Watershed-Maasin (KAPAWA-Maasin) and the Aganan Federation of Irrigators Association Inc. The Initiative works with and builds upon the strengths of other key regional governance mechanisms, including: 1) the Tigum-Aganan Water Quality Management Area Governing Board (TAWWQMA-GB), established in response to the requirements of the Clean Water Act in 2006; and, 2) the MIGEDC, created by Presidential decree in 2006 to improve inter-LGU collaboration for planning and economic development in the greater Iloilo area. Despite this impressive array of initiatives to improve environmental conditions across the country, the Philippines continues to suffer from a fragmentation of efforts to manage its watersheds. LGUs and national line agencies, in spite of their best intentions, pursue their respective programming without adequate coordination toward productive outcomes. Trying to find reliable, up-to-date and collated data on a watershed basis is almost impossible, making it difficult to assess the condition of a watershed or to monitor progress on environmental rehabilitation. Low public awareness of watersheds and practical steps that individual citizens can take to protect them means that community environmental stewardship is quite limited. The Sustainable Bioregion Initiative has aimed to address these issues through the preparation of a State of the Watershed Report (SOWR) for the Tigum-Aganan. It takes a bioregional or ecosystem perspective by analyzing the whole of the watershed from ‘ridge to reef’, paying attention to natural boundaries and helping LGUs to see beyond their jurisdiction and to begin thinking and acting in a regional context. The approaches adopted in the Initiative were benchmarked against international best practices, achieved through applied research and learning exchanges to Canada. The was formulated using a multi-stakeholder and participatory approach that promotes environmental leadership and builds shared understanding between communities and the public sector on ways to rehabilitate the watershed. It explores constructive ways to align the efforts of national line agencies with those of LGUs. It aims to unite the various studies conducted over time on the Tigum-Aganan Watershed into one platform, while supplementing existing secondary data with new research. It develops a set of indicators for the Tigum-Aganan Watershed – based on the principle of ‘what gets measured gets managed’ – providing a tool for longitudinal measurement, reporting, planning and evidence-based decision-making for the watershed. It points to concrete contributions that can

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be made by the business sector, academe, civil society groups and communities, thereby improving environmental stewardship. The process of preparing this State of the Watershed report was participatory and consultative, touching all concerned communities and stakeholder groups. A TAWMB Technical Working Group (TWG) led the community and interagency engagement process, as well as the data collection and diagnosis. Technical support was provided by a multi-disciplinary group of experts from the Philippines and Canada. Local Chief Executives (LCEs) sitting on the TAWMB approved the initial terms of reference for the project and provided feedback at critical milestones throughout the process. The project unfolded over a three-year period from March 2010 until April 2013. Key steps included: a) organizing initial workshops to generate a plan of action for the research and engagement processes; b) holding a series of forums with key stakeholder groups from NGOs, academe and government agencies to seek their input and build cooperation for data sharing, c) preparing an inventory of existing studies and analyzing secondary data in order to get a snapshot of the biophysical, socio-economic, political and institutional characteristics of the Tigum Aganan Watershed, d) conducting a limited range of additional primary research to fill gaps, including a public perception survey, an assessment of community engagement in watershed management, and various ‘characterization’ scans of watershed conditions in targeted areas; e) implementing a series of demonstration projects on sustainable local economic development in upland municipalities, with lessons learned being fed back into the SOWR process; f) agreeing to a set of indicators for the ongoing monitoring and reporting on the vital signs of the watershed (contained Annex G to this report); g) presentation of the initial draft of the SOWR in public forums to obtain further feedback and build commitment for a watershed planning process once the SOWR is released; and h) finalizing the report for TAWMB approval. This State of the Watershed Report for the Tigum-Aganan should be viewed as a living document. It provides the baseline circumstances for the watershed in 2013 based on data that was available and accessible at the time. The reader should be mindful, however, that many gaps in the data exist. These gaps can be filled over time as additional studies are undertaken, new information becomes available and more current data flows from the measurement of the watershed indicators. The purpose of this report, then, is to present relevant, reliable and actionable data and analysis that can be used as the basis for making sound, evidence-based decisions for the planning and management of the Tigum-Aganan Watershed. It is also hoped that stakeholder groups and local communities will take inspiration from this report to protect and rehabilitate their watershed, a precious resource that provides the lifeblood for inhabitants within this city region of close to 800,000 inhabitants.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE ........................................................................................................................ v! TABLE OF CONTENTS................................................................................................ viii! LIST OF TABLES, MAPS AND FIGURES ...................................................................... x! ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS .......................................................................... xix! EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................................................................................................. 1! 1.! INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................. 10! 2.! PROFILE OF THE TIGUM-AGANAN WATERSHED ......................................... 11!

3.! 4.!

5.!

6.!

2.1 Sub-Watershed Systems ....................................................................................... 14! Tigum Sub-Watershed .............................................................................................. 14! Aganan Sub-Watershed ........................................................................................... 14! Jaro River ................................................................................................................. 14! 2.2 Forest and Vegetative Cover ................................................................................ 15! 2.3 Topography and Slope Conditions ...................................................................... 18! 2.4 Geomorphology ..................................................................................................... 20! 2.5 Soil Type and Characteristics ............................................................................... 21! Key Findings ................................................................................................................. 24 DEMOGRAPHY .................................................................................................. 25! Key Findings ................................................................................................................. 28 SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS .................................................................... 29! 4.1 Livelihood and Income ........................................................................................... 29! 4.2 Poverty Incidence and Access to Basic Community and Social Services ........ 34! Settlement and Built-up Structures ........................................................................... 35 Basic Electricity, Water and Sanitation Facilities ...................................................... 36 Basic Health and Education Services ....................................................................... 37 Key Findings ................................................................................................................. 38 Strategic Directions ...................................................................................................... 39 LAND USES AND ALLOCATION ...................................................................... 40! 5.1 Existing Land Uses ................................................................................................ 40! 5.2 Proposed Land Uses ............................................................................................. 43! 5.3 Land Ownership and Tenurial Arrangements within TAW ................................ 47! Status of Public Lands/ Forestlands in the TAW ..................................................... 47 Existing Tenurial Arrangements within the TAW Area ............................................. 48 Key Findings ................................................................................................................. 52 Strategic Directions ...................................................................................................... 53 WATER RESOURCES AND WATER QUALITY ................................................ 54! 6.1 Water Resources .................................................................................................... 54! Ownership by the State ........................................................................................... 54 Water Resources within the TAW ............................................................................ 55 Rainfall and Climate Patterns .................................................................................. 56 viii


Hydrology................................................................................................................. 59 6.2 Water Quality Conditions ...................................................................................... 60! 6.3 Water Services Supply and Demand .................................................................... 65! Multiple Water Uses and Demand ........................................................................... 65 Domestic Water Use ................................................................................................ 67 6.4 Fisheries ................................................................................................................. 70! 6.5 Aggregates ............................................................................................................. 71! Key Findings ................................................................................................................. 72 Strategic Directions ...................................................................................................... 73 7.! CLIMATE CHANGE, DISASTER RISKS AND VULNERABILITIES .................. 74! 7.1 Flooding Occurrences and Threats ..................................................................... 77! 7.2 Sea Level and Storm Surges ................................................................................ 81! 7.3 Soil Erosion, Siltation and Sedimentation ........................................................... 81! 7.4 Landslides .............................................................................................................. 84! 7.5 Earthquakes, Land Subsidence and Liquefaction .............................................. 85! 7.6 Drought ................................................................................................................... 88! Key Findings ................................................................................................................. 91 Strategic Directions ...................................................................................................... 92 8.! INSTITUTIONAL AND GOVERNANCE ARRANGEMENTS .............................. 93! 8.1 Tigum-Aganan Watershed Management Board (TAWMB) ................................. 93! 8.2 Tigum-Aganan Watershed Water Quality Management Area (TAW-WQMA) .... 95! 8.3 Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve Protected Area Management Board ......... 97! 8.4 Local Watershed Management Bodies ................................................................ 98! 8.5 Other Major Administrative Bodies ...................................................................... 99! Iloilo Province Integrated Watershed Management Council (IWMC) ...................... 99 Metro Iloilo-Guimaras Economic Development Council (MIGEDC)....................... 100 Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) ............................... 101 National Water Resources Board .......................................................................... 101 Metro Iloilo Water District and National Irrigation Administration........................... 101 8.6 Other TAW Stakeholders ..................................................................................... 102! 8.7 Towards Watershed Reporting ........................................................................... 107! Key Findings ............................................................................................................... 109 Strategic Directions .................................................................................................... 110 NEXT STEPS ............................................................................................................... 111!

BIBLIOGRAPHY .......................................................................................................... 112

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ANNEXES: ANNEX A: GEOLOGICAL MAP OF ILOILO PROVINCE (MINES AND GEOSCIENCES BUREAU, 2010)!! ANNEX B: NIA MONITORING REPORTS ON WATER DISCHARGE RATES OF THE TIGUM-AGANAN RIVERS (1951-2009)!! ANNEX C: TEN-YEAR ANNUAL RECORD OF DISCHARGE (Lps) AT THE MAIN CANAL/TIGUM RIVER (SANTA BARBARA RIS), 2000-2009! ANNEX D: KEY WATERSHED-RELATED DEVELOPMENT AND GOVERNANCE CONCERNS (SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS) IN MIDEDC! ANNEX E: MATRIX ON CLIMATE CHANGE RISKS AND ADVERSE IMPACTS IN AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES! ANNEX F: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL MANDATES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE TAWMB AND TAW-WQMA! ANNEX G: TIGUM-AGANAN WATERSHED INDICATORS

LIST OF TABLES, MAPS AND FIGURES Tables Table 1. Vegetative Cover in the TAW Area .............................................................................................. 16! Table 2. Vegetative Cover in Tigum Sub-Watershed Area ........................................................................ 17! Table 3. Vegetative Cover in the Aganan Sub-watershed ......................................................................... 17! Table 4. Slope and Land Area Coverage in the TAW ................................................................................ 20! Table 5. Geologic Formations in the TAW Area ........................................................................................ 20! Table 6. Soil Types in Alimodian and Santa Barbara ................................................................................ 23! Table 7. Distribution of Soil Type, Iloilo City .............................................................................................. 24! Table 8. Number of TAW Households and Growth Rate for Census Years 1990, 1995, 2000, 2007 ....... 25! Table 9. TAW Population Growth Rate, per LGU: 1995, 2000 and 2007 .................................................. 26! Table 10. Population and Land Area in the Tigum-Aganan Watershed (TAW) Area ................................. 27! Table 11. Livelihood and Income Derived from the Tigum-Aganan Watershed Area by Source and Landscape Category .................................................................................................................................. 30! Table 12. Livelihood and Income in the TAW Area by Source ................................................................. 31! Table 13. Income and Sources in the TAW Area ....................................................................................... 33! Table 14. Community Access to Basic Utilities in TAW ............................................................................. 36! Table 15. Total Land Area Comparison by Data Source ........................................................................... 40! Table 16. Comparison of Existing and Proposed Land Uses for Built-Up Areas ....................................... 42! Table 17. Existing Land Uses of TAW LGUs (Other Land Uses) .............................................................. 45! Table 18. Proposed Land Uses of TAW LGUs (Other Land Uses) ............................................................ 45! Table 19. Comparison of Existing and Proposed Land Use for Forest Cover & Classified Forest ............ 46! Table 20. TAW Areas with Existing Management Arrangements .............................................................. 50! Table 21. Drainage Area of Major Rivers in the TAW ................................................................................ 56! Table 22. Comparative Discharge Rates in Tigum and Aganan Rivers from 1950-2009 .......................... 59! Table 23. Estimated Flow Capacity of TAW Rivers ................................................................................... 60! Table 24. Classification of Rivers and Creeks by Water Quality ................................................................ 61! Table 25. Water Quality Criteria and Classification for Philippine Waters ................................................. 61! Table 26. Comparative Average Concentrations of the Jaro-Tigum-Aganan Rivers (2001-2010) ............ 63! Table 27. Heavy Metals and Chemicals Content in MIWD Potable Water Supply .................................... 64! Table 28. Inorganic Chemical Composition of the Tigum-Aganan Rivers System .................................... 64! Table 29. Water Utilisation in the TAW ...................................................................................................... 66! Table 30. Summary of Water Rights Granted in the TAW by NWRB (1975 - 2003) .................................. 66!

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Table 31. Selected Infrastructure for Households in Upland and Lowland (%) ......................................... 66! Table 32. MIWD Service Connections and Average Daily Consumption 2000-2010 ................................ 67! Table 33. MIWD Service Connections by Service Areas/ Uses, 2009 ....................................................... 67! Table 34. Projected MIWD Service Connections and Average Daily Water Consumption Demand ......... 68! Table 35. Estimated Future (2025) Domestic Water Demands in the TAW .............................................. 68! Table 36. Irrigation Water Demand vs. Discharge Rate of the Tigum River (2010) ................................... 69! Table 37. Irrigation Water Demand vs. Discharge Rate of the Aganan River (2010) ................................ 70! Table 38. List of Sand and Gravel Permittees in the Aganan River (2007-2008) ...................................... 71! Table 39. List of Sand and Gravel Permittees in the Study Area (2002-2003) .......................................... 71! Table 40. CCA/ DRRM Vulnerability and Risk Assessment in Metro Iloilo-Guimaras Areas ..................... 75! Table 41. Development Concerns and Conditions in the TAW (Ridge-to-Reef) Transect Areas .............. 76! Table 42. MGB Geohazard Vulnerability and Risks Assessment in TAW (2010) ...................................... 77! Table 43. Flood Susceptible/ Threatened Barangays in Iloilo City, 2008 .................................................. 79! Table 44. Erosion Patterns in the Jaro River Basin (2002) ........................................................................ 83! Table 45. Estimated Soil Erosion from Selected Watersheds (2002) ........................................................ 84! Table 46. Estimated Average Soil Erosion (Ton/ha/year) .......................................................................... 84! Table 47. TAW-WQMA Coverage Area ..................................................................................................... 95! Table 48. TAW Stakeholder Profiles, Mandates and Interests in Watershed Management .................... 103!

Maps Map 1. River Basins of the Tigum-Aganan Watershed .............................................................................. 11! Map 2. Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve within TAW ............................................................................ 13! Map 3. Vegetative Cover Map of TAW ...................................................................................................... 15! Map 4. Slope Map of TAW ......................................................................................................................... 19! Map 5. Geological Map of Iloilo Province ................................................................................................... 21! Map 6. Provincial Poverty Map of Iloilo, 2005 ............................................................................................ 35! Map 7. Open Access Areas in the TAW .................................................................................................... 47! Map 8. Land Classification Map of TAW .................................................................................................... 48! Map 9. Existing Tenurial Arrangements within TAW .................................................................................. 49! Map 10. Proposed Land Use and Zones within the CBFMA Area ............................................................. 50! Map 11. Average Rainfall and Isohyet Patterns in TAW (Dry and Wet Season), by Sub-basins .............. 58! Map 12. Flood Map of TAW ....................................................................................................................... 78! Map 13. Detailed Flood Map of the TAW Area .......................................................................................... 80! Map 14. Flood Hazard Map of Iloilo City (Pagasa-DOST, May 2008) ....................................................... 80! Map 15. Soil Erosion Map of TAW ............................................................................................................. 82! Map 16. Soil Run-off Map in the TAW (2000) ............................................................................................ 82! Map 17. Landslide Prone/Susceptible Areas in Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve ................................. 85! Map 18. Active Fault Lines in Western and Central Visayas ..................................................................... 86! Map 19. West Panay Fault Lines in Iloilo Province .................................................................................... 86! Map 20. Regional Liquefaction Susceptibility Map for Regions VI and VII ................................................ 88! Map 21. Potential Drought Incidence Area in the Tigum Sub-watershed .................................................. 90!

Figures Figure 1. Cross-sectional View of the Major Sub-structural and Soil Features of Iloilo Basin ................... 22! Figure 2. Percentage Distribution of Barangays within TAW (by geographical categories) ....................... 26! Figure 3. Total Land Area covered within TAW (by geographical categories) ........................................... 27! Figure 4. Land Use Distribution in the TAW Area (2000-2010) ................................................................. 41! Figure 5. Proposed Land Uses for TAW Area (2011-onwards) ................................................................. 44! Figure 6. Total Rainfall Trends in the TAW During the Dry and Wet Seasons (1995-2000) ...................... 89! Figure 7. Water Extraction Rates in Wells in the TAW Area (2004-2008) ................................................. 90! Figure 8. Organisational Structure of the Tigum-Aganan Watershed Management Board ....................... 95! Figure 9. IWMC Organisational Structure ................................................................................................ 100! Figure 10. Organisational Spheres of Influence within the TAW ............................................................. 107!

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Republic of the Philippines Province of Guimaras

OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR

MESSAGE It is a privilege as well as a challenge to be a MIGEDC Co-Chairman, knowing that I was involved in various processes to make this report ready and available. The Report on the State of the Tigum-Aganan Watershed has been a Metro Iloilo Guimaras Bioregion initiative, through the CUI. It is considered as a basis for arriving at sound technical analyses and collective decisions for the appropriate management planning and monitoring of watershed systems. We consider it a good initiative of the MIGEDC as it provides a baseline and framework by which subsequent information and current data may be integrated to track the watershed’s health in the future. In summary, I am happy that this was made into reality, especially as it continues to be a participatory and consultative process involving the communities and stakeholders where they are vital in the formulation of the watershed plan. A series of fora, workshops and community engagements fulfilled the plans and initiatives of the team. With this, I congratulate all of us and am grateful to the CUI for taking the lead in ensuring that this initiative developed into a working and dynamic document.

Mabuhay!

!

FELIPE HILAN A NAVA, MD Governor, Guimaras Province Co-Chairman, Metro Iloilo Guimaras Economic Development Council

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Republic of the Philippines

DEPARTMENT OF INTERIOR AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT

MESSAGE Access to safe and potable water has become an intermittent problem among communities whose resources are incomparably dwindling and could not cope up with the increasing demand. In the recent years, phenomenal changes occur brought by the rapid changes in the societal landscape and abnormal climate condition affecting the condition of water supply contributing to its hasty diminish. Truly, this has been a triggering factor for the Local Government Units (LGUs) to respond along with the initiatives from various development partners. As a concrete example, the establishment of Tigum-Aganan Watershed Management Board (TAWMB) has forwarded the cause by the inter-LGU Cooperation supported by the Canadian Urban Institute (CUI). The TAWMB being one of the watershed boards created under the Iloilo Watershed Management Board (IWMC) has been in constant collaboration and promotion of programs and projects in line with the protection of the watershed which safeguards the water supply of 10 member LGUs. We in the DILG, continue our commitment as a partner in institutionalizing efforts that would push through our goals in protecting the environment through efficient and effective watershed management and a milestone where we are guaranteeing our successful journey towards the realization of our gargantuan efforts. Together with the other national government agencies who an been in the series of workshops and consultative meetings, this State of the Watershed Report will not just remain as a document but will become a benchmark of our succeeding plans in formulating policies and measures to strengthen our position in the TAWMB. It is our stand then in the DILG to share our resources in the future endeavors of the TAWMB with the relentless support from the CUI and the other NGAs. It is our commitment then to scale-up our partnership as steward in transforming Environment Protective, Climate Change Adaptive and Disaster Resilient LGUs through efficient and effective watershed management as well as Socially Protective and Safe LGUs through provision of safe and potable water for all. Congratulations to all of us and let us march towards the challenge of creating ripples of our success!

EVELYN A. TROMPETA, CESO II Regional Director, DILG Region VI xv


Republic of the Philippines City of Iloilo

OFFICE OF THE MAYOR

MESSAGE I warmly congratulate the creative, dedicated and hardworking people behind the success of this significant publication of the State of the Tigum-Aganan Watershed Report (STAWR). It is very pleasing that the Metro Iloilo-Guimaras Sustainable Bioregion Initiative of the Canadian Urban Institute (CUI)-Philippines has spearheaded this noble endeavor on our watersheds as we highlight environmental protection and conservation of our natural wealth. I am also very glad to see the dynamic partnerships, valuable cooperation and active collaborations of our sectors of society to strongly push for the promotion of preservation efforts towards a sustainable management and development of our watersheds – our source of potable water – and our source of life. Good governance and environmental management certainly calls for a shared responsibility and this manuscript surely stresses our common goals to address the pressing concerns and challenges that may threaten our precious watersheds. Thus, I commend everyone for actively participating and sharing your very helpful time and resources for the successful achievement of developmental endeavors and initiatives for the continued conservation of our watersheds and our environment. The craftsmanship and innovation of our active partners, expert planners and key decision makers have cultivated great achievements and productive results in our persistent pursuit for rapid growth and progress and sustainable development. I am confident that this information databank will be of big help as we continuously learn, develop, and share the best practices in good governance and socio-economic development for others to emulate. It is our sincerest hope that this learning guide serves as a model example of thorough and careful planning procedures and maximizes its utilization as we actively work together for community’s advancement and nation-building. As a fusion of ideas, insights, experiences, and perspectives of stakeholders, this major source of knowledge exemplifies a strong public-private partnership we have transformed through the years and already generated great accomplishments.

JED PATRICK E. MABILOG Mayor, Iloilo City xvii


Republic of the Philippines

CLIMATE CHANGE COMMISSION MESSAGE

On behalf of the Climate Change Commission, I would like to extend my congratulations to the people and organizations behind the publication of the State of the Tigum Aganan Watershed Report (STAWR). The State of the Watershed Report for the Tigum-Aganan Watershed is a welcomed input to the growing number of documents and tools that provide policy makers with more workable ways to tackle the urgent problems related to environment, disaster and climate change. This document will help facilitate and enhance CCC’s lead role in creating policies related to climate change and enhance the implementation of RA 9129 or the Climate Change Act. This document, could also serve as the model for other watershed boards across the country in its efforts to create a more extensive approach to environmental management by incorporating climate change issues to the over-all watershed management planning. The Climate Change Commission (CCC) will undoubtedly support this endeavor of the organizations who worked for the publication of this document, given the CCC’s mandate to formulate the National Framework Strategy on Climate Change (NFSCC) and the National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP). The CCC is looking towards collaborating with TAWMB, the Iloilo Watershed Management Council and the Province of Iloilo for the mainstreaming of the initiatives for both the climate adaptation and mitigation to better cope with the dynamics of environmental changes and to sustain the positive effects of the actions implemented.

Sec. Mary Lucille Ann Sering Vice President Climate Change Commission

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ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS A&D ANR AusAID BDC BDP BICs Bgy CBFM CBFMA CENRO CLUPs CSIRO CUI DA DAO DAR DENR DepEd DILG DOST DPWH DRRM EMB EO FGDs FLUP GA IEC IFCP IWMC KAPAWA-Maasin KSPFI LCEs LGUs L/s LWUA M&E MWFR MGB MIGB MIDC MIGEDC MIWD MPDCO MRFs NAMRIA NCI-SRD

Alienable and Disposable Lands Assisted Natural Regeneration Australian Agency for International Development Barangay Development Council Barangay Development Plan Barangay Information Centers Barangay Community-Based Forestry Management Community Based Forestry Management Act Community Environment and Natural Resources Office Comprehensive Land Use Plans Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization Canadian Urban Institute Department of Agriculture Department Administrative Order Department of Agrarian Reform Department of Environment and Natural Resources Department of Education Department of the Interior and Local Government Department of Science and Technology Department of Public Works and Highways Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Environmental Management Bureau Executive Order Focus Group Discussions Forest Land Use Plan General Assembly Information, Education and Communications Iloilo Flood Control Project Iloilo Watershed Management Council Katilingban sang mga Pumuluyo nga Nagatipan sang Watershed-Maasin Kahublagan sang Panimalay Foundation, Inc Local Chief Executives Local Government Units Liters per Second Local Water Utilities Administration Monitoring and Evaluation Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve Mines and Geosciences Bureau Metro Iloilo-Guimaras Bioregion Metro Iloilo Development Council Metro Iloilo-Guimaras Economic Development Council Metro Iloilo Water District Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator’s Office Materials Recovery Facilities National Mapping and Resource Information Authority National Convergence Initiative for Sustainable Rural Development xix


NEDA NGAs NGOs NIA NIPAS NSCB NSO NWRB OFWs PAGASA PAMB PD PENRO PIA PLUC PNSDW POs PNP PSU RA RED RIS SB SOWR SWM TAW TAWMB TAWWQMA TAWWQMA-GB TWG UNEP UP UP-SESAM WPP

National Economic and Development Authority National Government Agencies Non-Government Organizations National Irrigation Administration National Integrated Protected Areas System National Statistics and Coordination Board National Statistics Office National Water Resources Board Overseas Filipino workers Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Protected Areas Management Board Presidential Decree Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office Philippine Information Agency Provincial Land Use Committee Philippine National Standard for Drinking Water People's Organizations Philippine National Police Parks Superintendent Republic Act DENR Regional Environment Director River Irrigation System Sangguniang Bayan State of the Watershed Report Solid Waste Management Tigum-Aganan Watershed Tigum-Aganan Watershed Management Board Tigum-Aganan Watershed Water Quality Management Area Tigum Aganan Watershed Water Quality Management AreaGoverning Board Technical Working Group United Nations Environment Programme University of the Philippines UP School of Environment Science and Management Watershed Point Persons

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This document is the State of the Watershed Report (SOWR) for the Tigum-Aganan Watershed (TAW), the largest river basin within the Iloilo urban region and one of the Philippine’s proclaimed priority watersheds for protection and rehabilitation. It was developed by the TigumAganan Watershed Management Board under the Metro Iloilo-Guimaras (MIG) Sustainable Bioregion Initiative, a Philippines-Canada cooperation program managed by the Canadian Urban Institute that received a generous financial contribution from the Government of Canada through its Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development. This report serves as a baseline assessment of the conditions of the watershed in 2013. It collates and analyzes existing data on the watershed at the time of writing, points to key findings and recommends strategic directions for the future. The SOWR also provides a set of watershed indicators that will facilitate the ongoing measurement of watershed health and improve evidence-based planning and decision-making within the river basin in the years ahead.

Profile of the Tigum-Aganan Watershed The Tigum-Aganan Watershed (TAW) is composed of two main waterways – the Tigum River and the Aganan River, each considered to be sub-watersheds – which converge in Pavia to form the Jaro River that flows through Iloilo City to the Sulu Sea at the Iloilo Strait. According to the Technical Working Group (TWG) of the Tigum-Aganan Watershed Management Board, the river basin within the TAW has a total catchment area of 433.6 kilometers squared1. Nine municipalities comprise the watershed: Maasin, Alimodian and Leon are upland municipalities; Cabatuan, Santa Barbara, San Miguel, Pavia and Oton are categorized as lowland municipalities. The estuary is located in highly urbanized Iloilo City. Heavily affected by floods, the densely populated districts adjacent to the Jaro River leading up to the estuary are prone to water overflowing from the river and its tributaries during heavy rains. The Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve (MWFR), declared a protected area in 1923 and located primarily in the Tigum sub-watershed, is the main source of surface water and recharge. The intake for domestic water supply, provided through the Metro Iloilo Water District, is located in Maasin at barangay Daja. The Aganan River Irrigation System, located in the Aganan subwatershed, provides an important source of water for the region’s large agricultural economy. TAW is experiencing advanced deforestation, with only 8% of the watershed remaining as closed-canopy forest cover and forestlands. Reforestation and riverbank rehabilitation projects over the past several decades have replanted close to 1000 hectares, but these efforts have largely introduced non-native, fast-growing species such as gmelina, mahogany, rain tree or acacia, which have hampered naturalization. Close to one-third of the TAW area or 17,400 hectares is steep land (i.e., > 18% slope), mostly within the upland municipalities of Maasin, Alimodian, Leon and a portion of Janiuay, prone to erosion and landslides. Due to rapid urbanization, the percentage of land covered by buildings and pavement has steadily increased in recent years, thereby reducing the rate of infiltration of water into the soil

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1


while increasing the rate of surface runoff. Combined with massive deforestation, these conditions increase the frequency of flashfloods during heavy rains, making the lower areas of the city now markedly flood-prone.

Demography The TAW is home to close to 800,000 residents or about 160,000 households (2007). The region has experienced a steady decline in population growth rate over the past two decades, from 2.31% in 1995 to 1.55% by 2007. Iloilo, Oton, Pavia and San Miguel have the highest rates of population growth, pointing to a trend of urbanization in the city region focused on its central city and the innermost rings of suburban municipalities. The upland municipalities of Maasin, Leon and Alimodian all had similar flat rates of growth over the past 20 years â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ranging from about 0.6% to just over 1% â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a trend that is clearly attributable to out-migration, especially from the Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve.

Socio-Economic Conditions The socio-economic conditions of communities are determinants of their capacity to protect and sustain a healthy watershed. Some of the most urgent poverty-related issues in the TigumAganan Watershed are within communities located in the upland areas and along the coast zone. These communities have an annual average income ranging from about PhP 17,000 to PhP 20,000, which is slightly above the provincial poverty threshold of PhP 16,584, but well below the accepted level needed to stay out of poverty. The main source of livelihood in upland communities is small-scale farming (vegetables, rice, corn, root crops), fruit-growing (bananas and a variety of others), agro-forestry (bamboo), livestock raising, collection of fuel wood and charcoal making. While a major generator of income for upland communities, agriculture can negatively affect water quality through pesticide residue, increase surface runoff through the extent of forest lands cleared for grazing or farming, and can place competing demand on finite water resources through irrigation. The gathering of fuel wood and charcoal production is a major source of livelihood for over 1,100 households, located mostly in the upland areas. Much of this economic activity takes place within the boundaries of the Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve and is a major contributor to upland deforestation. Siltation emanating from the river basin has brought about destruction to fish habitats and the decimation of fish stocks in and around coastal areas of the TAW. This means that today fewer than 10% of households sampled during an earlier study were found to be engaged in fishing as an economic activity. While there are considerable numbers of indigent communities in lowland areas, upland dwellers constitute the majority of TAW communities that do not have access to potable, piped water, one of the major indicators of poverty. Only 32% of households in upland municipalities have access to piped water (i.e., in-house pipe, or from a communal standpipe), with the remainder obtaining water from ponds, springs or shallow wells. Upland municipalities tend to fare lower in terms of the access to Rural Health Units (RHUs) and to public schools, as compared to lowland communities. Communities in the ecologically important upland areas need to be introduced to other forms of income-generating activities that require less direct utilization of forest resources. One way to do 2


this is to facilitate the creation of local businesses in the area that enable communities to reap benefits from their natural assets, without having to use them up or degrade them. Eco-tourism and organic agriculture are potential local businesses that these communities can be encouraged to pursue more vigorously. The following strategic directions are recommended: •

• • •

Utilize the emerging local economic development (LED) functions of area LGUs to advance watershed management objectives, which ought to include working with targeted communities to transition to more sustainable forms of livelihood based on a community’s assets. This could include: a) for upland areas: nature-base eco-tourism, cultural tourism, high-value crops, organic agriculture, b) for lowland areas: sustainable agriculture, c) for coastal areas: sustainable fishing. This assistance could include enterprise development support such as business planning, proposal writing, grant seeking and other forms of resource mobilization. Issue ordinances, based on the model already adopted by Alimodian, that limits the types of trees that can be used for charcoal making and begin securing permits for transport of charcoal as a means of enforcement. The ordinance could also limit the volume or frequency of charcoal making activity. Design and launch a broad-based forest stewardship program to expand partnerships with local communities in sustainable forest management and to advance reforestation efforts. Launch IEC activities with communities in sensitive areas of the watershed to raise awareness on sustainable forms of farming, animal husbandry and forestry methods. Develop environmental education program for youth and school-age children to begin raising the awareness of communities on the importance of protecting the watershed. Consider options for relocation of vulnerable and threatened communities and households, drawing on successful regional experiences such as Iloilo’s voluntary dismantling and relocation efforts with communities along the Iloilo River. Prepare an inventory and map of communities in the upland areas without access to clean water and explore options to improve servicing.

