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LINDSAY MAE CONNELLY

ARCHITECTURE

P O R T F O L I O


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THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY 2011 - 2017

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WORK ACADEMIC

ALCOSAN CENTER FOR CONTINUED LEARNING STEWARDSON COMPETITION

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RESIDENTIAL

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CULTURAL

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DESIGN

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FIFTH YEAR THESIS

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HAJJAR MEMORIAL DESIGN COMPETITION HOUSE FOR A MUSICIAN

BROWNSVILLE BOUTIQUE HOTEL AND SPA NCMA: THE BROOKLYN BRIDGE MUSEUM URBAN QUAD: ROME EVENT PLAZA

TABLE DESIGN-BUILD PARTHENON ANALYTIQUE CORBELLETTI DESIGN COMPETITION

THE HEREAFTER: A MORTUARY AND MUSEUM

RESEARCH CASE STUDY: HART ISLAND AND THE HIGH COST OF DYING ALONE


ACADEMIC


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THIRD YEAR

ALCOSAN CENTER FOR CONTINUED LEARNING 10 WEEKS

This project was designed as a welcome and continued learning center for ALCOSAN, Pittsburgh’s waste water treatment facility. Our site was a disused, industrial lot within the ALCOSAN facility. My design worked to transform the site into a place people would want to come and learn about water usage and conservation. The Center houses large exhibition spaces, offices, classrooms, cafe, an auditorium, and a public plaza.


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SITE AND GROUND FLOOR PLAN


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FIFTH YEAR MADRASA: REFUGEE SCHOOL FOR YOUNG WOMEN THE JOHN STEWARDSON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP IN ARCHITECTURE COMPETITION 9 DAYS madrasa: (Islam) an educational institution, particularly for Islamic religious instruction The madrasa for refugee women combines historic typologies with local building materials to create a contemporary architectural statement that is rooted in tradition. The madrasa features a canvas canopy that spans from the classroom building to the service building. The canopy creates a multi-functional, shaded space for play, instruction, demonstrations, and assemblies. The school features various environmentally-responsible design features, including thick walls for thermal mass insulation, daylighting considerations, and natural ventilation.


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RESIDENTIAL


THIRD YEAR HOUSE FOR A LANDSCAPE PAINTER HAJJAR MEMORIAL DESIGN COMPETITION AND SCHOLARSHIP 7 DAYS For the last 13 years, Penn State has held the Hajjar competition for third year architecture students. The competition was established in memory of architecture professor Bill Hajjar. Students have one week to complete the project without guidance from professors. This year, the program was a 1000 square foot house for a landscape painter on a wooded lot in State College, PA. My submission won first place out of 45 entries. The house is a comfortable weekend retreat for the painter. I found that northern light was preferred for painters, so I oriented the house and the artist’s studio towards the north.


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GROUND LEVEL

SECOND YEAR

HOUSE FOR A MUSICIAN 6 WEEKS “At the necessary juncture of culture and place, architecture seeks not only the minimal ruin of landscape, but something more difficult: a replacement of what was lost with something that atones for the loss. In the best architecture, this replacement is through an intensification of the place, where it merges no worse for human intervention, where culture’s shaping of the land to specific use results in a heightening of beauty and presence. In these places we seem worthy of existence.” (W.G. Clarke)

BASEMENT


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CULTURAL


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SECOND YEAR

NCMA: BROOKLYN BRIDGE MUSEUM 10 WEEKS I designed this museum with ideas about vertical circulation and traveling down through the galleries instead of across or back and forth. I worked to create a building that was not only a museum but a monument to the Brooklyn Bridge. Inside, the museum creates an ethereal atmosphere as huge, heavy boxes hang suspended overhead. The masonry wall in the center of the galleries showcases the materiality of concrete masonry and organizes the museum’s circulation. The wall is visible in almost every space and room in the building.


