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Lingoport, Inc. 3985 Wonderland Hill Ave. Boulder, Colorado USA 80304 +1 303 444 8020 www.lingoport.com

Successful I18n Project Planning using Static Analysis Olivier Libouban G11n Lead

Adam Asnes Grand Poisson

Copyright: March 2011 Please do not reproduce without authorized permission


Lingoport • Internationalization Services – – – – –

Assessment Project planning I18n development I18n testing Localization integration

• Globalyzer – Internationalization software • Find and fix i18n issues in code


Agenda • • • • • • • •

Business Case I18n issues Static Analysis Background Requirements Gathering Static Analysis Detail Project Plan Example Agile planning Continuous Integration for i18n


Engineering for Locale Support • Globalization (g11n) has two components : – Internationalization (i18n) : software engineering to enable localization – Localization (L10n): culture specific resources (translation, etc.)


Business Case: Nothing gets internationalized or localized just cause it would be cool


I18n Needs – Biz vs. Tech

Our Software must be in Japanese, French, German, Chinese, and Spanish by November

Engineering thinks about‌ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Multi-tiered web application? Complex Interface? Database components? Embedded Strings? Locale aware application? Can it manage multiple data formats? I18n testing plan? Tactics to get it done


I18n is Business Driven • Global initiatives – Expanding opportunities, New customers

• Competitive pressure • Lost time to market • Iterative code fixing, problems keep slipping through • Development costs in the hundreds of thousands to millions of dollars


You Need a Plan – Scope 1st, design later • Project becomes real with $$$ • CFO thinking in terms of ROI – Deal Based • Revenue – Costs = Profit

– Strategic • Revenue over X years – Costs + effect on equity – risk • Leverage global investment of organization

– Cost of Time to Market • If you‟re late or lousy, that has significant opportunity cost


Engineering: Localization is a Downstream Concern • “Somebody else‟s problem” in the world of many developers • Creates an opportunity to educate and shepherd teams through globalization


Is It Internationalized? • Typically underestimate i18n requirements • Most don‟t know the answer • Agile or other feature and release requirements often overrun less formally measured i18n requirements • There is a Management Value in being able to confirm global readiness


Example: Hard-Coded English Text

1 million lines of source code Found: 20,000 Embedded Strings which cannot be efficiently translated

String orderStatus = “Your order has been processed. A confirmation e-mail will be sent to you shortly.�;


Character Sets/Encodings • Character set (e.g. Unicode) – A set of characters used to support a given language or series of languages

• Character encoding (e.g. UTF-16, UTF-8) – A set of code points that defines numeric values for each character within a character set (coded character set)


Character Sets and Encoding

• This is broken:


Sample Code (Java) – i18n Examples


I18n Engineering Considerations • • •

Locale Handling Character encoding Strings – – –

• • • • • • • • •

External, Grammar, Segments, Plurals, Wrapping String Handling (char *, etc.) Tabs, spaces, delimiters, etc.

Resource management – centralized, normalized, re-usable Dates - Calendar Times Sorting & searching Currency Transaction process Character set conversions On line help Sounds

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Honorific titles Telephone formats Postal formats Region-specific functions Shipping conditions Numerical formats Page layout, LTR, RTL Fonts and attributes Icons, colors Reporting, workflow Database support Multi-byte enabling Business logic Measurements, units Input Methods Data exchange


Internationalization Challenge • Software Data Path - it‟s not just the display

Display

Input

Transform Store

Transform

Retrieve


New Internationalization Project!

• What to do? – – – – –

Large amount of code Change in requirements Change in architecture Change in development practices Change in testing requirements


Practical Challenges • Sift through hundreds of thousands or millions of lines of code • Managing fixing complex problems • Creating a product that looks, feels and behaves natively to its worldwide users • Source code must be adapted to seamlessly adapt to any language, streamlining support and updates


Code Review • What to Identify – – – –

Embedded strings Locale-Sensitive methods/functions/classes Image references Unsafe programming constructs (ex: regular expressions needing US Alphabetical Order, Pointer arithmetic and more)


Code Analysis • How to Identify Issues – “Brute force” • Engineers search for and resolve known issues • Count display pages • Pseudo-localization • Scripts and page by page analysis – Globalyzer-assisted review, static analysis • An I18n code analysis tool is employed to examine source code for a large range of potential and known issues • Issues can be identified and resolved in a more systematic fashion


Traditional Approach

- repeat,

and

repeat, and repeat,

Localize and see what youâ€&#x;re missing

Test, Pseudo-Localize

Externalize and refactor one by one

GREP, overwhelm developers

View pages. Pour through code for strings, methods, etc.

and repeat


Globalyzer Server and Clients Static Analysis on the Source Code Server

Client

Command Line

Globalyzer is methodology agnostic. Project Managers may use it in a „traditionalâ€&#x; approach or Agile approach.