Land Uses and Allocation The total land area of municipalities within the TAW, based on the LGUs’ consolidated Comprehensive Land Use Plans (CLUPSs), is about 882 km2 (88,165 hectares), of which only 49.2%, or 433.6 km2, is designated as being within the river basin. About 63% of the watershed is dedicated for agriculture, important for food security within the urban region and to the prosperity of communities with agriculture as the local economic base. About 14.5% (12,780.5 hectares) of the watershed consists of built-up areas. The bulk of this urbanized land is located in Iloilo and its adjacent suburban municipalities. The region is preparing for further urbanization. The consolidated CLUPs provide allowances for the conversion of approximately 2,703.6 hectares of existing agricultural lands to built-up areas for residential and commercial uses as well as for industrial and Planned Unit Development (PUD), leading to a significant reduction in available food-producing lands in the urban region in the years ahead.

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Forestland, which plays a major role in maintaining the health of the watershed, comprises only 15% of the total land area of the TAW area. A little more than half the remaining forestland (53%) is located in the Tigum sub-watershed in the municipality of Maasin. The remainder of forestland (about 46%) is in the Aganan sub-watershed, primarily within the municipalities of Leon and Alimodian. Long-established governance arrangements are working to protect and restore the watershed’s forestlands. There are two protected areas within the watershed: the Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve (MWFR) with 6,738 hectares primarily within the Tigum subwatershed, and the Iloilo-Antique Forest Reserve (I-AFR), also known as the Aganan Forest Reserve, with 4,062 hectares within the Aganan sub-watershed. About half of the MWFR is managed by a Protected Area Management Board (PAMB), and the other half through an innovative community-based stewardship agreement known as KAPAWA that is a federation of 16 local barangays. DENR directly manages the I-AFR. Over 80% of the total land area of the TAW is in private ownership and/or classified as alienable-and-disposable (A&D). The balance of approximately 16.5% is in public ownership. Most public lands are forests located in the protected areas within the upland municipalities of Alimodian, Leon and Maasin. Although the revised Forestry Code of 1975 discourages areas having a slope of great than 18% from being converted into private ownership, there is significant encroachment of alienable-and-disposable lands into these sensitive, steeply sloped areas of the TAW. This creates risks for environmental degradation, erosion and increased sedimentation of watercourses. However, there are no reported ancestral land claims in the watershed, despite a history of being the settlement site for members of central Panay’s Solodnon tribes. The following strategic directions are recommended: •

• •

Build the capacity of area LGUs to effectively use their existing powers – land use planning, zoning, building codes, environmental programming and enforcement among others – as a means to reduce the impacts of built form on deforestation, surface runoff, erosion and sedimentation. Shift the regional planning efforts of MIGEDC and the Province of Iloilo towards the theme of regional food security, exploring ways to curb urban sprawl and limit the conversion of valuable, food-producing farmlands. Formulate Forest Land Use Plans (FLUPs), which should include biodiversity inventories, to guide reforestation efforts and the improvement of forest management efforts by LGUs, communities and national agencies. Ensure these FLUPs are based on best practices and locally appropriate (i.e., favoring indigenous species). Continue the process of preparing watershed characterization studies to improve understanding of conditions within the watershed. Update CLUPs and CDPs to reflect the recommendations of this report and the forthcoming update to the TAW Management Plan.

Water Resources and Water Quality One of the primary determinants of the growth of cities is the availability of a reliable water supply. It is needed for human consumption, for agricultural irrigation, for industrial uses, and even for fighting fires.

4


The Tigum River has a higher discharge rate than the Aganan River, with greater potential for extraction of water for human purposes. However, there has been a noticeable decline in the rate of water discharge from both river systems, based on data collected since the early 1950s. Should this trend continue, it may severely affect water extraction rates and usage in the urban region, and will probably lead to a declining water yield both for irrigation and domestic uses. This warns of a potential water crisis should no new sources of water be tapped or rehabilitation of existing water resources made. The DENR-EMB uses a grading system to rank river water quality. According to their classification for the Jaro-Tigum-Aganan river systems, the surface water quality of the Tigum River upstream from the MIWD intake dam has been rated ‘Class A’, meaning that its quality is suitable for public water supply that undergoes treatment. However, all other segments of the Jaro-Tigum-Aganan river system is rated as ‘Class C’, in that its quality is only suitable for fisheries, recreation and industrial uses. However, in recent years, elevated levels of total suspended solids (TSS) as well as decreased levels of dissolved oxygen (DO) have been recorded through DENR monitoring. Both conditions can negatively affect the ability of the river to support aquatic life and to be tapped for human uses. The probable causes are storm events of recent years, uncontrolled dumping of solid wastes and non-biodegradable refuse along river banks, heavily silted river beds, sand and gravel extraction in the Aganan riverbed, discharges from industries (bottling companies, poultry dressing plants, piggeries and feed mills), agricultural runoff and riverbank dwellers. The condition of groundwater in the watershed is a growing concern. Although there is no established monitoring program for groundwater quality in the region, periodic testing points to possible problems. In 2005, testing of communal wells in Iloilo City did not pass national bacteriological parameters for safe drinking water. Other tests by MIWD have shown high iron and acid content, as well as lead levels ten times beyond standards for safe drinking water. Increasing demand for water due to increased population pressures, demand from agriculture and extreme dry seasons is resulting in a decreased groundwater supply and dry wells and bores becoming a more common occurrence. Over-extraction of the aquifer could lead to further land subsistence and saline intrusions, which are beginning to be reported especially in Oton. In the next ten years, MIWD estimates that its total number of service connections to reach more than 40,000 taps (up from its approximate 31,000 taps at present) with an estimated daily demand of 60,000 cubic meters of water. This is about twice the MIWD system’s current capacity of 43,000 cubic meters per day. In the next one to two decades, MIWD will need to double its capacity in order to meet foreseen demands, or confront a water crisis. Fishery conditions within the Jaro River and in the Iloilo Strait are diminishing in terms of volume and diversity of species, as a result of declining water quality in the river due to low levels of dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand, as well as degraded fish habitats due to siltation and the presence of commercial fish pens. The following strategic directions are recommended: •

Improve the region’s water security by continuing to make the protection and rehabilitation of forestlands in the headwaters, along riverbanks and in the floodplain a top priority. Focus on efforts to stem deforestation and programs to accelerate reforestation using endemic tree species. 5


• •

• • •

Create an inventory of existing tree nurseries, and source funds for the establishment of additional tree nurseries as required, to facilitate reforestation efforts. Control sedimentation and erosion along riverbanks through the use of conservation buffers, stream bank stabilization measures and adaptation of sediment controls (e.g., sediment basins) for agriculture, land development and construction, among others. Elevate efforts at pollution abatement, including working with local industries to reduce discharges, with farmers to reduce agricultural runoff and with communities to reduce micro-dumping. Improve oversight and technical support by the PENRO-LGU for LGU issuances of permits related to quarrying, to ensure compliance with environmental standards and to improve environmental performance. Evaluate conditions (Province of Iloilo or PENRO-LGU) of proposed quarry sites before issuing permits to proponents, thereby enabling more accurate monitoring of quarrying activities and conditions of the quarry site. Promote incentive-based enforcement of environmental laws, by rewarding quarry operators that comply with provincial ordinances on extraction. Promote low-cost water conservation measures, such as household rainwater harvesting and recycling of greywater for flushing, and accompany these efforts with IEC activities. Explore the potential to construct upstream water reservoirs to mitigate flooding events and to conserve water for human consumption and irrigation purposes (This may not be feasible currently due to heavy siltation, based on NIA JRMP II Evaluation Study). Consider lobbying the NWRB to deputize TAW LGUs to be the regulatory approval bodies for groundwater extraction, especially for applications for wells with a depth of 50 meters and above, to stem over extraction. Undertake a comprehensive study of groundwater in the watershed to establish baseline conditions and set up a regular groundwater quality monitoring system to track changes in quality and quantity over time. Continue to explore new sources of water supply and/or rehabilitate the existing MIWD water supply system to avert a potential regional water crisis in the years ahead.

Climate Change, Disaster Risks and Vulnerabilities Flooding brought about by extreme weather occurrences is the preeminent threat and vulnerability confronting the urban region. A 2010 MGB geo-hazard risk and vulnerabilities mapping exercise showed that 62% of all barangays in the watershed are susceptible to flooding. Most of these barangays are located in low-lying areas near rivers, with the majority located in Iloilo City mostly in the Jaro and La Paz/Lapuz districts. The Jaro River was identified as the ‘most significant’ riverine flood threat in the region. The flood threat spans 60% of the city’s total informal settlements, mostly those in the coastal area along Molo Boulevard up to the Oton boundary. The majority of business establishments, especially the major business centers located along the Iloilo River, are within the flood-prone areas. The coastal areas of the watershed, particularly the coast along the Arevalo District and Molo Boulevard, are vulnerable to storm surges and sea-level rise. Increased erosion is another hazard faced by residents of the watershed. Although studies show that the 2.262 tons/hectare/year of sediments is considered low as compared to the rate for other major irrigation areas in the Visayas and Mindanao, a continued decrease in forest cover would exponentially increase surface run-off, landslides, soil loss and river sedimentation especially during rainy seasons and storm events. A 2007 DPWH Iloilo Flood Control project 6


simulated soil erosion in Jaro River, and in a worst case scenario estimated an increase up to 109.6 tons/ hectare/year. Areas most prone to moderate or severe erosion are situated in the middle portion of the mountainous terrain, where there is generally scarce forest cover. The TAW area is located along the West Panay Fault and is prone to earthquakes. A 2011 Phivolcs susceptibility study shows that coastal zones of the region are susceptible to liquefaction as well as tsunami. Simulations estimate around 5,000 casualties in Iloilo City alone as a consequence of an 8.1 magnitude earthquake, while a 6.3 magnitude cause 2,400 fatalities. These casualty figures are estimated to rise if applied to the whole of TAW area, but that study has yet to be done. Changes in rainfall patterns in the TAW area, believed to be caused by climate change as well as periodic El Niño events, have been observed in recent years. Such changes have the potential to lead to extreme temperature changes that may in turn lead to periods of drought. The following strategic directions are recommended: •

• •

Explore low-tech options for setting up an early warning system (EWS) for flooding that would improve interaction and critical information sharing between upland and lowland LGUs and communities during storm events. This EWS could be low-cost and easily maintained, perhaps based on mobile phone technology or hand-held radios. Start building understanding and awareness of at-risk communities, which is key to promoting a culture of resilience and empowerment in the region. Start by providing information on disaster risks to businesses, communities and households in high-risk areas. Formulate LGU climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction / response action plans in a participatory manner with local communities. Provide training to barangay officials on community-based micro-watershed management – using the manual developed by Jessica Salas during this initiative – as a method for mobilizing community action on the LGUs CCA/DRRM plans. Undertake longer-term planning and analysis focused on practical steps that can be taken to reduce disaster risk factors and adapt to climate change. Emphasis could be on improving the maintenance of wetlands, accelerating upland reforestation efforts, and adopting new standards for infrastructure that adapt to changing climatic conditions and are earthquake resistant. Update vulnerability and risk assessments, in conjunction with national partners.

Institutional and Governance Arrangements Environmental governance arrangements are increasingly concerned with taking steps to reduce vulnerability to the impacts of climate change and disaster events. For this to occur, certain local governance arrangements geared to protecting watersheds and planning and programming on an ecosystem basis need to be in place. The Tigum-Aganan Watershed has several governance arrangements responsible for the watershed, some with overlapping responsibilities. The Tigum-Aganan Watershed Management Board (TAWMB) is an alliance between LGUs, NGAs, the local water utility, the irrigators association, universities and colleges, as well as local environmental NGOs. It has a mandate to 7


undertake the planning and implementation activities necessary to protect, advocate for and rehabilitate the watershed. It was formed in 2001 by provincial ordinance and through a memorandum of agreement between its members. The TAWMB has begun to prioritize its role as an alliance to facilitate the transfer of DENR functions to the LGUs within the TAW, an initiative that will ultimately devolve administrative functions for managing the environment to the local level. The Tigum-Aganan Watershed Water Quality Management Area (TAW-WQMA) is a body mandated under the Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004, with a primary focus on water quality. With a membership similar to TAWMB, it has a responsibility for monitoring, facilitating compliance with national legislation and coordinating actions on water quality and pollution abatement. The Maasin Protected Forest Reserve Board, which has been in place since 1923, is one of 19 declared protected areas or biodiversity sites in the Western Visayas. Responsible for management of the upland forest reserve and protecting the sustainability of the water supply, it is governed through a Protected Area Management Board (PAMB), chaired by a Protected Area Supervisor of DENR-CENRO Iloilo City. The Iloilo Watershed Management Council (IWMC), with the Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office as its secretariat, was established in 2000 to facilitate the convening of local watershed management councils or boards in the 13 identified watershed planning units across the province. It is responsible for providing policy-making, legislative support, coordination of service delivery, monitoring and resource generation towards watershed management matters, and resolving conflicts that may arise. Other local agencies involved in aspects of watershed management include the Metro Iloilo Water District (potable water) and the Metro-Iloilo Guimaras Economic Development Council (metropolitan planning, service delivery and economic development). Each LGU in the region also has the powers to establish local watershed management councils or core groups to support watershed management efforts. National agencies involved in watershed management include the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (forestlands and public lands), the National Water Resources Board (water resources, both surface and ground), the National Irrigation Administration (irrigation systems), and the Department of Public Works and Highways (sewerage and septic systems). Community or private sector organizations engaged in watershed issues and stewardship include the KSPFI, KAPAWA-Maasin, Aganan-Sta. Barbara Irrigators’ Association, the Iloilo Business Club, and local universities and colleges through the Watershed Academic Consortium. The following strategic directions are recommended: •

Establish a Watershed Monitoring Program for the Tigum-Aganan Watershed by adopting the watershed indicators, contained in Annex G to this report, which will facilitate tracking of the health of the ecosystem. Design and launch a simple Watershed Report Card, which would enable TAWMB to report to policy makers and the public on changes in the state of the watershed over time and allow for improved evidence-based decision-making for investments in watershed rehabilitation. Improve the use of geographic information systems (GIS) technologies in watershed characterization, to allow for the visualization of data to be collected through the Watershed Monitoring Program.

8


Launch a process to update the TAW management plan, based on evidence collated in this report and through additional data collected over time through the Watershed Monitoring Program. Strengthen TAWMB’s collaboration with academic institutions in the city region through the Watershed Academic Consortium, which can be tapped for expertise and the energy of students for data collection and tracking, the conduct of key studies, risk assessments, the modelling of scenarios related to climate change and disaster risks, and inventories of biodiversity, among others. Institutionalize the TAWMB (as well as other watershed boards in the Province) as the entity with legal authority over planning, implementation, enforcement of environmental laws and public education within the watershed, under the leadership of the IWMC. This institutionalization ought to include differentiating the roles and responsibilities of the governing board or management board from the technical working groups, adopting a manual of operations, securing predictable funding sources, setting up a physical office, compelling the attendance of all TAWMB members for meetings, and providing authority to the TWG Chair to represent the TWG membership before the Board. Form co-management agreements between TAWMB LGUs and DENR to provide a legal basis for the transfer of direct resource management responsibilities and powers, thereby helping to foster socio-economic development within communities and increase the effective management of the watershed area.

Next Steps By providing a snap-shot of the current environmental and socio-economic conditions within the Iloilo urban region’s largest river basin, this State of the Watershed Report (SOWR) provides the basis for developing an effective watershed management plan and related strategies, aligning the efforts of the various watershed stakeholder groups, and sparking communities to be the front-line stewards of watershed health. The information and conclusions in this report are the starting point for the measurement and reporting of watershed conditions, through the application of the watershed indicators. This SOWR also serves as a starting point for new public information and education campaigns, and will help inform the launch of concrete watershed restoration projects in communities across the region. The process of preparing this SOWR brought together a great number of people that have the energy, passion and expertise to make a difference for the Tigum-Aganan Watershed. Continuing to expand this network of watershed stewards will be at the core of our future efforts to improve the resilience of one of the Philippines’ fastest growing urban regions.

9


1. INTRODUCTION This document is the State of the Watershed Report (SOWR) for the Tigum-Aganan Watershed (TAW), the largest river basin within the Iloilo urban region and one of the Philippineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s proclaimed priority watersheds for protection and rehabilitation. This report serves as a baseline assessment of the conditions of the watershed in 2013. It collates and analyzes existing data on the watershed at the time of writing, points to key findings and recommends strategic directions for the future. The SOWR also provides a set of watershed indicators, which will facilitate the ongoing monitoring of watershed health and improve evidence-based planning and decisionmaking within the river basin in the years ahead.

10


2. PROFILE OF THE TIGUM-AGANAN WATERSHED The Tigum-Aganan Watershed (TAW) is composed of two main waterways: the Tigum River and the Aganan River. These two rivers have their headwaters in the Panay Cordillera to the northwest of the Iloilo City, including within the Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve. The two rivers converge downstream in the Municipality of Pavia, forming the Jaro River (also known as the Salog River), which meanders through Iloilo City before draining into the Sulu Sea at the Iloilo Strait. The TAW river basin is divided into two distinct sub-watershed areas, the Tigum River subwatershed and the Aganan River sub-watershed (Map 1).

Map 1. River Basins of the Tigum-Aganan Watershed

Source: Salas, Jessica (2008), Rainwater Harvesting in IWRM for Climate Change Adaptation Project.

The Tigum River sub-watershed traverses the municipalities of Maasin, Cabatuan and Santa Barbara. The Aganan River sub-watershed encompasses Alimodian, Leon, San Miguel, Oton, Pavia and Iloilo City. The municipalities of Maasin, Alimodian and Leon are categorized as upland LGUs. Cabatuan, Santa Barbara, San Miguel, Pavia and Oton are considered lowland LGUs. The estuary is in Iloilo City, which is categorized as highly urbanized. Portions of the municipality of Pavia are also considered urban.2 As described in the Tigum-Aganan Watershed Management Plan for 2008-2010, the Tigum River has a mainstream length of about 58 kilometers, with a drainage area of approximately

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11


213 km2. The Aganan River has a length of some 53 kilometers and a drainage area of approximately 199 km2. The drainage area relative to this confluence, which totals 412 km2, is the Tigum-Aganan Watershed (TAW). 3 However, the bioregional approach of the TAWMB project provides that the Jaro River is also included in basin calculations. The Jaro River is a result of the convergence of the Tigum and Aganan rivers, and subsequently has a drainage area of 21.6 km2 within the TAW in Iloilo City. Therefore, according to the Technical Working Group of the TAWMB, this data makes the total area of the basin 433.6 km2. According to Salas, however, the TAW covers a total of 297 km2, of which 104 km2 is covered by the Aganan sub-watershed and 193 km2 by the Tigum sub-watershed.4 This figure is in effect almost 30% smaller than the total watershed area reported in the 2008-2010 Tigum-Aganan Watershed Management Plan. Still another source, an earlier study in 2003 made by the National Irrigation Administration (NIA), estimated the TAW total catchment area to be 507.7 km2, composed of four subwatersheds that include the Aganan River (216.5 km2), Tigum River (214.7 km2), Morobuan River (62.5 km2), and the Jaro River (14.0 km2).5 In this study, the figure for the total watershed area is almost 20% larger than that used by the TAW Management Plan. The Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve (MWFR), also referred to as the Maasin Watershed, is located within the Tigum sub-watershed (see Map 2 below).

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12


2.1 Sub-Watershed Systems Tigum Sub-Watershed The Tigum River sub-watershed covers an area of 21,300 hectares (213 km2). Five towns share administrative jurisdiction, namely: Maasin, Janiuay, Cabatuan, New Lucena, Santa Barbara and Pavia. It encompasses 50 barangays in Maasin, 64 barangays in Cabatuan, 20 barangays in Santa Barbara, and 7 barangays in Pavia; the watershed touches only a single barangay in the municipality of Janiuay, and two barangays in New Lucena. Its headwaters originate from the highest mountain peak of Maasin and from a portion of the southern part of Janiuay. It then flows toward the flood plain barangays that cover the five municipalities. There are 57 creeks with an aggregate length of 96 kilometers that drain into the Tigum River. A total of 39 creeks are perennial, while 18 are intermittent.9

Aganan Sub-Watershed The Aganan sub-watershed has an approximate land area of 32,306 hectares, of which 4,062 hectares are timberland and 28,244 hectares are alienable-and-disposable (A&D) land. The sub-watershed is under the jurisdiction of the Iloilo City Environment and Natural Resources Office (CENRO-Iloilo City) and Iloilo Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office (PENRO-Iloilo). It covers portions of a total of eight municipalities, namely: Leon, Alimodian, Cabatuan, San Miguel, Santa Barbara, Oton, Pavia, Maasin and the City of Iloilo. The subwatershed touches 110 barangays: 6 in Leon, 40 in Alimodian, 9 in San Miguel, 4 in Cabatuan, 21 in Oton, 11 in Pavia, 16 in Santa Barbara and 5 in Maasin. It is an important watershed in the province of Iloilo because it serves the Aganan River Irrigation System (RIS) and plays a significant role in its ecological, social and economic development. The headwaters of the Aganan sub-watershed are located in Barangays Bucari, Camandag and Bobon, in the municipality of Leon; and Barangays Manasa, Umingan and Dao, in the municipality of Alimodian. The headwaters are bounded on the north by the Municipality of Alimodian, on the west by the Province of Antique, on the east by the portion of the Municipality of Leon classified as A&D lands, and on the south by the timberland area of Leon.10

Jaro River The Tigum and Aganan rivers converge into a single watercourse known as the Jaro River at Barangay Ungka I, Pavia. It then flows onwards into Iloilo City, bisecting the districts of Jaro and finally La Paz with its estuary located in Barangay Hinactacan. It has an approximate length of six kilometers down to Iloilo Strait, with the watershed comprising an area of 4,075 hectares, or approximately 58% of the total land area of Iloilo City.11 A total of 20 barangays, within the districts of Jaro and La Paz, drain into the Jaro River. These include the barangays of Ungka, Sambag, San Isidro, Maria Cristina, San Roque, Simon Ledesma, Democracia, Benedicto, M H del Pilar and San Pedro in the district of Jaro; and

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14


Table 1. Vegetative Cover in the TAW Area ( DESCRIPTION Closed canopy, mature trees covering greater than 50% Open canopy, mature trees covering less than 50% Rivers, salt beds, fish ponds Built-up areas Arable lands, crops mainly cereals Crop lands mixed with other plantation Mangrove plantation TOTAL

AREA (HAS) 3,282 26,597 127 1,058 11,465 754 76 43,359

RATIO (%) 8.0 61.3 0.3 2.4 26.5 1.7 0.2 100.0

Source: DENR PENRO

Forest and Vegetative Cover of the Tigum Sub-Watershed The DENR’s 2007 Tigum Watershed Profile report stated that the total area of old growth forests in this watershed was 1,910 hectares, or around 28% of the total sub-watershed area. From 1986 to 2007, the DENR claimed that the forest cover of Iloilo, specifically within the Maasin watershed area, increased from 2% to 16% as a result of government reforestation projects, and stakeholder support and interventions.14 Tree species thriving in the area were “white lauan” (Shorea contorta), “bagtikan” (Parashorea malaanonan), and “mountain agoho” (Casuarinas equisitefolia). The stands of old growth are found on mountain tops, ridges and steep slopes at the upper portion of the watershed, in locations with elevations ranging from 900 to 1,500 meters above sea level. Second growth forests in the Tigum sub-watershed cover an area of 668 hectares, below which is the coffee plantation of KAPAWA. These are located along ravines and gullies within the watershed area. The indigenous species found are akleng parang, ipil-ipil, binunga, binukau, talisay, malabulak, kalumpang, antipolo, golden shower, toog, bignai pogo, balete, anubing, lisak, tindalo, dapdap, malapapaya, and pagsahingin, among several others.15 The total forest cover in the Tigum sub-watershed, both old growth and second growth combined, is estimated at 2,578 hectares. The report also indicated that several hundred hectares of forestlands were covered by various DENR-contracted reforestation and assisted natural regeneration (ANR) projects from 1989 to1994, spanning around 590 hectares. These areas were planted with gmelina, mahogany, rain tree or acacia, as well as other fast-growing tree species. Another 270 hectares of gmelina were planted as part of a riverbank rehabilitation project involving the municipality of Maasin. Moreover, the Metro Iloilo Water District (MIWD) also planted and maintained a 337-hectare plantation of mahogany, acacia, gmelina, teak, and bamboo.16 Table 2 (see below), drawn from the 2007 Tigum sub-watershed profile, shows the total vegetative cover in the sub-watershed area. The total forested area (i.e., closed and open forest, both broadleaf and mixed) is around 2,700 hectares, entirely in the Municipality of

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Maasin alone.17 The total cultivated land for both forestry and agricultural purposes, on the other hand, is around 19,935 hectares, spread over the five municipalities of the Tigum subwatershed.

Table 2. Vegetative Cover in Tigum Sub-Watershed Area

MUNICIPALITY Maasin Janiuay Cabatuan Santa Barbara Pavia TOTAL

TIMBERLAND/PUBLIC LANDS Closed Open Open Forest, Forest, Forest, Broadleaved Broadleaved Mixed (ha.) (ha.) (ha.) 376.24 1,059.77 1,264.56

376.24

1,059.77

1,264.56

Perennial (ha.) 1,811.53 656.80 1,779.03 445.86 4,693.22

CULTIVATED LAND Other Annual wooded (ha.) land, shrubs (ha.) 8,814.94 111.29 123.41 191.94 2,723.97 261.29 2,025.53 42.20 431.60 606.72 14,119.50

Natural Grassland (ha.)

530.10 84.62 614.72

Source: NAMRIA CD, Satellite Image. (Subject to validation and ground verification.)

Forest and Vegetative Cover of the Aganan Sub-watershed The DENRâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 2007 Aganan Watershed Profile reported that old growth forests and mossy forests in the Aganan sub-watershed cover some 863 hectares in the municipality of Leon (Table 3).18

Table 3. Vegetative Cover in the Aganan Sub-watershed TYPE OF VEGETATION Old Growth Forest/ Mossy Forest Residual Forest/ Established Plantation Grassland Cultivated Perennial Cropland Fishpond Built-Up Areas TOTAL

AREA (HAS) 862.50 2,075.00 975.00 25,706.25 1,037.50 450.00 1,200.00 32,306.25

PERCENTAGE 2.67 6.43 3.01 79.57 3.21 1.40 3.71 100%

Source: DENR (2008), Aganan Integrated Watershed Management Plan, p. 11

Most of these forested areas are intact to this day. The old growth forest is part of the Aganan Reforestation Project19 and protected by the municipality of Leon. The Municipality of Alimodian has the same species of trees, growing mostly in higher elevations similar to the situation in Leon. The forests in the two municipalities serve as the headwater of the Aganan River,

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emanating from â&#x20AC;&#x153;Agua Coloniaâ&#x20AC;?, or the Colony of Water, in barangays Bobon, Manasa Dao and Umingan. The residual forests and established plantations are a combination of natural long-lived pioneer species and tree plantations established by the Aganan Reforestation Project. The comprise 6.43% of the total area of the watershed basin, equivalent to 2,075 hectares. The reforestation species are benguet pine, mahogany, teak, anchoan dilau and narra. Pioneer species include bacan, binucao, tuai, pag-uringon, akleng parang, pagsahingin, dita, governorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s plum, tibig, and other endemic species. Grasslands and open lands are fields where the predominant growth is cogon, balay-an, talahib, and patches of bushes and shrubs. In some instances, lands classified as open and grasslands are under cultivation with agricultural cash crops. Grasslands and open areas cover only 3%, or 975 hectares, of the Aganan sub-watershed and are considered potential sites for reforestation activities. Cultivated areas and alienable-and-disposable (A&D) lands are those under private ownership, with an area of 25,700 hectares used for agricultural purposes. They account for some 80% of the total land area of the Aganan sub-watershed area. Perennial croplands are largely planted with coconut palms, bamboo, and other forest trees. Orchards are found in the upper slope of A&D lands, mostly within Leon and Alimodian. Cultivated areas also include fishponds, devoted to bangus (milkfish) and tilapia. The fishponds are located mostly along the coastal areas of Oton and Iloilo City, occupying a total of 450 hectares, or 1.4%, of the Aganan sub-watershed basin. The rest of the land in the sub-watershed, approximately 3.7%, is composed of built-up commercial, residential and industrial areas.20

2.3 Topography and Slope Conditions The overall topographical and slope conditions21 of the Tigum-Aganan Watershed are shown in Map 4 (see below). A good part of the Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve and areas of Alimodian leading up to the headwaters are considered to be either steep slopes (18-30 %) or very steep slopes (>30%), normally classified as forestlands or timberlands under Presidential Decree 705. Considerable portions of these sloped areas have been downgraded over time to A&D lands. ( (

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18


Map 4. Slope Map of TAW $"%

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Municipal Boundary Watershed Divide Timberland River/Creek A 0-8 % slope B 8-18 % slope C 18-30 % slope D 30-50 % slope E 50 % slope and above Built-up Area

Source of Information: LC Map-LEP-FMS, Region 6 CY 1993 NAMRIA-Topographic Map CY 1992 Incurred by DENR CY 2007 Slope Map LEP-FMS, Region 6 CY 1993 $"

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Source: Map prepared by DENR-CENRO Iloilo for this report, December 2011

Table 4 (see below) consolidates the slope information contained in the 2007 DENR Aganan Integrated Watershed Management Plan draft and Tigum Watershed Profile. Of the combined total land area of 55,192 hectares, more than 40% are relatively flatlands, while almost 27% are considered moderately sloping (<18% slope). Most of these flat or moderately sloping lands are located in the lowland municipalities of Pavia, Oton, San Miguel, Santa Barbara and Iloilo City, and in the lower elevations of Cabatuan, Maasin and Alimodian. The rest of the steeper lands totaling around 17,400 hectares, almost one-third of the TAW, can be found in the municipalities of Maasin, Alimodian, Leon and Janiuay. These steeper areas are the ones most likely prone to erosion and landslides.