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BASEMENT

GROUND LEVEL

LEVEL 2


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LEVEL 3

LEVEL 5

PROCESS MODELS


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THIRD YEAR BROWNSVILLE BOUTIQUE HOTEL AND SPA 10 WEEKS The hotel and spa create a new destination spot within the historic town of Brownsville, PA. I designed this hotel and spa so that both the new visitors and the citizens of the town would feel welcome going to and using this building. The garden and street-side cafe allow guests and citizens to enjoy the building together.

SECTION


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FOURTH YEAR

URBAN QUAD: ROME EVENT PLAZA 13 WEEKS

A partner and I completed this project during our semester abroad in Rome. Our site was a large, empty field within the Villa Borghese gardens. We were asked to design an event center that accommodates equestrian competitions and concerts, and provides space for a museum, clubhouse, gardens, and library. Together we developed the outdoor programs and gardens, and each designed two buildings. I developed the overall diagram for the site and designed the museum and clubhouse. The diagram successfully organizes the many required programs, but also makes a contemporary urban statement that still relates to the historic Roman context.


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T

Art Museum 2 stories

L

Event Center 2 stories

exterior exhibitions

Library 2 stories

Clubhouse & Restaurant 3 stories

site SITE PLAN

plan scale 1:1000


DESIGN


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FIRST YEAR

TABLE DESIGN-BUILD 6 WEEKS

The table’s concept is based on themes from the classic novel The Lord of the Flies and artist Joseph Cornell’s work. One of the goals of the project was to use books as a structural material. I accomplished this by cutting books in half so they support the glass sheet that sits on top of the table. The table is made from reclaimed furniture-grade maple that I stripped down and planed.


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FIRST YEAR

PARTHENON ANALYTIQUE 2 WEEKS

The goal of the analytique project was to learn about an architectural precedent through plans, sections, elevations, diagrams, and perspectives as well as learn how to compose multiple drawings on one page.


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FOURTH YEAR

CORBELLETTI DESIGN COMPETITION 7 DAYS

The prompt for this competition referenced the “Erased De Kooning� drawing by Robert Rauschenberg. It asked the participants to develop techniques of erasure, and to explore the potential of removal, blanking out, censoring, editing, or un-drawing as a form of drawing. For my submission, I explored techniques and concepts of erasure by covering up, rather than removing. I was awarded first place out of 130+ entries.


THESIS


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THE HEREAFTER A MORTUARY AND MUSEUM

“Architecture opens up to us the possibility of being that is intrinsic in every birth; it recreates man and makes him assume his true condition, which is not the dilemma; life or death, but a totality; life and death in a single instant of incandescence.� Adapted from Octavio Paz, the bow and the Lyre in Questions of Perception: Phenomenology of Architecture


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THE PROBLEM: This project started with the belief that a gracious death and dignified resting place are basic human rights for everyone regardless of their situation in life. However, each year thousands of people die alone, unclaimed, or far from family and loved ones. . The places they are finally laid to rest are often inaccessible, indecent places like Hart Island, an island located off the coast of New York City at the western end of the Long Island Sound. Hart Island is the largest tax funded cemetery in the world and almost one million anonymous people have been buried in mass graves there since 1869. Hart Island’s mass burial system assumes the people there have nothing worth preserving due to the circumstances of their death. This assertion assumes that the circumstances of death defines life. I believe that this is untrue


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THE INSPIRATION: Nikola Tesla dedicated his life to solving some of society’s greatest problems. He pioneered revolutionary -sometimes worldtransforming- inventions, virtually without precedent. His life’s work gave us insight into the fundamentals of robotics, x-rays, radios, computers, and missile science. Despite his genius, Tesla’s life was filled with career set backs and personal tragedies. He suffered numerous smear campaigns by competitors, was taken advantage of by his backers, and was cheated out of thousands of dollars. Later in his life, he could no longer find supporters for his work or afford to pay his debts, and he became a recluse. Eventually he died alone and poor in a hotel room in New York City. Tesla’s work has transcended centuries, but his humanity has fallen through the cracks. Tesla’s life story exists only in the shadow of his inventions and at the end of his life, at his most vulnerable time, he was forgotten. His life has still not been fully documented or memorialized to a level that appropriately honors his inventions and scientific contributions.


