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Front page: F is built by the table contents of this manual book and words translated in Chinese.


Introduction Chapter 1 Market overview 1.1 Motivation of the Italian market entry 1.2 The market size Chapter 2 Consumer scenario 2.1 The society profile Chapter 3 Company registration 3.1 Registering a company 3.2 Institutions involved Chapter 4 Production and manufacturing 4.1 The production areas 4.1.1 Como and silk 4.1.2 Biella and fine wool 4.1.3 Prato and carded wool 4.1.4 Tuscany and vero cuoio 4.2 Materials’ Trade fairs 4.2.1 Pitti Filati 4.2.2 Milano Unica 4.2.3 Linea Pelle Chapter 5 Wholesale distribution 5.1 The distribution system in Italy 5.2 Showrooms 5.2.1 Massimo Bonini 5.2.2 Riccardo Grassi 5.2.3 Studiozeta.org 5.3 Trade fairs 5.3.1 Pitti Uomo 5.3.2 White 5.3.3 Micam Chapter 6 Retailing 6.1 Shopping districts & areas 6.2 Large scale retailers 6.2.1 Gruppo Coin 6.2.2 La Rinascente 6.3 Multibrand stores 6.3.1 Luisa Via Roma 6.3.2 10 Corso Como Chapter 7 Communication 7.1 Communication and advertising 7.2 Milano fashion week Appendix Useful Information


[huffingtonpost.com, 2014]

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Introduction With the saturation of the China domestic fashion market and the current unstable situation, expansion to abroad has been a solution for many visionary enterpreneurs like Jnby, Shiatzy Chen, Shang Xia, and mass market brands like Metersbonwe and Bosideng. The possibility of internationalization is proven by the success of above brands. If the expansion of business in the neighbourhood countries in Asia means acquiring new markets and new clients, the expansion to Europe has an additional advantage of elevating the brand image and status. Italy well-known for its beauty and is tightly connected with fashion industry since 1950s when Giovanni Battista Giorgini set the first fashion show in Florence dedicated to the promotion of Italian designers. Since then, Italian fashion labels has been always been in competition with French haute couture. In one hand Italy is an important country for the fashion industry. Italy is the home of many international luxury brands like Salvatore Ferragamo, Gucci, Valentino, Giorgio Armani, Versace, Prada, Bulgari, Dolce Gabbana, Bottega Veneta and many others. Milan is the world capital of ready to wear. In 2009, according to the Global Language Monitor, Milan, Italy’s centre of design, was ranked the top fashion capital of the world. In the other hand fashion is an important industry for Italy, because 986 thousands people are working in the textile and clothing field which represents more than 17% of total country employment [Hermeslab, 2007]. In terms of apparel & textile importation and exportation, Italy is the second place after China, with 7% of the world market share [Hermes lab 2009]. This guideline is dedicate to the fashion designers, fashion related business entrepreneurs and all those people who are interested to build a fashion business in the in the Italian market. The guide provides a general overview about the market and allows entrepreneurs and designers to decide whether or not to expand their business in this new territory. The guideline book starts with the market overview and follows a detailed explanation of every single step that is essential to know to build your own fashion business in Italy example company registration,undestanding which are the main process to open a company; production process, discovering where to get the best materials; distribution, analysing which are the main channels of wholesale distribution; retailing, deciding where to put your collection;

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Chapter 1 Market overview

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1.1 Motivation of the Italian market entry Expanding your fashion business in Italy not only means acquiring a new market and new clients but the more valuable thing is the promotion of the brand image. Italy is the world capital of Ready To Wear and taking part of the Milan fashion week means be inside a class A list of very few top brands worldwide. If you are a luxury retailer, imagine that your existing Chinese customers saw your store in down town in via Montenapoleone, Milan or in via Condotti, Rome next to a very refined Italian boutique, when they were travelling, they would be surprised by the company’s great success out side of China, and be more loyal to the brand once they come back to China. Thus it would also boost the domestic country sales. Building your fashion business in Italy means having more possibility to be seen by the world and caught by the international press. Every year, professionals in the fields coming from different continents and countries all gather together in this country to participate fashion events. Fashion media, journalists, bloggers all flight to Italy to report the latest fashion and news. Creating your products in Italy means you can get conveniently and easily the best primary material inside the country. No doubt Italy is the best European production factory. Tuscany’s leather production has a very good reputation in the world. Almost all the best western shoes brands use the leather that comes from Tuscany’s tanneries. Tuscany is also very well known for its artisanal skills in accessory production. Many big brands from other countries set their accessory department in this region. Different districts have their own specialities and strengths. Como is the biggest supplier for silk fabrics in the whole Europe, Biella for the fine wool, Prato for regenerated and carded wool, Brescia for cotton fabrics and Varese for laces and embroidered fabrics. Having your business in Italy means you can equally have all the same chances that your western competitors have. Italy is a very important hub for world fashion business. Besides of being one of the fashion capitals (Paris, Milan, London, New York and Tokyo), Italy is also the centre of production for most European brands. World most important fashion trade fair are held in Italy, finished product fairs like Pitti Bimbo, Pitti Uomo in Florence, White, Super, Mipel, Micam, Mifur, Milano PAP(prêt a porter) in Milan, primary material trade fairs like Pitti Filati, Milano Unica, and many others are all presented in Italy. Every year world best retailers and buyers come to Italy to discover new talents and make orders through these very advant-garde trade fairs. If you want to distribute your own collection to the world best retailers, it is essential to be take part of this.

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1.2 The Market Size Fashion has a long tradition in Italy. It is quite well known that Italians have a particular attention towards their aesthetic images. Only by counting how many world well-known fashion brands come from Italy we can understand how strong is the country in this field. One must be well prepared to compete in this country with all these very historical and good-reputed brands. In the textile and clothing industry Italy generates yearly about 51 billion of euro which represents 25% of the entire European turnover [SMI Sistema Moda Italia, federazione tessile e moda]. In order to understand how much the fashion industry weights in the total Italian economy, we can see from the following analysis done by the Hermes Lab in 2007. 17.1 is the percentage of the fashion business related employment out of the total country employment, which is 986 thousands people working in the fashion industry. Considering that the other two fashion capital countries France has only 5% which means 333 thousands people working in the field and England is 8% with 626 thousands of people[Hermes lab, 2007].

[Hermes lab, 2007]

In terms of apparel & textile importation and exportation, Italy is the second place after China, with 7% of the world market share [Hermes lab 2009].

[Hermes lab, 2009]

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Chapter 2 Consumer scenario

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2.1 The society profile It is quite important to analyse the country’s population’s profile (population number, median age, education level, income, life style) in order to understand if there exist a consumer group for your product offer. Italy has around 60 millions of population, which is 4 millions more than Spain, 5 millions less than France and 3 millions less than England. While the population in China is 1,35 billion, which is about twenty times more than Italy [worldbank.org, 2014]. Italy may not compete with Chinese market size but it is considered as one of the biggest European nations together with France, England and so on. The median age is 44 years (male 43/female 45) and the sex ration is quite balanced the male population is 48% and female population is 52% out of total country’s population [Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, 2014]. Median age: 0-14 years old people are 13.5%( male 4,056,156/female 3,814,070); 15-64 years are 66.3% (male 19,530,696/female 18,981,084); 65 years and over are 20.2% (male 4,903,762/female 6,840,444). [Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, 2014] Children’s and elderly’s markets are booming and they are both extremely interesting, since parents are willingly to invest in their child and elderly people is the group that have time and money to spend. Another fact is that Italy is the country with highest elderly population in Europe. Sex ration: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/1 female; under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/1 female; 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/1 female; 65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/1 female; total population: 0.93 male(s)/1 female. [Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, 2014] Among this 60 millions of Italian population 68% of them lives in the urban area, and this number is growing annually of 0.5%. The largest Italian conurbations are Milan with 1.32 million of residence people, Rome with 2.75 millions of people, Naples with 0.96 million andTurin with 0.91 million of people.Some major touristic towns and fashion business areas like Florence has only 0.37 million of residence people and Venice has 0.27 million of residence people[data.un.org, 2014]. The Italian population over 15 years old in 2014 are around 52 millions. The highest level of education attained by them are (numbers are x 1000): pre-primary, primary education level - 10.552 people (4010 male and 6543 female); lower secondary education level - 16 617 people (8859 male and 7757 female); upper secondary education level - 2 952 people (1510 male and 1442 female); post secondary education level - 15 522 people (7766 male and 7757 female); tertiary (university, doctoral and specialization courses) education level - 6 590 people (3010 male and 3580 female). [Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, 2014]. It is quite surprising that women in Italy are educated as much as men. Women who attended high level of education in the university are 3580.000 compared with 3010.000 of men. It is quite encouraging for companies that are targeting to the white collar and highly educated women.