19


Table 4. Slope and Land Area Coverage in the TAW

Municipality and Sub-watershed Aganan Maasin Cabatuan Leon Alimodian San Miguel Oton Pavia Sta. Barbara Iloilo City a Tigum (Maasin, Janiuay, Pavia, Cabatuan, & Santa Barbara) Total Land Area % of Total Area

Slope Condition and Land Area Coverage (hectares) Severely Moderate Steep Very steep steep (>8% 18%) (>18-30%) (>30-50%) (>50%)

Level to gently sloping (0-8%)

Total Land Area

50.00 1,937.50 0.00 2,725.00 3,375.00 6,700.00 1,075.00 1,537.50 3,062.50

1,000.00 1,225.00 50.00 2,475.00

175.00 0.00 643.75 1,050.00

0.00 0.00 125.00 2,775.00

0.00 0.00 1,237.50 1,087.50

1,225.00 3,162.50 2,056.25 10,112.50 3,375.00 6,700.00 1,075.00 1,537.50 3,062.50

2,369.00

10,120.00

5,764.00

1,743.00

2,890.00

22,886.00

22,831.50 41.37%

14,870.00 26.94%

7,632.75 13.83%

4,643.00 8.41%

5,215.00 9.45%

55,192.25 100.00%

Source: DENR, Aganan Integrated Watershed Management Plan and Tigum Watershed Profile (2007/2008). Notes: a â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Does not include the flatland areas of Iloilo City (around 4,000 hectares) within the Jaro River portion of the watershed

2.4 Geomorphology The geologic composition of the TAW is classified into seven (7) groups as shown in Table 5.

Table 5. Geologic Formations in the TAW Area Type Quaternary Alluvium Cabatuan Formation

Symbol Qal Cf

Tarao Formation

Tf

Ulian Formation

Uf

Iday Formation

If

Singit Formation

Sif

Patria Quart Diorite

Pqd

Description Unconsolidated deposits of sand silts and gravel Gray to black fassili ferrous thick bedded mudstone, poorly bedded sandstone and siltstone with minor clay stone and siltstone with occasional mudstone and coarse grained sandstone Consists of sandstones or clay-sandstones with clay stone intercalations that increase in number and thickness with depth Characterized as semi-permeable with poor to fair permeability in the sandstone intercalations Gently dipping thickly bedded to massive sandstone with interbeds of mudstone, siltstone and calcarenities Slow dipping beds of conglomerate mudstone and siltstone commonly carbonaceous Volcanic wake with interbeds of mudstone siltstone conglomerates and mudstone with shale and mudstone members Medium to coarse grained hypaumorphic granite

Source: DENR (2007), Aganan Watershed Profile, p. 18

The geological map of Iloilo Province, as shown in Map 5 (see below), presents an overview of the coverage of the different geologic formations within the TAW and the entire province of Iloilo. 20


Map 5. Geological Map of Iloilo Province((

Source: Salas, Jessica (2008), Rainwater Harvesting in IWRM for Climate Change Adaptation Project -- A Report to the Sangguniang Panlalawigan of Iloilo (PowerPoint presentation).

Notably, there are two significant structures in the Panay Island. The first is the Iloilo Basin, a result of the deposition of thick piles of sediments from the Panay Cordillera. The second is the Tablan Lineament, which is found outside Iloilo City. This lineament or fault structure traverses the length of the Antique-Aklan coastline along the western shores of Panay Island, and extends up to Tablas Island in Romblon Province. It is also present within the Jaro river basin.22

2.5 Soil Type and Characteristics Figure 1 (see below) shows the cross-section of the soil and sub-structural features of the Iloilo Basin. 23 There are nine types of soil found in the Tigum sub-watershed. These include: Alimodian clay loam, Alimodian silt loam, Alimodian soil undifferentiated, beach sand, Faraon clay, hydrosol, Luciana loam, Santa Rita clay, and Umingan fine sandy loam. Luciana loam is the predominant soil type in the upland areas of Maasin, and Santa Rita clay is prevalent in the lowland areas.

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21


Figure 1. Cross-sectional View of the Major Sub-structural and Soil Features of Iloilo Basin (TAW)

Source: Salas, Jessica (2008), Rainwater Harvesting in IWRM for Climate Change Adaptation Project-A Report to the Sangguniang Panlalawigan of Iloilo (PowerPoint presentation).

A July 1997 interim report of the Jalaur Irrigation Systems and Rural Area Development Project Study prepared for the NIA cited a 1947 soil survey study of Iloilo province. It shows the area and percentage distribution of the various soil types in Alimodian and Santa Barbara as representative of the soil types in the Tigum and Aganan sub-watershed areas (Table 6 below).24

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Table 6. Soil Types in Alimodian and Santa Barbara

Soil Type Alimodian clay loam Alimodian silt loam Alimodian soils, undifferentiated Sta Rita clay Umingan fine sandy loam Total

Alimodian 2 Area (km ) Percentage (%) 69 67 22 2 11 104

21 2 10 100%

Santa Barbara 2 Area (km ) Percentage (%) 113 58 4 2 17 9 19 10 40 21 193 100%

Source: 1947 Soil Survey of Iloilo Province from NIA (1997) as cited in Study of Jalaur River System and Rural Area Development Project.

In the main area of the Tigum watershed, the soil types are a mix of some Alimodian silt loam and Santa Rita clay, and Umingan fine sandy loam and Faraon clay. In the municipality of Cabatuan, Luciana loam and Santa Rita clay are also found. In the Municipality of Santa Barbara, Alimodian clay loam and Umingan fine sandy loam are present, while Pavia is predominantly Santa Rita clay.25 In the Aganan sub-watershed, five soil types are found. These are Alimodian silt loam, beach sand, Santa Rita clay, Alimodian clay loam, and Umingan fine sandy loam. Alimodian clay loam is the soil type found in the timberland areas, while Santa Rita clay is the predominant soil type in the lower reaches of the watershed. Soil texture in the Aganan sub-watershed is considered to be generally silty sand to silty, with particles of gravel, as indicated in the 2010 Management Plan of Tigum-Aganan Watershed and the Iloilo Flood Control Project.26 Downstream along the Jaro River, land within Iloilo City is made up of recent alluvial deposits. In profile, the surface soil, measuring 25 to 30 centimeters thick, is black to dark brown in color, moderately coarse, granular and containing highly plastic clay. The lower substratum is brown silt loam, friable and of a fine granular type, without stones or gravel. Iloilo City is predominantly made up of Santa Rita clay, covering 4,692 hectares, or 68.5%, of the capital cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s total land area. Almost 20% is made of beach sand, located along coastal zones in the south and eastern portions of the city. A similar sandy character is also found along the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s watercourses. A small percentage of Umingan sandy loam (8.3%) and hydrosol (3.5%) are also found in the soil profile (see Table 7 below). Given the rapid pace of urbanization and development in the city in recent years, the percentage of land covered by buildings and pavement has steadily increased, thereby reducing the rate of infiltration of water into the soil while increasing the rate of surface runoff. These conditions increase the frequency of flashfloods during heavy rains, making the lower areas of the city now markedly flood-prone.27

GV

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23


Table 7. Distribution of Soil Type, Iloilo City SOIL TYPE Hydrosol Beach Sand Santa Rita clay Umingan sandy loam

AREA (Has) 241.92 1,347.90 4,692.00 570.30

PERCENTAGE (%) 3.50 19.70 68.50 8.30

Source: Iloilo City Comprehensive Land Use Plan 1996-2010

Key Findings •

• • • •

The Tigum-Aganan Watershed (TAW) is composed of two main waterways – the Tigum River and the Aganan River, each considered to be sub-watersheds – which converge in Pavia to form the Jaro River that flows through Iloilo City to the Sulu Sea at the Iloilo Strait. According to the NIA, the river basin has a total catchment area of about 508 km2. Nine municipalities comprise the watershed: Maasin, Alimodian and Leon are upland municipalities; Cabatuan, Santa Barbara, San Miguel, Pavia and Oton are categorized as lowland LGUs. The estuary is located in highly urbanized Iloilo City. The densely populated districts adjacent to the Jaro River leading up to the estuary are heavily affected by floods with water overflowing from the river and its tributaries during heavy rains. The Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve (MWFR), declared a protected area in 1923 and located primarily in the Tigum sub-watershed, is the main source of surface water and groundwater recharge. The intake for domestic water supply, provided through the Metro Iloilo Water District, is located in Maasin at barangay Daja. The Aganan River Irrigation System, located in the Aganan sub-watershed, provides an important source of water for the region’s large agricultural economy. The TAW is experiencing advanced deforestation, with only 8% of the watershed remaining as closed-canopy forest cover and forestlands. Reforestation and riverbank rehabilitation projects over the past several decades have replanted close to 1000 hectares, but these efforts have largely introduced non-native, fast-growing species such as gmelina, mahogany, rain tree or acacia, which have hampered naturalization. Close to one-third of the TAW area or 17,400 hectares is steep land (i.e., > 18 % slope), mostly within the upland municipalities of Maasin, Alimodian, Leon and a portion of Janiuay, prone to erosion and landslides. Due to rapid urbanization, the percentage of land covered by buildings and pavement has steadily increased in recent years, thereby reducing the rate of infiltration of water into the soil while increasing the rate of surface runoff. Combined with massive deforestation, these conditions increase the frequency of flashfloods during heavy rains, making the lower areas of the city now markedly flood-prone.

24


3. DEMOGRAPHY Demography is an important factor to be considered in any assessment of watershed condition. Human activities and the built form of our cities and towns can place strains on the ecosystem, reducing vegetation and natural habitat, changing the flow of water and associated hydrologic cycles, polluting water, soil and air, and increasing demand for precious natural resources such as water, forest products and aggregates. Trends in the size, growth, density, distribution and vital statistics of human populations are important considerations in watershed management. Based on the 2007 NSO census, the total population of the nine LGUs within the TAW is pegged at 774,033, or 158,443 households (see Table 8). Annual growth rate is 1.55%, slightly higher than the provincial average rate of 1.13%. There has been a steady decline in the average population growth rate for the TAW area since 1990. From 2.31% in 1995, the average growth rate in the TAW area slid to 1.84% in 2000, and dropped further to 1.55% by 2007.

Table 8. Number of TAW Households and Growth Rate for Census Years 1990, 1995, 2000, 2007 1990 Total No of pop’n HH Aganan Sub-watershed Alimodian 29,193 4,841 Iloilo City 309,505 56,133 Leon 36,948 6,778 Oton 52,125 9,504 Pavia 23,814 4,429 San Miguel 17,606 3,310 Tigum Sub-watershed Cabatuan 40,892 7,474 Maasin 299,572 Santa Barbara 37,730 6,886 Total: 847,385 99,355 Area (District)

Total pop’n

1995 No of HH

29,179 334,539 41,043 56,821 26,756 18,819

5,385 64,315 7,348 10,884 5,116 3,626

42,264 29,364 39,667 618,452

7,980 4,997 7,691 117,342

Total pop’n

2000 No of HH

1.65 1.97 1.37 3.05 4.48 2.12

31,494 366,391 43,729 65,374 32,824 20,754

5,963 70,098 8,072 12,907 6,553 4,117

1.30 1.90 0.90 2.65 3.27 1.99

34,035 418,710 45,647 77,621 39,725 23,804

34,027

1.80 1.05 3.26

45,935 30,828 46,076 683,405

9,019 5,395 8,821 130,945

1.57 0.87 2.14

50,861 32,555 51,075 774,033

Growth Rate

Growth Rate

Total pop’n

2007 HH No of pop’n HH

Growth Rate

45,634 77,566 39,224 23,803

6,970 85,518 9,041 16,120 8,386 4,932

1.08 1.86 0.59 2.40 2.50 1.91

50,841 32,526 50,974 354,595

10,732 6,066 10,678 158,443

1.41 0.75 1.43

This declining population growth rate is mirrored on a sub-watershed basis. In Aganan subwatershed, while the annual growth rate was higher than the TAW average, it also showed a similar pattern of decline from 2.44% in 1995, to 2.00% in 2000, and then to 1.72% in 2007. The Tigum sub-watershed fared even better. Not only did it have an average growth rate already well below the TAW annual average, it also achieved diminished population growth, from 2.04% to 1.20% in the last 20 years. By sub-watershed, 639,542 inhabitants or some 83% of the total TAW population are in the Aganan sub-watershed, and only 17% in Tigum. Within Aganan, Iloilo City is the most populated. Iloilo City along with the municipalities of Oton, Pavia, and San Miguel – all located in the Aganan sub-watershed – posted higher growth rates in 2007 than the 1.55% TAW average. Oton and Pavia pegged the highest rates of population growth at 2.4 and 2.5% respectively. This is an indication of the rising urbanization of the two towns most adjacent to the provincial capital, Iloilo City. As the central city, Iloilo showed a steady rate of population growth at just 25


(96%), and more than half of the land area within the municipalities of Santa Barbara (75%), Cabatuan (69%) and Maasin (58%) are considered to be within the TAW area.34 Some discrepancies in the data are important to note. According to the Tigum-Aganan Watershed Management Plan of 2008-2010, the coverage of the TAW area encompasses lands with 328,369 inhabitants grouped in 422 barangays (see Table 10).35 This population figure is significantly less, by more than half, the number cited by the TAW Census in Table 8. This difference may be explained by the fact that not all areas of the TAW municipalities are classified as falling physically within the natural boundaries of the watershed; ergo not entire populations thereof were included.36 Despite differences in the estimation of total land areas of LGUs that fall within the TAW, what is clear is that the impacts of human populations and settlement within each of the LGUs are adversely affecting the fragile ecosystem and that each LGU has a responsibility to do its part in mitigating these impacts and working to restore the watershed.37

Key Findings • • •

The TAW is home to close to 800,000 residents or about 160,000 households (2007). The region has experienced a steady decline in population growth rate over the past two decades, from 2.31% in 1995 to 1.55% by 2007. Iloilo, Oton, Pavia and San Miguel have the highest rates of population growth, pointing to a trend of urbanization in the city region focused on its central city and the innermost rings of suburban municipalities. The upland municipalities of Maasin, Leon and Alimodian all had similar flat rates of growth over the past 20 years – ranging from about 0.6 to just over 1 per cent – a trend that is clearly attributable to out-migration, especially from the Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve.

CB

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28


4. SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS The socio-economic conditions of communities within the watershed are determinants of their capacity to protect and sustain a healthy watershed. This section of the report describes the utilization of watershed resources by the communities living within the TAW area, based on their livelihood and major sources of income. It also describes the commercial value of the watershed by presenting various forest and water resources that are directly reaped from the watershed area and then consumed or sold. Ultimately, this section of the report aims to reflect the basic social and economic issues facing communities living within the watershed, providing pointers to watershed planners on actions that can be taken to improve the determinants of watershed health. The information in this section is taken largely from the pioneering work undertaken in 2004 by Dr. Jessica C. Salas on the Socio-Economic Study of the Tigum-Aganan Watershed for the Iloilo Flood Control Project of the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH).38 Other sources of data were the different Comprehensive Land Use Plans (CLUPs) of the TAW local government units, the Iloilo Provincial Profile, and the respective watershed characterization reports (unpublished) of the Tigum-Aganan-Suage sub-river basin provided by the DENR Community Environment and Natural Resources Officer (CENRO) of Iloilo and the Parks Superintendent of the Maasin Protected Area Management Board (PAMB). Much of the discussion in this section focuses on the upland communities in the TAW area, where the bulk of the most urgent socio-economic issues emanate. The economic conditions in the lowland and urban areas in the TAW are well established through the municipalitiesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; respective Comprehensive Land Use Plans (CLUPs), which is the subject of extensive discussion in the next major section of this report.

4.1 Livelihood and Income Farming is the main source of livelihood in the upland communities of the TAW area, particularly in the municipalities of Alimodian and Leon in the Aganan sub-watershed, and in Maasin and Cabatuan in the Tigum sub-watershed. Among the crops tilled in these upland areas are vegetables, root crops and minor cash crops such as bananas, staples such as rice and corn, and a variety of fruit trees. Most farming activities are concentrated in the flatland areas of the upland and lowland communities of the TAW. Other major sources of livelihood in the area are livestock-raising and bamboo-gathering. The bamboo grown is woven into mats and walls, used to make furniture, or manufactured into barbeque sticks that feed the extensive supply chain of restaurants such as Mang Inasal. Others include the extraction of minor forest products for herbal and medicinal use. As in many upland areas in the Philippines, the extraction of trees for use as fuel wood and charcoal is another major source of income for upland dwellers and settlers. In Salasâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; 2004 study of the socio-economic conditions of the upland communities in the TAW, there is a calculation of the average monthly and yearly household income in the upland areas

CZ

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29


of the municipalities of Alimodian, Leon, Maasin, Cabatuan and portions of Pavia (see Table 11). Bamboo-gathering, fuel wood and charcoal-making, farming and fruit growing are the highest sources of income within these upland communities. Bamboo-gathering, as well as inter-cropping (e.g., bananas and root crops), are the main sources of livelihood in the Tigum sub-watershed area. Fuel wood and charcoal production is the livelihood activity engaged in by most upland households in the TAW area. Around 1,117 families, including those in the lowland communities of Pavia, generate an estimated total value of around PhP 5 million from fuel wood and charcoal production. 39 This is a major contributor to upland deforestation. Such an unsustainable source of livelihood, according to Salas, will require the development of alternative livelihood programs to wean away upland families in the TAW from these practices that are proving to be so destructive to the watershed.

Table 11. Livelihood and Income Derived from the Tigum-Aganan Watershed Area by Source and Landscape Category (Outside of the Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve)

Products/Goods

Minor Forest Products

Livelihood and Income

Landscape Area

Location (SWS)

Natural Forest

Alimodian, Maasin, Leon, Cabatuan

Herbal medicine Livestock raising Fruits/vegetables Fuel wood gathering

Average (by source) Monthly Annual Ave/HH Ave/HH

83.00 167.00 888.00 289.00

Agro-Forestry

Upland

Upland Agriculture

Upland

Livestock raising Farming (rice, corn, peanut, other legumes) Fruits/ vegetables Trading (coop/ variety stores) Others (fuel wood gathering, farm/ construction labor, bamboo furniture making) Estimated Total Income (All Sources)

349.00

4,183.50

650.00

7,794.00

742.00

8,900.00

1,741.00

20,877.50

1,000.00 2,000.00 10,657.00 3,470.00

Leon, Alimodian, Maasin

Bamboo weaving Inter-cropping (bananas, chayote, coconut) Fuel wood/charcoal making

Average Total Monthly Annual Ave/HH Ave/HH

1,414.00

16,964.00

2,625.00

31,496.00

322.00

3,859.00

Leon, Alimodian, Maasin, Cabatuan 160.00

1,914.00

1,094.00

13,129.00

2,210.00

26,519.00

497.00

5,966.00

242.00

2,900.00

Source: Baseline data were generated from Salas, Jessica C. (2004)

CO

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30


The study points out that a small but significant portion of this income and livelihood is being generated within the boundaries of the natural forest (i.e., the Forest Reserve Restricted Zone), which is mostly located in the Tigum sub-watershed area. Income is being derived from the collection of herbal and medicinal plants, and from backyard vegetable-gardening and livestockraising and from fuel wood gathering â&#x20AC;&#x201C; normally to augment local incomes during the rainy season.40 Salasâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; 2004 study also noted that, during the interview period, the livelihood and income of the community-based forestry management (CBFM) stakeholders in the area were largely derived from wages earned during the implementation of the site development projects for the DENRJBIC reforestation, and from bamboo-weaving/gathering ventures 41 . Table 12 shows the production areas utilized under the CBFM area, which covered around 38%, or 1,320 hectares for agro-forestry; and 481 hectares for bamboo and rattan plantations.

Table 12. Livelihood and Income in the TAW Area by Source (Lowlands, Urban/Built-up and Coastal Areas) Livelihood Sources

Areas Covered

Livelihood and Income Average (By source) Average Total Monthly Annual Monthly Annual Ave/ HH Ave/ HH Ave/ HH Ave/ HH

Cabatuan, Alimodian, Santa Barbara, San Miguel, Oton and Pavia

Lowlands Farming Livestock raising Laborer/ worker (farms/ trades) Trading (coop/ variety stores) Overseas employment Built-up/ Urban Areas Livestock raising Hired/ seasonal Labor (e.g. drivers, factory and construction workers) Small business Regular employment (local and overseas) Coastal Areas Livestock raising Fishing Trading (fish vending/ variety stores) Hired/ trades labor (e.g., drivers, painters, carpentry, and pier workers) Employment (local/ local seafarers) Overseas employment

1,431.00 2,438.00 411.00 1,049.00 206.00 19,406.00

29,251.00 4,934.00 12,591.00 2,477.00 232,877.00

83.00

1,000.00

4,690.00 4,550.00

56,282.76 54,600.00

16,392.00

196,703.00

Iloilo City and Pavia

Iloilo City 83.00 4,436.00 3,434.00

1,000.00 53,237.00 41,210.00

4,163.00 5,196.00 5,000.00

49,950.00 62,353.00 60,000.00

17,170.00

4,849.00

58,189.00

3,502.00

42,018.00

Source: Baseline data generated from Salas, Jessica C. (2004)

BK B9

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31


Among all households in the TAW, lowland dwellers seem to be the poorest, with PhP 1,431 monthly and PhP 17,170 yearly income averages. The urban/ built-up households, on the other hand, seem to be the only ones coping well, with slightly higher monthly and annual income levels – at PhP 4,849 and PhP 58,189, respectively – as compared to the provincial and regional income thresholds for both monthly and annual poverty income benchmarks. In the Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve (MWFR), the reported annual income from bambooweaving and gathering was PhP 2.2 million and PhP 1.5 million for two barangays, comprising 124 and 100 households respectively. Based on these numbers, Salas estimates the potential income generated by a total of 16 barangays to be approximately PhP 29.5 million/year42. This would equate to PhP 18,000 annually per barangay, which translates into a PhP 1,500 monthly household income for each family within the MWFR.43 However, this income potential may have been reduced further due to the shift to purchasing plastic sheets and/or tarps for drying grains instead of the more cost efficient (but simultaneously very time consuming to produce) bamboo mats which were more commonly employed before. Other sources of income in the MWFR were inter-cropping, with a potential annual yield of PhP 20,000, or PhP 1,600/month; and fuel wood, which may augment the annual income by PhP 1,800, or an additional PhP 150/month per household. Overall, Salas’ study estimates that families within the MWFR area could earn an average of PhP 39,800/year, or PhP 3,250/month.44 As reflected in the municipalities’ CLUPs, agriculture is the primary economic activity in the TAW area, where over 65% of the total land area is devoted to either upland or lowland farming. In the lowland areas, agriculture-based economic activities are the primary sources of income and livelihood for most of the people, with at least 53% of all income coming from farming, particularly of rice. An average of PhP 2,400/month, or PhP 29,251/year, is generated from farming activities in the lowlands (see Table 12). Meanwhile, supplemental livelihood income of PhP 1,049/month, or PhP 12,591/year, is derived from the practice of trades or hired labor; and another PhP 206/month, or PhP 2,477/year, by retail/micro-trading, such as from sari-sari stores. In the urban and built-up areas, local and overseas employment provide the highest sources of income (PhP 16,392/month, or PhP 196,703/year); followed by manual or hired labor (PhP 4,690/month, or PhP 56,282.76/year); and small business activities (PhP 4,550/month, or PhP 54,600/year). Despite being the lowest source of income in the urban areas, livestock-raising is practiced by around 45% of households. Livestock-raising seems to be a supplementary means of income for urban families to augment wages from manual or hired labor, which appears to be the main occupation of urban households in the TAW. Some 30% engage in manual or hired labor. Among those living in the TAW coastal communities, fishing is surprisingly not a major source of livelihood. According to locals, siltation due to sediments coming down from the watershed has brought destruction of the fishing habitat, and very few people have been known to engage in fishing after it ceased to be a lucrative industry. 45 According to Salas, based on the families she interviewed in the sample coastal communities in the TAW area, 51% work as hired labor or seasonal tradesmen (i.e., carpenters, painters, etc.), while another 15% are employed either in the city or as local seafarers. Fishing was practiced only by about 9% of the coastal families interviewed. Another 21% engage in livestock-raising.

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BB

32


Both livestock-raising and fishing are seen as supplementary income sources in combination with other sources of livelihood among the poor communities in the coastal areas.46 Such actions are commonly viewed by upland, rural and urban poor communities as coping and survival mechanisms. Table 13 (see below) shows another estimate of income yields in the TAW area generated from the 2008 UNEP Rainwater Harvesting Study. Undertaken several years later, it shows a comparatively higher annual and monthly household income in the different areas within the TAW compared to Salasâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; 2004 study. While there are disparities in the estimated incomes, the pronounced increase in income and livelihood opportunities for people from the uplands and the coastal areas coming into the urban center remains a common statistic to both studies.

Table 13. Income and Sources in the TAW Area

Upland: Timberland -- Maasin, Alimodian, Leon Upland Areas -- Alimodian, Maasin, Leon, Cabatuan Lowland: Agricultural -- San Miguel, Santa Barbara, Cabatuan, Oton, Pavia Lowland: Built-up Areas -- Pavia and Oton Urban Built-up: Iloilo City Coastal Area: Iloilo City

Annual Income

Monthly Income

Main Income Source

28,976.00

2,415.00

Forest, State-owned area

37,184.00

3,098.00

Mainly from agroforestry

77,420.00

6,452.00

Agriculture

134,578.00 283,604.00 65,639.00

11,214.00 23,634.00 5,469.00

Commerce and industry Commerce and industry Fishery

Source: IWMC and UNEP (2008), Rain Harvesting for Climate Change.

Watershed rehabilitation is more than meets the eye. Upland reforestation, mangrove rehabilitation, improvements to environmental management practices and agricultural production, and bio-engineering along riparian zones have proven potential to address urgent issues of decreasing forest cover, soil erosion, water quality and turbidity, among others. But the sustainability of these efforts will be put to waste if the core issues of lack of sustainable livelihood and the need for alternative sources of income for households within watershed communities are not resolved. As noted earlier, livelihoods within communities located in the upper reaches of the watershed are strongly tied to agroforestry, like charcoal-making and bamboo growing, which directly utilize and degrade forest resources. Agriculture is another major generator of income for upland communities, which can negatively affect water quality through pesticide residue, increase surface runoff through the extent of forest lands cleared for grazing or farming, and place competing demand on finite water resources through irrigation. Communities must be introduced to other forms of income-generating activities that require less direct utilization of forest resources. One way to do this is to facilitate the creation of local businesses in the area that enable communities to reap benefits from the natural resources without having to use them up. Eco-tourism and organic agriculture are potential local businesses that these communities can pursue more vigorously.

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33


4.2 Poverty Incidence and Access to Basic Community and Social Services This section shows the connection between poverty incidences, access to basic services and watershed conditions. Access to basic social services is one indicator for poverty. Communities lacking basic services can negatively affect watershed conditions because of their poor sanitation and absence of proper solid waste management. Salasâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; 2004 study shows that income generated by household vis-Ă -vis the type of livelihood and geographic location is quite far below the average annual poverty threshold of PhP 16,584 for the province and PhP 16,03647 for the region (2009), were the families to engage in only one type of livelihood or income source. Accordingly, a family of five would need a PhP 4,689 monthly income in order to satisfy its basic needs, and PhP 6,682 per month to stay out of poverty.48 Salas, though, made sure to note that a household may earn these amounts from a combination of livelihoods, such as agro-forestry activities, upland agriculture and the utilization of minor forest products. Such a practice is also observed among the poor households in the lowland, urban and coastal areas of the TAW. Salas also pinpoints that not all household earnings in the TAW are generated in cash. Income derives partly from the bartering of goods and subsistence consumption by families.49 In which case, the families within the TAW (upland areas) would have an annual average income of PhP 20,877 and a monthly income of PhP 1,741, as seen in Table 11. This would place TAW households in the uplands within, or a little over, the 2005 annual poverty incidence level for the province and region, an assessment validated by the National Statistics and Coordination Board in its NSCB-R6 poverty index map for the province of Iloilo (see Map 6). In it, TAW areas including the upland communities are considered to be within the provincial poverty threshold, but considerably below the average regional monthly income level needed to stay out of poverty.

BY

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34


Map 6. Provincial Poverty Map of Iloilo, 2005

Settlement and Built-up Structures Built-up areas (i.e., residential, commercial and institutional) showed the highest expansion across all land use types in the entire TAW between the years 2000 to 2010.50 Some 2,000 hectares, equivalent to more than a 14.5% increase in built-up areas, may be observed among all the LGUs in the TAW combined. This would increase by another 2% over the next ten years, increasing the total land use coverage for built-up areas in the TAW from 14.5% to 16.5%. The type of dwelling in the TAW changes or adapts according to the terrain of a particular area, as well as to the specific socio-economic conditions of the household or community. In the upland areas of Alimodian, Leon, Maasin and Cabatuan, the 2004 Salas study reported that typical dwellings (75% of total households) were made largely from semi-permanent materials using a combination of bamboo, wood and galvanized iron. In the lowland and urban/ built-up areas, dwellings were built with more permanent materials characteristic of housing structures in the more developed areas of the country. In coastal

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35


communities, however, around 73% of dwellings were made with light materials, and another 15% with a fusion of light and strong materials. Such structures are highly vulnerable to strong winds, storm surges and flooding. The types of settlement can empirically define the extent and the length of residency of a household in the community. Ideally, dwellings made from semi-permanent and permanent materials should not be built within the timberlands. Though the timberlands are under public ownership some residents of the upland communities continue to build dwellings in these areas.. In addition the types of dwelling have direct implication on public sanitation. Dwellings made from semi-permanent and permanent materials must have access to proper sanitation and solid waste management. Absence of proper waste disposal in areas with dwelling other than temporary would only mean direct disposal of untreated wastes to rivers and lands within the watershed.

Basic Electricity, Water and Sanitation Facilities A 2008 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) study on rainwater harvesting contained a survey on the availability of basic utilities in the 220 barangays representing the different TAW areas51. In this study, UNEP reported that 68% of upland households, or 7,177 families, had access only to nearby spring water sources, which is categorized as a Level I water system. Lowland and coastal population have almost the same percentage of access to water through spring sources (see Table 14).

Table 14. Community Access to Basic Utilities in TAW

AREA/ MUNICIPALITY* UPLAND:

Maasin, Alimodian, Leon

Water Level 1

Water Level 2

Water Level 3

99

68% 7,177 Hh

22% 2,388 Hh

85

70% 13,926 Hh

33 3

Sample Barangay

LOWLAND:

Cabatuan, Santa Barbara, San Miguel, Pavia URBAN:

Iloilo, Pavia COASTAL AREA:

Iloilo

Total Water

Electricity

10% 1,068 Hh

100% 10,633 Hh

39%

23% 4,468 Hh

7% 1,406 Hh

100% 19,800 Hh

74%

57% 10,537 Hh

22% 4,123 Hh

21% 3,766 Hh

100% 18,426 Hh

84%

77%

23%

0

100%

92%

Data: IWMC and UNEP (2008). Rainwater Harvesting for Climate Change. Notes: *does not include Oton. Definitions: Level 1-pond, spring, shallow well; Level 2-communal tap or standpipe; Level 3-house connection.

Urban/ built-up areas have higher levels of access to basic water services. Between 20 to 22% of all TAW households have access to communal faucets or stand-pipe water, considered a

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36


Level II water system. About 21% have access to potable water within their homes, or a Level III water system. Most of these would be provided through the Metro Iloilo Water District (MIWD) system, while some would come from deep wells or shallow-dug wells52. In areas where water is scarce, toilet facilities are mostly of the open-pit variety or the antipolo type, while those with enough water sources would have individual flush or ‘pour’ toilets.53 In coastal areas, around 62% reportedly have sanitary toilet facilities.54 Nevertheless, these toilet facilities would, in all likelihood, discharge to an open canal if not directly to the river system, and are therefore unlinked to any integrated sewage collection or treatment system.55 Access to electricity is scarcest in the upland areas, where only 39% of the population reported having electricity in their homes. In the lowlands and coastal areas, 75% or more have power connections. Coastal areas in particular, mostly barangays located in Iloilo City, have the highest coverage of electricity at 92%. That figure is significantly higher than the 82% for the urban/ built-up areas of Pavia and the rest of Iloilo City. This might be due to its proximity to the Panay Power Plant in Barangay Ingore, one of the City’s coastal barangays. Level I water supply systems are the most prone to abuse because it is direct extraction of ground water, which is not well regulated or monitored. The volume of extraction is seldom, if ever, regulated.