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THE SITE: The site for the project is Tesla’s Wardenclyffe laboratory and tower in Long Island, New York. Tesla purchased the 16 acre site in 1901 with the hopes of operating a wireless transmission station. McKim, Mead, and White were commissioned to build the brick laboratory that still remains on the site. A 186 foot tall tower was built for wireless communication systems experiments but was demolished to satisfy Tesla’s debts. The granite foundations are the only part of the tower that remain today. Wardenclyffe was the last place Tesla conducted experiments before his death, but it is now in various states of disrepair. Wardenclyffe was an important part of Tesla’s narrative, and an opportunity for architecture to help reconcile the injustices Tesla endured in his life by doing right by others who face similar fates today.


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The stories of Nikola Tesla and Hart Island illustrate the consequences of a larger problem we face today. Birth and death are life’s great equalizers, but while we celebrate and commemorate birth, we deny and defy death in our lives, our memories, and our architecture.


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MAUSOLEUM WAITING ROOM


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SITE


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PROGRAM

CONCEPT

1 FIRST FLOOR PLAN

2

3 4

7

8

1 ENTRY STAIR AND FORUM 2 TESLA MUSEUM 3 BUTTERFLY CONSERVATORY 4 CHAPEL 5 MAUSOLEUM CRYPT ROOMS 6 MAUSOLEUM NICHE ROOMS 7 MAUSOLEUM WAITING ROOM 8 SOLAR PANEL FIELD 9 SERVICE 10 RESTROOMS

MEADOW

1

6

6 A5

7 2

MEADOW 7 + BUILDING

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9

9

10 9

MEADOW AND BUILDING

8 8

GRANITE GLASS MARBLE CONCRETE

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3 4

FIRST FLOOR PLAN 6 ENTRY STAIR AND FIRST 1 2 FIRST 1 ENT 2 5 FLOOR PLANFORUM FORU 2 TESLA MUSEUM 5 1 ENTRY STAIR AND 2 TES 3 BUTTERFLY FORUM 7 3 BUT CONSERVATORY

2 TESLA MUSEUM CONS 4 CHAPEL 3 BUTTERFLY 4 CH 5 MAUSOLEUM CRYPT CONSERVATORY 5MEAD MA ROOMS 4 CHAPEL ROOM 6 MAUSOLEUM NICHE 5 MAUSOLEUM CRYPT 6 MA ROOMS ROOMS ROOM 7 MAUSOLEUM 3 NICHE 6 MAUSOLEUM 7 MA 3 WAITING ROOM ROOMS 4 WAITI 8 SOLAR PANEL 4FIELD LIFE 7 MAUSOLEUM DEATH 8 SO WAITING ROOM 9 SERVICE MEAD 9 SER 8 SOLAR PANEL FIELD 10 RESTROOMS 9 SERVICE 10 RE 10 RESTROOMS

GROUND FLOOR PLAN 13 GROUND FLOOR PLAN GROUND FLOOR COLUMBARIUM WAITING ROOM 1511PLAN 11ROOMS COLUMBARIUM WAITING ROOM 12WAITING COLUMBARIUM NICHE 14 13 11 11 COLUMBARIUM ROOM 12 COLUMBARIUM NICHE ROOMS 13 MAUSOLEUM NICHE ROOMS 12 15 11 12 COLUMBARIUM NICHE ROOMS 13 MAUSOLEUM NICHE ROOMS MAUSOLEUM 22 16 14 13 MAUSOLEUM 14 NICHE ROOMS CRYPT ROOMS 12 ROOMS BATTERY STORAGE 14 MAUSOLEUM CRYPT 14 MAUSOLEUM 15 CRYPT ROOMS 22 16 15 BATTERY STORAGE 16 OUTDOOR COLUMBARIUM NICHES 15 BATTERY STORAGE 16 OUTDOOR COLUMBARIUM NICHES 17 LABYRINTHNICHES 21 16 OUTDOOR COLUMBARIUM 17 21 17 LABYRINTH 18 CENOTAPH 17 21 22LABYRINTH 16 17 18 CENOTAPH 18 CENOTAPH 19 PRIVATE ROOMS 20 19 PRIVATE ROOMS 20 SERVICE 19 19 PRIVATE ROOMS 20 22 20 SERVICE 20 16 21 RESTROOMS 20 SERVICE 19 21 RESTROOMS 21 RESTROOMS 22 SCATTERING GROUNDS 18 22 SCATTERING GROUNDS MATERIALITY 22 SCATTERING GROUNDS 18