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As household income situation, out of 100 families in Italy 59 of them are considered adequate, 35 are scarce, 4 are absolutely insufficient and only 1 is very good [Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, 2014].

[Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, 2014]

The chart below reports the household expenditures on clothing and footwear in average values: 107 euro is the average expenditure for childrenswear (top and bottom); 60 euro is the average expenditure for child footwear; 130 euro is the average expenditure for adult apparel (top and bottom);; 84 euro is the average expenditure for men’s footwear; 73 euro is the average expenditure for women’s footwear. [Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, 2014] This means also these are the average prices accepted to pay by most of the households in Italy for clothing and footwear.

[Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, 2014]

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Chapter 3 Company registration

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3.1 Registering a Company In order to start an activity in Italy it is opportune first of all to understand the different types of companies that are possible to realize, thus choose the right juridical form for your enterprise. Società is the Italian word that defines all the individual enterprises, in the article 2247 c.c. of Italian civil code states that with agreement of Società, two or more people invest in the goods or services to start an economic activity in order to share the profits generated. Talking about small and medium size companies, for example young designer brands and small family businesses usually they are registered as Società a responsabilità limitata (S.r.l.) which means limited liability company. While Società per Azioni (S.p.a.), the join stock form usually is preferred for largescale companies, for example those quite established big brand houses that are vertically integrated with internal production, distribution and retailing. Both S.r.l. and S.p.a take part of Società di Capitali (Business corporation), which means they are incorporated business association, legal entities and the partners have a limited liability for the obligations or debts of the company. There is no limitation to name the company. They have general characteristics of: - limited liability for partners - the company is the only subject liable for its obligation and it is the only capital risk - its appointment is public (Public register of companies) - by laws and certificate of incorporation Società a responsabilità limitata (S.r.l.) limited liability company is preferred by small and medium size company because it needs to have only a minimum capital share of 10000 euro, which is much less compared with S.p.a. The associates of S.r.l. company are not necessarily to participate the company activity. Società per Azioni (S.p.a.) the join stock company is the largest scale of company that exist in Italy, it requires at least 120.000 euro as minimum corporation stock amount. It is a company based on the division of stocks, which can be freely transferred to others. There can be a division of ownership and management, the associates can not participate to the administration activity [Gardini,2012].

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The list below shows other main types of italian companies : In Italy business associations are mainly divided in two types, one is based on people “Società di Persone” and the other one is based on capitals “Società di Capitali”. Società di Persone is an unincorporated business association, which means the partners have an unlimited responsibility over the business. If the corporations stock is insufficient to cover the obligations or debts, the personal property and assets of the partners should jointly cover this aspect. The company name must contain at least one of the partners’ names. Società di Persone (partnership or association) has two main forms: S.n.c. and S.a.s. S.n.c. Società in nome colletivo (general partnership) has characteristics of: all the partners can be directors and are legal representatives; profit sharing according to the distribution of shares; insolvency of the company equals insolvency of the partners. In the S.a.s. Società in accomandita semplice (limited partnership) there are two categories of partners: soci accomandatari means partners who have exclusive administration and management of the company; they are jointly liable without limits; Soci accomandanti means partners who are liable just within the limits of the capital invested and they don’t participate any activity of the company. Having this two different kind of partners means also when comes insolvency means only for the Soci acconmandatari who is liable without the limits and not for Soci accomandanti. Società di Capitali or Business Corporations is already explained at beginning of this chapter their main characteristic is the limited liability of board menbers towards the business. Besides S.p.a and S.r.l. that we mentioned before, it has other two types of companies S.a.p.a and S.r.l. unipersonale. S.a.p.a. Società in accomandita per azioni is similar to the S.p.a. but in this case there are two different kinds of partners like we mentioned in S.a.s., accomandatari and accomandanti. The difference between S.p.a and S.a.p.a. is that in the S.a.p.a. the accomandatari (the one with full liability) must be also the administrator participating the company activity, while in the S.p.a. the partners are not necessarily managing the company. S.r.l. unipersonale means there is only one single entrepreneur who is running the business and he is the only associate with limited liability over the company [Gardini,2012].

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3.2 Institutions Involved In order to run the activity in a correct and legal way there are mainly four institutions that the company cannot avoid to tackle with: the Chamber of Commerce, the Italian Revenue Agency, the National Social Insurance Agency (INPS) and the National Institute for Insurance against Accidents at Work (INAIL) Right from the beginning, before the activity starts, the company should: - ask for the fiscal code and patitita iva code(VAT) at Italian Revenue Agency - subscription at INAIL and get a insurance position - subscription to INPS for the company owner and its employers - subscription in the registery of enterprises at Chamber of Commerce 1) Camera di Commercio / Chamber of Commerce: In order to start with your activity, the first step is be registered at “Camera di Commercio” which is the Italian Chamber of Commerce. Chamber of Commerce is important national and international reference point for the industry of productive sectors. It is an autonomous body governed by the public law and it is the center of a very extensive network of organizations that works with institutions, enterprises and associations in order to provide the service, development strategies and plans for the sake of ensuring a balanced economic growth. The system in Italy is represented by Unioncamere, as the Italian union of chambers of commerce and it promotes, develops and manages the activities and services of the whole network of chambers. On a European level, the system is called Eurochambres, which represents the 45 nation’s chambers and 2000 territorial chambers. The headquarter of Eurochambres is set in Brussels [camcom.gov.it]. In a worldwide level, Chamber of Commerce have many different subsidiary offices distributed in many countries. For instance in China there are three China-Italy chambers of Commerce, one in Shanghai, one in Beijing and one in Guangdong [Cameraitacina.com]. There is one Chamber of Commerce in every Italian province. Basing on where is the headquarter of your activity set, you should register the company at local Chamber of Commerce. In every local units there is a registry office called “Registro Imprese”, it is where you should provide data and information about the creation, the modification and termination of the company activity. Thus the registry office can define the legal situation of each company and it is a fundamental archive that shows the industry economic situation. For every modification about board member, change of proprietary, and change of headquarters office to another province, you should communicate to the Chamber of Commerce [Mi.camcom.it]. Payment fees: For the first registration you should pay the registration tax (168 euro) rights to the Chamber (200 euro) and tributes to the opening of a VAT [cliclavoro.gov.it]. The Chamber of Commerce charges a secretary fee, which is different for each type of companies (usually it is 90 euro plus an added tax fee of 16 euro) for every single request about the modification of company information. There is also a standard annual fee should be paid, which is the same for all its companies registered at Chamber of Commerce, it is 30euro in 2014 [mi.camcom.it]. The most essential document for non European Union citizens in order to open an independent activity is the permit of stay. Thus as a Chinese citizen, before starting an autonom activity in Italy as a the company owner, as partner, as administrator of join stock companies, as legal representative of a