Basic Health and Education Services The 2004 Salas study reported that there were around 14 primary schools (Grades 1-4), 15 elementary (Grades 1-6) schools and 13 secondary schools in the upland areas (i.e., Maasin, Alimodian, Leon and Cabatuan), with a teacher-pupil ratio of 1:30 at all levels. The lowland areas have double the number of elementary schools compared to the uplands, with the same teacher-pupil ratio of 1:30. In the urban/ built-up areas, the total number of elementary schools is 31 and secondary schools amount to five, with the same teacher-pupil ratio of 1:30.56 The average teacher-to-pupil ratio in the entire province of Iloilo for SY 2009-2010 is 1:27 for elementary schools, and 1:33 for secondary schools.57 For health services and facilities, a survey in the same study by Salas showed that upland communities have the least number of rural health units, hospitals and health personnel, while the lowland areas have 77 midwives, the highest number compared to all other areas. The urban/ built-up areas have the largest concentration of doctors and nurses, numbering 69, as compared to only nine doctors and nurses in the upland areas. No government health personnel were reportedly assigned to the coastal areas. A total of nine rural health units/ hospitals are located in the upland areas, ten in the lowlands, nine in the urban/ built-up areas, and three in the coastal areas.58

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37


Key Findings • •

• •

The socio-economic conditions of communities are determinants of their capacity to protect and sustain a healthy watershed. Some of the most urgent poverty-related issues in the Tigum-Aganan Watershed are within communities located in the upland areas and along the coastal zone. These communities have an annual average income ranging from about PhP 17,000 to PhP 20,000, which is slightly above the provincial poverty threshold of PhP 16,584, but well below the accepted level needed to stay out of poverty. The main source of livelihood in upland communities is small-scale farming (vegetables, rice, corn, root crops), fruit-growing (bananas and a variety of others), agro-forestry (bamboo), livestock raising, collection of fuel wood and charcoal making. While a major generator of income for upland communities, agriculture can negatively affect water quality through pesticide residue, increase surface runoff through the extent of forestlands cleared for grazing or farming, and place competing demands on finite water resources through irrigation. The gathering of fuel wood and charcoal production is a major source of livelihood for over 1,100 households, located mostly in the upland areas. Much of this economic activity takes place within the boundaries of the Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve and is a major contributor to upland deforestation. Siltation emanating from the river basin has brought about destruction to fish habitats and the decimation of fish stocks in and around coastal areas of the TAW. This means that today fewer than 10% of households sampled during an earlier study were found to be engaged in fishing as an economic activity. While there are considerable numbers of indigent communities in lowland areas, upland dwellers constitute the majority of TAW communities that do not have access to potable, piped water, one of the major indicators of poverty. Only 32% of households in upland municipalities have access to piped water (i.e., in-house pipe, or from a communal standpipe), with the remainder obtaining water from ponds, springs or shallow wells. Upland municipalities tend to fare lower in terms of the access to Rural Health Units (RHUs) and to public schools, as compared to lowland communities. Communities in the ecologically important upland areas need to be introduced to other forms of income-generating activities that require less direct utilization of forest resources. One way to do this is to facilitate the creation of local businesses in the area that enable communities to reap benefits from their natural assets, without having to use them up or degrade them. Eco-tourism and organic agriculture are potential local businesses that these communities can be encouraged to pursue more vigorously.

38


Strategic Directions •

• • •

Utilize the emerging local economic development (LED) functions of area LGUs to advance watershed management objectives, which ought to include working with targeted communities to transition to more sustainable forms of livelihood based on a community’s assets. This could include: a) for upland areas: nature-based eco-tourism, cultural tourism, high-value crops, organic agriculture, b) for lowland areas: sustainable agriculture, c) for coastal areas: sustainable fishing. This assistance could include enterprise development support such as business planning, proposal writing, grant seeking and other forms of resource mobilization. Issue ordinances, based on the model already adopted by Alimodian, that limits the types of trees that can be used for charcoal making and begin securing permits for transport of charcoal as a means of enforcement. The ordinance could also limit the volume or frequency of charcoal making activity. Design and launch a broad-based forest stewardship program to expand partnerships with local communities in sustainable forest management and to advance reforestation efforts. Launch IEC activities with communities in sensitive areas of the watershed to raise awareness on sustainable forms of farming, animal husbandry and forestry methods. Develop environmental education program for youth and school-age children to begin raising the awareness of communities on the importance of protecting the watershed. Consider options for the relocation of vulnerable and threatened communities and households, drawing on successful regional experiences such as Iloilo’s voluntary dismantling and relocation efforts with communities along the Iloilo River. Prepare an inventory and map of communities in the upland areas without access to clean water and explore options to improve servicing.

39


5. LAND USES AND ALLOCATION Land use planning and the associated regulatory tools by which land is allocated by LGUs for various uses are powerful tools for promoting the health of the ecosystem. LGU powers related to land use planning, zoning, building codes and others can be used as a means to reduce the impacts of human settlements on deforestation, surface runoff, erosion, sedimentation, and river bank and river bed disruption. Curbing urban sprawl on a regional basis can protect foodproducing farmlands and sensitive natural features such as wetlands that perform important eco-system services. Enforcement of no-build zones such as on flood plains and hazard lands can protect families and their properties from storm events. Ensuring homes are built to code can lessen the impact of weather on these structures. All data for total land use in this report were generated from two official sources: 1) the most recently approved and/ or draft comprehensive land use plan (CLUP) of each LGU obtained from the local Municipal Planning and Development Coordinator’s Office (MPDCO), and 2) from the 2010 Iloilo Provincial Development Plan.59 Except for the CLUP of Iloilo City, there appears to be discrepancies (see Table 15 and Tables 16-19 below) between the total land use figures and specific land uses shown in the consolidated provincial land use profile vis-à-vis the figures arrived at from totaling the numbers found in each LGU’s CLUP. Despite these inconsistencies of data found in the available plans, this section attempts to provide a bird’s eye view of land use patterns in the TAW.

Table 15. Total Land Area Comparison by Data Source LGU Alimodian Cabatuan Leon Maasin Oton Pavia San Miguel Santa Barbara Iloilo City Total

Planning Period 2001-2010 2003-2012 2002-2012 2000-2009 2003-2012 2001-2010 1999-2008 2011-2020

1

2

3

Total Land Area (ha) Total Land Area (ha) Total Land Area (ha) 14,480.00 14,482.00 14,386.74 8,248.00 11,290.00 10,846.32 14,013.00 14.005.00 14,603.69 15,658.00 13,196.00 9,820.30 8,456.00 3,502.00 2,703.00 3,773.40 2,134.00 3,197.00 2,064.11 7,748.00 13,196.00 13,962.54 7,023.00 7,023.00 11,962.54 74,239.00 72,069.00 81,381.86

Notes: 1 Based on the 2010 issue of the Iloilo Provincial Profile 2 Based on the Comprehensive Land Use Plan of the LGUs 3 Total land area computed by summing up the area allocated to each sector

5.1 Existing Land Uses Between 2000 to 2010, the total land area of the municipalities within the TAW, based on the LGUs’ consolidated CLUPs, is 88,165 hectares or approximately 882 km2. Figure 4 (see below) shows that around 64% (56,189.22 ha) are agricultural areas, 15.5% (13,750.44 ha) are forestlands, 14.5% (12,780.54 ha) are built-up areas (i.e., residential, commercial and institutional areas), and 2.5% (2,150.63 ha) are open spaces. The remaining 3.5% is identified

59

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40


for other purposes, such as socialized housing, roads and utilities, agro-industrial uses, special uses, bodies of water, etc.

Figure 4. Land Use Distribution in the TAW Area (2000-2010)(

Source: Canadian Urban Institute

Of the 12,780.54 hectares of total built-up areas in the TAW, more than 85% are concentrated in Iloilo, Oton, Pavia and Alimodian â&#x20AC;&#x201C; all of which are located within the Aganan catchment basin. In the case of Tigum sub-watershed, more than 63% of all built-up areas in the basin are in Santa Barbara. More than 70% of Iloiloâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s land area has been built-up, and close to 30% in Oton and Pavia; however, in the TAW as a whole, built up areas are expected to rise (see Table 16).

41


Table 16. Comparison of Existing and Proposed Land Uses for Built-Up Areas Land Area LGU

Planning Period

Existing Land Use

Total Land Area

Based on CLUP (ha)

Built Up Areas (ha)

Proposed land Use

Built Up Area Component Comm’l Res’l (ha) Inst’l (ha) (ha)

Built Up Areas (ha)

Built Up Area Component Comm’l Res’l (ha) Inst’l (ha) (ha)

Aganan Sub-watershed Alimodian*

2001-2010

14,480.00

14,482.00

2,048.50

Iloilo City** Leon* 1 Oton Pavia* San Miguel*

1990-2010 2002-2012 1995-2005 2003-2012 2001-2010

7,023.00 14,013.00 8,456.00 3,502.00 2,134.00

7,023.00 14,005.00 9,073.00 2,703.00 3,197.00

4,939.54 89.87 2,707.90 781.00 376.00

Tigum Sub-watershed Cabatuan* 2003-2012 Maasin* 2000-2009

8,248.00 15,658.00

11,290.00 13,196.00

488.24 189.63

633.67 349.84

Sta. Barbara* Total

7,748.00 81,262.00

13,196.00 88,165.00

1,159.86 12,780.54

1,572.26 14,611.65

1999-2008

3,176.82 576.22

4,027.80

335.52

29.00

718.00

34.00

605.22

4,745.80

369.52

4,413.83 179.33 2,707.90 879.00 699.00

870.04

3,214.41

329.38

52.00

786.00

41.00

922.04

4,000.41

370.38

Notes: * From LGUs CLUPs (varied planning periods) ** From the 1990-2010 Iloilo City CLUP (Source: Iloilo City, City Planning Office) 1 Data from the Study on Sediment Condition in the Jaro and Iloilo River Basins (IFCP, 2007) 2 Source: Iloilo Provincial Profile, 2010 3 IFCP (2007) data was used in both the existing and proposed land use of Oton.

42


More than 55% (31,100 hectares) of the Tigum sub-watershed area is used for agriculture, running across the municipalities of Maasin (9,400 ha), Cabatuan (10,500 ha) and Santa Barbara (11,200 ha). For the Aganan sub-watershed area, 44.6% (more than 25,000 ha) is agricultural, with the municipalities of Leon (11,100 ha), Oton (6,100 ha), Alimodian (4,999 ha), and San Miguel (2,050 ha) accounting for most of the agricultural lands in this sub-watershed. As may be expected, agricultural land uses are located mostly in the lowland and upland LGUs outside of the urbanized Iloilo and Pavia. Agricultural lands cover more than 60% of the total land area of the towns of Cabatuan, Santa Barbara, Leon, Oton, Maasin and San Miguel. However, in actual hectarage, the largest tracts of production lands are seen in Santa Barbara, Leon, Maasin, Oton and Alimodian (see Table 17 below).

Of the 15.5% remaining forestlands classified in the TAW consolidated CLUPs, around 53% (7,336 ha) are located in the Tigum sub-watershed, specifically within the Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve. This comprises almost 20% of the total land area of the Tigum sub-watershed. Alimodian and Leon by themselves share a total of 6,400 hectares which, though representing a mere 12.7% of the total land of the Aganan sub-watershed, accounts for 46.5% of the remaining forestlands for the whole TAW. However, official data obtained from the DENR-Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office (PENRO) shows a different estimate of the total public lands/ forestlands within the TAW area than those indicated in the consolidated CLUPs of the TAW LGUs (see Table 19 below).

5.2 Proposed Land Uses An examination of proposed land uses can show anticipated urban growth and rural development patterns. From this the long-term effects of growth on land consumption, demand for water and conversion of agricultural lands can be predicted. Based on the consolidated CLUPs shown in Tables 16 through 19, the targeted changes to land use, proposed from 2011 onwards, will be drawn from the ‘other land uses’ classification, primarily through the conversion of agricultural lands (see Table 18 and Figure 5 below). Reducing the 12,147 hectares of the proposed planned reduction in the whole TAW area by 22% (2,703 has)60, this would lead to a sizeable reduction in available food-producing lands within the bioregion – agriculture itself will decrease from 56,189 hectares down to 53,485 hectares. Most of the reduction in agricultural lands will occur in Alimodian (935 ha) and San Miguel (342 ha) within the Aganan sub-watershed, and in Cabatuan (667 ha), Santa Barbara (312 ha) and Maasin (236 ha) within the Tigum sub-watershed.

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43


Figure 5. Proposed Land Uses for TAW Area (2011-onwards)!

Source: Canadian Urban Institute

From 2011 onwards, the expansion of built-up areas is projected to occur all over the TAW area, except in Iloilo City. This expansion is likely due to residents relocated to the suburbs as over 800 hectares of residential area in Iloilo will be converted into either commercial space, or non-built up areas such as socialized housing. Some 1,831 hectares outside the city proper are allocated for expanding TAW built-up area (i.e., residential, commercial and institutional). In the case of Pavia, 305 hectares were allocated for planned unit development (PUD) from its agro-industrial areas, and a 100-hectare expansion of both its built-up areas â&#x20AC;&#x201C; inclusive of residential and commercial space â&#x20AC;&#x201C; as well as industrial use areas. However, the bulk of the expansion is projected in Alimodian, increasing its total built-up land area by almost 55% (from 2,048 ha to 3,176 ha based on its 2001-2010 CLUP), or a total increase of 1,128 hectares. It also involves almost doubling the built-up areas of Leon and San Miguel in the Aganan sub-watershed, and of Maasin in the Tigum sub-watershed. Further, a one-third increase in total built-up areas is being projected in the towns of Cabatuan and Santa Barbara (Table 16).

!

44


Table 1. Existing Land Uses of TAW LGUs (Other Land Uses) Land Area

LGU

Planning Period

Total Land Area2

Proposed Land Use

Based on CLUP (ha)

Other Land Uses (ha)

Agri'l 3 (ha)

Ind'l (ha)

14,482.00 7,023.00

12,249.63 2083.46

4902.75 307.00

235.71

14,005.00 9,073.00 2,703.00

13915.13 6303.10 1922.00

11159.11 6115.80 528.00

187.30 1187.00 240.00

AgroInd'l (ha)

Socialized Housing (ha)

Other Land Uses Special Uses Open (cemetery, Space dumping) (ha) (ha)

Road/ Utilities (ha)

Open Grassland (ha)

Bodies of Water (ha)

Forest (Cover/Reserve) (ha)

PUD (ha)

Others (ha)

261.27

261.27

Aganan Sub-watershed Alimodian* Iloilo City**

2001-2010 1990-2010

Leon* 1 Oton Pavia* San Miguel*

2002-2012 1995-2005 2003-2012

14,480.0 0 7,023.00 14,013.0 0 8,456.00 3,502.00

2001-2010

2,134.00

3,197.00

2424.10

2052.00

Cabatuan*

2003-2012

10801.76

10535.35

2000-2009

8,248.00 15,658.0 0

11,290.00

Maasin* Sta. Barbara*

13,196.00

16788.72

9398.01

7,748.00 81,262.0 0

13,196.00

12036.14

11191.20

4.08

146.33

88,165.00

78523.94

56189.22

1854.09

183.11

1999-2008

Total

26.88 403.29

489.66

1.40

1677.00 386.53

1982.00

3661.00

2.14

2752.48 62.10

5.00

92.00

35.00 80.00

75.00

52.10

266.41 8.50

45.25

5.00

248.63

35.02

1010.33

606.82

2150.63

257.54

153.35

2239.54

273.60

Open Grassland (ha)

Bodies of Water (ha)

7336.96

13750.44

261.27

323.37

Forest (Cover/ Reserve) (ha)

PUD (ha)

Others (ha)

170.85

2,209.6 9 62.10

Table 2. Proposed Land Uses of TAW LGUs (Other Land Uses) Land Area Planning Period

Proposed Land Use

Total Land Area2

Based on CLUP (ha)

Other Land Uses (ha)

14,480.00

14,482.00

11,121.58

3,967.00

Iloilo City** 1990-2010 Leon* 2002-2012 1 Oton 1995-2005 Pavia* 2003-2012 San Miguel* 2001-2010 Tigum Sub-watershed Cabatuan* 2003-2012 Maasin* 2000-2009 Sta. Barbara* 1999-2008

7,023.00 14,013.00 8,456.00 3,502.00 2,134.00

7,023.00 14,005.00 9,073.00 2,703.00 3,197.00

13,825.68 6,303.10 1,794.20 2,006.00

213.30 11,062.70 6,115.80 509.00 1,710.00

187.30 762.00 250.00

8,248.00 15,658.00 7,748.00

11,290.00 13,196.00 13,196.00

10,174.33 9,266.15 11,885.35

9868.30 9,161.00 10,878.50

4.08

27.37 51.08

Total

81,262.00

88,165.00

66,376.39

53,485.60

1,203.38

129.53

LGU

Aganan Sub-watershed Alimodian* 2001-2010

Agri'l 3 (ha)

Ind'l (ha)

AgroInd'l (ha)

Socialized Housing (ha)

Road/ Utilities (ha)

Other Land Uses Special Uses Open (cemetery, Space dumping) (ha) (ha)

42.68

1,677.00 220.29

27.76

9.00 10.00

115.00

8.40

1,949.59

274.73 2.14

3,485.27 207.41

5.20

96.09 2,752.48

89.00

305.00

36.00 306.00

239.29

344.40

7.00 196.45

793.16

516.32

1,682.20

45.25 153.35

25.50

257.54 2,207.13

495.01

6,359.34

475.85

2,271.7 9

Notes: 1 Data from the Study on Sediment Condition in the Jaro and Iloilo River Basins (IFCP, 2007) 2 Source: Iloilo Provincial Profile, 2010 3 Oton's data is a combination of Agricultural and Open space (IFCP, 2007; p. 45) 4 IFCP (2007) data was used in both the existing and proposed land use of Oton

45


Table 3. Comparison of Existing and Proposed Land Use for Forest Cover & Classified Forest Land Area LGU

Planning Period

Total Land Area (ha)2

Existing Forest Lands

Based on CLUP (ha)

CLUP Forest (Cover/Reserve) (ha)

PENRO Classified Forest (ha)

Proposed Forest Lands CLUP Forest (Cover/Reserve) (ha)

PENRO Classified Forest (ha)

Aganan Sub-watershed Alimodian*

2001-2010

Iloilo City**

1990-2010

7,023.00

7,023.00

Leon*

2002-2012

14,013.00

14,005.00

1

1995-2005

8,456.00

9,073.00

Pavia*

2003-2012

3,502.00

2,703.00

San Miguel*

2001-2010

2,134.00

3,197.00

Oton

14,480.00

14,482.00

3,661.00

2,536.00 5,010.00

2,752.48

3,485.27

2,536.00

96.09 2,752.48

5,010.00

Tigum Sub-watershed Cabatuan*

2003-2012

8,248.00

11,290.00

Maasin*

2000-2009

15,658.00

13,196.00

Sta. Barbara*

1999-2008

7,748.00

13,196.00

81,262.00

88,165.00

Total

7,336.96

6,980.00

25.50

6,980.00

13,750.44

14,526.00

6,359.34

14,526.00

Notes: 1 Data from the Study on Sediment Condition in the Jaro and Iloilo River Basins (IFCP, 2007) 2 Source: Iloilo Provincial Profile, 2010

46


Map 8 shows the degree of encroachment of private lands into the upland areas of the TAW, particularly inside the Aganan sub-watershed area, based on the land classification map of the DENR. It shows the extent to which A&D lands have encroached, even beyond the 18%-slopeand-above limit imposed by the Revised Forestry Code of 1975 (PD705). This revised code was enacted to protect forestlands and timberlands from being released or disposed as alienable-anddisposable, unless they have been previously issued titles or released prior to the enactment of PD705 in 1975.61

Map 8. Land Classification Map of TAW $"

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LAND CLASSIFICATION MAP

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Alimodian

TIGUM-AGANAN RIVER SYSTEM WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AREA

Cabatuan SCALE 1:100,000

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Leon Sta Barbara ! !'%

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Leganes San Miguel

LEGEND:

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Iloilo City !!&%

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$%%

Source: Prepared by the DENR-CENRO Iloilo City for this report, December 2011

Existing Tenurial Arrangements within the TAW Area Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve and the Maasin CBFMA There exist only two tenurial or resource management arrangements operating within the TAW area. These are the Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve, with an estimated area of 6,738 hectares; and the KAPAWA Community Based Forestry Management Act (CBFMA) area located within the MWFR, with a total area of 3,415 hectares. 62 Both operate primarily inside the Tigum subwatershed.

61

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48


The MWFR is managed by a Protected Areas Management Board (PAMB), as mandated by the National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS) Act. The KAPAWA CBFMA is under the stewardship of a federation of 16 local barangay associations and their Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Organizations covering the municipalities of Maasin, Alimodian and Leon. Map 9 shows the distribution and location of the MWFR and the KAPAWA CBFMA. All other public land in the Tigum sub-watershed not covered by the MWFR is thus directly administered by the DENR.

Map 9. Existing Tenurial Arrangements within TAW ! $"

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TENURIAL INSTRUMENT MAP

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TIGUM-AGANAN RIVER SYSTEM WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AREA

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Leon Sta Barbara !!'%

!!'%

Leganes San Miguel

LEGEND:

Pavia !!'

!!'

Iloilo City !!&%

O I L O I L $"

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$#

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Source of Information:

I

S T R A

!!&

!!&

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!!&%

Oton

Watershed Divide Municipal Boundary Road CBFM-KAPAWA Maasin Watershed Timberland Alienable and Disposable

Based Map-LEP-FMS, Region 6 CY 1993 NAMRIA-Topographic Map CY 1992 Incurred by DENR CY 2007 Land Use Map from KAPAWA Organization CY 2003

$%%

Source: Prepared by the DENR-CENRO Iloilo City for this report, December 2011

Map 10 (see below) shows the proposed land use and zoning arrangements within the CBFMA, which include areas identified for reforestation, agro-forestry, bamboo, rattan and non-arable land as of 2001, outlined in Table 20 (see below). Although informative, this information is outdated and the data ought to be updated using the most recently approved comprehensive resource management framework (CRMF) plan submitted by the KAPAWA-Maasin to the DENR. Alternatively, it could be verified through ground validation.

49


Iloilo-Antique Forest Reserve (Aganan Forest Reserve) The forest zone, also known as timberland area, of the Aganan sub-watershed was declared as the Iloilo-Antique Forest Reserve (FR96) on 5 January 1940 under Proclamation 506. The watershed has 4,062 hectares of forestland, which comprises 12.57% of the sub-watershed area, or 28,244.25 hectares, and is directly managed by the DENR. No tenurial instruments have been issued within the Aganan sub-watershed except for barangays Bucari, Camandag, and a portion of Bobon in the Municipality of Leon, which are being proposed for co-management by the LGU.65 In 1938, the Aganan Reforestation Project was established in order to rehabilitate the openly denuded forest within the Aganan reserve. The Aganan reforestation project is considered the oldest reforestation project in the Western Visayas. In 2007, the DENR-CENRO of Iloilo conducted the formulation and drafting of an integrated watershed management plan for the Aganan subwatershed, including the Tigum and Jaro sub-watershed areas.66 Based on the draft management plan, the 862.5 hectares of old growth/ mossy forest and 2,075 hectares of residual forest/ established plantations shall be covered by intensive protection activities, while 975 hectares of open areas which had been identified shall be utilized either for agricultural production or agro-forestry, and subjected to soil rehabilitation and water conservation measures. These areas shall also be candidates for a Community-based Forest Management Agreement in the future.67

Ancestral Land and Other Tenurial Claims and Conditions The DENR-CENRO of Iloilo, who has jurisdiction over the TAW area, reported that there are no existing ancestral land claims in the area despite its history of being the settlement site of members of the Solodnon tribe from Bukidnon in the early 1900s. As of this writing, information has yet to be obtained on free patents claims, as well as foreshore lease agreements (i.e., for Iloilo City) in the TAW.

!"

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51


Key Findings •

• •

The total land area of municipalities within the TAW, based on the LGUs’ consolidated Comprehensive Land Use Plans (CLUPSs), is about 882 km2 (88,165 ha), of which only 49.2% or 433.6 km2 (42,600 ha) is designated, by the TAWMB, as being within the river basin. About 64%, or 273.2 km2 (26,8400 ha), of the watershed is dedicated for agriculture, important for food security within the urban region and to the prosperity of communities with agriculture as the local economic base. About 14.5% (12,780 ha) of the watershed consists of built-up areas. The bulk of this urbanized land is located in Iloilo and its adjacent suburban municipalities. The region is preparing for further urbanization. The consolidated CLUPs provide allowances for the conversion of up to 2703.62 hectares of existing agricultural lands to residential and commercial uses, leading to a significant reduction in available foodproducing lands in the urban region in the years ahead. Forestlands, which play a major role in maintaining the health of the watershed, comprise only 15.5% of the total land area of the TAW area. A little more than half the remaining forestland (53%) is located in the Tigum sub-watershed in the municipality of Maasin. The balance of forestlands (about 46%) is in the Aganan sub-watershed, primarily within the municipalities of Leon and Alimodian. Long-established governance arrangements are working to protect and restore the watershed’s forestlands. There are two protected areas within the watershed: the Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve (MWFR) with 6,738 hectares primarily within the Tigum sub-watershed, and the Iloilo-Antique Forest Reserve (I-AFR), also known as the Aganan Forest Reserve, with 4,062 hectares within the Aganan sub-watershed. About half of the MWFR is managed by a Protected Area Management Board (PAMB), and the other half through an innovative community-based stewardship agreement known as KAPAWA that is a federation of 16 local barangays. DENR directly manages the I-AFR. Over 80% of the total land area of the TAW is in private ownership, classified as alienable-and-disposable or A&D lands. The balance of around 16.5% is in public ownership. Most public lands are forests located in the protected areas within the upland municipalities of Alimodian, Leon and Maasin. Although the revised Forestry Code of 1975 discourages areas having a slope of great than 18% from being converted into private ownership, there is significant encroachment of alienable-and-disposable lands into these sensitive, steeply sloped areas of the TAW. This creates risks for environmental degradation, erosion and increased sedimentation of watercourses. There are no reported ancestral land claims in the watershed, despite its history as being the settlement site of members of the Solodnon tribes of central Panay.

52


Strategic Directions •

• •

Build the capacity of area LGUs to effectively use their existing powers – land use planning, zoning, building codes, environmental programming and enforcement among others – as a means to reduce the impacts of built form on deforestation, surface runoff, erosion and sedimentation. Shift the regional planning efforts of MIGEDC and the Province of Iloilo towards the theme of regional food security, exploring ways to curb urban sprawl and limit the conversion of valuable, food-producing farmlands. Formulate Forest Land Use Plans (FLUPs), which should include biodiversity inventories, to guide reforestation efforts and the improvement of forest management efforts by LGUs, communities and national agencies. Ensure these FLUPs are based on best practices and locally appropriate (i.e., favoring indigenous species). Continue the process of preparing watershed characterization studies to improve understanding of conditions within the watershed. Update CLUPs and CDPs to reflect the recommendations of this report and the forthcoming update to the TAW Management Plan.

53


6.

WATER RESOURCES AND WATER QUALITY

One of the primary determinants of the growth of cities is the availability of a reliable water supply. The tapping of potable water for human consumption provides sustenance to communities and is an important means for controlling disease and raising public health standards. Water is essential for industrial uses and for the irrigation of agricultural lands, and without it a city’s economic growth cannot be sustained. The safety of cities is also dependent on an adequate supply of piped water to effectively fight fires. Water quality is most drastically affected by overland flow. Land that has been cleared of forest cover results in a heightened rate of runoff, resulting in increased amounts of sediment and nutrients from agricultural uses being carried to streams and rivers. This can contribute to water bodies being highly eutrophic, the state of being rich in mineral and organic nutrients that promote a proliferation of plant life, especially algae, and which reduces the dissolved oxygen content necessary for fish and other aquatic creatures. This chapter discusses water resources, water quality conditions, water services supply and demand conditions in the TAW. The Water Code of the Philippines, or Presidential Decree 1067, defines the function and use of waters in the country. Under the law, the highest priority on the use or ‘appropriation’68 of water is for domestic and municipal purposes. ‘Domestic purposes’ is defined as the utilization of water for drinking, washing, bathing, cooking and other household needs; for watering backyard gardens and lawns; and for use on domestic animals. Municipal use, on the other hand, is defined as the water utilization for supplying the requirements of the community.69 The rest of the permissible uses of water arranged hierarchically are: irrigation, power generation, fisheries, livestock-raising, industrial, recreational, and other purposes.

6.1 Water Resources Ownership by the State All water – above ground or under, on private or public property – is owned by the State. Articles 5 and 6, Chapter II of Presidential Decree 1067 unequivocally declares that all water resources of the country are owned by or “belong to” the State. These include the following types and bodies of water within the public domain: ! ! ! ! ! ! !

Rivers and their natural beds; Continuous or intermittent waters of springs and brooks running in their natural beds, and the beds themselves; Natural lakes and lagoons; All other categories of surface waters such as water flowing over lands, water from rainfall whether natural or artificial, and water from agriculture runoff, seepage and drainage; Atmospheric water; Subterranean or groundwater; and Seawater.

!"

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54


The Water Code also defines that the following waters found on private lands belong to the State: ! Continuous or intermittent waters rising on such lands; ! Lakes and lagoons naturally occurring on such lands; ! Rain water falling on such lands; ! Subterranean or groundwater; and ! Water in swamps and marshes. In this context, all bodies of water in the TAW, whether surface or groundwater, are considered public assets. Utilization is subject to control, regulation and management by the government. The primary agency tasked with enforcing and ensuring that water resources are controlled and managed by the State is the National Water Resources Council, now called the National Water Resources Board (NWRB), an attached agency of the DENR.

Water Resources within the TAW The TAW is the major source of potable water for Iloilo City â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the urbanized hub on the Island of Panay â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and the eight (8) other municipalities surrounding it. The Tigum river system is the primary source for the Metro Iloilo Water District (MIWD), the main water provider of Iloilo City, while NIA provides and facilitates water for agriculture through the Aganan and Sta. Barbara (Tigum) River Irrigation Systems (RIS). The primary water resources of the TAW are the Tigum, Aganan and Jaro river systems. The Tigum and Aganan rivers are the water source of the TAW, the headwaters of which originate from the Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve. The Tigum and Aganan rivers merge at the Jaro River, which in turn flows into the Iloilo Strait. Among the minor river systems of the TAW are Salog and the tributary rivers of the Tigum River. The estimated drainage area of the Tigum-Aganan river system is around 412 km2, excluding the Jaro River that has a main drainage area totaling 21.6 km2 (Table 21). However, the total river basin drainage in the TAW, according to the TAW, is a total of 433.6 km2. There are 57 creeks, with an aggregate length of 96 km, which drain into the Tigum River. Of these, 39 creeks are perennial and 18 are intermittent. The embankments of the Tigum River and its tributary creeks remain well stabilized by natural vegetation. Through efforts from the Municipal Environment Development Council (MEDC) and the Forestry Sector Project, priority attention is given to riverbank stabilization. Of the total embankment (i.e., both sides of the creeks) measuring 222 km, only 5.5 km are considered to have distressed vegetation and erosion.70 The Aganan River has a total of 71 streams that include the 1st to the 13th order of streams. The Aganan sub-watershed has a stream density of 0.0022 per hectare.71 The primary channels of the Salog River in Iloilo City consist of three creeks: the Ingore Creek, Barrio Obrero Creek and Barrio Rizal Creek. The total combined area of the channels of these tributaries is 13.61 km2 with an average flow capacity of 50 cubic meters.72

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55


Table 21. Drainage Area of Major Rivers in the TAW ! RIVER BASIN

Jaro

Iloilo

RIVER NAME

2

DRAINAGE AREA (km )

Tigum-Aganan* Aganan River Tigum River /a Jaro River 73 Sub-total Lambuyao/ Biaga creeks Calajunan creek Dungon creek Iloilo River Sub-total

TOTAL

412.0 198.7 213.3 21.6 845.6 39.7 27.5 9.9 16.0 93.1 938.7

RIVER LENGTH (km) --52.8 57.9 16.7 --11.6 / 7.2 15.5 11.4 16.3 -----

/a: includes the Barrio Obrero-Mansaya sub-basin that directly drains into the Iloilo Strait Source: DPWH (2007), Iloilo Flood Control Project.