KEY PLAN

KEY PLAN

KEY PLAN

CONCEPT

1

PRIVATE SEMI-PRIVATE SEMI-PUBLIC GRANITE GLASS SERVICE MARBLE CONCRETE

13 12

15

14 11

13

1

22 16

22 16

17 19

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PUBLIC 18 & PRIVATE MATERIALITY


SECTION A

COLUMBARIUM NICHE ROOMS WAITING ROOM MAUSOLEUM CRYPT ROOMS NICHE ROOMS WAITING ROOM CENOTAPH RESTROOMS AND MECHANICAL SERVICE SPACES MAINTENANCE OFFICES MUSEUM CHAPEL CONSERVATORY MEADOW

I used concepts of dichotomy and duality to help drive my design decisions and worked to translate those concepts into an architecture that commemorates and honors death by engaging with and celebrating life. The clearest expression of dichotomy is the contrast between the meadow and the architecture. The meadow documents the cycles, changes, and uncertainties of life, as well as all of its unpredictable beauty and joy. The stone and glass structures contrast with the meadow. They are steady and constant on the site, and allow the changes of the meadow to appear more powerfully.


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NICHES


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6” CONCRETE RIGID INSULATION

MAUSOLEUM NICHE ROOM WALL SECTION SCALE: 1/2” = 1’-0”

METAL DECKING FLASHING VAPOR BARRIER ANGLED BLOCKING 6” GRANITE VENEER STEEL FLANGE SUPPORT 2” AIRSPACE WELDED STEEL FLANGE 3” RIGID INSULATION ANCHOR BOLTS WITH TIE BACKS VAPOR BARRIER 6” STEEL STUD WALL NICHE

POLISHED CONCRETE

CRUSHED GRANITE GRAVEL 4” PERFORATED DRAIN PIPE

RIVER STONE

12” CONCRETE WALL

POLISHED CONCRETE SLAB VAPOR BARRIER 3/4” CRUSHED STONE EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE TYPE II

DRAINAGE MAT CAPILLARY BREAK

3/4” CRUSHED STONE 4” PERFORATED DRAIN PIPE

CENOTAPH


CHANNEL GLASS WALL SECTION

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SCALE: 1/2” = 1’-0”

PAINTED ALUMINUM COPING

FIREPROOFED STEEL FRAMING WELDED CATWALK ASSEMBLY ANCHORED TO STRUCTURAL STAY FOR HORIZONTAL LOAD RESISTANCE WHITE PAINTED SUSPENSION ROD

MOTORIZED SOLAR CONTROL SHADES

LIGHTING INTERMEDIATE CHANNEL SLIP CONNECTION ON ST. ANGLE WITH SLOTTED ATTACHMENT TO CATWALK ASSEMBLY

COLUMBARIUM

OUTSIDE: DOUBLE LAYER OF LOW IRON U-PROFILE GLASS UNITS WITH INSIDE: SINGLE LAYER LAMINATED GLASS WALL SYSTEM

POLISHED CONCRETE FLOOR ON CONCRETE SLAB ON GRADE

LIGHT FIXTURE UNDER GRAY FIBER GLASS REMOVABLE GRATING STAINLESS STEEL GUTTER

CENOTAPH


PIECES OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS.’”