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foreign company, you can request the permit of stay with motivation of autonom employer. And at the chamber of commerce, you can get the authorizations in order to proceed with the permit of stay as autonom employer [Mi.camcom.it]. 2) Agenzia delle Entrate / the Italian Revenue Agency The Italian Revenue Agency is a non-economic public body that, since 2001, operates to ensure the highest level of “tax compliance”, through assistance to taxpayers and recovery of tax evasion. The agency offers services to local authorities as managing the taxes that a person or an enterprise should pay to the local authorities [Agenziaentrate.gov.it]. The Italian Revenue Agency has its headquarter in Roma, but it has provincial offices distributed in the whole country, which facilitates the collaboration with local authorities and its taxpayers. In order to run the business in a regular tax position, people who work in the company should get a fiscal code, and the company should ask for a “Partita Iva” code at local Revenue Agency. They are a series of alphanumeric number, different for every person and for each company. The Fiscal Code identifies the tax payment position of a physical person and the “Partita Iva” code indicates the tax position regularity of an enterprise. All the taxpayers as physical person or as enterprise must declare to the Revenue Agency all its revenue stream, for example the salary or the activity revenue and rental property earnings and so on. The highest amount of tax that should be paid to Revenue Agency is usually “IVA”, the value added tax, which is 22% from 2013. 3) INPS / the national social insurance agency INPS is one of the biggest European social insurance agencies that manage almost the social security of the whole Italian country. Founded about a hundred years ago with the aim of guaranteeing the risk of invalidity, the retirement and the death of workers, with the time passing the institute has became more and more relevant in the society until to become the pillar of the national welfare system. The main activities of INPS consist in the liquidation and the payment of pensions and allowance of social insurance and welfares. INPS has its headquarter in Roma, but it has provincial offices distributed in the whole country, which facilitates the collaboration with local enterprises and people. The owner of the company or the autonomous workers and its employers must be subscribed to the INPS and pay a yearly security insurance. 4) INAIL/ the National Institute for Insurance against Accidents at Work According to the Italian law, companies are obliged to ensure its workers safety, and the insurance is compulsory for all employers hired in the activities that the law defines as risky. INAIL is the public non-profit entity safeguarding workers against physical injuries and occupational diseases [Inail.it]. Companies are obliged to subscribe to communicate to INAL the beginning of the activity before the business starts. INAL has its headquarter in Rome but it has many offices distributed in every regions which can facilitates services to the local enterprises. INAIL service and annual fee is paid through revenue agency, which varies from company to company.

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Chapter 4 Production and manufacturing

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4.1 The production areas Italy is considered the most important production area in Europe and best materials provider like leather, fine wool fabrics, silk fabrics. The country has different districts that are specialized in making different fabric or finishing process. 4.1.1. Como and silk Talking about textile, inside the region of the Lombardy there is a very important fashion district area called Como that is specialized on the finishing processes of silk and silk aspect fabrics. Inside the Lombardy region, Varese is very well known for cotton like denim and embroidered fabrics like lace. Brescia for cotton shirting fabrics, interior fabrics, velvet and techno finishes. [Dobson, 2011]

Leading silk-fabric making companies in Como are: Clerici Tessuto & C. S.p.A.v. Belvedere, 1/A 22070 GRANDATE CO E. Boselli & C. S.p.A.v. Carducci, 11 22077 OLGIATE COMASCO CO Europ Marchini v. San Garovaglio, 28 22100 COMO CO Mantero Seta S.p.A.v. Volta, 74 22100 COMO CO Nordtessile S.p.A.v. Cecilio, 28 22100 COMO CO Punto seta s.r.l.v. Patrioti, 1 22070 GUANZATE CO Ratti S.p.A.v. Madonna, 30 22070 GUANZATE CO Taroni S.p.A.v. Morazzone, 8 22100 COMO CO Teseo S.p.A.v. Leopardi, 33 22070 GRANDATE CO Tessitura Carlo Valli S.p.A.v. Oltre Colle, 60 22100 COMO CO Tessitura Serica Taborelli s.r.l.v. Cavour, 34 22020 FALOPPIO CO Tessitura Taiana Virgilio S.p.A.v. Carducci, 20 22077 OLGIATE COMASCO CO Canepa Tessitura Serica S.p.a. Via TrinitĂ 1, San Fermo della Battaglia 22020 (CO) Seterie Argenti S.p.a. Via Risorgimento, 23 -22038 Tavernerio (Co) Italy Guidamonaci.it, 2014

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Mantero Seta S.p.a. It is one of the leading silk companies in Como, they are very strong in Jaquard weaving, silk printing and silk accessory making like foulards, stoles and scarves for women and ties and scarves for men. Besides of being a fabric supplier Mantero also develops leading-edge silk accessory products for big-name luxury fashion houses. Brands under license include Kenzo, Christian Lacroix, Inès De La Fressange, Nina Ricci, Vivienne Westwood and Ermanno Scervino[Mantero.it, 2014]

[Mantero.it, 2014]

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Rati S.p.a. It is a historical silk mill in Como, founded in 1945 and today it plays an important role in the world luxury textile industry. ‘Style, research, creativity, quality’. These are the words that sum up the business philosophy of the Ratti Group. Today the company is capable to produce around 6.000.000 meters of fabric a year, cooperates with the most successful fashion labels and employs about 800 people. The Company has been listed on the Milan Stock Exchange since 1989 and has pursued an investment policy aiming to continuously and consistently streamline its development [Ratti.it, 2014]. In 1985 Antonio Ratti foundation was born, it aims to promote the craftsmanship and beauty of silk fabrics and research on new the development and technology for the silk textile use[fondazioneratti. org]. Since Ratti is a historical company, at the foundation there is a huge archive of historical silk fabrics with beautiful patterns, which is quite interesting for design people to take inspirations.

[Fondazioneratti.org, 2014]

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4.1.2. Biella and fine wool Biella, a beautiful town in the region of Piedmont, has been the home of italian wool industry for about 500 years. Today it is the place where you can find the finest wool fabrics of best quality. They are usually used for men’s formal suits and accessories like scarves and gloves. Most of the big menswear brands have their sources of fine wool fabrics from here. The local economy is historically and traditionally linked with textile industry especially in the sector of wool. International well-known menswear brand like Ermenegildo Zegna and Fratelli Cerruti have their production factory here in Biella. Other important woolen fabric makers are like Fila and la Filatura di Pollone S.p.A., which is also quoted on the Milan stock exchange.

Leading wool fabric making companies in Biella are: Carlo Barbera & C. S.p.A.fraz. Pianezze, 13821 CALLABIANA BI F.lli Piacenza S.p.A.regione Cisi, 13814 POLLONE BI Filatura di Chiavazza S.p.A.v. Milano, 160 13856 VIGLIANO BIELLESE BI Guabello S.p.A.v. XXIV Maggio, 4 13888 MONGRANDO BI Lanerie Agnona S.p.A.v. Roma, 99/100 13835 TRIVERO BI Lanificio di Lessona S.p.A.regione Ponte Guelpa, snc 13853 LESSONA BI Lanificio di Tollegno S.p.A.v. Gramsci, 11 13900 BIELLA BI Lanificio Ermenegildo Zegna e Figli S.p.A.v. Roma, 99/100 13835 TRIVERO BI Lanificio F.lli Cerruti S.p.A.v. Cernaia, 40 13900 BIELLA BI Lanificio Fila S.p.A.v. Umberto, 96 13863 COGGIOLA BI Lanificio Fratelli Garlanda S.p.A.v. B.Ta Falcero, 36 13825 VALLE MOSSO BI Lanificio Luigi Botto S.p.A.v. Roma, 99 13825 VALLE MOSSO BI Lanificio Subalpino s.r.l.v. Roma, 1 13852 CERRETO CASTELLO BI Lanificio Tessilstrona s.r.l.v. Amendola, 19 13836 COSSATO BI Lanificio Torello Viera s.r.l.v. Molin Gros, 10 13823 STRONA BI Successori Reda S.p.A.v. Robiolio, 25 13825 VALLE MOSSO BI Tessitura di Quaregna s.r.l.v. Avogadro, 41 13854 QUAREGNA BI Guidamonaci.it, 2014

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Lanificio Ermenegildo Zegna e Figli S.p.A. Ermenegildo Zegna e Figli woolen mill was founded in 1910 as the starting business of today’s biggest menswear brand Ermenegildo Zegna. Part of a verticalized Group, Lanificio Ermenegildo Zegna now employs around 450 people and produces around 2,000,000 meter of cloth a year that can boast that clothes made from its fabrics are being worn by heads of state, and first rank political and society personalities worldwide. Zegna fabrics have the same standards and finishing characteristics as the best reputed English wool producers, but with a peculiar added value: that exquisitely Italian touch for shades and color. Raw materials are not only carefully selected amongst the best fibers available on the market (“Superfine Merino Wool” from Australia, “Cashmere” from Chinese Inner Mongolia, “Kid Mohair” from South Africa, etc.), but are processed into fabrics, paying the highest attention to their own characteristics, in order to bring out their quality and performance. That is the one precise path to follow in order to build a complete Collection, developed to meet any need of the international clientele [Ml-textil.com, 2014].