Rainfall and Climate Patterns Rainfall and climate patterns allow us to understand the recharge rate of the watershed. By determining the amount of rainfall and the climate patterns of the TAW area, we are able to project the time of the year that water quantity is at its highest or lowest. In addition, by determining the kind and changes in the climate patterns of the TAW area, we are able to see the wettest and driest seasons of the year, including the duration of each type of climatic conditions. At the time of this study there was inadequate and inconsistent data on rainfall and climate patterns to conclusively determine the effect on conditions of the watershed. The entire TAW, including Iloilo City, belongs to the 1st Climatic Type of the Corona Classification System. The TAW Type 1 climate is characterized by two distinct seasons, namely a dry one running from December to April, and a wet season for the rest of the year. It has also been observed that the upper portions of the watershed receive occasional rains that extend up to February, attributable to the cool micro-climate in the mountainous portions of the watershed. Between the years 1999-2003, the average annual rainfall was 1,939mm. Further, the annual rainfalls within the period from 2002-2007 ranged from a low of 1761.2mm in 2002 to a high of 2065.2mm in 2007, with an average annual rainfall decreasing slightly to 1912.4mm.74 The mean monthly rainfall for this five-year period was 192.80mm. In August 2006, 402.4mm was recorded as the heaviest monthly rainfall ever in the vicinity, until Typhoon Frank devastated the area in 2008. 75 There are disparities in the data regarding total and average rainfall from 2002 to 2007, which mirrors previous patterns that have been observed in the past decades, starting from 1972 up to

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56


2000 that have similarly showed a continuing decline in average annual rainfall but an increase in total rainfall. 76 This is attributed to increased rainfall intensity coming from extreme weather conditions, such as typhoons. This trend was similarly noted by an earlier May 2008 PAGASADOST study on the Flood Hazard and Vulnerability of Iloilo City. In its study of four extreme weather events from 1994-2006, it noted the increased volume of rainfall over a short period of time (i.e., between 6-8 hours) that directly caused the extreme flooding situation in many areas of Iloilo. These were the same findings observed in the damage assessment in the area for Typhoon Frank in 2008. A 2009 CSIRO-AusAID-sponsored study on the climate change vulnerability of the TAW noted that the decline in average rainfall, while wet season rainfall intensity increased over the last few decades, is attributable to climate change effects in the TAW. Similarly, it also noted that El Niño events cause intense droughts, reducing the availability of water, particularly during the dry season. It noted that observations have been made to the effect that the recharge of aquifers is unable to keep up with water demand (i.e., for potable water), and that the extraction rate from some pumping stations is already declining.77 A 2008 Iloilo Watershed Management Council and UN Environment Programme-sponsored study on “Rainwater Harvesting and Climate Change” illustrated the average sub-basin rainfall and isohyet patterns78 in the TAW for both the dry and wet seasons (see Map 11 below).

!"

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57


Map 11. Average Rainfall and Isohyet Patterns in TAW (Dry and Wet Season), by Sub-basins

Source: IWMC and UNEP (2008), Rainwater Harvesting for Climate Change.

58


Hydrology Water Discharge Rate Table 22 shows the comparative water discharge rate from 1950 to 2009 in both the Tigum and Aganan rivers generated from monitoring data issued by the National Irrigation Authority (NIA). There seems to be some discrepancies in the data from the area, as different metrics were used in different periods (1950-1971 vs. 2000-2009).79 Different terminologies were also used, as in the case of the Iloilo Flood Control Project with the NIA data sets. In the DENR TAW Profile, which also cites the NIA monitoring data, the estimated average maximum and minimum discharges from 1951 to 1971 at the uppermost point of the Tigum River located in Barangay Daja, Maasin was 4.40 m3 /second (m3/s) and 0.69m3 /s, respectively. Its mean discharge rate was 2.25 m3/s.80

Table 22. Comparative Discharge Rates in Tigum and Aganan Rivers from 1950-2009

RIVER

OBSERVATION PERIOD

Tigum

1950-1971 /a 1985-1989 /d 2000-2009 (lps)

Aganan

1951-1971

ANNUAL (MEAN) AVERAGE DISCHARGE 3 (M /S) 4.96 2.10 /e 0.00167 (1.67) 1.69

MAXIMUM 3 DISCHARGE (M /S)

MINIMUM 3 DISCHARGE (M /S)

10.10 b 47.00 (?)/ 0.0059(2.25)

1.32 /c 0.40 0.0003(0.8)

5.87

0.25

Source: NIA and Iloilo Flood Control Project, 2007 (for 1985-1989 data). Notes: /a – Data taken from Iloilo Flood Control Project Study but citing NIA data; /b - This data seems to be too high compared to the NIA monitoring tables from 1951-1971 and 20002009. /c – This is maximum surface discharge (?) in the Iloilo Flood Control Project table; /d – NIA changed their metrics from cubic meters to liters per second (lps). The conversion from liters 3 3 to m is 1 liter = 1/1000 m ; /e – This is extremely low compared to previous year’s data. NIA changed its monitoring location from river to irrigation canal, thus the discrepancy in rate of discharge.

In Aganan, the average discharge rate from 1951 to 1971 was 1.69 m3/s, with an annual maximum discharge of 5.87 m3/s and a minimum discharge rate of 1.32 m3/s. The most recent information on discharge rates in Aganan has yet to be obtained. Between the two rivers, the Tigum River has the higher discharge rate, and therefore a higher potential for use of its surface water for irrigation purposes. Meanwhile, the Maasin Protected Area Office under the DENR CENRO-Iloilo’s monitoring report showed that the discharge rate in the Tigum River taken above the Maasin Dam on January and February 2010 was 1.17m3/s, or 1,170 liters per second (L/s)), and 0.950 m3/s, or 950 L/s, respectively.81 Based on this information, there was a noticeable decline in the rate of water discharge from both river systems, which may severely affect water extraction rates and usage in the urban region, and probably lead to a declining water yield both for irrigation and domestic uses. In fact, as early as 1997, the prospect of a future water shortage in the Aganan RIS has been a concern. In its 1997

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59


report, Japanese consultants hired by the NIA described the Aganan RIS discharge rate as “mostly less than the designed discharge”, hampering two rice crop per year, forcing local upland farmers in the area to diversify to other cash crops.82 This was further reiterated during a 2010 PowerPoint presentation by the NIA on the status of the Tigum and Aganan rivers’ discharge and flow rate. It showed that present discharge rates in the two river systems, specially the Aganan River, would not be able to satisfy future water demands for both agriculture and domestic water usage. It warns of a potential ‘water crisis’ should no new sources of water be tapped or rehabilitation of existing water resources be made.83

Average Flow Rate Table 23, from the 2007 Iloilo Flood Control Project Study, shows the estimated flow capacity (at different distances/ points) along the three major river systems – Tigum, Aganan and Jaro – in the TAW areas. It also includes the flow rate at the Iloilo River.

Table 23. Estimated Flow Capacity of TAW Rivers RIVER NAME

STRETCH (KM FROM THE MOUTH)

Jaro River

0.0 - 4.0 4.0 - 10.0 10.0 - 16.0 0.0 - 3.5

Iloilo River Aganan River (Dungon Creek)

3.5 - 5.2 5.2 16.0 0.0 - 3.5 3.5 - 5.0 5.0 -

Tigum River (Dungon Creek)

AVERAGE FLOW 3 CAPACITY (M /S) 150 240 400 >1000 400 500 200 500 200 60 20

RANGE OF FLOW 3 CAPACITY (M /S) 80 - 800 70 - 1300 300 - 600 300 - 1000 400 - 600 100 - 300 300 - 600 100 - 300 20 - 120 15 - 100

Source: DPWH (2007), Iloilo Flood Control Project.

6.2 Water Quality Conditions Surface Water Conditions The Jaro-Tigum-Aganan river system is one of the 28 principal river systems in the Western Visayas Region. Based on the DENR water quality criteria for surface water monitored by its Environmental Management Bureau (EMB), the upstream area of the Tigum River (upstream of the Maasin Dam) is classified as a ‘Class A’ river. The rest of the downstream systems of both the Tigum and Aganan rivers down to the Jaro River are ‘Class C’ rivers (see Table 24 below).84

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60


Table 24. Classification of Rivers and Creeks by Water Quality NAME OF STREAM Iloilo River Calajunan Creek Jaro River Tigum River Aganan River

STATION Entire reach Entire reach Entire reach Confluence to Maasin Dam Reach upstream from Maasin Dam Aganan

CLASSIFICATION C C C C A C

YEAR 1977 1996 1993 1993 1993 1993

Source: DPWH (2007), Iloilo Flood Control Project.

Since 2001, the Jaro-Tigum-Aganan river system’s water quality had been monitored quarterly by the DENR-EMB Region VI for physical-chemical and bacteriological parameters – pH-levels, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), temperature, color and total fecal coliform – that are used for assessing the water quality of surface waters (see Table 25). 85 For water quality, a body of water should satisfy 100% compliance of all DENR parameters to fulfill its intended beneficial use.

Table 25. Water Quality Criteria and Classification for Philippine Waters Table I. Standard Value of Class A, B, C, SB, SC Water Classification. PARAMETER Temperature Color pH Dissolved Oxygen 5-day 20°C BOD Total Suspended Solids

Unit

Class A

Class B

Class C

Class SB

Class SC

C rise PCU Range mg/L mg/L mg/L

3 50 6.5-8.5 5.0 5 50

3 C 6.5-8.5 5.0 5 f

3 C 6.5-8.5 5.0 7(10) g

3 C 6.0-8.5 5.0 5 g

3 C 6.0-8.5 5.0 7(10) g

Footnotes: c - no abnormal discoloration from unnatural causes f - not more that 30% mg/L increase. g - not more than 30 mg/L increase

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61


Table II. Water Usage and Classification Classification A B C C SB

SC

Type Fresh Surface Water Fresh Surface water -do- do Coastal and Marine Waters

-do-

Beneficial Use Public Water Supply Class II. For sources of water supply that will require complete treatment in order to meet the NSDW. Recreation Water Class I. For primary contact recreation such as bathing, swimming, skin diving etc. Fishery water for the propagation & growth of fish & other aquatic resources. Recreation Water Class II Industrial Water Supply Class I (for manufacturing process after treatment) Recreational Water Class I Fishery Water Class I (Spawning areas for Chanos or Bangus and similar species) Recreational Water Class II Fishery Water Class II (Commercial & sustenance fishing) Marshy and/or mangrove areas declared as fresh & wildlife sanctuaries.

Source: DENR-EMB Region VI (2010), State of the Brown Environment 2010, p. 71.

Based on the DENR-EMBâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s monitoring report from 2001-2010, the Jaro-Tigum-Aganan river systems satisfied all the requirements and parameters for water quality (100% compliance) to maintain its present classification: Class A (upstream of Tigum River) and Class C for all downstream water bodies. The only exception to this was during certain episodes in 2004 and 2008, due to debris brought about by Typhoon Frank where in TSS levels exceeded the norm and stayed this way until 2010. As early as 2004, the EMB was able to identify that the probable causes of high TSS levels were the following: ! ! ! ! !

Uncontrolled dumping of solid wastes along the embankment of the river; Shallow water and heavily silted riverbed with non-biodegradable solid wastes; Intensive sand and gravel extraction, mostly in the Aganan river; Discharges from bottling companies, poultry dressing plants, piggeries, and feed mills; Agricultural runoff and dwellers along the riverbanks.

Meanwhile, Table 26 shows the detailed monitoring data from 2001 to 2010, as generated from the DENR-EMB Region VI assessment reports.86 During the period 2001 to 2005, DO levels in the Jaro-Tigum-Aganan river system went below acceptable levels in four out of five years, particularly at the downstream level by the mouth of the river at Ticud Bridge in Iloilo City leading to the Iloilo Strait.87

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62


Table 26. Comparative Average Concentrations of the Jaro-Tigum-Aganan Rivers (20012010) COVERAGE PERIOD STANDARD STANDARD PARAMETERS (Class A) (Class C ) DO, mg/L >5 >5 BOD, mg/L <5 <7(10) pH 6.5-8.5 6.5-8.5 o Temp, C 3 3 Color, PCU 50 C TSS, mg/L 50 G TDS, mg/L 1,000.00 B

2001-2005 U 9 1.6 ---61.00 204.00

2007

/A

2008

/B

D

D

D

7.25 2.45 ---219.80 462.50

6.9 2.3 8.10 30.10 99.00 155.00 759.00

7.1 1.6 7.70 27.20 27.20 1,122.00 890.00

2009 U 7.7 -7.1 28.8 70 530.8 --

2010 D 7.5 -7.1 28.6 94.8 897.6 638.7

U 7.11 1.33 ---195.00 --

D 7 1.8 8.1 31 26 106 --

Source: DENR-EMB Region VI (2009 and 2010) and DENR-EMB, 2006 Notes: /a and /b = average only; b = no criterion, c = no abnormal discoloration from unnatural causes; f = not more than 30% mg/L increase; g = not more than 30 mg/L increase.

Groundwater Conditions Groundwater resources are mostly used in the TAW area for domestic, irrigation and industrial purposes (see detailed discussion in subsequent sections). However, there is no defined monitoring program for groundwater quality in the region.88 In 2006, EMB-Region VI reported that groundwater coming from all six communal wells in Iloilo City, tested by the agency from January to October 2005, did not pass the bacteriological parameters for safe drinking water based on the standards set under the Philippine National Standard for Drinking Water (PNSDW).89 In fact, two wells were reported to have had zero compliance on the PNSDW criteria. Moreover, laboratory test results from another groundwater quality assessment made by the MIWD in 2006, from the deep wells it operates in its service areas (i.e., eight deep wells serving Iloilo City, San Miguel and Oton), showed that “more than half of the deep wells” in Iloilo City’s populated areas have high iron and acid contents.90 The results of the more recent laboratory tests of water quality made by the MIWD in 2008 and 2009 are contained in Table 27 (see below). While most values fall within the range of acceptable levels, the lead content is ten times beyond the PNSDW standards for safe drinking water, and this increased further to more than four-fold from 2008 to 2009.

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63


Table 27. Heavy Metals and Chemicals Content in MIWD Potable Water Supply METALS/ CHEMICALS Arsenic Cadmium Manganese Lead (Pb) Nitrate (NO3) Benzene Sulfates TDS (Total dissolved solids)

PNSDW Standards (mg/L) 0.01 0.003 mg/L 0.5 0.01 50 -250 500

2008 (mg/L

)/a

2009 (mg/L

n.d. n.d. n.d. 0.11 0.06 ppm 0.00172% 47.03 ppm 631 ppm

)/b

n.d. n.d. n.d. 0.46 4.20 n.d. 48.08 270

Source: Adamson University Technology Research and Development Center (2008 and 2009). Notes: /a – composite water sample, only 1 sample tested, location where sample was taken not indicated. /b – raw water dam sample, only 1 sample tested location where sample was taken not indicated.

On a positive note, a 2009 report on testing done by the Bureau of Plant Industry’s National Pesticide Analytical Laboratory on the presence of pesticide residues (i.e., organochlorines, organophosphates, and pyrethroids) showed that water samples submitted by the MIWD did not exceed the maximum limits of determination (LOD) for pesticide residue of 0.05 ppb or ug/L.91 Regarding water used for irrigation and drainage in the Tigum-Aganan river system, the 1997 NIA study reported some baseline water quality conditions on the presence of nitrogen and chloride in both rivers (Table 28).

Table 28. Inorganic Chemical Composition of the Tigum-Aganan Rivers System

Water Use Type Irrigation Drainage

AGANAN (San Miguel RIS) Nitrogen (mg/L) Chloride (mg/L) 0.1 18 0.6 22

TIGUM (Sta Barbara RIS) Nitrogen (mg/L) Chloride (mg/L) 0.1 13.5 0.3 10.0

Source: NIA (1997).

Traces of Land Subsidence, Over-extraction and Saline Intrusion in the Aquifers The 1997 NIA report showed that the MIWD deep wells, even at that time, already reached their maximum pumping levels over the last ten years and would not be able to sustain water levels beyond the dynamic water level for each well at GL-50m. It further stated that signs of land subsidence are evident in the MIWD wells and that over pumping of groundwater is not suitable, as pumping beyond the rate (i.e., GL-50m) is detrimental to the development of groundwater. 92 The 2009 CSIRO-AusAID study validated this observation even further, after analyzing the extraction rates from the aquifer pumping stations in the area. It reported that the increasing demand for water due to increased population pressure and extreme dry seasons reduced the groundwater recharge rate, resulting in a lower groundwater supply and dry wells and bores.93

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64


The report also warned that such over-extraction of the aquifer could lead to further land subsidence and possible saline intrusion into the groundwater reserves of the TAW, especially along the coastal areas. It also noted that saline intrusion cases have already been reported in Oton, arising from groundwater over-extraction for irrigation and drinking water, which could in turn affect agricultural productivity, water potability, and land subsidence in the region.94

6.3 Water Services Supply and Demand Multiple Water Uses and Demand The primary demands for water resources within the TAW are for domestic, municipal, agricultural, and industrial uses. Surface water is utilized largely for servicing around 7,500 hectares of agricultural lands, and for the domestic water supply of around 25% of the population of Iloilo City (from the Maasin Dam in Barangay Daja)95. Groundwater is also sourced to service domestic water requirements of TAW area municipalities not served or fully served by the MIWD, as well as the agricultural, industrial and municipal (i.e., communal water systems using shallow wells) needs of these same communities. Table 29 shows the average water utilization of the different river areas in the entire province of Iloilo based on a 2003 study of the DPWH Iloilo Flood Control Project. Table 30 shows that, from 1975 to 2003, the National Water Resources Board issued water extraction rights in the TAW area amounting to 16,222 L/s of ground water and surface water. Of these, almost all the water-use rights for the Tigum and Aganan rivers were dedicated to irrigation purposes, primarily for the NIA irrigation projects in both Aganan (San Miguel RIS) and Tigum (Santa Barbara RIS) with a total of around 15,600 L/s. A small allocation of 400 L/s of ground water rights were allotted for domestic, industrial and commercial uses. Table 31 (see below) shows the extraction of water, particularly of groundwater, at the household and farm levels in the different areas of the TAW. Tables 29 through 31 show that the waters from above and below the surface are widely used by the general population. It is a very critical resource, and demands for water are growing commensurate with population increases and associated expansion of urban settlements and commercial/ industrial sites.

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65


Table 29. Water Utilization in the TAW NAME OF RIVER BASIN

RIVER LENGTH (km) Surface Water 95.1 16.3 429.9 213.3 57.9

DRAINAGE 2 AREA (km )

Iloilo River Basin Jaro River Basin Tigum River

DISCHARGE 3 (m /sec) 3

Intake (m /sec)

Remarks

1.9 - 11.0

0.244

0.22 - 3.96

(21, 081 m /day) 3 1.686 m /s 3 1.204 m /s

MIWD water supply NIA Irrigation (Santa Barbara) 2, 971 ha

no data

3

Aganan River Jaro River Total

198.7 17.9 525.0

52.8 16.7

/a

NIA irrigation (San Miguel), 4, 506 ha

Withdraw 3 (m /sec)

Groundwater Iloilo River Basin (3 wells)

Remarks Bgy San Jose, San Manuel; Pavia (industrial and domestic use)

0.092

Source: DPWH (2007), Iloilo Flood Control Project. Note: /a - average monthly discharge estimates by NIA (1951-1971)

Table 30. Summary of Water Rights Granted in the TAW by NWRB (1975 - 2003) WATER SOURCE Aganan River Tigum River Jaro River Morobuan Creek Cabulo-an Creek Calajunan Creek Groundwater All Resources

Irrigation 7,985.00 7,654.90

DISCHARGE GRANTED (L/s) Domestic Commercial Industrial

TOTAL 7,985.00 7,654.90 19.00 120.00 27.00 7.00 409.17 16,222.07

19.00 120.00 27.00 7.00 9.00 15,802.90

327.03 327.03

5.59 5.59

67.55 86.55

Source: National Water Resources Board (NWRB), 2004

Table 31. Selected Infrastructure for Households in Upland and Lowland (%)

*1

U L B B L L U L

Barangay

Municipality

AGANAN WATERSHED Cabacan Alimodian Quinaspan Alimodian Aganan Pavia Anilao Pavia Sto. Ni単o San Migual TIGUM WATERSHED Ayaman Cabatuan Dagami Maasin Miraga Sta. Barbara

Housing *2 W

W

Domestic Water

Irrigation Water

Tap

Well Pump

Well Hand

Spring

Bottle

NIA

Pump

Rain

0 0 41 7 0

0 0 13 43 10

12 40 40 43 80

88 60 3 0 10

0 0 3 7 0

98 20 40 63 20

0 10 40 0 20

2 70 20 37 60

4 0 0

25 0 7

33 22 31

25 78 62

13 0 0

8 22 8

0 0 0

92 78 92

Source: UNEP (2008), Rainwater Harvesting for Climate Change. Notes: *1, U=Upland area, L=Lowland area, B=Builtup area

66


Domestic Water Use The greatest pressure on the waters of the TAW area is generated by the domestic needs of its growing population. In terms of access to safe drinking water by households, the increasing population and urbanization occurring in Iloilo City and several other TAW area municipalities create very strong demand for potable water. And this is notwithstanding the fact that not all households within the TAW are currently being serviced by the MIWD. From 2000 to 2010, the service connections of the MIWD doubled from 16,200 to over 31,000 connections. Average daily water consumption grew by almost 27%, or up to 730,707 cubic meters (see Table 32)96. The current capacity of the MIWD’s water supply system (i.e., from the Maasin Dam and its 11 deep wells) is around 1.25 million cubic meters.

Table 32. MIWD Service Connections and Average Daily Consumption 2000-2010 2000 Number of Connections 3 Water Consumption (m )

2005

16,273 572,052

2010

21,920 644,170

31,439 730,707

Source: MIWD, November 2011

A large portion of the MIWD’s service connections are in Iloilo City. The rest of the service connections are spread over the adjoining and rapidly urbanizing municipalities of Pavia, Oton and Santa Barbara. Table 33 shows the different types of service connections of the MIWD vis-à-vis its service areas, as of 2009.

Table 33. MIWD Service Connections by Service Areas/ Uses, 2009 SERVICE AREAS Domestic Government Commercial Public Faucets TOTAL

Maasin 308 8 15 331

Cabatuan 1,434 19 29 6 1,488

Santa Barbara 1,313 18 82 9 1,392

Pavia 2,353 11 8 2,454

San Miguel 440 7 14 461

Oton 2,714 1 63 125 2,780

Iloilo City 19,458 131 2,785 2 22,499

TOTAL 28,020 195 3,040 150 31,405

Source: lloilo Provincial Profile, 2010.

In the next ten years, the MIWD estimates its total number of service connections to reach more than 40,000 taps, with an estimated daily demand of 2.2 million cubic meters, or twice the MIWD’s system’s current capacity (Table 34).

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67


Table 34. Projected MIWD Service Connections and Average Daily Water Consumption Demand (2011-2019) 2011 Service Connections Water Consumption 3 (m )

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

33,052

35,284

35,980

36,690

37,414

38,152

38,906

39,674

40,458

1,809,597

1,931,799

1,969,905

2,008,778

2,048,417

2,088,822

2,130,104

2,172,152

2,215,076

Source: MIWD, November 2011

By 2025, domestic water extraction in the TAW area is expected to reach around 9.96 m3/s, as compared to the 2010 estimated demand of 6.72 m3/s, way beyond the allowable daily extraction rate of 4.2 m3/s given by the NWRB (see Table 35 below).97 This means that, over the next two decades, the domestic water supply provided by the MIWD for the greater Iloilo urban region needs to double its capacity in order to meet the foreseen demands – either that, or confront a water crisis.

Table 35. Estimated Future (2025) Domestic Water Demands in the TAW

! Source: NIA (2010), “Stream Order of Tigum and Aganan Rivers”

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68


Irrigation and Agricultural Uses Over the last 30 years, the Tigum-Aganan river system had been the major water resource of the NIA’s irrigation systems that service agricultural areas in the whole TAW area, particularly for rice production. The TAW area is one of the largest rice producing areas in the entire province of Iloilo. This trend in the escalating demand for water for irrigation is expected to continue, notwithstanding the conversion of many agricultural lands to residential and commercial uses in the TAW areas, especially in the urban expansion areas of Oton, Pavia and Santa Barbara. Based on current and average annual demands for irrigation water from both the Aganan and Tigum rivers, the NIA estimates that the Aganan River could satisfy only less than half of the total water demand for the 4,467 hectares of agricultural lands in its service area, as compared to the Tigum River which could still provide up to almost double the area it covers (see Tables 36-37). !

Table 36. Irrigation Water Demand vs. Discharge Rate of the Tigum River (2010)

Source: NIA (2010), “Stream Order of Tigum and Aganan Rivers”

69


Table 37. Irrigation Water Demand vs. Discharge Rate of the Aganan River (2010)

Source: NIA (2010), “Stream Order of Tigum and Aganan Rivers”

6.4 Fisheries As early as 2004, fishery resource conditions along the Jaro River and Iloilo Strait were known to have diminished both in terms of volume and species variety. The DPWH-IPCP study reported the scarcity of fishery resources arising from very poor fishery habitat conditions at the mouth of the Jaro River up to the Iloilo Strait – the main outflow area of the TAW. Among the summary findings in this DPWH report are the following:98 ! ! ! !

!

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Fishery resources in the area were limited to demersal species and a small number of pelagic species; only five reef fish species were found in the area, and only at a limited scale; Only two species of bakawan, or mangroves, thrive along the coastline of the Iloilo Strait; A biological survey of the lower Jaro River showed very minimal numbers of macro benthic organisms; Water quality analysis at the Jaro River showed low dissolved oxygen (DO) levels and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). These are apparently due to the agriculture-based pollutant inputs such as fertilizers, chemicals, and waste leachate that are discharged along the Tigum-Aganan river system; Large portions of coastline have been converted into fish pens for commercial purposes that could have affected the macro benthic organism levels in the area.

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70


6.5 Aggregates Aside from water uses, the Tigum and Aganan river system has been a source of aggregates (e.g., sand and gravel materials) for construction purposes. The quarrying of construction aggregates is allowed as a revenue generation measure for the provincial government under the Local Government Code. From 2007 to 2008, the provincial government of Iloilo granted sand and gravel quarrying permits for up to a total volume of 31,000 m3 of extraction from the Aganan River along the towns of Alimodian and San Miguel (see Table 38)99. DENR Region VI reported that previous quarrying permits from 2002 to 2003 were given to some 11 operators in Alimodian and Maasin to extract around 51,000 m3 of aggregates (see Table 39 below).

Table 38. List of Sand and Gravel Permittees in the Aganan River (2007-2008) PROPONENT

PERMIT #

DATE APPROVED

EXPIRY DATE

AREA (Has)

VOLUME 3 (Metre )

PROJECT LOCATION

Alli Resource Dev’t Corp

C-041 (C6) PI(Al)

9/28/06

9/28/07

1.2

4,000

Binalud, Alimodian,

Alexander Suplico

C-021(07) PI (Al)

6/6/07

6/6/08

2

10,000

Rodolfo Gemora Elisea Alfeche

C-XXX C-023 (07)PI(Al)

6/25/07 6/26/07

6/25/07 6/26/08

1 1.3249

2,000 5,000

San Antonio, San Miguel Bulod , Alimodian

Alli Resource Dev’t Corp Rodolfo Gemora Alli Resource Dev’t Corp TOTAL

C-XXX C-XXX C-XXX

8/30/07 6/25/07 8/30/07

8/30/07 6/25/07 8/30/07

1.2 1 1.2 8.924

4,000 2,000 4,000 31,000

Binalud, Alimodian San Antonio, San Miguel Binalud, Alimodian

Mambawi, Alimodian

Source: DENR (2007), Aganan Watershed Profile, p27

Table 39. List of Sand and Gravel Permittees in the Study Area (2002-2003) LOCATION (Bgy, Municipality) AGANAN WATERSHED

ALLOWABLE VOLUME

PERMITTEE

PERMIT #

DATE ISSUED

EXPIRY DATE

1

Buhay, Alimodian

1,000

Lorenzo Castronevo

CP-001(02)PI(AI)

1/8/02

1/9/03

2

Bulod, Alimodian

4,000

Elsea Alfeche

CP-007(02)PI(AI)

2/18/02

2/19/03

3

Binalud, Alimodian

1,000

Alli Devt Corp

CP-009(02)PI(AI)

2/27/02

2/28/03

4

Bulod, Alimodian

10,000

Florence Loredo

CP-016(02)PI(AI)

3/14/02

3/15/03

7

Bancal, Alimodian

3,000

Yalano Lerona

CP-077(02)PI(AI)

12/20/02

12/21/03

8

Bulod, Alimodian

5,000

Elsea Alfeche

CP-015(03)PI(AI)

3/6/03

3/7/04

9

Mambawi, Alimodian

3,000

Rene Loredo

CP-016(03)PI(AI)

3/10/03

3/11/04

10

Mambawi, Alimodian

15,000

Daisy P Carpio

CP-017(03)PI(AI)

3/25/03

3/26/04

TIGUM WATERSHED 5

Tubang, Maasin

2,000

Intl Builders Corp

CP-060(02)PI(Ti)

9/25/02

9/27/03

6

Naslo, Maasin

1,000

Lalaine Trojillo

CP-065(02)PI(Ma)

10/14/02

10/15/03

11

Tubang, Maasin

1,000

Proserpina Anico

CP-018(00)PI(Ma)

3/27/03

3/28/04

12

Tubang, Maasin

5,000

Uldarico Tiongson

CP-024(03)PI(Ma)

3/31/03

4/1/04

TOTAL

51,000

Source: DENR Region VI

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Key Findings • One of the primary determinants of the growth of cities is the availability of a reliable water supply. It is needed for human consumption, for agricultural irrigation, for industrial uses, and even for fighting fires. • The Tigum River has a higher discharge rate than the Aganan River, with greater potential for extraction of water for human purposes. • However, there has been a noticeable decline in the rate of water discharge from both river systems, based on data collected since the early 1950s. Should this trend continue, it may severely affect water extraction rates and usage in the urban region, and will probably lead to a declining water yield both for irrigation and domestic uses. This warns of a potential water crisis should no new sources of water be tapped or rehabilitation of existing water resources be made. • In terms of surface water quality for the Jaro-Tigum-Aganan River system, the DENREMB classified the Tigum River in areas upstream from the MIWD intake dam as ‘Class A’ (i.e., a quality suitable for public water supply that undergoes treatment) and all other portions of the river system as ‘Class C’ (i.e., a quality suitable for fisheries, recreation and industrial uses). • However, in recent years, elevated levels of total suspended solids (TSS) as well as decreased levels of dissolved oxygen (DO) have been recorded through DENR monitoring. Both conditions can negatively affect the ability of the river to support aquatic life and to be tapped for human uses. The probable causes are storm events of recent years, uncontrolled dumping of solid wastes and non-biodegradable refuse along river banks, heavily silted river beds, sand and gravel extraction in the Aganan riverbed, discharges from industries (bottling companies, poultry dressing plants, piggeries and feed mills), agricultural runoff and riverbank dwellers. • The condition of groundwater in the watershed is a growing concern. Although there is no established monitoring program for groundwater quality in the region, periodic testing points to possible problems. In 2005, testing of communal wells in Iloilo City did not pass national bacteriological parameters for safe drinking water. Other tests by MIWD have shown high iron and acid content, as well as lead levels ten times beyond standards for safe drinking water. • Increasing demand for water due to increased population pressures, demand from agriculture and extreme dry seasons is resulting in a decreased groundwater supply and dry wells and bores becoming a more common occurrence. Over-extraction of the aquifer could lead to further land subsistence and saline intrusions, which are beginning to be reported especially in Oton. • In the next ten years, MIWD estimates that its total number of service connections to reach more than 40,000 taps (up from its approximate 31,000 taps at present) with an estimated daily demand of 68,000 cubic meters of water. This is about twice the MIWD system’s current capacity of 43,000 cubic meters per day. In the next one to two decades, MIWD will need to double its capacity in order to meet foreseen demands, or confront a water crisis. • Fishery conditions within the Jaro River and in the Iloilo Strait are diminishing in terms of volume and diversity of species, as a result of declining water quality in the river due to low levels of dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand, as well as degraded fish habitats due to siltation and the presence of commercial fish pens.