FILLER PANEL

PLANAR SHELF

43 - Nikola Tesla

“Can Bridge the Gap to Mars” (New York Times, June 23rd, 1907

CONCEALED MOUNTING SYSTEM FOR MAUSOLEUM AND COLUMBARIUM NICHES SCALE: 3” = 1’-0”

CONCEALED MOUNTING SYSTEM FOR MAUSOLEUM NICHE WALLS NOT TO SCALE

COLUMBARIUM INTEGRATED NICHE AND SHELF CONSTRUCTION DETAIL

“IF THIS DOES NOT “EVERYONEAPPEAL SHOULDTO YOU “THE INDIVIDUAL IS CONSIDER HIS BODY AS A TO EPHEMERAL, RACES AND SUFFICIENTLY PRICELESS RECOGNIZE GIFT FROM ONE IN ME A NATIONS COME AND PASS, WHOM HE LOVES ABOVE ALL, BUT MAN REMAINS. DISCOVERER OF A MARVELOUS WORK OFDO ART, PRINCIPLES, OF INDESCRIBABLE BEAUTY, ME, ATTHEREIN LIES THE LEAST, THE JUSTICE OF PROFOUND DIFFERENCE AND MYSTERY BEYOND CALLING ME ANSO ‘INVENTOR BETWEEN THE PART AND HUMAN CONCEPTION, AND OF SOME BEAUTIFUL THE WHOLE.” DELICATE THAT A WORD, A PIECESNAY, OFAELECTRICAL BREATH, A LOOK, APPARATUS.’” THOUGHT MAY INJURE IT.” SCALE: 1/2” = 1’-0”

SOFFIT PANEL

SHELF BRACKETS

“IF THIS DOES NOT APPEAL TO YOU SUFFICIENTLY TO RECOGNIZE IN ME A DISCOVERER OF PRINCIPLES, DO ME, AT LEAST, THE JUSTICE OF CALLING ME AN ‘INVENTOR OF SOME BEAUTIFUL PIECES OF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS.’”

MARBLE FACING STONE

COLUMBARIUM INTEGRATED FILLER PANEL FOR SCALE: 1/2” = 1’-0” CONCEALED MOUNTING SYSTEM

NICHE AND SHELF CONSTRUCTION DETAIL

SHELF

FILLER PANEL

MARBLE VENEER

THREADED STUD

CLOSURE PANEL

EXTENDING CHANNEL

MARBLE FACING STONE

UPPER CLIP

CLOSURE PANEL

EXTENDING CHANNEL UPPER CLIP INNER CLOSURE PANEL URN

INNER CLOSURE PANEL URN

MARBLE FACING STONE

MARBLE FACING STONE HORIZONTAL SHELF CONCEALED MOUNTING SYSTEM HARDWARE (FRONT TRACK)

INNER CLOSURE PANEL VERTICAL RISER

HORIZONTAL SHELF CONCEALED MOUNTING SYSTEM HARDWARE (FRONT TRACK)

CONCRETE SHELF FOR MEMORABILIA

FILLER PANEL FOR CONCEALED MOUNTING SYSTEM MARBLE FACING STONE FOR NAME INSCRIPTION NICHE

SHELF BRACKETS

MARBLE VENEER

FILLER PANEL FOR CONCEALED MOUNTING SYSTEM MARBLE FACING STONE FOR NAME INSCRIPTION NICHE

MARBLE FACING STONE FOR NAME INSCRIPTION

INNER CLOSURE PANEL VERTICAL RISER

ANGLED BRACKET THREADED STUD

SOFFIT PANEL

ANGLED BRACKET

SHELF

LOWER SUPPORT HANGERS

LOWER SUPPORT HANGERS

PLANAR SHELF

FILLER PANEL

PLANAR SHELF

- Nikola Tesla

“The Problem of Increasing Human Energy” - Nikola Tesla - Nikola (The Century Magazine, June, 1900) “Can Bridge the Gap to Mars” (New York Times, June 23rd, 1907Tesla