[Sumisura.zegna.com, 2014]

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Lanificio F.lli Cerruti S.p.A. Lanificio F.lli Cerrutiis another big name in the fashion industry for the very famous luxury menswear brand Cerruti. F.lli Cerruti woolen mill was founded in 1881 as one of the oldest and historical factory in the area. With its experiance and innovative spirit, Lanificio F.lli Cerruti process the finest luxury fabrics for fashion clients all over the world. Quality, elegance and class have always the basics of the company. It is used only the best raw materials like Australian wool, Mongolian cashmere. It is one of the biggest and most important woolen mill in the area, talking about company’s glorious history, Lanificio F.lli Cerruti has been the main cloth supplier of Italian Army during the First World War. The family business expanded in the global market like South America and Middle east in the 1940. Nino Cerrutti the third generation of the family business founded the menswear label Hitman in 1950s, which would later became today’s world top menswear brand Cerrutti. Today, the company still has its main focus on the woolen fabrics, but it has also the ability to process any kind of fibers, example cotton, linen, hemp and new high-tech materials for the sportswear, casual textiles, and Cerruti baleri, the company’s homewear brand [Lanificiocerruti.com, 2014].

[Kleis.co.jp, 2014]

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4.1.3. Prato and carded wool As an innovative designer you might need also some particular and ecologic fabrics, Prato inside Tuscany region, is a place where you can find carded and regenerated wool. Since the 11 century Prato has been a highly developed wool processing centre. Indeed, the qualities of water of the river Bisenzio and the features of the local land were such that the area soon specialized in the washing of wool fibres. [Dobson, 2011]

Leading wool fabric making companies in Prato are: Gruppo Marini industrie S.p.A 10 Via Cipriani Mario, 59100 PRATO PO Lanificio Bartolini Sestilio S.p.A. v. E. Chiti, 14 - Narnali 59100 PRATO PO Lanificio Bisentino S.p.A. v. Gora del Pero, 33/35 59100 PRATO PO Lanificio Cangioli 1859 S.p.A. v. Del Bisenzio A San Martino, 6 59100 PRATO PO Lanificio Caverni & Gramigni S.p.A. v. del Molinuzzo, 4/G 59100 PRATO PO Lanificio Cecchi Lido e Figli S.p.A. v. Fondo Di Mezzano, 46 59100 PRATO PO Lanificio Ciatti e Baroncelli S.p.A. v. Toscana, 80/82 59100 PRATO PO Lanificio Feudora S.p.A. v. Di Gello, 21 59100 PRATO PO Lanificio Fratelli Balli S.p.A. v. Bologna, 106 59100 PRATO PO Lanificio Gardena S.p.A. v. Zipoli, 50/52 59100 PRATO PO Lanificio Menchi Tessuti S.p.A. Traversa Crocifisso 24/B Prato (PO) Lanificio T.O. Nesi e Figli S.p.A. v. Ortigara, 4/6 59100 PRATO PO Maresima S.p.A. v. Fonda di Mezzana, 53 59100 PRATO PO Picchi S.p.A.v. M. Tempesti, 13 59100 PRATO PO Roberto Rosati S.p.A. v. Gora del Pero, 59 59100 PRATO PO Tesserlana S.p.A. v. Onorio Vannucchi, 17 59100 PRATO PO Tessilgodi S.p.A.v. Alfani, 5 59100 PRATO PO Guidamonaci.it, 2014

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Gruppo Marini Industrie S.p.A. Marini Industrie is a group specialized in wool textile and owns four brands: Marini & Cecconi, Ospiti del Mondo, Marini Tessuti Uomo and Assotex. The company in overall is focused in the research and development of creating innovative fabrics by using natural fibres as base with special “finissaggi� textile treatments. Marini & Cecconi was founded in 1945 and focuses on prestigious and classic woolen fabrics. Ospiti del Mondo, founded in 2004, is focused on natural fibers like cotton, linen, silk, wool and produced in light fabrics with colorful patterns. Marini Tessuti Uomo might be considered as the younger version of Marini & Cecconi, it always focuses on the formal menswear textile but with more dandy, creative and contemporary. Assotex that is later acquired by the company, is a historical woolen mill in Prato, it is strong in heavy woolen fabrics. Assotex offer custommade fabrics according to the customers’ need [Marini-industrie.it, 2014].

[Marini-industrie.it, 2014]

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Menchi Tessuti S.p.A. Lanificio Menchi Tessuni was founded in 1961 in Prato. It is focused in heavy woolen fabrics for outerwear. The company uses noble woolen fibers like Angora, Mohair, Cashmere and Alpaca. Their provide fabrics for important fashion houses like Armani, Prada, Gruppo Maxmara, Burberry, Aquascutum, Benetton, Vestebene, Gilbret, El Corte Ingles, and many other international important outerwear making brands. Currently the company’s main markets are in Italy, Russia, USA, Germany, UK, France and Spain [Lanificiomenchitessuti.com, 2014].

[Maxmara.com, 2014]

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4.1.4. Tuscany and vero cuoio Tuscany represents the world best supplier of luxury leather in excellent quantity. There are 2.000 enterprises and 15.000 employers engaged in the field of leather industry in Tuscany. In 2011, the industry had generated more than 3 billions of euros and 2,2 billions from exportation. It is from this region that all the world luxury brands’ leather goods take their shape: Gucci, Prada, Ferragamo, Tod’s, Dolce & Gabbana, Stefano Ricci, Braccialini, Dior and Louis Vuitton. Tuscany is the center of Cuoio, (the rigid leather) making it the main European supplier of shoes sole. 90% of European shoe sole come from Tuscany [Associazione italiana pelletieri, 2014]. The Tuscan tanning industry are mainly located in the suburb of Florence in San Miniato, Ponte a Egola and Santa Croce, confirmed since many years as the Italian and European leader in this sector with a market share of more than 70% of the production [Cuoioditoscana.com, 2014]

[Snapguide.com, 2014]

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4.2 Materials’ trade fairs Having so many important world-class production areas, international platform to showcase these excellent products must be created. Milan, Florence and Bologna are the 3 main area for primary material trade fairs. Starting from yarn, there is the international yarn trade fair, Pitti Filato in Florence, in Milan there is the biggest textile trade fair Milano Unica, and Filo for yarn, Leather exhibition in Bologna with Linea Pelle. They are presented twice a year, and usually it last for 3 or 4 days. Differ from ready to wear presentations they present the Spring Summer collection in the first half of year (around February) and Fall Winter collection in the second half of the year (around September). All of them are positioned in the medium high level, presenting high quality products. Trade fairs are B2B business, the access are only reserved for the industry professionals; some of them allow also the entrance for fashion institution students at the last day. It is suggested to get the entrance pass before your arrival to Milan. You can register as visitor online at each trade fair organizations’ official website by filling up a form in order to avoid the queue at exhibition day. If you are a textile maker, button maker or a company producing clothing primary materials and you are interested to exhibit your products in those trade fairs you must contact and apply to them at least half an year advance. Each trade fair has its own criteria to select exhibitors, beside the characteristics of the product; the brand position and history are also taken into consideration for selection. Every trade fair has its own pricing policy, depends on the position and space size the price for an exhibition stand can be very different for each case. Usually it is calculated base on square meters and in order to get a rough idea, an exhibition stand space of 5 square meter can cost from 2000euro up to 5000, it depends on the fair.