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! Strategic Directions •

• •

• •

• •

Improve the region’s water security by continuing to make the protection and rehabilitation of forestlands in the headwaters, along riverbanks and in the floodplain a top priority. Focus on efforts to stem deforestation and programs to accelerate reforestation using endemic tree species. Create an inventory of existing tree nurseries, and source funds for the establishment of additional tree nurseries as required, to facilitate reforestation efforts. Control sedimentation and erosion along riverbanks through the use of conservation buffers, stream bank stabilization measures and adaptation of sediment controls (e.g., sediment basins) for agriculture, land development and construction, among others. Elevate efforts at pollution abatement, including working with local industries to reduce discharges, with farmers to reduce agricultural runoff and with communities to reduce micro-dumping. Improve oversight and technical support by the PENRO-LGU for LGU issuances of permits related to quarrying, to ensure compliance with environmental standards and to improve environmental performance. Evaluate conditions (Province of Iloilo or PENRO-LGU) of proposed quarry sites before issuing permits to proponents, thereby enabling more accurate monitoring of quarrying activities and conditions of the quarry site. Promote incentive-based enforcement of environmental laws, by rewarding quarry operators that comply with provincial ordinances on extraction. Promote low-cost water conservation measures, such as household rainwater harvesting and recycling of greywater for flushing, and accompany these efforts with IEC activities. Explore the potential to construct upstream water reservoirs to mitigate flooding events and to conserve water for human consumption and irrigation purposes (May not be feasible currently due to heavy siltation, based on NIA JRMP II Evaluation Study). Consider lobbying the NWRB to deputize TAW LGUs to be the regulatory approval bodies for groundwater extraction, especially for applications for wells with a depth of 50 meters and above, to stem over extraction. Undertake a comprehensive study of groundwater in the watershed to establish baseline conditions and set up a regular groundwater quality monitoring system to track changes in quality and quantity over time. Continue to explore new sources of water supply and/or rehabilitate the existing MIWD water supply system to avert a potential regional water crisis in the years ahead. Up-scaling of rainwater harvesting projects to ensure water security.

!

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7.

CLIMATE CHANGE, DISASTER RISKS AND VULNERABILITIES

Several major studies have been made on climate change and disaster risk and vulnerabilities in the TAW area, particularly on flooding and landslide/ erosion, even prior to the onslaught of Typhoon Frank (international codename Fengshen) in June 2008. Among these are the Flood Hazard and Vulnerability Mapping Project for Iloilo City, prepared by the PAGASA-DOST in May 2008; the Iloilo Flood Control Project studies in 2007; and a 1997 NIA study of the Jalaur River and Rural Area Development Projects. Typhoon Frank, which resulted in the widespread destruction of both public and private properties in the TAW areas, subsequently triggered further studies of the area’s vulnerability and risks from extreme weather patterns. These included an August 2009 CSIRO-AusAID Vulnerability Assessment of the Tigum-Aganan; a 2010 MGB Geohazard Risk and Vulnerabilities Mapping; and an August 2010 Metro Iloilo-Guimaras Bioregion Disaster Management Profile. Among the many lessons pointed out by these studies is the paradigm that climate change and disaster risk and vulnerabilities should be viewed from the context of the whole watershed continuum, or the ‘ridgeto-reef’ relationship, which elucidates how each component of the watershed ecosystem effects and affects each other at all levels – vertically (upland, lowland and coastal) and horizontally (biophysical, geological, agricultural, infrastructure, settlement, forestlands, etc.). Many area-specific concerns are clearly related to the conditions and practices of neighboring areas, but when these are not examined wholly and integrally on an ecosystem basis, it would be difficult to address issues and concerns in an integrated manner which benefits everybody and in all aspects.100 As such climate change and disaster risks and vulnerabilities in the TAW cannot be managed through, say, separate geographic or political areas, or along singular sectoral divisions, but rather as one ‘bioregion’ or as one ‘ecosystem.’ Tables 40 and 41 (see below) represent the common issues and concerns raised by different stakeholders regarding climate change and disaster risks and threats in the TAW.

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Table 40. CCA/ DRRM Vulnerability and Risk Assessment in Metro Iloilo-Guimaras Areas (including TAW areas) HAZARD

MOST VULNERABLE AREAS OR COMMUNITIES

Typhoon

Iloilo Province-wide: Oton, Leganes, Iloilo City Guimaras Province-wide: Nueva Valencia

Landslide

Iloilo Province-wide: Maasin (3brgys), Leon (61 sites) Guimaras Province-wide: Buenavista, Sibunag, Nueva Valencia Pavia, Santa Barbara, Leganes, Cabatuan, Oton, Iloilo City Guimaras Province-wide: Buenavista Potential hazard in all areas Iloilo: Iloilo City Guimaras: Jordan All areas affected to some degree: Guimaras, Sibunag

Flood

Fire

Drought

Earthquake

Potential hazard in all areas of Iloilo and Guimaras

Tsunami

Potential hazard along coast of Iloilo City, Leganes and Oton as well as the Southern coast of Guimaras

PEOPLE People dwelling in low lying areas, riverbanks, coastlines, bridges; also people in upland areas; people with little mobility or limited access to mobility People dwelling along steep slopes and/ or the slopes of landslide prone areas People dwelling in low lying areas, riverbanks, coastlines, bridges; people with little mobility or access to mobility Population living in congested urban areas most at risk Massive portion of population affected, especially farming communities People dwelling along or near fault; people dwelling along the coast and waterways (depending on whether a tsunami is triggered) People dwelling along or near the coastlines as well as in low lying areas, riverbanks and near bridges; people with little mobility or limited access to mobility

SERVICES

ENVIRONMENT

Disruption of communication, transportation, power, health services

Food and potable water, sanitation practices, waste storage

Can create significant impediments to services within affected area Disruption of communication, transportation, power, health services Disruption of basic government/ private services May cause inability for populations/ communities to access services Disruption of communication, transportation, power, health services

Food and potable water, sanitation practices

Disruption of communication, transportation, power, health services

Food and potable water, sanitation practices, waste storage

Food and potable water, sanitation practices, waste storage

Food and potable water, sanitation practices Food and potable water, sanitation practices, waste storage

Source: CUI (2010), Metro Iloilo-Guimaras Bioregion Disaster Management Profile, p. 65.

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Table 41. Development Concerns and Conditions in the TAW (Ridge-to-Reef) Transect Areas AREA Upland Area

CONDITIONS AND CONCERNS •

Municipalities: Alimodian Cabatuan Leon

• • •

Maasin • • • • • • • • • •

• • •

• • Lowland Area

• •

Municipalities: Iloilo City

Leganes • Oton Pavia

San Miguel

• • •

Santa Barbara

Uplands vulnerable to soil erosion, flooding (especially in low-lying areas of Maasin) and landslides – due to steep slopes, seismic activities and landscape attributes; inadequate disaster risk management planning and preparedness Leon: Runoff prone, can affect other areas High incidence of poverty in Leon, Alimodian and Maasin Land use concerns and inadequate planning: Poor technical knowledge of appropriate land use practices, including slash and burn agriculture, and forest protection and rehabilitation; soil resource is not protected Lack of livelihood opportunities Water scarcity and water management concerns; particularly in major urban centers such as Poblacion village Chemical farming pollution (fertilizers and pesticides) Riverbank erosion, scouring and severe flooding in Alimodian Indigenous people of the Seven Cities highly vulnerable to disaster In-stream and riverbed quarrying in Alimodian Possible future mining for gold, silver and nickel in uplands Bioprospecting and potential exploitation of natural resources in uplands Typhoon destruction of rice beds in Alimodian (now quarried) Some occupants located in forest watershed reserve – many resettled or now landless; illegal land use, particularly in Maasin Many livelihood resources located in restricted areas Non-native trees planted in watershed reserve Plantation forestry lands for private benefit approved in watershed reserve, yet farming families have been removed to protect water Severe riverbank erosion and siltation in Cabatuan One NIPAS Protected Area (Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve) Leganes and Iloilo City – highly flood-prone areas Most communities along Tigum, Aganan, Jaro or Iloilo Rivers – vulnerable to riverbank erosion, siltation and perennial flooding Prime agricultural areas giving way to urban development, particularly in Santa Barbara, Oton, San Miguel Increasing industrialization and changing livelihoods; professionals, farmers, businessmen, Overseas Filipino Workers (OFW) Increasing population in Pavia, Oton and San Miguel from inmigration Riverbank erosion Private quarrying Oton and San Miguel are major rice production areas of Iloilo Province; lands threatened by development; also, a large supply of agricultural products comes from Aganan River Complete reliance on groundwater to meet agricultural and urban demand in Oton and San Miguel – possible risk of saltwater intrusion

TRENDS • • •

• • • • • • •

Increasing population in all municipalities Increasing poverty levels Encroachment into forest – involving tree poaching or slash and burn agriculture Increased demand for organic farming, leading to reduced use of chemicals during the agricultural process

Increasing population Reduction of agricultural lands In-migration Increasing subdivision development Increasing rainwater harvesting Rejuvenation of coastal zone Increasing settlement within flood zone of creeks (squatters)

76


AREA

CONDITIONS AND CONCERNS •

TRENDS

Iloilo City: urban poverty; crime, drug addiction; air pollution; insufficient potable water; exposure to flash floods; large squatter areas; high population and unemployment; high day population; truancy and withdrawal from school; loss of mangroves to fish ponds and salt beds; water pollution (inadequate water treatment); lack of green space; siltation of rivers, estuary, and coastal areas; derelict boats in estuary; power brown outs; high energy costs; poor health and sanitation services and practices; lack of political will to address solid waste issues; obstruction of water flow; mining, bank erosion; wetlands converted into subdivisions; coastal areas experiencing seawater intrusion; resettlement of riverbank squatters Significant siltation along the mouth of Iloilo River

Source: CUI (2010), Metro Iloilo-Guimaras Bioregion Disaster Management Profile, p. 56-57

7.1 Flooding Occurrences and Threats Flooding brought about by extreme weather occurrences, when coupled with the TAW biophysical features, conditions and geomorphology, is the preeminent threat and vulnerability confronting the bioregion. Based on the 2010 MGB Geohazard Assessment, almost 62% of all barangays within the TAW are susceptible to flooding. These include 112 barangays from Iloilo City, all 37 barangays of Oton, a total of 17 of Pavia’s 18 barangays, and more than half of Cabatuan’s and Santa Barbara’s villages. Other areas in the TAW highly vulnerable to flooding are Leon and Alimodian (see Table 42). Table 42. MGB Geohazard Vulnerability and Risks Assessment in TAW (2010)

MUNICIPALITY

NUMBEROF BGYS

LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY RATING L M H

FLOODING

EROSION/ SCOURING

L

M

H

L

13 47

4

Aganan Alimodian Leon San Miguel Oton

51 85 24 37

28 6 0 0

5 7 0 0

12 70 1 0

11

8

18 32

5

Pavia

18

0

0

0

4

6

Iloilo Tigum Maasin Cabatuan Santa Barbara Total

180

0

0

0

50 68 60 573

16 21 0 71

20 4 0 36

3 0 0 4

0

112 22 36 31 154

M

5 24

3 70

H 1

35

Sheet flooding Mass movement Landslide in quarry Liquefaction/ storm surge in coastal bgys High incidence of riverbank erosion Storm surges - 11

4 17

Flash flooding Sheet flooding - 13

0

7

0 37 17

/a

4

OTHERS

56

55

Notes: /a – Data from Pagasa-DOST (2008); L-low, M-moderate, H-high.

Map 12 (see below) is the general flood mapping done for the entire area. Areas deemed to be most vulnerable to flooding are largely the built-up, low-lying and coastal areas of the TAW, a considerable number of which are located in Iloilo City, Pavia and Oton. Their vulnerability is mainly due to a combination of current topographical, soil, slope, meteorological, hydrological and 77


development conditions. In the case of Leon and Alimodian, most of the highly susceptible villages are situated immediately below steep mountain slopes.

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Source: Map prepared by DENR-CENRO Iloilo for this report, December 2011 !

In its 2008 report, the PAGASA-DOST Flood Hazard and Vulnerability Mapping Project for Iloilo City reported that flooding was the most significant threat to Iloilo City due to its topographical and meteorological features, and its proximity to major rivers, particularly the Jaro, Iloilo and Batiano. The Jaro River was identified as the ‘most significant’ riverine flood threat to the city.101 The report also identified that the low-lying barangays near these rivers have the highest potential of flooding, along with the other barangays located in coastal areas, along river channels and inland adjacent to the three major creeks of the city. This flood threat spans 60 % of the city’s total informal settlers, who are mostly living in the coastal areas along Molo Boulevard up to the Oton boundary.102 A total of 112 of the 180 barangays, or 62 % of the city’s seven districts, were identified as highly vulnerable to flooding. The districts of Jaro (36 barangays) and La Paz/ Lapuz (24 barangays), all located along the Iloilo and Jaro rivers, have the highest number of villages at risk (see Table 43 below).

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Table 43. Flood Susceptible/ Threatened Barangays in Iloilo City, 2008 DISTRICT

TOTAL NO OF BGYS

NO OF BGYS AT RISK

Arevalo

13

11

City Proper

45

16

Jaro

42

36

La Paz/ La Puz

37

24

Mandurriao

18

14

Molo

25

11

180

112

TOTAL

NAME OF BARANGAYS AFFECTED Bonifacio, Calaparan, Dulonan, Mohon, San Jose, Santa Filomena, Santa Cruz, Sto Domingo, Santo Nino, Sooc, Yulo Drive Monica-Blumentritt, Bonifacio-Tanza, Concepcion-Montes, DelgadoJalandoni, Bagumbayan, Esperanza-Tanza, Jalandoni-Wilson, Kahirup, Mabolo-Delgado, San Agustin, Santo Rosario-Duran, Veterans Village, Gloria, Inday, San Felix, Villa Anita, Maria Clara Arguelles, Balabago, Balantang, Benedicto, Bitoon, Buhang, Buntatala, Camalig, Cuartero, Cubay, Democracia, Desamparados, Dungon A, Dungon B, Fajardo, Calubihan, Lanit, Libertad-Santa Isabel, Lopez Jaena, Luna, MH Del Pilar, Maria Cristina, Lady of Fatima, Quintin Salas, Sambag, San Jose, San Isidro, San Pedro, San Roque, San Vicente, Simon Ledesma, Tabuc Suba, Tacas, Tagbac, Taytay Zone 2, Ungka Aguinaldo, Alalasan, Bantud, Baldoza, Banuyao, Caingin, Don Esteban-Lapuz, Hinactacan, Ingore, Gustilo, Jalandoni, Jereos, Lapuz Sur, Libertad, Lopez Jaena Norte/ Sur, McArthur, Magsaysay, Nabitasan, Rizal, Bo. Obrero-Lapuz, San Isidro, Sinikway, Tabuc Suba, Ticud Bakhaw, Bolilao, Buhang-Taft North, Calajunan, Dungon C, Hibao-an Sur, Hibao-an Norte, Navais, PHHC, Santa Rosa, Sooc, Q AbetoMirasol, San Isidro, Tabucan Avancena, Baluarte, Compania, Calumpang, Cochero, East Baluarte, Habog-habog, Molo Boulevard, San Juan, San Pedro, South San Jose

Source: PAGASA-DOST (2008), Flood Hazard and Vulnerability Mapping Project for Iloilo City, p. 38. ! !

Likewise, most of the business establishments and residential areas of Iloilo City are within the flood-prone areas, particularly the major business/ economic centers located along the Iloilo River. Maps 13 and 14 (see below) illustrate the flood vulnerability of Iloilo City, including major settlement, residential and business areas that are susceptible to flooding.

79


7.2 Sea Level and Storm Surges Both the 2008 PAGASA-DOST and 2010 MGB geohazard assessments identified that most of the coastal areas in the TAW, particularly Iloilo City, Oton and Guimaras, were susceptible to sea level rise and storm surges. In its 2008 Flood Hazard and Vulnerability Assessment, the DOST identified the coastal areas in the Arevalo district, Molo Boulevard and portions of the city proper along the Iloilo Strait as vulnerable not only to flooding (despite the presence of wave breakers) but also to storm surges. A similar assessment was presented by the MGB study where it identified at least 12 barangays, all located in the Arevalo district, as threatened by storm surges and sea level rise. The same findings were ascribed by the MGB to almost all of the 37 barangays of Oton (see Table 42 above).

7.3 Soil Erosion, Siltation and Sedimentation Maps 15 and 16 (see below) show the TAW areas that are vulnerable to soil erosion and surface runoff.103 This was drawn from the slope characteristics of the TAW topography and erosion potential based on slope, soil characteristics, status, and condition of vegetative cover, among others. The magnitude of agricultural production, which extends up to the higher-sloped areas of the uplands (i.e., as seen from the land classification and vegetative cover maps) are seen as a primary reason for the heightened soil erosion and landslide susceptibility of the area. Coupled with increasing rainfall intensity in these areas, surface run-off to the lowlands and the sedimentation of river and water channels along the Tigum-Aganan are accelerating, leading inevitably to more severe flood occurrences in the lowlands and coastal areas. Such was the scenario that precipitated the devastating impact of recent typhoons and extreme weather events in the country over the last five years, including that of Typhoons “Milenyo” and “Reming” in 2006, Typhoon Frank in 2008, Typhoons “Ondoy” and ”Peping” in 2009, and Typhoons “Pedring” and “Sendong” in 2011.

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Map 15. Soil Erosion Map of TAW $"

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Map 16. Soil Run-off Map in the TAW (2000)

Source: Salas, Jessica (2008).”Rainwater Harvesting in IWM for Climate Change”.

82


As seen in Map 15, around 65 % of TAW areas have no apparent or only slight susceptibility to erosion, including some areas on the mountainous portion of the watershed continuum. Areas with moderate to severe erosion are situated in the middle portion of the mountainous terrain, where there is generally scarce forest cover. Table 44 shows that 33 % of the TAW is threatened by moderate to severe erosion. While many of the lowland areas in the TAW, including Iloilo City, are anticipated to experience only slight or minimal threats of erosion due to the almost flat topography, the effects of erosion – siltation and sedimentation – are a major problem for these areas.

Table 44. Erosion Patterns in the Jaro River Basin (2002) DESCRIPTION No apparent erosion Slight erosion Moderate erosion Severe erosion Unclassified erosion *1 TOTAL

JARO RIVER BASIN Area (ha) 14,432.00 14,200.00 7,525.00 6,826.00 376.00 43,359.00

(%) 33.3 32.7 17.4 15.7 0.9 100

Source: IWMC and UNEP (2007), lloilo Flood Control Project

The 2010 MGB Geohazard Vulnerability Assessment reported that many of the lowland barangays of Pavia, Oton and Iloilo City located along the riverbanks and tributary creeks of the Tigum, Aganan, Jaro, Iloilo and Batiano rivers were prone to riverbank erosion. As may be seen from Table 42, a total of 89 barangays from these three urban locales were listed as prone to erosion, especially during intense rainfall episodes and the resulting flash flooding.104 The erosion rate from the Tigum-Aganan Watershed was reported at 2.262 tons/hectare/year, as shown in Table 45. This is considerably low as compared to other major irrigation areas in the Visayas and Mindanao. However, reduction in forest and vegetative cover due to conversion of upland areas to agriculture have resulted in increased soil loss and surface run-off, especially during the wet season and in cases of extreme weather conditions. In the case of the Tigum River sub-basin, the MGB’s 2007 record listed three barangays in the municipality of Maasin as highly susceptible to landslides, 19 barangays as moderately susceptible, and 16 barangays with low risk. The rest of the barangays were categorized as ‘with no landslide’ but with varying degrees of susceptibility.

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Table 45. Estimated Soil Erosion from Selected Watersheds (2002) NAME OF WATERSHED

AREA (Ha)

Tigum-Aganan Canasujan

41,200.00 3,872.00

SOIL EROSION (Ton/Ha/Year) 2.262 20.72

Gibong

41,554.00

26.11

NIA River Irrigation System

Calagayon

15,650.00

14.62

NIA Communal Irrigation System

Lugom-Baobo

21,003.00

14.94

NIA River/ Irrigation System

MAJOR INFRASTRUCTURE Iloilo Flood Control Project NIA River Irrigation System

LOCATION

FUNDING AGENCY

Iloilo Carcar, Cebu Prosperidad, Agusan Del Sur Buenavista, Agusan del Norte Compostela Davao and Veruela, Agusan Del Sur

JBIC ADB ADB ADB ADB

Source: Watershed Management Plans of NIA-SPISP and Iloilo Flood Control Project (2007)

A NAMRIA survey estimated the highly susceptible areas in the Tigum River sub-basin at 10,515 hectares, those moderately susceptible at 1,056 hectares, areas with low susceptibility at 5,087 hectares, and those with no apparent erosion at 8,202 hectares.105 A 2007 projection made by the DPWH’s Iloilo Flood Control Project for best and worst scenarios on soil erosion along the Jaro River showed that, at the average soil erosion rate, the best scenario would yield around 1.09 tons/ha/year, and the worst scenario of 109.62 tons/ha/year (see Table 46).106

Table 46. Estimated Average Soil Erosion (Ton/ha/year) River

Present (2002)

Tigum Aganan Jaro Total Average

Worst scenario HR/CP1 LR/CP1 59.47 24.99 111.31 23.48

Best scenario HR/CP2 LR/CP2 0.56 0.25 1.11 0.24

2.26 170.78 109.62

48.47

1.67 1.10

0.49

Source: IWMC and UNEP (2007), lloilo Flood Control Project Notes: HR – high rainfall factor; LR – low rainfall factor CP1 – denuded/no vegetation (C) and no conservation (P) CP2 –good vegetation/cover and conservation factor (CP2)

7.4 Landslides Landslides, particularly in the upland areas, are the next most preeminent vulnerability and threat to the TAW, alongside flooding. Areas highly susceptible to landslides are barangays located mostly in the higher elevations of the Tigum-Aganan watershed, particularly in Leon, Alimodian, Maasin and Cabatuan. The MGB’s 2010 assessment listed a total of 86 barangays, mostly in Leon, with a very high landslide susceptibility rating; and 36 barangays, mostly in Maasin, with moderate

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susceptibility. Another 71 barangays found in the same four municipalities were rated as having low susceptibility to landslides (see Table 42 above). The landslide risks in these areas were clearly seen in the wake of Typhoon Frank in June 2008, where large areas of the uplands in both the Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve and headwaters in Leon and Alimodian having been considerably affected by landslides, soil/ sheet slips and land mass movements/ erosion. Map 17 (see below), prepared by the UP School for Environmental Science and Management (UPSESAM) in Los Ba単os, shows the general landslide susceptible areas within the MWFR. Map 17. Landslide Prone/Susceptible Areas in Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve

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Source: UP School of Environmental Science and Management (2011). Untitled PowerPoint presentation.

7.5 Earthquakes, Land Subsidence and Liquefaction The TAW area is located within an active fault line known as the West Panay Fault that straddles the entire Panay Island on a north-south direction, starting from west of Capiz cutting across to the Madia-as Mountain range through the Iloilo-Antique border (see Maps 18 and 19 below).

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Map 18. Active Fault Lines in Western and Central Visayas

Source: DOST-Pagasa, 2010.

Map 19. West Panay Fault Lines in Iloilo Province

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Source: DENR-Region VI (2008), Maasin Water Damage Assessment on the Onslaught of Typhoon Frank.

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The fault’s last major earthquake was recorded in June 1990, which affected Culasi, Antique, and parts of Aklan. The strongest tremor ever recorded was the 8.3 magnitude earthquake that occurred in 1948. It damaged 55 churches in Panay Island, where 17 collapsed totally, and 20 sustained cracks beyond repair. It was likewise reported that the earthquake claimed two fatalities and 50 % of the houses in Antique, which fell into ruins.107 In July 2011, a series of earthquakes was felt in the Western Visayas. The strongest was the 6.2 magnitude earthquake that struck at 4:47am of 12 July, which had its epicenter in the towns of Cauayan, Kabankalan and Sipalay, in the province of Negros Occidental. The jolt was strong enough to have awoken people in the surrounding provinces of Aklan, Antique, Capiz, Guimaras, and Negros Occidental.108 Inside the TAW, the most recent earthquakes involved a magnitude 4.9 in 1983 and magnitude 4.8 in 1997, the epicenters of which were located in the headwaters of the Maasin watershed. These earthquakes are believed to be have caused soil and rock formations in the uplands to become very fragile and unstable, which possibly triggered landslides and mass movements during the onslaught of Typhoon Frank in June 2008, destroying large portions of the TAW’ lowland areas, including Iloilo City.109 According to Philippine Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs), the entire Western Visayas region, including the province of Iloilo, is prone not only to earthquakes, liquefaction, ground shaking, and landslides, but also to tsunami. Phivolcs Director Renato Solidum Jr stressed during a meeting of the Regional Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council in April 2011 that “preparedness and risk reduction is everyone’s business,” and that the region should not be complacent but instead to be in a state of readiness for the possible occurrence of a major earthquake.110 On 6 February 2012, an earthquake with a 6.8 magnitude struck Cebu Island and Negros Occidental, the latter being the earthquake’s epicenter. It also hit Iloilo, Antique, Aklan and Capiz with a recorded intensity of magnitude 5.0. This resulted in 45 deaths and large areas devastated by landslides, ground swelling and liquefaction, particularly in Negros Occidental and Negros Oriental. The tremor was not caused by either of the known earthquake faults in the areas, which are the West and Central Panay fault lines, but by a “blind fault” thrust, according to local earthquake experts. The earthquake was caused by the sudden shifting of two tectonic plates in the Visayas between Negros and Cebu, specifically from a blind fault some 20 kilometers under the earth.111 A blind fault is one that shows no visible signs on the Earth's surface and has not been mapped by standard surface geological mapping. A Phivolcs susceptibility study in July 2011 explained that a majority of the coastal areas of the Western Visayas, particularly along the coastal towns of the provinces of Aklan, Antique, Capiz and Iloilo, including Iloilo City and its neighboring towns, is vulnerable to liquefaction that maybe brought about by a strong earthquake.112 Phivolcs also has the same data for Negros Occidental, along which the Central Negros Fault runs. The same agency emphasized that reclaimed areas in

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Western Visayas are also more susceptible to liquefaction, with soil in these areas being characteristically softer. Preliminary findings from a Phivolcs seismic hazard simulation estimated that an 8.1 magnitude earthquake striking the province of Iloilo shall result to around 5,000 casualties in Iloilo City alone, while a 6.3 magnitude tremor would claim around 2,400 fatalities.113 Map 20, made by Phivolcs, shows the regional liquefaction susceptibility and areas vulnerable to this risk in the province of Iloilo.

Map 20. Regional Liquefaction Susceptibility Map for Regions VI and VII

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Source: CUI (2010), p. 67 (as sourced from the Scientific Conference on Disaster Risk Management and Typhoon Frank, 2008).

7.6 Drought There have been few reports of droughts in the TAW area in the distant past except for the incidence of low water pressure during the dry season and dry periods related to the El NiĂąo phenomenon. In 2000, the Tigum River was reported to have reached very low water levels that led to inadequate water supply affecting largely the agricultural production and settlement areas of Santa Barbara, Pavia, Oton, San Miguel and Iloilo City. In 2010, drought was reported in the province of Iloilo, particularly in the fourth and fifth districts, or Iloiloâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s eastern portion. It affected

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31,000 hectares of rice lands, 2,700 hectares of cornfields, and around 27,000 Iloilo farmers. Total estimated crop damage for the whole region was PhP 761.2 million, affecting 43,187 farmers.114 Changes in rainfall patterns in the TAW area, believed to be caused by climate change, have already been observed.115 Such climate change patterns have the potential to lead to extreme temperature changes that may in turn lead to instances of drought in the TAW. A 2009 CSIRO-AusAID vulnerability study analyzed that, over the years 1995 to 2000, mean rainfall had been declining (Figure 6), resulting to lower water extraction rates in deep wells in the TAW area (see Figure 7). It noted that as climate change patterns shift, and particularly during the warm events known as the El Niño, the incidence of droughts will be affected.116

Figure 6. Total Rainfall Trends in the TAW During the Dry and Wet Seasons (1995-2000)

Source: Miller, C, Alexander, K S, and Jovanovic, T. (2009), “Tigum-Aganan Watershed Management Project: Exploring vulnerability to climate change”, p. 25. ! !

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Figure 7. Water Extraction Rates in Wells in the TAW Area (2004-2008)

Source: Miller, C, Alexander, K S , and Jovanovic, T. (2009), â&#x20AC;&#x153;Tigum-Aganan Watershed Management Project: Exploring vulnerability to climate changeâ&#x20AC;?, p. 26.

A 2011 UP-SESAM report showed that certain areas in the TAW, particularly within the Tigum subwatershed area, have the potential for drought occurrences (Map 21). Map 21. Potential Drought Incidence Area in the Tigum Sub-watershed

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Source: UP-SESAM (2011). Untitled PowerPoint presentation.