FACING STONE INSCRIPTION DETAIL

ARIUM NICHES

- Nikola Tesla

CONCEALED MOUNTING SYSTEM the FOR Gap MAUSOLEUM NICHE WALLS “Can Bridge to Mars” (New York NOT TO SCALE

SCALE: 1” = 1’-0”

Times, June 23rd, 1907

NCE AND

CONCRETE SHELF FOR MEMORABILIA

CONCRETE SHELF FOR MEMORABILIA

SCALE: 1” = 1’-0”

Investors approached Tesla asking him to develop an improved arc lighting system. After completing the work, Tesla was forced out of the company and left with nothing but worthless stock certificates.

“EVERYONE SHOULD “THE INDIVIDUAL IS 1882: TESLA HAS A.C. CONSIDER HIS BODY AS A EPHEMERAL, RACES AND EPIPHANY Obsessed with solving the PRICELESS GIFT FROM ONE of the Alternating NATIONS riddle COME AND PASS, Current, suffers a mental WHOM HE LOVES ABOVE ALL, During recovering BUT MANbreakdown. REMAINS. him and he to came idea an A MARVELOUS WORK OFSTUDIES ART,PHYSICS, of the motor a diagram drew LIES THE 1856: NIKOLA TESLA MATHEMATICS, ANDTHEREIN with a stick in the sand. OF INDESCRIBABLE BEAUTY, Born on July 10th PROFOUND DIFFERENCE Croatia AND Smiljan, MYSTERY BEYOND MECHANICS At the University of Prague BETWEEN THE PART AND HUMAN CONCEPTION, AND SO THE WHOLE.” DELICATE THAT A WORD, A 1890: DISCOVERS BREATH, A LOOK, NAY, A 1888: TESLA SELLS A.C. PATENTS WIRELESS POWER THOUGHT MAY INJURE IT.” Tesla sells patents to George With high frequencies, Tesla MARBLE FACING STONE FOR NAME INSCRIPTION

MARBLE FACING STONE FOR NAME INSCRIPTION

FACING STONE INSCRIPTION DETAIL

1885: TESLA ELECTRIC COMPANY

SCALE: 3” = 1’-0”

FILLER PANEL FOR CONCEALED MOUNTING SYSTEM

FILLER PANEL FOR CONCEALED MOUNTING SYSTEM

AND PASS,

CONCEALED MOUNTING SYSTEM FOR MAUSOLEUM AND COLUMBARIUM NICHES

1885: TESLA QUITS EDISON

Edison promised Tesla $50,000 to improve the performance of Edison’s D.C. dynamo. Tesla succeeds but Edison reneges on his promhurt, Deeply ise to pay him. TESLA NIKOLA 1856: Tesla resigns.Born on July 10th Smiljan, Croatia

1886: TESLA’S WINTER - Nikola Tesla OFof SUFFERING “The Problem Increasing Human Energy”

he trusted, people1900) by June, (The CenturyBetrayed Magazine, Tesla was forced to work as a ditch digger for $2.00 a day

Originally developed to power Tesla's new wireless lighting systems, but later became the basis of the ill-fated World-Wide Wireless System, otherwise known as Wardenclyffe.

1899: HIGH VOLTAGE 1886: TESLA’S WINTER EXPERIMENTS SUFFERING Springs in Colorado Spends a yearOF

by people high he trusted, with transmitting to experiment Betrayed altitudes at high to work as a frequency electricity forced Tesla was without wires ditch digger for $2.00 a day

1943: TESLA DIES AT 86

Tesla died quietly and alone on CHAPEL 33rd floor of the Hotel New theCHAPEL

SCALE: 1”successfully = 1’-0”

- Nikola Tesla

SCALE: 3” = 1’-0”