[Milanounica.it, 2014]

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4.2.1 Pitti Filati Pitti Filati is the main international event for the knitting yarn industry. It is the place where yarn makers can show case their new seasonal products, clothing manufactures make orders of the primary materials, designers take inspiration for their next year collections. It is held twice a year, January and July and it usually last 4 days. Taking part of the Pitti Immagine company, it is held at the same place of Pitti Uomo, Fortezza da Basso in Florence. Access Pitti Filati The fair is strictly reserved for specialist buyers with a entrance price of 30euro (2014). The term VISITOR includes the following CATEGORIES: clothing manufacturers; independent fashion designers; knitting mills; department stores; import/export companies; buying offices; tanneries; wool mills; yarn processors; needlework stores [Pittimmagine.com, 2014]. Access Pitti Filati as Exhibitor As one of the world most prestigious trade fair, Pitti Immagine Filati has a very strict selection on its exhibitors. You must contact the organization at least half a year before you want to show your collection at the trade fair. Information like the brand and its history, the company profile and the positioning of the product, are took into consideration for selection.

[Pittimmagine.com, 2014]

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4.2.2 Milano Unica Milano Unica is considered the most important and biggest textile and fabric trade fair in Italy and in the world. It is held twice a year, February and September in Milan. It usually last 3 days. It is divided inside in different sections of exhibition: Ideabiella, prestigious woolen menswear and women’s wear fabric collections; Moda In, avant-garde materials for the trendy market; Shirt Avenue, traditional and novelty shirting fabrics, Idea Como, silk fabrics from Como area. [Milanounica.it, 2014] Access Milano Unica The entrance at Milano Unica is free and reserved only to the textile operators. For students Milano Unica offers the complimentary access on the last day of the show. Access as an Exhibitor Milano Unica is only reserved for European participants [Milano Unica, 2014]. Each trade fair office maintains contacts with its habitual clientele, established during years of close collaboration. Ideabiella is the industrial union of Biella (fine wool production district in Italy), and it is only reserved for woolen mills from Biella. Ideacomo is also only dedicated for silk companies in the Como area, because it is an association of the silk enterprises in the Como district.

[Designreporting.files.wordpress.com, 2014]

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4.2.3 Linea Pelle Linea Pelle is the biggest leather fair in Italy and one of the most important international exhibitions of leather and leather goods’ components and accessories. At Lineapelle are present about 1,100 companies from over 40 Countries. The event takes place twice a year, in April for the summer and September for the winter collections, most of time is set in Bologna but sometimes in Milan too. Lineapelle has been characterized by its constant leadership in quality and style innovation, which makes it indispensable to the leather demand worldwide.[Lineapelle-fair.it, 2014] Access Linea Pelle Only the operators belonging to the admitted categories and holding an e-ticket will be granted access to the exhibition. Require your e-ticket by filling the “Online Registration” form. Entrance to all halls is free [Lineapelle-fair.it, 2014]. Access linea Pelle as Exhibitor Linea Pelle welcomes worldwide exhibitors. You have to request the participation in good advance by submitting your application before October for the next spring exhibition and before May for the autumn exhibition. The admission fee is € 1,400.00 and the exhibition fee is € 155.00 per sqm. The standard stand size is 16 sqm. (4x4m) or multiples [Lineapelle-fair.it, 2014].

[Bolognafiere.it, 2014]

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Chapter 5 Wholesale distribution

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5.1 The distribution system in Italy The distribution channel is built of the together from independent institutions, which work on the complex activity necessary to transfer a product and the corresponding property from the producer to the consumer [Kotler, 2000]. Understand the distribution channel is indispensable for a designer or fashion house in order to choose the most suitable channel to use in order to reach the right target, and for a retailer to understand where to go in order to get the most appropriate merchandise for its store. Talking about the distribution of Italian Ready to Wear, usually they are distributed through two main channels: trade fair and showroom. Big fashion houses like Armani, Versace, Valentino they are not presented at any trade fair, but they invite directly their clients to their showroom. While small and medium designer brands that want to be distributed in the multibrand stores, usually are presented both in a multibrand showroom and sometimes according to the company’s strategy and finance situation is also presented at some international trade fairs in order to arise the brand awareness among industry people and gain new clients. However many designers have started their business by presenting their products directly to the store, meeting each multibrand storeowner. This usually happen at the first stage of the business when they have just founded the company, due to the financial problem they are neither presented in any trade fair nor any multibrand showroom. The Ready to Wear fashion calendar has mainly two seasons: Spring Summer and Fall Winter. The trade fairs and fashion showrooms’ sales campaigns usually start in the fashion week period: January - Fall Winter men’s fashion week February - Fall Winter women’s fashion week. June - Spring Summer men’s fashion week September - Spring Summer women’ fashion week From the order to arrive at the store usually takes 6 month- 9 month time, meaning for the merchandise that you order in February will arrive at your store from July, August balance September.

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5.2 Showrooms Showroom is the platform where fashion products meet retailers. Showroom can be divided firstly into two categories, the company owned one, which is like Armani group owns its Showroom for selling Giorgio Armani, Emporio Armani and so on; and external agent showroom like independent multibrand showrooms, where most of the small and medium size fashion houses presents their collections at. They receive worldwide buyers on invitation and on request 4 times per year, SS men (June), FW men (January), SS women (September) and FW women (February). Each sales campaign last about one month period. They are mostly focused in Milan and few in Florence. As designer brand Multibrand showrooms is a good platform of distribution if you would like to sell your products in the multibrand stores and you are someone new in the market and you don’t have a wide customer resource. Through a well established showroom and their constant visitors, your product can be seen and reach a wide range of retailers. Be careful for the selection of showroom, each of them has its own feature and concept thus their customer retailers are also different, for example the overall stylistic code of brands that are presented inside Elisa Gaito showroom is Feminine, and Studiozeta is about discovery of new young brands with a urban taste. Another consideration is about the territory covered by the showroom, some of them are strong only nationwide and some others internationally. After decided which showroom best suits your brand and your product, you have to contact the showroom for the admission. Each showroom has a different policy of the charging fee, usually they charges a percentage from10%-15% from each order sheet, and some others can ask for an entrance fee for designers. As retailer and buyer If you are a multibrand retailer that is looking for Italian designer brands to include in your portfolio, you have to contact the showroom for an appointment, since this is only a B2B business and the entrance is strictly reserved for buyers and retailers on invitation and request only. After you made your older at showroom you will probably receive your ordered goods six months after the placement. Each brand can have a different shipping method, some of them may offer a price with shipping service included, but most of them are “Ex Factory” method, which means the buyer need to contact a courier to pick up the goods at factory place and send them back to China and went through all the process of custom on the behalf and cost of the buyer. The payment for non-European union retailers usually is 30% at confirm of the order and 70% before shipping.

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Here below is a list of the main multibrand showrooms in Milan divided by product cathegory :

Accessory

Clothing

Sei Daniele di Lorenzo Mantero (Como, scarves) Massimo Bonini Showroom Montanari

Anagramma Arete’ Showroom Avista Showroom Damiano boiocchi Elisa Gaito Limelight Lo studio Manuela Cucurnia Moda & Company Mpstudio Spartadiccianove Showroom

Garment with integration of accessory lines 247 Showroom Breramode Daniele Ghiselli diffusione Fattore K Milano Goa Corporation In Style Srl L.A. Distribuzione Livia Gregoretti Showroom M3 eyc… Marziano Bello Nevenka Opus Felix Panorama Moda Pink Milano Point di Mariapia Bernardis & Co Renzo Vesentini Riccardo Grassi Showroom S.D. Showroom Shatush Showroom Showroom Marcona 3 Showroom Papaveri Showroom Paraaggi Società Italia Spazio 38 Spring Up Studiozeta. Org Style Council & Associates The Place Tomorrow Via Sannio 20 Showroom Winwood Showroom Zappieri Milano

[Modemonline.it, 2014]

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5.2.1 Massimo Bonini Presenting a few of the most important and interesting showroom in Milan, Showroom Massimo Bonini is the leading multibrand showroom dedicated to the accessory like shoes and bags. Located in the luxury district of Milan, Via Montenapoleone 2 and 3, the showroom is dedicated on the worldwide distribution of high-end designer brands and luxury brands’ accessory collection. More than 30 collections are presented inside, there are well known brands like Alexander Mcqueen, Karl Lagerfeld, Roberto Cavalli, Versace, N21, designer brands like MSGM, N21, Giambattista Valli and so on [Massimobonini.com, 2014].