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Key Findings ! •

• • • •

Flooding brought about by extreme weather occurrences is the preeminent threat and vulnerability confronting the urban region. A 2010 MGB geohazard risk and vulnerabilities mapping exercise showed that 62% of all barangays in the watershed are susceptible to flooding. Most of these barangays are located in low-lying areas near rivers, with the majority located in Iloilo City mostly in the Jaro and La Paz/Lapuz districts. The Jaro River was identified as the ‘most significant’ riverine flood threat in the region. The flood threat spans 60% of the city’s total informal settlements, mostly those in the coastal area along Molo Boulevard up to the Oton boundary. The majority of business establishments, especially the major business centers located along the Iloilo River, is within the flood-prone areas. The coastal areas of the watershed, particularly the coast along the Arevalo District and Molo Boulevard, are vulnerable to storm surges and sea-level rise. Increased erosion is another hazard faced by residents of the watershed. Although studies show that the 2.262 tons/hectare/year of sediments is considered low as compared to the rate for other major irrigation areas in the Visayas and Mindanao, a continued decrease in forest cover would exponentially increase surface run-off, landslides, soil loss and river sedimentation especially during rainy seasons and storm events. A 2007 DPWH Iloilo Flood Control project simulated soil erosion in Jaro River, and in a worst case scenario estimated an increase up to 109.62 tons/ hectare/year. Areas most prone to moderate or severe erosion are situated in the middle portion of the mountainous terrain, where there is generally scarce forest cover. The TAW area is located along the West Panay Fault and is prone to earthquakes. A 2011 Phivolcs susceptibility study shows that coastal zones of the region are susceptible to liquefaction as well as tsunami. Simulations estimate around 5,000 casualties in Iloilo City alone as a consequence of an 8.1 magnitude earthquake, while a 6.3 magnitude cause 2,400 fatalities. These casualty figures are estimated to rise if applied to the whole of TAW area, but that study has yet to be done. Changes in rainfall patterns in the TAW area, believed to be caused by climate change as well as periodic El Niño events, have been observed in recent years. Such changes have the potential to lead to extreme temperature changes that may in turn lead to periods of drought.

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Strategic Directions •

• •

• ! !

Explore low-tech options for setting up an early warning system (EWS) for flooding that would improve interaction and critical information sharing between upland and lowland LGUs and communities during storm events. This EWS could be low-cost and easily maintained, perhaps based on mobile phone technology or hand-held radios. Start building understanding and awareness of at-risk communities, which is key to promoting a culture of resilience and empowerment in the region. Start by providing information on disaster risks to businesses, communities and households in high-risk areas. Formulate LGU climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction / response action plans in a participatory manner with local communities. Provide training to barangay officials on community-based micro-watershed management – using the manual developed by Jessica Salas during this initiative – as a method for mobilizing community action on the LGUs CCA/DRRM plans. Undertake longer-term planning and analysis focused on practical steps that can be taken to reduce disaster risk factors and adapt to climate change. Emphasis could be on improving the maintenance of wetlands, accelerating upland reforestation efforts, and adopting new standards for infrastructure that adapt to changing climatic conditions and are earthquake resistant. Update vulnerability and risk assessments, in conjunction with national partners. !

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8.

INSTITUTIONAL AND GOVERNANCE ARRANGEMENTS

Environmental governance is important to ensuring that natural resources are properly managed within a framework of sustainable development. Increasingly, these environmental governance arrangements are concerned with planning for climate change, adopting measures for the adaptation and mitigation of climate change impacts, and for taking steps to mitigate disaster risks to the greatest degree possible. For this to occur, certain local governance arrangements geared to planning and programming on a watershed basis needs to be in place. With a mandate to align efforts across local government units and between different levels of government, successful international experience shows that these watershed governance arrangements tend to be effective only when certain conditions are in place. They need to have the necessary fiscal resources to monitor the state of watershed conditions, the regulatory powers essential to ensuring coherence of planning across jurisdictions, and the enforcement teeth required to ensure compliance. Engagement of schools, communities and private sector actors in watershed stewardship initiatives has shown to be highly effective in implementing what are normally ambitious plan for watershed revitalization. TAW has several governance arrangements, or boards, for the watershed. These function mainly as recommendatory bodies for policy-making and planning. These Boards play a significant role in ensuring the implementation of the watershed management initiatives. However, by comparison to effective watershed management bodies in other countries, these lack the legal mandate to enforce rules as provided in the existing environmental laws. There are at least three major institutional and governance structures operating directly in the Tigum-Aganan Watershed area. These bodies administer either the entire TAW or parts of it only, based on each organizationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s respective mandate, i.e., local and/or national. These are the TigumAganan Watershed Management Board (TAWMB), Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve Protected Area Management Board (MWFR-PAMB), and Tigum-Aganan Water Quality Management Area (TAW-WQMA).

8.1 Tigum-Aganan Watershed Management Board (TAWMB) The TAWMB was established in 2001 by memorandum of agreement signed between the nine local government units of the Tigum-Aganan Watershed area, the local water utility, key national governmental agencies (NGAs), and local non-governmental organizations (NGOs) with a mandate for watershed management. The nine LGU members are the municipalities of Maasin, Alimodian, Cabatuan, Leon, Santa Barbara, San Miguel, Oton, Pavia and the City of Iloilo. National governmental agencies which are members of the Board are the National Irrigation Administration (NIA), Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH), Philippine Information Agency (PIA) and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources-City Environment and Natural Resources Office (DENR-CENRO). The Metro Iloilo Water District (MIWD) is a member, as is the Province of Iloilo. NGO members are the Aganan Federation of Irrigators Association Inc., Kahublagan Sang Panimalay Foundation Inc. (KSPFI), and Katilingban sang mga Pumuluyo nga Nagaatipan sang Watershed (KAPAWA-Maasin). Together, these stakeholders of watershed management in the Tigum-Aganan river basin signed the memorandum of agreement through which they formalized their work association under the auspices of the provincial Iloilo Watershed Management Council (IWMC). By the same token, it 93


received the mandate to protect and rehabilitate the Tigum-Aganan Watershed (i.e., under the Tigum-Aganan Watershed Management Plan, 2008). While the TAWMB was institutionalized as one of the watershed management boards spearheaded by the IWMC, it has no legal authority over watershed management initiatives in the Tigum-Aganan area in and by itself. In other words, the TAWMB’s mandate for the protection and rehabilitation of the Tigum-Aganan Watershed falls under the IWMC, as the overseeing body over all watershed management boards established throughout the province.117 Moving forward, it is the goal of the TAWMB for all of its LGU members to form a co-management agreement with the DENR. Such an instrument could provide a legal basis for the transfer of direct resource management responsibilities and powers between the DENR and the LGUs. Furthermore, it has the potential to help foster socio-economic development within communities, and increase the effective management of the watershed area.118 The TAWMB has begun to prioritize its role as an alliance to facilitate the transfer of DENR functions to the LGUs within the TAW, an initiative that will ultimately devolve administrative functions for managing the environment to the local level. Figure 8 shows the organizational structure of the TAWMB. A Board serves as the highest policy and coordinating body for the whole area and is normally chaired by an LGU chief executive, or mayor, from among the LGU-members of the TAWMB. Other members of the TAWMB may come from various NGAs, NGOs, irrigators’ associations, people’s organizations, and civic, academic, business and private sectors groups in the area. The TAWMB has a technical working group (TWG), which is composed of appointed watershed point persons (WPP) from each LGU, as well as representatives from other non-LGU member groups that provide technical, monitoring and coordination support to the TAWMB. Four sectoral sub-committees are also organized for forestry, water quality, solid waste management, and information, education and communications (IEC).119 Despite questions on the legitimacy of its mandate, the TAWMB is active in conducting watershed planning, rehabilitation, advocacy and on-site management activities in the area. Among its accomplishments is the formulation of a watershed management plan covering the period 2008 to 2010. At the time of the drafting of the report, the TAWMB serves as an “interim” structure for the TAW-WQMA pending its formal establishment by the DENR. It also maintains its representation at the IWMC, as well as with the MWFR-PAMB. Currently, the TAWMB member LGU of Leon is in the process of finalizing its Forest Land Use Plan (FLUP) of an 83-hectare section of pine forest intended for ecotourism development. Upon approval by the DENR, this will result in a co-management agreement between the two institutions, paving the way for the increased co-management of land area between local and national levels.

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Regional Director or designated representatives of the Department of Health (DOH), Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH), Department of Agriculture (DA) and the Philippine National Police (PNP); Mayors of all nine LGUs within the TAW, including Iloilo City; Iloilo Provincial Governor; Maasin Protected Area Management Board (PAMB); Representatives from NGOs (i.e., those with an environment and natural resources mandate) and the Academe; Representative from the Iloilo Business Council; Metro Iloilo Water District (MIWD).

The DENR-RED/ Chairperson is directly accountable for the efficient operations of the TAWWQMA. Its primary mandate as provided under DAO 2006-18 is to ensure, preserve and improve the water quality of the watershedsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; water resources, which include the following responsibilities: ! ! !

Streamlining processes and procedures in the prevention, control and abatement of water pollution in the watershed area; Promoting environmental strategies, use of appropriate economic instruments and control mechanisms to protect its water resources; and, Promoting and formulating a water quality management and water pollution prevention program, among others.

Aside from these basic functions, the TAW-WQMA is responsible for monitoring and facilitating compliance and cooperation among LGUs, and ensuring the coordination and consistency of local legislation related to water quality and pollution abatement. It shall also undertake the preparation and implementation of the TAW-WQMA Action Plan, the establishment and update of baseline water quality information and databases within the watershed, and the management and use of the Water Quality Management Fund. While the TAW-WQMA has been designated as early as 2006, the DENR activated it only recently. 120 The Iloilo-Batiano River Systems, on the other hand, was activated and officially designated as the WQMA for the Iloilo and Batiano rivers and its tributaries through Administrative Order No 2009-11 (6 November 2009). The watershed coverage for the Iloilo-Batiano River System WQMA comprises barangays in the City of Iloilo as well as in the municipalities of Oton, Pavia, San Miguel and Santa Barbara.121 Meanwhile, the TAWMB has served as the interim TAWWQMA body prior to the formal establishment of the TAW-WQMA Board under the leadership of the DENR-RED.

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8.3 Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve Protected Area Management Board The Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve (MWFR) was declared as a watershed reservation by Governor General Leonard Wood through Proclamation No 16 on 12 February 1923. It was the first among the nine proclaimed watershed forest reserves in the region122 and is part of the 19 declared protected areas or biodiversity sites in the Western Visayas. Its total area is 6,738 hectares, located within the municipality of Maasin. The MWFR covers three municipalities and 16 barangays. Prior to its proclamation, the lower portion of the watershed was inhabited by farmersettlers, while the upland area was the settlement site of the descendants of a minority tribe from the Bukidnon-Sulodnon lineage. Most of the occupied land inside the Maasin Reserve was bought by the central government from the landowning settler-farmers and minority tribe members.123 The management of the MWFR came under the administrative jurisdiction of the former Bureau of Forestry of the Ministry of Natural Resources, which then had the responsibility of ensuring the sustainability of water supply both for domestic and irrigation purposes, under the operation and management of the former National Water and Sewerage Agency (NAWASA) and NIA.124 During the period from 1997 to 2003, this area of Maasin had been managed and administered by the Forest Management Sector (FMS). It proposed the watershedâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rehabilitation under the Forestry Sector Project (FSP) Loan I, which covers the Community Organizing (CO) component contracted by the Kahublagan sa Panimalay Foundation Inc. (KSPFI), in its capacity to assist NGOs. The KSPFI successfully organized and formed the federation of peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s organizations (POs) known as the Katilingban sang mga Pumuluyo nga Nagaatipan sa Watershed sang Maasin (KAPAWA-Maasin). It is composed of 16 POs represented by a federation president who sits in the Board of Directors. The POs federation became a contractor and was responsible for the FSP implementation under the Comprehensive Site Development (CSD) contract/ agreement covering an area of 1,070 hectares under the people-oriented project.125 In 1992, by virtue of the Republic Act 7586, more popularly known as the National Integrated Protected Area System (NIPAS) Act of 1992, the MWFR became an initial component of the NIPAS areas of the country. Control and administration of the area was placed under the DENR, through the Protected Area and Wildlife Bureau. By 1998, an interim PAMB had been organized in the area, chaired by the DENR-RED for Region VI. Its daily operations were being handled by a Protected Area Systems Unit (PASU). An interim protected area management plan (IPAP) was formulated in the area that delineated the management zones for the area. On 17 December 2002, a community-based forest management agreement (CBFMA) was issued by the DENR to KAPAWA-Maasin, spanning 3,415.92 hectares of forestland located in 16 barangays covering the towns of Maasin, Alimodian and Janiuay.126 Subsequently, in 2005, the

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PAMB passed its Resolution No 2005-03 adopting the Community Resource Management Framework (CRMF) in the zonification of the Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve (MWFR). The CBFMA is a tenurial agreement that grants the KAPAWA-Maasin with 25 years of stewardship of the forestlands in the MWFR. It includes responsibilities for the protection, preservation and rehabilitation of forested areas, enforcement of forestry laws and illegal cutting, and the conduct of livelihood activities – including the utilization of minor forest products to support the livelihood and forest management activities of the local communities in the MWFR. From 1995 to 2004, the MWFR had been a beneficiary of several major donor-assisted projects, such as the Forestry Sector Project and DENR-JBIC Plantation Programme. It introduced social forestry and alternative livelihood activities for the forest occupants of the MWFR. These projects also instituted the rehabilitation, protection and regeneration of forestlands and the establishment of tree plantations in the area. It mobilized local communities and LGUs in the formation of local people’s organizations among the local farmers, settlers and forest occupants. In hindsight, these community organizing efforts brought about the establishment of the KAPAWA-Maasin PO. Today, the MWFR is managed through the Protected Area Management Board (PAMB), and chaired by the DENR through a Protected Area Supervisor (PASu) under the jurisdiction of the DENR-CENRO of Iloilo City.

8.4 Local Watershed Management Bodies Aside from the TAWMB, TAW-WQMA and the MWFR board, the LGUs themselves have specific mandates to manage, enforce and protect communal forests and watersheds as provided under the Local Government Code (Republic Act 7160). This being so, each of the nine LGUs may establish local watershed management bodies or units – either watershed management councils (WMCs), or watershed management core groups (WMCGs) – within their respective jurisdictions. A total of five WMCs have been established inside the TAW. Three of these were created by the municipalities of Alimodian, Pavia, and San Miguel in the Aganan sub-watershed area, while another two were established by Cabatuan and Maasin in the Tigum sub-watershed area. Three WMCGs were organized in Oton, Leon and Santa Barbara respectively. The WMCs/ WMCGs have been led either by the mayor or the designated watershed point person (WPP). In Iloilo City, the City Environment and Natural Resources Office (C-ENRO) has the responsibility for watershed management activities.127 Most of the watershed management structures at the local level were established as part of the implementing structures of the TAWMB. These WMCs and WMCGs were tasked to enforce local ordinances pertaining to controls over illegal cutting and water pollution, as well as sand and gravel extraction. They ensure the collection of environmental fees and charges, the imposition of penalties. They undertake solid waste management activities, IEC and community briefings, along with the patrolling of local forest and river areas. The WMCs and WMCGs also ensure the coordination and monitoring of activities with other LGUs. Local barangay information centers (BICs) were also formed under the WMCs and WMCGs.

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8.5 Other Major Administrative Bodies Aside from the locally-initiated and nationally-mandated institutional and governance structures, other relevant sub-regional structures bear effect and contribute to the management of the TAW.

Iloilo Province Integrated Watershed Management Council (IWMC) The Iloilo Watershed Management Council was born from the passage of Provincial Ordinance 2000-041 that called for the creation and establishment of local watershed management councils in the 13 identified watershed planning units of the province. It took over the work of the Task Force for the Rehabilitation of the Maasin Watershed.128 The IWMC was the Province’s response to the massive information and communication campaign on the watershed and domestic water problems confronting Iloilo. Its creation came out of Iloilo’s over 13 years of experience in multi-sectoral and multi-tiered efforts among different stakeholders within the Maasin watershed.129 Figure 9 shows the organisational structure of the IWMC. The Provincial Governor sits as chair, and the DENR-RED as vice-chair. There are 16 members of the board, including NGAs (i.e., DPWH, NIA, PNP, DAR, DepEd, NEDA, and MIWD), representatives of the League of Municipalities, the provincial council, Iloilo City, NGOs, sectoral and people’s organisations, and business groups. Through Executive Order No 260, s2001, the IWMC was tasked with the “conservation, development, utilisation, and protection of the watershed resources” of the province. It aims to provide legislative support for policy setting, direction of service delivery, monitoring, and resource generation of these areas. The IWMC was mandated to create instruments and mechanisms to resolve conflicting interests among LGUs, balance the demands for water and its carrying capacity, promote awareness, and seek resources to enhance its institutional capabilities to manage present and future threats on the watershed’s soil and water conditions.130 Under this provincial council are the watershed/river board councils, which now include the TAWMB, Magapa-Suage Watershed Management Council, and the Sibalom River Management Board. Other watershed/ river board councils in the ten other areas identified shall form part of the organisation as they get established. The IWMC oversees and encourages the creation of other watershed or river-basin board councils in the province.131

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Figure 9. IWMC Organizational Structure ! ! ILOILO WATERSHED MANAGEMENT COUNCIL

! ! ! ! !

RIVER BOARDS/COUNCILS

Magapa-Suage Watershed Management Council

! ! ! ! !

Tigum-Aganan Watershed Management Board

Jalaur, Norhtern Iloilo Jaraw Tanjan Management Board

Sibalom Baguingin Watershed Council

Barangay Information Centers (BIC)

People’s Initiatives

Source: Salas, Jessica C (2004), p. 97.

Metro Iloilo-Guimaras Economic Development Council (MIGEDC) The Metro Iloilo-Guimaras Economic Development Council, or MIGEDC, was formally established through Executive Order No 559, signed on 28 August 2006. It was designed to help address the region’s spatial development challenges brought about by rapid urbanization, to advance the region’s economic competitiveness agenda and to improve cooperation among local governments and with the private sector. Its membership includes Iloilo City, Cabatuan, Leganes, Oton, Pavia, Santa Barbara, Cabatuan, and the island Province of Guimaras. MIGEDC is co-chaired by the mayor of Iloilo City and the Governor of Guimaras. The MIGEDC evolved from two earlier inter-local government unit alliances, the Metro Iloilo Development Council (MIDC) and from the Guimaras-Iloilo City Alliance (GICA). MIDC was established on 9 February 2001 by the City of Iloilo and its four neighboring municipalities as a metropolitan governance arrangement to address issues of planning, service delivery and local economic development that spanned the whole region. The Guimaras-Iloilo City Alliance, which was established on 22 May 2005, was an effort to improve collaboration on infrastructure projects especially improvements to commuter ports. The MIGEDC formulates, implements and monitors programs, projects and activities that support the implementation of the Philippine Development Plan and other sectoral action plans of the national government, especially those requiring strong inter-local governmental cooperation. To date MIGEDC has produced the MIG Spatial Development Framework, MIG Solid Waste Management Plan, the MIG Water Resources Profile and a MIG Bioregion DRRM Framework. MIGEDC has worked hand-in-hand with TAWMB and the CUI on the Metro Iloilo-Guimaras Bioregion Initiative, including in the preparation of this state of watershed report.

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Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) The DENR is vested with the mandate to directly supervise and manage all forestlands and public lands within the TAW area, as stipulated under the Public Land Act (CA141) and the Revised Forestry Code of the Philippines (PD705). As such, it has the primary responsibility to oversee the protection, preservation, management, conservation, utilization, and development of forestlands, and the disposition and titling of public lands. In the case of the TAW area, the DENR’s mandate covers all forestlands and public lands in the Aganan sub-watershed located in Alimodian and in the areas not covered by the MWFR in the Tigum sub-watershed area. The direct management of these areas is vested in the local and field offices of the DENR, which include the CENRO and Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office (PENRO).132

National Water Resources Board The National Water Resources Board (NWRB) is the primary agency mandated by law under the Water Code of the Philippines (PD 1067) to undertake the management, protection, preservation, utilization, and development of all the country’s waters, both surface and ground, located within public or private lands. Its powers include defining the extent and limits of the rights and obligations of water users and owners, including the protection and regulation of such rights; as well as rules relating to the ownership, appropriation, utilization, exploitation, development, conservation, and protection of water resources and rights to land near water bodies. Under this law, the state claims ownership of all bodies of water in the Philippines, including those that can be found within private lands or titled properties. Its responsibility is to ensure the use of water based on the following hierarchy of priorities: 1) domestic, 2) municipal, 3) irrigation, 4) power generation, 5) fisheries, 6) livestock raising, 7) industrial, 8) recreational, and 9) other purposes.

Metro Iloilo Water District and National Irrigation Administration The Metro Iloilo Water District (MIWD) has rights and responsibilities under its mandate to preserve, conserve, and manage water resources for the agency’s water system. It is mandated to provide funds and resources to sustain and manage the watershed in order to ensure the steady and consistent supply of water to its coverage and concession area. It is a government-owned corporation. It maintains the Maasin Dam in the MWFR as a water reservoir to supply around 25% of the potable water needs of Iloilo City and five other TAW municipalities. The National Irrigation Administration (NIA) is also mandated to ensure water sources for the irrigation facilities under its responsibility. Similar to the MIWD, the NIA is obliged to undertake watershed and water source rehabilitation measures to protect and preserve its facilities and

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ensure the steady and consistent supply of water to irrigated farms covered by the NIA irrigation facilities. The NIA is under the jurisdiction of the Department of Agriculture (DA). Currently, the NIA maintains the Aganan River Irrigation System (RIS) located at Barangay Igtambo in San Miguel. It has a total service area of 4,467 hectares benefitting a total of some 3,000 farmer beneficiaries. To date, the Aganan RIS serves around 4,000 hectares of rice farms during the first cropping periods, and around 2,000 hectares for the second cropping periods. This difference has been due to unstable water yields.133 The NIA also maintains the Sta. Barbara Irrigation System (RIS), which serves a total service area of 3,399 hectares during the first cropping period and about 2,045 hectares during the second cropping period. A total of 1,843 farmers are beneficiaries of the irrigation provided through the system.

Barangay and Community Engagement in the TAW As the level of government closest to the people, barangays play an important role in stewardship of the watershed. Barangay Development Plans (BDPs) and Barangay General Assemblies are supervised and overseen by the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG), which provides training to barangay officials in producing their BDPs. BDPs must have coherence with municipal plans and budgets, and are an important vehicle for implementing community-level activities for watershed protection and rehabilitation. Public forums for barangay projects and communication between the barangay officials and their constituents happen at least twice a year, during barangay assemblies that are officially scheduled in March and October of the year. Barangays work closely with community-based organization (CBOs) and peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s organizations (POs) in the implementation of community projects, including those related to the watershed.

8.6 Other TAW Stakeholders A 2010 Stakeholders Mapping and Analysis study conducted by Joelle Rondeau, for TAWMB, MIGEDC and CUI under the Metro Iloilo-Guimaras Bioregion Initiative, showed that there are several major interest groups with various issues intertwined with the different institutional and governance arrangements currently operating within the TAW. Rondeauâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s study provides a detailed list of the institutional roles, interests and concerns of the various stakeholders actively present and participating in the numerous organizations and structures in the TAW (Table 48).

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Table 48. TAW Stakeholder Profiles, Mandates and Interests in Watershed Management Stakeholder Name

Institutional Roles and Vulnerabilities in the face of Climate Change GOVERNMENT AGENCIES

DENRCENRO

PENRO – Province of Iloilo

MIWD

Institutional Roles: • National agency supervising the management of the Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve • Prohibits any form of farming activity in the Forest Reserve to protect the forest cover • Tenure arrangement with KAPAWA for CBFM Area • Reviews and enforces water quality guidelines along IWRM Framework and assists WQMAs in preparing their action plans • Supervises and guides the PAMB

Interested in the Watershed

Issues and Concerns

• Cultivation under • Many responsibilities and canopy, multilayered only few resources at agroforestry schemes hand (human and and fruit tree financial) for LGUs and plantations PAMB • Protection of the old • No single, streamlined growth forest policy pertaining to forest management • Promotion of Integrated Water Resource Management Framework • Strict no farming/no stray animal guidelines with regards to Forest Reserve • Promotion of native tree species and biodiversity • Coordination with KAPAWA for CSD • Greater harmonization • Support for watershed management activities of Development Plans and for the IWMC may • Information-sharing vary depending on with other watershed political will management boards through the IWMC

Institutional Roles: • Secretary of the IWMC • Manages a total of 145 ISF sites covered within 22 municipalities under the Integrated Social Forestry Program • Identifies development goals and strategies for the Province • May undertake joint programs with municipalities and cities if they benefit the Province as a whole • Provides technical support to watershed management boards and councils Institutional Role: • Strengthening Water utility serving Iloilo City, watershed protection Oton, San Miguel, Pavia, Sta. projects and programs Barbara, Cabatuan, Maasin; with the PAMB and responsibility to protect Maasin Maasin watershed as part of its water • Pooling resources for franchise to the area; currently optimizing water exploring potential alternative availability water sources (Jalaur, bulk water • Exploring PES suppliers, floodwaters);

• Will not pay Maasin for environmental services until the municipality liquidates funds previously transferred • Groundwater extraction in Oton and San Miguel creating conflict with the LGUs

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mandated to construct sewage/sewerage line in coordination with DPWH.

PIA

DPWH

NIA

Vulnerabilities: Siltation and sedimentation in basins after typhoons; salt water intrusion in deep wells in Oton, Leganes. Institutional Roles and Sphere of Responsibility: • Education, information and communication campaigns on water • Protection, disaster risk reduction and management, climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies and projects • Information officer of the TAWMB • Member Agency of the IWMC Institutional Roles and Spheres of Responsibility: • Under the Clean Water Act of 2004, in charge of National Sewerage and Septage Management Program • Flood mitigation through the Flood Control Project Sewage Treatment Master Plan project – target year 2015 (Jaro, Iloilo Rivers and their tributaries as the project area) • Vulnerabilities: floods; absence of climate-resilient infrastructure Institutional Roles and Spheres of Responsibility: • Must gradually turn over maintenance of National Irrigation Systems' secondary canals and on-farm facilities to Irrigators’ Associations (under Clean Water Act) • Technical Support to LGUs

scheme; • Longtime partner of IWMC and TAWMB

• Inadequate water supply • Illegal connections to pipelines reducing pressure and revenues for the MIWD • Internal organizational disputes over the future of the institutional structure of the MIWD

• Venue for information dissemination and sharing • Long-time partner of IWMC and TAWMB

• Better integration of flood control projects in the TAW area • Venue for information and communication campaigns

• Attention focused on lowland municipalities for flood control infrastructures

• Venue for providing technical support to cultivators • Capacity- building on efficient irrigation practices

CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS

KSPFI

Roles in Watershed Management: Education, capacity-building projects (RWH for Climate Change notably); technical Support to TAWMB, IWMC and

• Venue for information • Very busy with the sharing on outcomes activities of the Philippine of RWH projects and Watershed Management watershed Coalition management practices

104


KAPAWA

AGANAN-STA. BARBARA’S IRRIGATOR’S ASSOCIA-TION

active member; development of international partnerships and connections; upscaling the TAWMB, IWMC and Maasin experiences to international and national levels. Roles in Watershed Management: Tenure arrangement with the DENR for CBFM (agro-forestry program), protection of the vegetative cover (groundwater recharge) and prevention of soil erosion; agro-forestry is the source of livelihood for the 16 POs represented by KAPAWA, active participation in OTOP Program (bamboo harvesting). Vulnerabilities: Landslides, soil erosion and degradation, reduced stream flow.

• Broad experience in watershed management • Longtime partner of IWMC and stakeholders • Stewards of the Forest Reserve CBFM • Information sharing and capacity-building activities on agroforestry techniques • Exploration/support for alternative livelihood opportunities (ecotourism, notably) • Venue for upscaling environmental products, develop supportive markets

Roles in Watershed Management: Irrigation for the irrigated farms of Santa Barbara.

• Abundance of water • Reduced stream flow for irrigation purposes • Rainwater harvesting techniques

• Difficult to attend TAWMB meetings and participate in TAWMB activities • Livelihood diversification • Concerns over the possibility for agroforestry schemes to provide sufficient means of living • Lots of members, difficult to run meetings and address all of the stakeholders’ concerns • Endemic vs. foreign tree species influencing water availability, conflict over bamboo plantations as a source of soil degradation and cause of reduced stream flow

Vulnerabilities: Droughts, siltation and sedimentation

ILOILO BUSINESS CLUB

Roles in Watershed • Clean and abundant Management: water for commerce Fostering sustainable economic and economic growth growth; Iloilo River Development • Enhancing Master Plan and Urban Design sustainability in Project, and its improvements to economic public realm along the riverfront development through sound water resource Vulnerabilities: management Floods and droughts affecting • Resources for sustainable economic support for projects in development eco-tourism • Pooling of resources for reduction of pollution • Facilitate development of supportive markets and business climate

• Have not been attending TAWMB meetings regularly • Conflicting water uses • Lack of information on integrated water resource approach • Water pollution • Obsolete water supply infrastructure • Need for climate-resilient infrastructure

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Institutional Roles: Management Board with the authority to supervise and manage the Maasin Watershed Protected Area.

PAMB

Spheres of Responsibility: Under DAO 2008-26, approves policies, guidelines, plans and programs, proposals and agreements for the management of the protected area; prepares the Protected Area Management Plan; resolves conflicts or disputes among tenured migrant communities; manages the Integrated Protect Area Fund and submits regularly reports to the DENR. Vulnerabilities: Typhoons bringing down trees, increasing siltation and sedimentation, rainfall pattern in dry and rainy season bring a lot of rain on a severely eroded soil.

in Iloilo • Protection of the forest cover • Enhancing biodiversity • Encouraging multilayered agroforestry, tree plantation, bamboo harvesting and native tree species in plantations • Trainings on agroforestry for barangays • Coordination with KAPAWA • Developing trekking activities in the Forest Reserve • Developing the Protected Area Management Plan

• Many responsibilities with few resources (human and financial) • The DENR RED (chairperson) not always available to lead meetings of the Board • The land area for the PAMB to supervise is vast and hard to access in some parts • Difficult position as intermediary between exigencies of the DENR foresters and officials, and civil society (conflict over appropriate agroforestry scheme, livelihood concerns and tree species the most suited for the ecosystem) • Soil degradation • Siltation and sedimentation – effects of Frank are still an issue • Reduced stream flow • Use of fertilizers and pesticides

ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS

Universities and colleges

• Bioregional Roles: research, assistance and technical support; education and sensitization campaigns; monitoring.

No data

No data

Source: Adapted from Rondeau, Joelle (2010)

According to Rondeau, the different TAW stakeholders and partners may be clustered into three vested interest groups on the basis of their participation, which therefore exert, if not exercise, certain influences in the management of the urban region’s major watershed. They are: a) environmental or ecological interests, concerned with agro-forestry, agriculture, conservation, and water supply and protection; b) economic interests, concerned with economic diversification, small and medium enterprises, micro enterprises, livelihood development and associated poverty reduction (e.g., in areas such as eco-tourism, herbal medicine and crafts development in bamboo and rattan); and c) advocacy interests, concerned with efforts on information, education and communication across political boundaries (Figure 10). Among those observed to have important roles and interests in the effective management of the TAW are the following: 106


! ! ! ! !

LGUs comprising the TAW, being the “main implementing actors” of watershed management in the area; The IWMC, as represented by the PENRO-LGU and Provincial Governor, because of its oversight and supervisory functions over the TAWMB, which was created under this body; The DENR-CENRO, because of its ‘influential power’ as the national government agency responsible for watershed management; The KSFPI, because of its expertise and knowledge in watershed management, being the primary NGO engaged in on-site management within the TAW; and The Iloilo Business Club and the MIGEDC, as crucial links in facilitating the mobilization of resources and technical expertise to on-site stakeholders, and in ‘marketing investment packages’ for watershed development in the TAW.134

Figure 10. Organizational Spheres of Influence within the TAW

Source: Rondeau, Joelle (2010), p. 61.