NOT TO SCALE

“EVERYONE SHOULD “THE INDIV CONSIDER HIS BODY AS A EPHEMER TESLA QUITS 1885: TESLA PRICELESS GIFTELECTRIC FROM ONE 1885: NATIONS C COMPANY EDISON approached Tesla Investors Edison promised Tesla WHOM HE LOVES ABOVE ALL, BUT the per-MAN asking him to develop an $50,000 to improve A MARVELOUS WORK OF ART, system. improved arc lighting formance of Edison’s D.C. THEREIN L but After completing the work, dynamo. Tesla succeeds IN INDESCRIBABLE 1884: TESLA ARRIVESOF BEAUTY, Tesla was forced out of the Edison reneges on his promNYC, MEETS EDISON hurt, company and left with nothing ise to pay him. Deeply PROFOUN AND MYSTERY BEYOND Edison hires Tesla on the spot but worthless stock Tesla resigns. but will hear nothing of his A.C. certificates. BETWEEN HUMAN CONCEPTION, AND SO power system. THE WHO DELICATE THAT A WORD, A BREATH, A LOOK, NAY, A THOUGHT MAY INJURE IT.” - Nikola Tesla

COIL 1891: TESLA 1890: ENDURES “The Problem of Increasing Human Energy” Originally developed to power EDISON-SPONSORED(The Century Magazine, June, wireless lighting new1900) Tesla's SMEAR CAMPAIGN AND systems, but later became the basis of the ill-fated World-Wide Wireless FORFEITS A.C. System, otherwise known as ROYALTIES Wardenclyffe.

1916: TESLA DECLARES

ELECTRIC 1885: TESLA BANKRUPTCY COMPANY Even after some minor

1885: TESLA QUITS EDISON

MECHANICS

but will hear nothing of his A.C. power system.

At the University of Prague

Obsessed with solving the riddle of the Alternating

Tesla sells patents to George Westinghouse for $25,000 in cash, $50,000 in notes, and a royalty of $2.50 per horsepower for each motor.

certificates.

1888: TESLA SELLS A.C. PATENTS

1890: DISCOVERS WIRELESS POWER

With high frequencies, Tesla developed some of the first neon and fluorescent illuminations, and x-ray photographs. He successfully transmits energy through the air, beginning his obsession with the wireless transmission of energy.

Tesla sells patents to George Westinghouse for $25,000 in cash, $50,000 in notes, and a royalty of $2.50 per motor. horsepower for each HIGH 1899:

1886: TESLA’S WINTER 1891: TESLA COIL 1890: ENDURES OF SUFFERING Originally developed to power EDISON-SPONSORED Betrayed by people trusted, he new wireless lighting Tesla's as alater became the basis to work but SMEAR CAMPAIGN ANDTesla was forcedsystems, day World-Wide Wireless a ditch digger for $2.00 of the ill-fated FORFEITS A.C. System, otherwise known as ROYALTIES Wardenclyffe. 1901: PARTNERS WITH J.P. MORGAN, TOWER 1916: TESLA DECLARES CONSTRUCTION BEGINS BANKRUPTCY Tesla signs over 51 percent

1912: TOWER EQUIPMENT

1899: HIGH VOLTAGE - Nikola Tesla EXPERIMENTS Spends a year in Colorado Springs to experiment with transmitting high frequency electricity at high altitudes without wires