[Massimobonini.com, 2014]

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5.2.2 Riccardo Grassi One of the most advant-garde multibrand showroom is Riccardo Grassi. Located in Via Piranesi, 4, Milan, Riccardo Grassi presents about 30 designer brands in a space of 3000 sqm. Riccardo Grassi Showroom proposes both Woman and Man RTW and Accessories. Targeting to a niche clientele, most of the designers are young and unknown but all characterized by a strong and individual design research, innovation and high quality. It is a very innovative, open minded and daring to explore company with a young staff and energetic spirit. It aims to be international and to become the absolute leader in this field. This spirit of Riccardo Grassi Showroom is further emphasized by the initiative of creating the beautiful Showroom in 9 Avenue Hoche in Paris that houses the sales campaigns during the Fashion week in Paris as well as the seasonal Pop up Showroom in New York [Riccardograssi.com, 2014].

[Riccardograssi.com, 2014]

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5.2.3 Studiozeta.org One of the initial companies that have started in the multi label distribution field is Studiozeta.org. Founded 30 years ago in Florence, and moved in Milan about 10 years ago in via Friuli 26, the location has a space of 3500sqm showcasing more than 30 designer brands every season. It is very strong in the distribution of local Italian market but also very focused on the international market like Russia and Asia. Studiozeta is well known for its continuous research and discovery of new young talented designers. It is a fashion trend reference point for many industry professionals and it is a must be place for many worldwide retailers in the sales campaign period. The company has its mission of promoting young designers; in the past it promoted brands like Maison Martin Margela and Antonio Marass. Today, it is still trying to support talented designers with a low commission fee and no admission fee [Studiozeta.org, 2014].

[Studiozeta.org, 2014]

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5.3 Trade fairs In Italy, the ready to wear Trade fairs takes place usually in two cities, Milan and Florence. They are presented two times per year, January/February for Spring Summer collection and June/September for the Fall Winter collection, and usually last about 3-4 days. One of the strongest trade fair organizations is Pitti Immagine that has their headquater in Florence and the fair location usually is in Fortezza da Basso in the city centre. Pitti Immagine organizes trade fair like: Pitti Uomo (world leading menswear trade fair); Pitti Immagine W ( a fair dedicated to womenswear that is showcased together with Pitti Uomo); Pitti Bimbo (world leading childrenswear trade fair); Pitti Filati (the main international event for the knitting yarn industry); Taste (a new project dedicated to the excellence in taste and food lifestyles); Fragranze (a new project dedicated to the olfactory culture and artistic perfumery); Moda Prima (international quality fast fashion trade fair); Super (contemporary designers’ apparel and accessory trade fair in Milan); E-Pitti ( the new project of online fair by Pitti). While Milan as the world capital for ready to wear fashion, helds many international tradefairs every year. The common place is in Rho-Fiera, close to the suburb area. However there are also many independent trade fair organizations that have location in the city center area like White. A list of most important ready to wear trade fair in Milan is: White (contemporary men & women designer clothing & accessory); Super (organized by Pitti Immagine); Milano PAP ( dedicated for the women’s Prêt-à-Porter collections); Mi Cam (world leading footwear trade fair); Mi Pel (world leading leather goods show and is simultaneously with Micam).

[Fieramilano.it, 2014]

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5.3 .1 Pitti Uomo Pitti Uomo is the world’s most important platform for men’s clothing and accessory collections and for launching new projects in men’s fashion [Pittimmagine.com, 2014]. Pitti Uomo is held at palace of Fortezza da Basso in Florence, twice a year, usually in the 3 or 4 days before Milan men’s fashion week. There will be approximately 1030 brands at Pitti Uomo with 40% of them coming from outside of Italy, and over 30,000 visitors, representing the world’s major department stores and small retailers, attended the last summer edition of the fair. Access Pitti The entrance fee to Pitti Uomo is 30 euro per single person and it is very strict the admission. Clothes or accessories manufacturers and stylists are not admitted to the Show. Only specialized buyers, boutiques, retail shops, department stores, buying groups, wholesalers, importers, buying offices are admitted to the fair. If you attend the fair for the first time, you have to fill out a registration form and present it together with a copy of the Chamber of Commerce certificate or a professional document attesting the company’s business. Access Pitti as Exhibitor Companies wishing to participate Pitti Uomo should prepare it in much advance, the procedures are similar to Pitti Filati that is mentioned in the previous chapter. Information about the brand and its history, the company profile and the positioning of the product are quite relevant for the selection.

[Pittimmagine.com, 2014]

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5.3.2 White White is the international contemporary fashion trade fair that showcases young designers with avantgarde collections. It is held in via Tortona 27, 35 and 54 Milan, four times a year February (FW) and September (SS) only for womenswear and January (FW) and June (SS) both for man and woman’s pre collection. It usually last for 3 days [Whiteshow.it, 2014]. Attended by more than 17.000 buyers from the most important multi-brands in the world, WHITE is a prestigious platform for niche brands and the ideal stage for all those Italian and international companies which recognize themselves in the White character, made of creativity, harmony and ecoethical commitment [whiteshow.it, 2014]. Access White Access to White is free and it is reserved only to fashion industry professionals, fashion institution students must get an authorization from the school. Access White as Exhibitor White welcomes worldwide designers to apply for presentation. The product, brand history, brand positioning are taken into consideration as evaluation criteria. Depends on the size of the booth, the price can varies a lot, in order to have a rough idea about a regular space of 7or 8 sqm for display designer collection is around 6000euro for the entire trade fair period.

[Whiteshow.it, 2014]

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5.3.3 Micam Micam is the leading international footwear fair, held twice a year in Milan, Spring Summer collections in March and Fall Winter collections in September. It usually last about 4 days. It is held in Rho Fiera with an exhibition area of 70,000 square meters and plays host to around 1,600 companies, of which 1,000 are Italian and 600 foreign. Together they represent over 30 different countries. Given the attendance figures of over 42,000 visitors, of which 21,000 come from abroad [Micamonline.com, 2014] Access Micam Access to the Micam is free and it is reserved only to operators in the footwear sector: retailers, buying offices, agents, importers, and wholesalers. In order to access the Micam you must fill up a registration form. If you are a fashion student, you must do this in advance [micamonline.com, 2014]. Access Micam as Exhibitor Micam welcomes worldwide exhibitors. As an exhibitor in MICAM you must be a manufacturer, a distributor, an agent or representatives of the following products: footwear, bags and leather accessories, total look in leather or accessories for shoes shops. The minimum booth size is 16 sqm. The rates of 2007 are € 77 for registration and € 172 per sqm, plus € 150 for insurance and other expenses [Micamonline.com, 2014].