Globalyzer Principles - Customization • Globalyzer Server manages Rule Sets Configuration – Globalyzer Rule Sets are used to identify i18n issues in the code base – Rules embody the i18n issue detection logic – One rule set targets one programming language (& variant) – Default rule sets are based on research and years of experience – Rules must be tailored to a specific project – Rules can be shared amongst team members


Globalyzer Principles – Desktop Analysis

• Globalyzer desktop client: – Scan source code using Globalyzer Rule Sets – Detect and report i18n potential issues – Manage i18n issues – Assist Fixing the code to become i18n compliant


Globalyzer Principles - Automation • Globalyzer Command Line – For integration in the overall software process to run at given frequencies – Generate reports once a setup has been established – Different strategies • Segment the code base into small scan projects that reflect the i18n effort • Focus on i18n scope


I18n Processes • Planning • Market Requirements Analysis • Architectural Requirements Analysis • Code Review • I18n Design • I18n Implementation • Testing • And beyond… • Localization • Support


Merging Requirements and • Architectural Changes • Code Analysis What‟s not in the code What‟s in the code – Locale support – Changes to how data is passed around – Discuss and Analyze technical requirements

– Strings – Refactoring Localelimiting methods/functions

– Find and count issues


I18n Architectural Challenge

– what’s not in the code

Marketing Requirements Locale behavior

Database Character encoding support

Application Code e.g. Java, C++, VB

U/I e.g. JSP, ASP, ASPX

3rd Party Products Business Logic Platforms, Browser Support Requirements


COMPLICATIONS


Operational Challenges • Ongoing development – Agile? – Code Branching? – Multiple teams?


Release Path • Internationalization, 1st Time – – – –

Most of U/I Breaks the DB Data I/O Test entire product

• Feature Release – 3 week sprint? – Focus on code subset – Concentrated testing • Static analysis with Globalyzer

Code branch, merge, testing strategy


Factors to Plan On • • • • • • • • • •

Programming languages How many tiers, what do they do Database support Locale Requirements 3rd Party Products – support for Unicode? Size of Application – Lines of Code Amount of Embedded Strings to be Externalized Estimate of concatenation DB refactoring Methods/Functions/Classes replacement


Tiers and Technologies

1

• Java • C#

2

• JavaScript • VB

3

• C++ • Older languages: e.g. RPG Time and effort increase


Other Issues • Stability of the build • Quality of the code – History

• Focus of the developers • Source code management approach • New concurrent development introducing new i18n problems


Questions & Answers Adam Asnes adam@lingoport.com

Resources http://www.lingoport.com

Olivier Libouban olivier@lingoport.com

Globalyzer http://www.globalyzer.com Blog http://i18nblog.com


Lingoport: Requirements and Planning

Adam Asnes President & CEO Lingoport

Olivier Libouban Globalization Lead Lingoport


Why go through requirements? • I18n work is software engineering • To determine the scope of the i18n work, the i18n cannot simply look at the code and come up with an i18n project • Scope also leads to planning, cost, resources • How to describe i18n requirements?


Focus on one requirement: Locale • • • •

One product instance per locale? Multi-locale support Locale detection? User account support?


Ex: WebSphere Portal Locale Determination – User logged in: display user‟s preferred language – No preferred user language: look for user‟s browser language • If supports of that language, displays in that language. • If browser has more than one language defined, uss the first language in the list to display the content.

– If no browser language can be found, for example if the browser used does not send a language, the portal resorts to its own default language. – If the user has a portlet that does not support the language that was determined by the previous steps, that portlet is shown in its own default language.


One-Time Locale Selection


System based Locale Detection


More of the typical i18n requirements • • • • • • •

Target date(s) System requirements Existing & potential use cases for UI text entry, Text display Text processing Collation Handling of locale-sensitive data (dates, numbers, currencies, etc.). • Client Installer considerations


Architectural Discussion • Thorough Product Demo • Walk through major architecture components


Conceptual illustrative architecture Specific development and integration CODE UI Business Persistance RDBMS

Web Services

April 19, 2011 – p 45

Rules Engine

Workflow Engine

LDAP

JMS

CMS

3rd Parties


Specific i18n software engineering focus Specific development and integration

• UI : html, server side, JavaScript, input forms, css, content presentation, etc. • Business logic, searches, comparisons, data exchange with external systems • Persistence : exchanges with RDMBS, Content Management, LDAP, file based persistence (xml, etc.)

April 19, 2011 – p 46

CODE UI Business Persistance RDBMS

Web Services

Rules Engine

Workflow Engine

LDAP

JMS

CMS

3rd Parties


Specific development i18n issues Specific development and integration

• String externalization (outside of code) and i18n resource bundles • Locale sensitive methods : searching, retrieving, sorting, date and time, string operations, character operations, etc. • Code resources (images, etc.) • Overall programming language specifics

April 19, 2011 – p 47

CODE UI Business Persistance RDBMS

Web Services

Rules Engine

Workflow Engine

LDAP

JMS

CMS

3rd Parties


Data stores i18n issues Specific development and integration

• • • •

• • • • •

PL/SQL Encoding Locale files (xml, xls, csv, etc) Database specific issues, date/time, conversion, sorting, soundex, etc. Storing and retrieving local data in local language (vs. a “generic” schema) User entered data Columns requiring translation Attributes, user names, postal addresses, etc Database design