8.7 Towards Watershed Reporting During the course of the Metro Iloilo-Guimaras Bioregion Initiative, the Technical Working Group of the TAWMB, with support from the project’s national and international experts, prepared a set of indicators to monitor the health of the watershed. These indicators will form the basis for preparing a Watershed Report Card, which would enable TAWMB to report to policy makers and the public

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on changes in the state of the watershed over time and allow for improved evidence-based decision-making for investments in watershed rehabilitation. The TAW indicators are contained below in Annex G. !

108


Key Findings !

Environmental governance arrangements are increasingly concerned with taking steps to reduce vulnerability to the impacts of climate change and disaster events. For this to occur, certain local governance arrangements geared to protecting watersheds and planning and programming on an ecosystem basis need to be in place. The TigumAganan Watershed has several governance arrangements responsible for the watershed, some with overlapping responsibilities. ! The Tigum-Aganan Watershed Management Board (TAWMB) is an alliance between LGUs, NGAs, the local water utility, the irrigators association, universities and colleges, as well as local environmental NGOs. It has a mandate to undertake the planning and implementation activities necessary to protect, advocate for and rehabilitate the watershed. It was formed in 2001 by provincial ordinance and through a memorandum of agreement between its members.! The TAWMB has begun to prioritize its role as an alliance to facilitate the transfer of DENR functions to the LGUs within the TAW, an initiative that will ultimately devolve administrative functions for managing the environment to the local level. The Tigum-Aganan Watershed Water Quality Management Area (TAW-WQMA) is a body mandated under the Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004, with a primary focus on water quality. With a membership similar to TAWMB, it has a responsibility for monitoring, facilitating compliance with national legislation and coordinating actions on water quality and pollution abatement.! The Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve, established in 1923, is one of 19 declared protected areas or biodiversity sites in the Western Visayas. It is governed through a Protected Area Management Board (PAMB), chaired by Regional Executive Director of DENR. The PAMB is a policy making body in relation to management of the upland forest reserve and protecting the sustainability of the water supply. ! The Iloilo Watershed Management Council (IWMC), with the Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office as its secretariat, was established in 2000 to facilitate the convening of local watershed management councils or boards in the 13 identified watershed planning units across the province. It is responsible for providing policymaking, legislative support, coordination of service delivery, monitoring and resource generation towards watershed management matters, and resolving conflicts that may arise. Other local agencies involved in aspects of watershed management include the Metro Iloilo Water District (potable water) and the Metro-Iloilo Guimaras Economic Development Council (metropolitan planning, service delivery and economic development). Each LGU in the region also has the powers to establish local watershed management councils or core groups to support watershed management efforts.! National agencies involved in watershed management include the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (forestlands and public lands), the National Water Resources Board (water resources, both surface and ground), the National Irrigation Administration (irrigation systems), and the Department of Public Works and Highways (sewerage and septic systems).! Community or private sector organizations engaged in watershed issues and stewardship include the KSPFI, KAPAWA-Maasin, Aganan-Sta. Barbara Irrigators’ Association, the Iloilo Business Club, and local universities and colleges through the Watershed Academic Consortium.

109


Strategic Directions •

Establish a Watershed Monitoring Program for the Tigum-Aganan Watershed by adopting the indicators for watershed reporting, contained in the annexes to this report, which will allow TAWMB and its partners to track the health of the ecosystem. Design and launch a simple ‘Watershed Report Card’, which would enable TAWMB to report to policy makers and the public on changes in the state of the watershed over time and allow for improved evidence-based decision-making for investments in watershed rehabilitation. Improve the use of geographic information systems (GIS) technologies in watershed characterization, to allow for the visualization of data to be collected through the Watershed Monitoring Program. Launch a process to update the TAW management plan, based on evidence collated in this report and through additional data collected over time through the Watershed Monitoring Program. Strengthen TAWMB’s collaboration with academic institutions in the city region through the Watershed Academic Consortium, which can be tapped for expertise and the energy of students for data collection and tracking, the conduct of key studies, risk assessments, the modelling of scenarios related to climate change and disaster risks, and inventories of biodiversity, among others. Institutionalize the TAWMB (as well as other watershed boards in the Province) as the entity with legal authority over planning, implementation, enforcement of environmental laws and public education within the watershed, under the leadership of the IWMC. This institutionalization ought to include differentiating the roles and responsibilities of the governing board or management board from the technical working groups, adopting a manual of operations, securing predictable funding sources, setting up a physical office, compelling the attendance of all TAWMB members for meetings, and providing authority to the TWG Chair to represent the TWG membership before the Board. Form co-management agreements between TAWMB LGUs and DENR to provide a legal basis for the transfer of direct resource management responsibilities and powers, thereby helping to foster socio-economic development within communities and increase the effective management of the watershed area.

110


NEXT STEPS This State of the Watershed Report (SOWR) for the Tigum-Aganan Watershed has been prepared to provide a snap-shot of the current environmental and socio-economic conditions within the Iloilo urban region’s largest river basin. It provides the basis for developing an effective watershed management plan and related strategies, aligning the efforts of the various watershed stakeholder groups, and sparking communities to be the front-line stewards of watershed health. The information and conclusions in this report are the starting point for the measurement and reporting of watershed conditions, through the measurement of the watershed indicators and the eventual publication of a watershed report card. This SOWR also serves as a starting point for new public information and education campaigns, and can be used to help inform the launch of concrete watershed restoration projects in communities across the region. The Tigum-Aganan SOWR should be seen as a living document, to be updated and revised as new information is gained and conditions change. Future reports will be regarded as “report cards” to measuring progress and the performance of stewardship activities, and these will serve as a powerful tool for raising public awareness and building the support of communities to join handles in taking action. Given the rapid changes in climatic conditions being experienced today, the regular monitoring of watershed indicators and the fine-tuning of watershed management strategies can make our efforts more adaptive. Most importantly, the process of preparing this SOWR brought together a great number of people that have the energy, passion and expertise to make a difference for the Tigum-Aganan Watershed. Continuing to expand this network of watershed stewards will be at the core of our future efforts to improve the resilience of one of the Philippines’ fastest growing urban regions.

!! !!

111


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Jessica C Salas

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Hough, Michael

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Socio-Economic Study of the Tigum-Aganan Watershed: Finding a Human Face in the Watershed (Iloilo Flood Control Project Report). Kahublagan Sang Panimalay Foundation, Inc., Iloilo City, August 31, 2004, 122pp. Case Study of the Maasin Watershed: Analyzing the Role of Institutions in a Watershed-Use Conflict, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Southeast Asia Regional Office, Bogor, Indonesia, December 2004. Rainwater Harvesting in IWRM for Climate Change Adaptation Project – A Report to the Sanggunian Panlalawigan of Iloilo (PowerPoint presentation), UNEP-IWMCTAWMB, 2008. Water Quality Monitoring Area: Tigum-Aganan www.philwatershed.net, October 2009.

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“WV’s coastal areas prone to liquefaction” (news article), http://www.thedailyguardian.net/index.php/local-news/513-wvs-coastal-areas-proneto-liquefaction, Accessed 17 February 2012. “El Nino damages reaches P761.2 million in Western Visayas”, http://balita.ph/2010/03/01/el-nino-damage-reaches-p761-2-million-in-westernvisayas/, Accessed 17 February 2012. “Phivolcs: Negros quake caused by ‘blind fault’”, http://www.abscbnnews.com/video/-depth/02/06/12/phivolcs-negros-quake-caused-blind-fault, Accessed 17 February 2012.

114


ANNEX A: GEOLOGICAL MAP OF ILOILO PROVINCE (MINES AND GEOSCIENCES BUREAU, 2010)

Source: MIGEDC, Metro Iloilo-Guimaras Bioregion Disaster Management Profile, p. 93.


ANNEX B: NIA MONITORING REPORTS ON WATER DISCHARGE RATES OF THE TIGUM-AGANAN RIVERS (1951-2009)239 Estimated Design Discharge along the Tigum River Location: Aganan River, San Miguel (TG2) Adjustment Factor (c1): 1.12 : Existing Diversion Weir for Aganan Return Flow(r): 0.25 Drainage Area: 104.0 sq. km. Upstream Irrigation Area (has.): 108.5 3 CA2/CA3: 0.837 Unit: M /sec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

239

./0"%!"#$%&'(#)$#'*+',-./&'%0)'1.%0%0'2-3$#4%12345623789%265:589;9738<=%.;9738;>%/667?;9738%0@A787:96;9738%1./0<=%#-%B5C6D;6E%'!#!"


Estimated Design Discharge along the Tigum River Location: Aganan River, San Miguel (TG3) Adjustment Factor (c1): 1.12 : Existing Diversion Weir for Tigum Return Flow(r): 0.25 Drainage Area: 193.0sq. km. Upstream Irrigation Area (has.): 178.9 3 CA2/CA3: 0.663 Unit: M /sec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ource: NIA (2010)

!


ANNEX C: TEN-YEAR ANNUAL RECORD OF DISCHARGE (Lps) AT THE MAIN CANAL/TIGUM RIVER (SANTA BARBARA RIS), 2000-2009

!"#$% 5667% 566=% 566;% 566?% 566<% 566:% 566>% 5665% 5668% 5666% #@@ABC%*"#'%D% 89?;% =6E%+FGH9%D%89<6% #@@ABC%*I@%D69=6% #@@ABC%*BJ%D%595<%

&#'% 89:;%% 89?5%% 896:%% 896;%% 898=%% 896=%% 697<%% 69=<%% 89>7%% 69?7%%

(")% 697:%% 8958%% 69=?%% 69;=%% 695>%% 69=7%% 695;%% 69<6%% 69;:%% 69?6%%

*#$% 895<%% 695:%% %% %% %% %% %% %% %% %%

#+$% 69=8%% 69=?%% %% %% %% %% %% %% %% %%

*#!% 596<%% 896>%% 895;%% 89;:%% 8987%% 8988%% 69<?%% 69>6%% 8987%% 89?:%%

&,'% 596>%% 89>?%% 5966%% 598=%% 89?:%% 59<8%% 89=<%% 89<=%% 89=;%% 59;<%%

&,-% 89?:%% 8975%% 59>>%% 89=<%% 598?%% 59:<%% 598<%% 69?7%% 59:>%% 5965%%

#,.% 5968%% 89=:%% 89<?%% 5965%% 89?8%% 89<>%% 8975%% 8978%% 595:%% 59;7%%

/"+% 89;;%% 89==%% 5987%% 59><%% 89;7%% 59:<%% 598>%% 89=>%% 59:5%% 596?%%

012% 897:%% 89?<%% 598:%% 59<>%% 89;:%% 59=8%% >966%% 59?<%% 596>%% 5967%%

'03% 696:%% 897:%% 89:>%% 59>?%% 89:>%% 89:>%% 59:<%% 8978%% 59:=%% 598;%%

4"1% 6978%% 89;6%% 89=;%% 89==%% 89:8%% 89;;%% 89<?%% 8965%% 89=?%% 89;7%%

898>%% 69=<%% 69?7%% 89?5%%

69;6%% 695;%% 695>%% 8958%%

69;<%% %% %% 895<%%

69=:%% %% %% 69=?%%

8958%% 69<?%% 69>6%% 596<%%

897=%% 89<=%% 89>?%% 59;<%%

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897:%% 89<?%% 89<>%% 59;7%%

5967%% 89;7%% 89;;%% 59:<%%

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89<=%% 8965%% 6978%% 89==%%


ANNEX D: KEY WATERSHED-RELATED DEVELOPMENT AND GOVERNANCE CONCERNS (SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS) IN MIDEDC240 Type of Development/ Problem Flooding

Location Most affected are Pavia, Leganes and coastal areas of Iloilo

Land conversions

Northwestern part of Metro Iloilo, etc.

Unintegrated development of residential subdivisions Increase in population and economic activities in the industrial zones Unchecked growth of informal settlers

Mostly in Oton, Pavia and Leganes

Inadequate water supply Absence of wastewater management system

Inadequate power supply

Pavia Regional Agricultural Industrial Center Emerging Large Land Development Areas

Comments Physiographic limitation: Low lying in most parts. Oton is not part of the Iloilo Integrated Flood Control project. Drainage system is old and under-capacity. Indiscriminate dumping of garbage in waterways. Litter along the streets also ends up in drainage lines. Mixed used type of development are emerging adjacent to Iloilo City Cater mainly to middle and high-income families. Roads are not linked. Drainage lines are not interconnected. Problems of flooding are not solved in an integrated manner but merely transferred to other locations Social infrastructure like housing, and community facilities, etc. need to be provided as economic activities increase.

Mostly along the 20 km coastline southwestern part of Iloilo City-Molo Boulevard down to the boundary of Oton. Many parts of Metro Iloilo-Guimaras

Poor living conditions in the informal settlements affect these communities. More proactive approaches are needed to prevent expansion of the informal communities.

Dirty water is discharged to Mali-ao Creek, Tigum and Aganan Rivers in the case of Pavia; to Buntatala, Janipaan and Jalaur Rivers in the case of Leganes, and to Iloilo River. Domestic wastes, garbage, agricultural runoff and industrial effluents are dumped into bodies of water like rivers and seas. Iloilo City has the highest demand. Demand for power is projected to increase in the municipalities due to economic activities.

Wastewater treatment plant may be the ideal solution but due to cost, septage management, multi-chamber septic tanks, and bioclarification in treatment ponds may be resorted to.

Water pipes need to be extended. Non-revenue water arising from leaks or spillage should be minimized if not eliminated.

Environmental problem: oil spill Incomplete transport network Lack of traffic management A new airport opened recently.

Guimaras

Measure for power conservation is needed. Use energy efficient gadgets and electrical appliances (e.g., use of fluorescent lamps against incandescent lamps) Support for non-pollutive source of power. Power supply for Guimaras should also be established. Added safety measures in navigation

Guimaras

Provision of necessary road is necessary

Iloilo City proper

Lack of physical integration of the ports Port facilities need improvement Need for sanitary landfill

Five ports in various locations

Pursue traffic management measures based on comprehensive study. Support infrastructure like traffic management, widening of roads, etc. have not been planned well in advance. New structures, retail businesses, houses, etc. are being built along the Santa Barbara-Iloilo City road. Incompatible land uses along the road to the airport. An integrated port development plan is being considered.

(see above)

(see above)

The current disposal facility in Callajunan, Mandurriao is posing significant threat to the environment and the health of residents. Denudation at the headwaters of the rivers draining into Iloilo City, the massive flashflood waters flow down causing inundation in the lowlands.

A new facility at a nearby site of the existing disposal facility is being developed. Need for Integrated Solid Waste Management for MIG.

Denudation of the watershed areas

240

Sta. Barbara-Cabatuan

Adapted from CUI (2010), pp. 37-38.

Need for watershed management and reforestation in watersheds (headwaters and riparian areas) critical to MIGs water quality, water supply and flood prevention


ANNEX E: MATRIX ON CLIMATE CHANGE RISKS AND ADVERSE IMPACTS IN AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES 241

RISK

CHANGING WEATHER PATTERNS

LANDSLIDES

SEVERE SOIL EROSION

FLOODS

241

ADVERSE IMPACT Failure on crop establishment

ADAPTATION Make available weather resilient crops

Poor crop yields

• Efficient weather forecasting and cultural management strategies • Adjust cropping calendar • Modify crop establishment

Increase energy costs and reduced harvest in poultry and hog production

• Energy-efficient poultry and hog raising systems adopted to changing weather patterns • Feed formulation and feeding strategy for ruminants • Energy efficient buildings

• Destruction of upland agriculture systems • Collateral damage to lowland agriculture, aquaculture, coastal fishery resources, settlements and infrastructure • Soil nutrient depletion • Siltation of irrigation systems, rivers and streams • Increase occurrence of dust storm especially during El Niño events • Destruction of crops and fisheries in flood proneprone areas • Destruction of post harvest facilities and farm to market roads

• Soil and water conservation • Agro reforestation of denuded landscape • EIC and early warming to downstream inhabitants

• CO2 sequestration of agro reforestation

• Slope stabilization using engineerin solution and vegetative strips technology • Cover cropping using legumes in denuded landscape

• CO2 sequestration of agro reforestation

• Provide planting materials for agro-reforestation and cover crops • Screening of crop species that could minimize soil erosion

• Submergence and flood tolerant rice and corn • Early maturing varieties to escape floods during the first cropping • Weather resilient

• Convert to wetlands or other uses areas that are not economically variable for fish producion. Conversion strategies should have irrigation potential.

• Planting materials made available on timed coupled with IEC. • Early warning systems to harvest fish earlier. • Make capital available to replace destroyed properties

DA Policy on Climate Change (2010), pp27-30.

MITIGATION Reduce methane and nitrious oxide production in agriculture • Use of organic fertilizers and pesticides • Mulching and zero to minimal tillage captures CO2 • Use of pesticides derived from non-fossil fuel based system • Use of plant incorporated pesticieds • Harvesting of methane from animal manures • Adoption of energyefficient or green machinery • Timely delivery of locality-specific weather information to farmers • Methane harvesting for self contained energy use

ACTION Breeding and screening of crops resilient to changing weather patterns • Breeding and screening of crops resilient to changing weather patterns • On-farm testing and IEC • Make available non-fossil fuel based pesticides • Make available plant incorporated pesticieds

• Make available energyefficient or green machines • Energy audit of post harvest facilities and design energy efficient infrastructure • Facilitate timely delivery of reliable, locality specific weather information to farmers • Make available appropriate technologies for harvesting and using methane from livestock wastes • Provide reliable and accurate weather forecasting • Backyard seed nursery for indigenous agro-forestry species • Implement communitybased integrated watershed management • Community organizing


RISK

ADVERSE IMPACT • Destruction of livestock houses in flood prone areas

• • •

• Destruction of residence • Loss of life

• Loss of farm inputs, machinery, implements

ADAPTATION infrastructures Properly situated livestock housing Weather resilient infrastructures Appropriate feed formulation Weather resilient infrastructures Evacuation protocol and centers above flood level Storage shed should be above flood level Savings and seed banks established in flood free areas

MITIGATION • Methane capture • Reduce methane output

ACTION • Facilitate timely delivery of reliable, locality-specific reliable weather information to farmers • Early waning systems • Make available information on flood-prone areas • Make available advisories on emergency procedures during floods • Subsistence aubsidies

• Hunger and capital loss among farmers • Significant reduction in yield and crop losses • Water shortage • Heat stress on people and farm animals

• Drought tolerance crops • Water use efficiency in irrigation systems (drip irrigation) • Use early maturing varieties to escape drought • Crop establishment technology that shortens turn-around time between cropping • Well ventilated buildings and dwellings

• Increase energy cost to poultry and hog raisers

• Poultry and hog tolerant to higher temperatures • Energy efficient buildings • Water conservation practices

DROUGHT

INCREASED PEST PRESSURE

STRONG WINDS

• Hunger and capital loss among farmers • Crop losses • Livestock losses • Aquaculture losses

• Lodging of rice and corn, fruit trees, plantation crops, and others

• GHG capture of crops or limited GHG capture • Organic fertilizer to increase soil capital to capture CO2 • Special planting program for drought prone areas

• Make water available at the right time or when the crop needed it • Efficient irrigation and drainage systems • Provide planting materials • Make available water use efficient/drought tolerant crops • Watershed management approach to agriculture and fishery establishment • Make available water conservation practices • Put out advisories on drought-prone areas • Facilitate timeley delivery of reliable, loacality-specific weather information to farmers • Make available poultry and livestock breeds tolerant to higher temperatures

• Subsistence subsidies • Pest resistant crops, livestock and fishes • Environment-friendly pest control strategies • Biocontrol of pest and diseases • Shift to short and early maturing rice and corn varieties and other food crops • Early maturing, shorter, sturdy bananas, fruit trees and coconuts

Establish biopesticides serving as carbon sink e.g., Neem Trees

Make available pest resistant crops and environmentfriendly, non-fossil fuel-based pesticides

• Shift crop establishment from irrigated rice to dry/wet seeded that minimize CO2, NH4, NO2 generation • Fruit trees serving a carbon sink

• Availability of planting materials • Provide early warning system and advisory • Provide risk map • Make available early maturing, shorter, sturdy bananas, fruit trees and coconuts


RISK

ADVERSE IMPACT • Poultry and pig pen destruction

• Deduction of residence and fishing vessels • Loss of life

ADAPTATION • Housing for pigs and poultry designed and situated against galeforce winds • Wind resistance infrastructure • Plant wind breaks • Reliable and localized weather forecasting • Wind resistance infrastructure • Evacuation protocol and centers during strong typhoons

MITIGATION • Wind breaks serving as carbon sink

ACTION • Ensure the availability of construction materials of high quality • Screening of plant materials resistant to strong winds

• Make available advisories on emergency procedures during typhoons • Make available capital to replace fishing boats • Ensure the availability of construction materials of high quality • Make available information on typhoon path • Subsistence subsidies


ANNEX F: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL MANDATES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE TAWMB AND TAW-WQMA138 JTA WQMA GB

TAWMB

Commonalities

Distinction

Legal Basis

RA 9275, DAO 2006-18

RA 7160, MOA, DENR-DILG JMC 98-01, RA 7586, Provincial Ordinance 200041

Devolution of Water Quality Management

Coverage

9 Municipalities: Leon, Alimodian, Maasin, Cabatuan, Santa Barbara, Pavia, San Miguel, Oton, Iloilo City ! DENR, DA, DPWH, DOH, PNP, Iloilo Governor, 9 LGU Mayors, PAMB, Academe, Business, Water Utility, PO/NGO ! Chair: RED of DENR ! Co-Chair from Chief Local Executives as voted amongst the LGUs

9 Municipalities: Leon, Alimodian, Maasin, Cabatuan, Santa Barbara, Pavia, San Miguel, Oton, Iloilo City ! DENR, MIWD, NIA, CPU (academe), 9 LGU Mayors, Katilingban sang Pumuluyo sa Watershed Maasin, Santa Barbara River Federation of Irrigator’s Association, Kahublagan sang Panimalay Foundation Inc, LB President, Chairperson of the Environmental Committee of respective Sangguniang Bayan ! Chairperson is elected by and among the Board ! Facilitate the formulation and adoption of WM and Dev’t Plan following the framework in the comprehensive and integrated Watershed Dev’t Plan. ! Oversee and monitor dev’t activities/programs and projects in conservation, development, protection, and rehabilitation of the Tigum Aganan River ! Through membership, provide a legal framework and provide legislative support in terms of Executive Orders, Ordinances, and Resolutions. ! Generate revenues and undertake fund raising activities ! Mutual support in developing and marketing investment packages for

The nine (9) municipalities are included

WQMAGB: National Law; TAWMB: Local Ordinance/ Agreement None

Composition

Function

138

! WQ Status Report (Prepare and Publish) ! Formulate strategies to coordinate policies/ regulations/ local legislation in accordance with WQM framework. ! Review and prepare initial WQ Action Plan ! Monitor and Facilitate compliance of LGU to WQ Action Plan. ! Conduct/ validate water resource quality and availability and use as baseline for monitoring and evaluation. ! Coordinate members and member agencies and facilitate resolution of conflicts ! Complementary intervention for nonpoint pollution sources ! Manage AWQMF Joint

With the exception of the PNP, DA, DPWH, DOH and identified Academe, NGOs and POs, all memberships are similar

Majority of TAWMB members are from local (except NIA, DPWH); WQMAGB involves all stakeholders (Nat’l, Local, Business, Academe, Water Utilities and NGOs)

Action Plan and Development Plan; Fund generation except the fundraising scheme; Coordinating and collaborative functions

TAWMB more on land base development within watershed with purpose towards sustained production of water, rehabilitation of vegetation, and promotion of economic enterprises; WQMAGB is more on prevention/control of water pollution (water quality); Polluter’s-Pay Principle combination of regulatory and economic instrument

Adapted from Rondeau, Joelle (2010). “Stakeholders Mapping and Analysis of TAWMB”.


JTA WQMA GB

TAWMB

resolutions w/ other bodies created by laws, coordinate their functions and activities !

! ! Directions

Fund Sources

!

! Control/abatement of water pollution ! Protection of water resources ! Formulation of National Program on Water Quality Management ! Public information and education campaigns (IED)/ public participation in addressing environmental issues Initial: NWQMF downloaded by DBM to EMB; source: Discharge permit fee/fines and penalties ordered by PAB Final: AWQMF (to be established); source: wastewater charge system

! !

! !

watershed development and management, and enter MOA with any interested and qualified parties. Obtain technical and logistic assistance from Province, NGA, IOs and academe for implementation of the IWD Plan. Supervise activities of TWG Perform other functions as may be incidental and necessary. Management of watershed Prevention of watershed degradation/restoration of watershed Proper use of watershed Effective and purposive collaboration and coordination of resources for initiatives in watershed management

National and local government funds; LGUs shall allocate funds for watershed management.

Commonalities

Distinction


ANNEX G: TIGUM-AGANAN WATERSHED INDICATORS

Goal: Abundant and clean water Importance

Thematic Area 1. Forest Cover

Forests retain stormwater, reduce erosion, provide oxygen and filter out pollutants. Indicators

Metric • Hectares of primary and secondary forest (aggregate public and private lands)

1a. Increased forest cover 1b. Increased number of indigenous tree species

• Ratio on indigenous versus exotic tree species (in ha.)

1c. Increased production of indigenous tree species by local nurseries

• Indigenous tree species production per season

1d. Increased number of communities involved in communitybased forest stewardship

• Percentage of total barangays in TAW engaged in stewardship activities • Type of stewardship activities

1e. Improved riverbank (riparian zone) protection

• Percentage of river and stream bank length with woody riparian vegetation

Thematic Area 2. Surface water

Importance Surface water flow rates affect water available for human consumption and irrigation, with urbanization and deforestation causing reduced baseflows and increased peak flows. Indicators

Metric

2a. Surface water flow rate

• Cubic meters/second (m3/s) using monthly, one-day spot calibrations in the absence of gauge stations

2b. Increased volume of rainwater captured (for domestic use)

• Number of households with rainwater collection tanks (RWCTs) • m3 of water collected by RWCTs

2c. Increased volume of surface water impounded for domestic, irrigation and industrial use

• Number of reservoirs/water impounds • m3 of water collected

2d. Surface water quality

• • • • • • • • •

2e. Increased number of solid waste disposal systems in local communities and industries (based on Act RA 9003)

• Ratio of communities/industries with disposal systems versus total

TSS level DO level BOD level TDS level E. coli level fecal coliform level pH levels Temperature Nutrients (phosphates and nitrates)


number of communities/industries 2f. Increased number of industries and commercial establishments with waste water treatment facilities

Thematic Area 3. Groundwater

• Ratio on number of industries and commercial establishments with treatment facilities versus total number of industries and commercial establishments

Importance Provides the baseflow for streams and rivers that drain the watershed and is a source of water for drinking and irrigation. Indicators

Metric

3a. Groundwater quantity

• Rate of groundwater extraction (m3) for industrial, domestic and irrigation use

3b. Groundwater quality

• E. coli • Total fecal coliform • Absence/ presence of metals/chemicals • TDS

3c. Increased number of households with efficient and effective sanitary waste disposal system

• Ratio of households with efficient and effective sanitary waste disposal versus total number of households

3d. Increased number of communities with communal sanitary waste disposal system (communal toilets, sewage systems)

• Ratio of communities with communal sanitary waste disposal versus total number of communities with the same level of water distribution systems (measurement only for communities with level 1, level 2, or absence of water distribution systems)

Thematic Area 4. Biodiversity

Importance Healthy habitats (forests, wetlands, riparian zones, rivers) support a broad range of animal species, allow wildlife to move around easily and provide recreational opportunities for people. Indicators

Metric

4a. Increase in area of wetlands present in the watershed

Ha. of wetland

4b. Increase in biodiversity of flora and fauna

• % cover and distribution of different vegetation communities • Presence or absence of designated indicator species of animals (indicator species are animals that indicate the condition of the environment such as the level of pollution, habitat availability and the size and degree of disturbances)

4c. Increased buffer zones in protected and/or bio-diversity areas

TBD

Goal: Sustainable Agriculture and Livelihood Thematic Area 5. Agricultural land

Importance How well agricultural land is being protected affects food security and sustainable livelihood of farmers.


Indicators

Metric

5a. Maintenance of total land area devoted to agricultural production Thematic Area 6. Sustainable farming

• % of land area (ha.) in TAW devoted to agriculture Importance

The adoption of sustainable/organic farming methods can improve water quality in the watershed and reduce deforestation. Indicators

Metric

6a. Increased productivity in sustainable/organic farming

• Average yield (tons/hectare/year) of sustainable/organic food versus traditional agricultural products

6b. Increased number of cooperatives /farmer associations practicing sustainable/organic agriculture (number of farmers practicing organic agriculture)

• Number of cooperatives/farmer associations/farmers engaged in sustainable/organic agriculture

Thematic Area 7. Upland forest conservation

Importance Alternative forms of livelihood in upland areas can wean communities off agricultural and agro-forestry practices that are harmful to forest reserves. Indicators

Metric

7a. Increase in the number of households in upland municipalities engaged in livelihoods (eco-tourism, sustainable agriculture) that reduce forest degradation and deforestation

• Number of households engaged in alternative livelihoods

Goal: Disaster Resilient Communities Thematic Area 8. Secure communities

Importance Reducing risks to households due to extreme weather events and climate change can save lives and improve economic competitiveness. Indicators

Metric

8a. Increased formulation of action plans related to climate change adaptation, disaster risk reduction and emergency response

• Number of LGUs with DRRM/CCM/CCA plans in place (in compliance to Act RA10121)

8b. Decrease in the number of vulnerable families living in high risk areas

• Number of families living in high risk areas

8c. Increased control measures against geo-hazards (landslides, erosion, flooding) in riparian zones and landslide/erosion prone areas

• Ratio on areas with control measures versus total area of land with identified hazards

8d. Increased number of households/communities in high risk areas in a state of emergency preparedness

• Number of household/communities in high risk areas participating in disaster drills • Number of barangays/communities with access to early warning systems


Goal: Stewardship of the Watershed Thematic Area

Importance

9. Community and stakeholder involvement

The level of engagement of communities and stakeholders in watershed management can help accelerate the pace of environmental restoration in the watershed.

Indicators

Metric

9a. Improved level of awareness and support for watershed stewardship by communities and stakeholders

• Number of IEC materials produced through print, broadcast and social media

9b. Improved community and civil society engagement in watershed management

• Number of barangays conducting micro-watershed planning and implementation incorporating DRRM, CCA, and CCM. • Number of CSOs engaged in watershed management

9c. Increased business sector participation in watershed management

• Number of businesses or business organizations exercising CSR for watershed stewardship

9d. Increased academic community engagement in watershed management

• Number of universities and colleges actively participating in TAW activities

9e. Improved LGU leadership for watershed management

• Number of policies, ordinances and funded programs per TAW LGU supporting watershed stewardship

!


! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! This State of the Tigum-Aganan Watershed Report is a product of the Metro Iloilo-Guimaras Bio-region Initiative, a component of the International Urban Partnerships Program of the Canadian Urban Institute (canurb.org). Technical expertise on watershed management was provided by the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority (trca.on.ca). The program and the production of this report were made possible through a generous financial contribution from the Government of Canada.

Copyright: Tigum-Aganan Watershed Management Board and the Canadian Urban Institute, 2013

! !

State of the Tigum-Aganan Watershed Report (Philippines)  

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