[Micamonline.com, 2014]

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48


Chapter 6 Retailing

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6.1 Shopping districts and areas

Retailling include all the activities in selling goods or services directly to final customers. According to each company’s distribution strategy, retailing can take many formats: - directly owned retail organization - partnerships for retail organization (franchising & licensing) - flagship - Shop in shop, corner, wall-unit - store and non store formats (dimentions) [Renn, 2013] No matter if you are a large scale company that choose directly owned retail organization mode or a small designer studio that choose to distribute through multibrand retailers, choosing the right location and the right format is a crucial to make sure that your product can arrive to the end user. Differ from China, there is no large shopping malls dedicated to fashion retailers in Italy, instead boutiques are gathered together in shopping districts and down to the streets. Taking example of the World Fashion Capital, Milan, it has inside many fashion districts and streets divided by the type of retailers present. Via Montenapoleone is the historical luxury street in Milan, and its where you can find those world recognized luxury brands like Louis Vuitton, Gucci, Armani and so on. All the area, and streets next to Via Montenapoleone is considered as luxury district, Chanel is present in Via del Gesu. Dolce Gabbana in Via della Spiga and so forth. The whole city center of Milan is very crowded by the fashion retailers. Next to luxury district there is Corso Venezia, an avenue dedicated to fast fashion retailers and it is the favorite place of shopping for teenagers and young people. The Duomo cathedral area is another place for big mass market brands like Zara, H&M, Gap and so on. If your target has a high profile and creative in a way, Brera is the best place to be. Brera is the very artistic district of Milan, down to its historical path there is Brera art university and many special designer shops. Every city has its own districts and streets dedicated for a certain kind of fashion, you must study area by area in order to understand where is your target and where is your competitor. Beside being present in the major cities like Milam, Rome, Turin, Florence and so on, many luxury brands also choose to have a seasonal store open in the summer time in the island or seaside areas like Capri, Forte dei Marmi, Portofino and all the very popular destinations for summer vacation.

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6.2 Large scale retailers In Italy there are few large-scale retailers, the main two companies are Gruppo Coin and La Rinascente. Both of them have the main business of department stores located in different Italian cities’ center. Coin department store is more declined to the medium-high brands, while La Rinascente is a must to go place for luxury and well-known brands. 6.2.1 Gruppo Coin Founded in 1916 by Sir. Vittorio Coin in Venice, today the Coin Group is Italy’s largest clothing retailer, with a market share of 7.67%. 9.511 are the employees number, 1020 shops are present in Italy and 117 abroad. In 2012 its sales figures reached 1,657 million euros [gruppocoin.com, 2014]. The company operates under several brands : - Upim Upim is a chain of medium size department store in Italy selling quality fast fashion brands. It was founded in 1928 and acquired by the group Coin in 2009, today it has 202 point of sales in Italy. Upim is dedicated for the low price fashion targeting to the local Italian families. Upim usually has its location in the community area next to the supermarkets. It has a vast choice of the product categories that satisfy different people’s need [Upim.it, 2014]. - Coin Coin is a chain of large-scale department store located in the city center selling medium-high level brands. It has around 90 point of sales in Italy all located in the main shopping area of cities. It offers a complete fashion service with clothing, accessory, beauty in a wide selection of brands. It is a fashion reference point of many local Italian people [Coin.it, 2014]. - Excelsior Milano It is new project by Coin group, a department store dedicated to avant-garde contemporary designer brands. Opened only in the recent years but very well received by the consumers. Located in the city center of Milan, next to the Cathedral of Duomo and La Rinascente department store, Exelsior welcomes international customers and local fashionistas. Currently the clothing floors (man, women and accessory) are occupied by the multibrand retailer Antonia [Excelsiormilano.com, 2014]. - OVS OVS is a fast fashion retail chain selling men, women and children’s fashion with an intensive distibution in Italy and all over the world [Ovs.it, 2014]. - Iana IANA is a mass childrenswear brand. Currently it is sold under a chain of stores mainly in the Italian territory [Iana.it,2014]. As a large-scale company that would like to distribute its own brand in the Italian territory, Gruppo Coin can be a good partner. In order to have an intensive and wide presence in the territory medium level brands can distribute through Coin department store and fast fashion brands can sell through Upim.

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6.2.2 La Rinascente La Rinascente is where you can find the most complete luxury shopping experience and it is considered as the most prestigious and high-end department store in Italy. It has a very complete offer, fashion clothing, accessory, beauty, home & design and food. La Rinascente is focused in some big Italian metropolis only. Currently there are 11 department stores in Italy: Rome (2), Milan, Florence,Cagliari, Catania, Genova, Monza, Padua, Palermo and Turin. They are all set in the city center, in the most crowded touristic area and the main shopping district. La Rinascente was an historical Italian department store founded in Milan in 1865 by Luigi and Ferdinando Bocconi (the same founders of the very prestigious economy university Bocconi). In 2011 Central Retail, a Thai retail company bought a 100% stake of the 150-year-old store firm for 260 million euro [Rinascente.it, 2014] La Rinascente has a very International clientele since it is located in the touristic area, it welcomes thousands worldwide tourists everyday and thus most of the brands present inside are usually very established luxury brands or high end European labels. It was several years ago that La Rinascente started a series of managerial changes, the brand portfolio has become more and more international, the store design also become more artistic, there is also a focus on the up coming designer brands. Be present inside La Rinascente means be in the same level of all the other luxury fashion houses, it is a symbol of prestige and brand status. It could be helpful for the initial brand entry in the Italian market to state the brand position and build the awareness.

[Larinascente.com, 2014]

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6.3 Multibrand stores High end designers usually have their products aimed on a niche market and a niche clientele in terms of style, price, occasion of use and luxuriousness consequently they have a very selective distribution channel. Their products are availabe in a limited number of sales points in a selective geographical area. The advantage of this approach is that the designer or the producer can choose the most suitable and best-performing sales points and focus on them. In Italy there are many world recognized leading multibrand and concept stores like Antonia, Antonioli, Biffi, DAAD Dantone, 10 Corso Como, Luisa Via Roma in Florence and so on. However the main and the most used channel to reach these multibrand retailers for a small designer brand is through well established multibrand showrooms that we mentioned in the chapter before. Here below is a list of the best multibrand shops in Italy: ADANI AGNETTI AMR ANTONIA ANTONIOLI BANNER BASE BLU BERNARDELLI BIFFI BIG BOSS BINI SILVIA PASSEGGIATA BIRBA’S BONVICINI BRUNA ROSSO CAMMALLERI CARAVAN CASTANGIA 1850 CECILIA DE FANO CENERE G.B. COLLI COLOGNESE 1882 CORTECCI COSE CUCCUINI CUMINI MODA D’ANIELLO D’ANNA DAVINCI DEGLI EFFETTI DELL’OGLIO DELLA MARTIRA DIVO DONNE CONCEPT STORE ELEONORA BONUCCI ELITE ERALDO FACCIOLI FAGNI FELLA

FOLLI FOLLIE FRANCA LEONI G&B NEGOZIO GALLERY GAUDENZI GIGI TROPEA GISA GUERRA HELME’ IL CORTILE IL SELLAIO ITALIANI JULIAN FASHION L’INCONTRO LA CAPRESE PIU’ LA COUPOLE LE NOIR LE NOIR CORTINA LEAM LINO RICCI LORI LUISA LUISA VIA ROMA LUNGOLIVIGNO FASHION MANTOVANI MANTOVANI SHOP MARIO FORNI MAXI HO MAZZONI MAZZONI ASTI MINETTI MODE MIGNON MONTI NICK & SONS NIDA NUGNES 1920 O’ OLEGGINI PAPINI

PARISI PAVIN ELEMENTS PELLIZZARI 1830 PENELOPE PERNIGOTTI POMPOSI POZZILEI PUPI SOLARI RAIL RAIMONDI DRESS* RATTI RE ARTU’ ROSSANA NICOLAI ROSY BIS RUSSO CAPRI SAN CARLO DAL 1973 SANTOMO SATU SBAIZ CONCEPT STORE SEGRETO SPINNAKER STEFANIA MODE SUGAR SUIT SUSI STORE TESSABIT THE BIG SPENDERS TIZIANA FAUSTI TONY MAGENTA TORREGROSSA TRICOT TUFANO VALENTI VELA SHOP VINICIO VITALE VIVA WHOOM PRATOLIVO WISE

[Camerabuyer.it, 2014] 53


6.3.1 Luisa Via Roma Luisaviaroma is a multibrand store based in Florence, selling high-end and avant-garde fashion apparel and accessories for man, women & kids. It is one of the leading multibrand stores in Italy. Their products are very selected, avant-garde and fashion-forward, high-end and good-quality. It stocks both established brands and up-coming designer brands in order to integrate the store offer, and satisfy different customers’ need. The target are fashionistas, fashion forward people and fashion victims. The company has currently only one store located in the historical city center of Florence but through the online store, which takes a huge part of the business, can reach worldwide consumers include shipping to Mainland China. Luisaviaroma is really strong in online activity and the use of technology for ecommerce and online promotion activities, for this reason they are also quite popular among the niche market of fashionistas. The very professional buying team and company’s organization represents a huge strength for the company in order to manage the coherence of online and offline business. [Luisaviaroma.com, 2014]. As fashion designers No doubt that Luisa Via Roma represents world top fashion retailer, being chosen and selected by Luisa Via Roma and stocked inside the store represents being honored as a world top class brand. Usually the buying team visits showrooms and trade fairs in Milan, London, New York and Paris every season for the product selection.