April 19, 2011 – p 48

Web Services

CODE UI Business Persistance RDBMS

Rules Engine

Workflow Engine

LDAP

JMS

CMS

3rd Parties


Content Management i18n issues Specific development and integration CODE UI Business Persistance

• Accessing the proper locale

RDBMS

Web Services

• Encoding of content

April 19, 2011 – p 49

Rules Engine

Workflow Engine

LDAP

JMS

CMS

3rd Parties


External system i18n issues Specific development and integration

• Modality of data exchange / data loss • Accessing the proper locale • Encoding/persistence of content on external system

April 19, 2011 – p 50

CODE UI Business Persistance RDBMS

Web Services

Rules Engine

Workflow Engine

LDAP

JMS

CMS

3rd Parties


I18n Engineering Considerations • • •

Locale Handling Character encoding Strings – – –

• • • • • • • • •

External, Grammar, Segments, Plurals, Wrapping String Handling (char *, etc.) Tabs, spaces, delimiters, etc.

Resource management – centralized, normalized, re-usable Dates - Calendar Times Sorting & searching Currency Transaction process Character set conversions On line help Sounds

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Honorific titles Telephone formats Postal formats Region-specific functions Shipping conditions Numerical formats Page layout, LTR, RTL Fonts and attributes Icons, colors Reporting, workflow Database support Multi-byte enabling Business logic Measurements, units Input Methods Data exchange

April 19, 2011 – p 51


Process requirements: how to fit into an existing environment • • • • •

Lifecycle Documentation Integration QA Type of meetings

• • • • • • • •

Build Source control Branching Reporting structure Review boards JUnit Globalyzer Bug Reporting


Questions & Answers Adam Asnes adam@lingoport.com

Resources http://www.lingoport.com

Olivier Libouban olivier@lingoport.com

Globalyzer http://www.globalyzer.com Blog http://i18nblog.com


Static Analysis Detail Globalyzer example – Running and Reporting

Adam Asnes President & CEO Lingoport

Olivier Libouban Globalization Lead Lingoport


Example Project Plan Looking at a plan from a service project


Example Project Plan Combine: •1 Part Architecture •1 Part Code Metrics •1 Part Experience


Lingoport: Agile & Internationalization

Adam Asnes President & CEO Lingoport

Olivier Libouban Globalization Lead Lingoport


Agile in one slide (smallest nutshell) • Roles (Product Owner, Scrum Master, Team) • Product Backlog • Sprints (user stories are designed, implemented, tested in a „short‟ timeframe, e.g. 3 weeks) • Sprint Backlog • Daily Scrums • Demonstrable • „Shippable‟


i18n and Agile Challenges • Traditionally, Legacy i18n has followed a waterfall model: – i18n cuts across the code, for instance: • Encoding problems …in all the code • Formatting issues … in all the code • Externalize strings …

– i18n needs a systemic approach – I18n tend to have long project life cycles – (L10n: must get an entire locale done)

• From a methodology perspective Agile: – is feature driven – runs in “short” Sprint

• Sometimes a Hybrid approach works best


Agile & i18n Process Challenges


Lingoport Project Assessment - Legacy • Uncover i18n potential issues from 2 perspectives: – Code perspective: Globalyzer reporting/metrics – Architectural: Locale/technical i18n requirements

• Allows to create the initial „i18n product backlog‟ • Can, but does not need to be part of a Sprint • Allows to have an overall scope and effort estimate • Can feed into a number of processes – TDD, ADD, Waterfall, … Agile

• Involve the Product Owner: communication resource


Lingoport Project Organization Backlog identification and Scoping

• The i18n product backlog is a prioritized list of requirements, stories, features, etc. • What the customer wants, described using the (Product Owner‟s) customer‟s terminology ID Name 1

2

Locale Setting and Tracking

Locale for languages

Imp

Est

30

5

10

8

How to demo Log in,

Notes If no login before, default locale

Splash screen for Locale … …

If first time, otherwise remembers … …

Log in for an 'en US' user Locale is default Go to page 'www.' Check pseudo Change Locale localization … ..


Lingoport Project Organization Sprint Management

• i18n code branching • Agile typically uses development build, CI environments • Must pass „regular‟ dev criteria • Must be able to push i18n code branching easily and vice versa • I18n tests must be available to other teams in CI • Some items are more sensitive than others – Database schema changes and implications on all source


Continuous Integration - Basics Team 1 Team 2 Team 3 Team 4 Team 5


CI & Scan Results Summary


CI & Scan Details Results


Questions & Answers Adam Asnes adam@lingoport.com

Resources http://www.lingoport.com

Olivier Libouban olivier@lingoport.com

Globalyzer http://www.globalyzer.com Blog http://i18nblog.com


Software Static Analysis  

The business case for internationalization, character encoding, a Java internationalization example and an overview of Globalyzer's static a...

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