[Luisaviaroma.it, 2014]

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6.3.2 10 Corso Como 10 Corso Como Milan is considered as one of the world best concept store. The location in Milan includes an art gallery, a cafe restaurant, a space dedicated for fashion clothing and accessories, a bookshop and a hotel with 3 rooms. 10 Corso Como was founded in 1990 in Milan by Carla Sozzani, former fashion editor and publisher of Vogue Italy with only an art gallery dedicated for the photography and later joined by a bookshop and garden cafè. Named after the street address, the industrial building is designed by American artist Kris Ruhs who also creates the black and white logo that will become an icon of global style. Today Corso Como is expanded worldwide with its presence in Milan, Seoul, Tokyo and Shanghai [10corsocomo.com,2014]. As fashion designers 10 Corso Como is the synonymous of being trendy and cool. It is one of the favorite shopping places for top fashionistas, celebrities, and it is the reference point for fashion industry professionals. Being stocked inside somehow guarantees and certifies that your collection is contemporary and avantgarde. Another fact is that the store stocks also many other well-established luxury brands with a selective products, this is quite useful to elevate unknown designer brand status.

[10corsocomo.com, 2014]

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56


Chapter 7 Communication

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[images.vogue.it, 2014]

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7.1 Communication and advertising Communication is a transfer of information, from a sender that in this case is the company, the brand or the store to a receiver, which is the audience or the consumer. A company can tell a message to its consumers through different channels like mainstream magazines, TV channels, radio, outdoor billboards, web, sponsorships, offline events, fashion show and so on [Draghi, 2011]. Before making a communication plan and media strategy, you should first analyze “Who you are” (the company itself), “Who is your audience” (the target profile and customer profile), “What is your goal”(to show the product, to improve the brand awareness, to launch a new item, to reach a new positioning ranking) and “What is the budget” (the advertising expenditure in a media strategy) [Draghi, 2011]. First of all the communication can be divided in above the line and below the line. Above the line communication meaning communicating to a mass and wide audience, while below the line communication is more niche focused, it involves a small and limited number of people with a specific aim and goal. Generally a brand promotes itself through both ways. Speaking the most common way of above the line communication for a ready to wear company or medium-high level fashion business is advertising through magazines. Printed magazine are quite popular in Italy, reading gossip weekly and newspaper supplement is one of the favorite way of spending time for teenagers and households. D Repubblica delle Donne for example is the fashion supplement in the Saturday edition of the very popular Italian daily newspaper La Repubblica. Io Donna is another weekly female counterpart to the other primary Italian daily Il Corriere della Sera, Fashion magazines have a niche target of white collars, fashion industry professionals and fashion instituion students. The most popular monthly fashion magazines in Italy can be divided in two groups, the high-class professional one and the mass reading with a wider content one. The first group of higher price and higher professionalism focused in fashion contents are magazines like: Vogue Italia, Elle Italia, Numero, MarieClaire Italia and Vanity Fair. The second group of mass reading magazines with a lower price and a wider content topic are like Grazia, Cosmopolitan Italia, Amica, Gioia and Glamour. In the media planning, you should first consider if it is necessary and appropriate to make a magazine advertisement. If it is, what can the most suitable magazines to reach your goal. If it is about sending a message to your consumers and promoting the brand awareness, you should first consider if the magazine can represent the brand image or not, and then evaluate if the readers correspond to your target consumers. TV and Radio are usually used to reach a mass attention and it is the preferred communication tool for mass-market brands and they are rarely used by high-end fashion labels. Outdoor billboards is very often a choice for the short term advertising with a specific aim like promoting the Christmas sale. However with digitalization online activities have became a must for all the fashion companies. Only by checking on Google the fashion companies names that comes in our mind, all of them have a company website, an e-commerce site(if it is a retail business), a blog and social networks. As online marketing is important to work on Google ad words since it is the main search engine used in Italy. Mentioning some of the most popular social networks used in Italy are Facebook (the absolute most used social network), Youtube (videos), Thublr (blog) and Instagram (photo & image).

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[Cameramoda.it, 2014]

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7.1 Milano Fashion week Companies that would like to present their collections during Milano Men’s or Women’s Fashion Week and interested to be included in the official fashion week calendar should present in early advance the application at Camera Nazionale della Moda Italiana (CNMI, The Nantional Italian Chamber of Fashion), at least 90 days before the event starts and 120 days for those who presents for the first time. Information and documents that need to be prepared and send to CNMI for the evaluation are: - Catalogue or presentation book of the collection that is going to be present at show; - Press release; - List of present clients(boutiques, outlets etc) in Italy and worldwide; - List of showrooms; - Philosophic presentation of the collection; - Designer’s curriculum vitae; - Company registry certification and financial statement from Chamber of Commerce (Camera di Commercio); - Collection price point; - Company Vat number; - Number of employees; - Company’s annual turnover. [cameramoda.it, 2014] *The application for the Milano fashion show will not be considered if the above information and documentation are uncompleted.

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After the approval from CNMI, the company has to pay for the event or show according to the company’s annual turn over.

[Cameramoda.it, 2014]

Milano Men and Women Fashion Week calendar will be advertised on the following press: - Corriere della Sera; - La Repubblica; - Il sole 24 ore; - La stampa; - Prima Comunicazione; - Herald Tribune; -MF fashion- 2pages; - WWD womens wear daily; - Fashion Illustrated. The calendar will be published also in online platforms like: - www.wwd.com - www.fashionmagazine.it - larepubblicamilano.it As online marketing Milano Fashio Week uses google adwords and social networks like facebook, youtube and so on. Additionaly, 2500 copies of promotional leaflefts would be distributed during the women’s fashion week period, 1500 copies during men’s fashion week period. All the information will be also clearly reported at CNMI App and website, which is also the official Milano Fashion Week website.

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Appendix

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Useful informations www.modemonline.com Modemonline.com is a website where you can find most of the fashion informations regarding fashion weeks, tradeshows agenda, showrooms sales, brands sales, pre-collections, press days, tradeshows calendar, multi-label showrooms, multi-label stores, press offices, fashion media, schools and fashion services. www.guidamonaci.it Guidamonaci.it is only available in Italian. It works as an information provider and it shows nearly all the companies name and contacts divided by the industry sector and field. en.pambianconews.com Pambianco is the most powerful fashion marketing and communication agency in Italy, and pambianconews.com is the platform that has the function similar to BoF - The Business of Fashion, it provides the latest fashion industry informations to the professionals working in this field. Trade fairs websites www.whiteshow.it www.pittimmagine.com www.mipap.it/en www.micamonline.com www.mifur.com www.milanounica.it www.lineapelle-fair.it Trade fair organizations www.fieramilano.it www.bolognafiere.it Institutions and associations’ websites www.cameramoda.it cameramoda.it is the official website of Italian Chamber of Fashion, and Milano Fashion Week. www.assomodaitalia.it Assomodaitalia.it is the association of the wholesale distributors. www.camerabuyer.it Camerabuyer.it is the association of the best Italian retailers. www.aips.it Associazione italiana pelletieri is the associacio for the leather industry companies www.associazionemontenapoleone.it Associazione Montenapoleone is the association of retailers in the luxury district of Milan. Websites of institutions involved in the company registration www.inps.it www.inail.it www.mi.camcom.it www.agenziaentrate.gov.it

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Fashionpedia for start up in Italy  

Bachelor Graduate project

Fashionpedia for start up in Italy  

Bachelor Graduate project

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