1882: TESLA HAS A.C. 2003: UNESCO ARCHIVE EPIPHANY

Obsessed with solving the Current, suffers a mental successes, Tesla Tesla continued to Edison promised Tesla Investors approached Tesla signs over 51 percent riddle of the Alternating fall deeper an and deeper into debt.$50,000 to improve the per- breakdown. During recovering asking him to develop interest in his patents and 86to him and he TESLAanDIES 1943:D.C. York World” ran an formance of Edison’s The “New came idea AT system. improved arc lighting inventions for $150,000.Current, suffers a mental STUDIES PHYSICS, Tesla died quietly and alone on breakdown. During recovering the work, article exposing hisdynamo. Tesla succeeds but drew a diagram of the motor completingembarrassing Construction begins on his EQUIPMENT 1912: TOWER TESLA NIKOLAAfter the 33rd floor of the Hotel New AND IN1856: 1884: TESLA ARRIVES crisis. MATHEMATICS, financial an idea came to him and he with a stick in the sand. the promof his out on forced reneges was Tesla Edison STUDIES PHYSICS,ambitious World-Wide Wireless REPOSSESSED Born on July 10th Yorker in NYC. His estate is motor TESTING BEGINS drew a diagram of the 1903: NYC, MEETS EDISON System, known as Wardenclyffe hurt, company and left with nothing MECHANICS ise to pay him. Deeply to help removed Equipment was OAP and he is later seized by Croatia Smiljan, MATHEMATICS, AND AT WARDENCLYFFE Edison hires Tesla on Tower. with a stick in the sand. Prague At the University ofTesla spot debts. resigns. buried at Ferncliff Cemetery. but worthless stock $23,500 paythe

1901: PARTNERS ARCHIVE WITH 2003: UNESCO including TOWER archive, Tesla’s entire J.P. MORGAN, unpublished more than 30,000 CONSTRUCTION BEGINS hasover 51 percent scientific documents, Tesla signs the onpatents inscribed recently beeninterest and in his of Register World Memory of the inventions for $150,000. international begins on his UNESCO, anConstruction documents program to protect World-Wide Wireless ambitious

developed some of the first neon and fluorescent illuminations, and x-ray photographs. He transmits energy through the air, beginning his obsession with the wireless transmission of energy.

FACING STONE INSCRIPTION DETAIL

1901: PARTNERS WITH 1882: TESLA HAS A.C. J.P. MORGAN, TOWER EPIPHANY CONSTRUCTION BEGINS

1888: TESLA SELLS A.C. PATENTS 1891: TESLA COIL

Westinghouse for $25,000 in cash, $50,000 in notes, and a royalty of $2.50 per horsepower for each motor.

CONCEALED MOUNTING SYST

CONCEALED MOUNTING SYSTEM FOR MAUSOLEUM NICHE WALLS

Tesla’s entire archive, including more than 30,000 unpublished scientific documents, has recently been inscribed on the of Register Memory of the World AR TESLA 1884: UNESCO, an international NYC, MEETS ED program to protect documents on Tesla hires Edison they deemed so valuable but willofhear timenothing transcend all boundaries power system. and culture.

1890: DISCOVERS WIRELESS POWER

With high frequencies, Tesla developed some of the first neon and fluorescent illuminations, and x-ray photographs. He VOLTAGE successfully transmits energy through the air, beginning his EXPERIMENTS obsession with the wireless Spends a year in Colorado Springs transmission of energy. to experiment with transmitting high frequency electricity at high altitudes without wires

2003: UNESCO ARCHIVE

Tesla’s entire archive, including more than 30,000 unpublished Even after some minor interest in his patents and scientific documents, has successes, Tesla continued to inventions for $150,000. recently been inscribed on the fall deeper and deeper into debt.Construction begins on his TOWER EQUIPMENT of Memory of the World Register 1912: 1943: TESLA DIES AT 86 The “New York World” ran an ambitious World-Wide Wireless UNESCO, Tesla died quietly and alone on1903: TESTING embarrassing article exposing hisSystem, known as BEGINSan international REPOSSESSED Wardenclyffe program to protect documentsEquipment was removed to help the 33rd floor of the Hotel New financial crisis. AT WARDENCLYFFE Tower.

1890: ENDURES EDISON-SPONS SMEAR CAMPA FORFEITS A.C. ROYALTIES

1916: TESLA DEC BANKRUPTCY

Even after some mino successes, Tesla con fall deeper and deepe The “New York World embarrassing article e financial crisis.


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CENOTAPH


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THE CONTRIBUTION: The butterfly effect is the phenomenon that a small change in a complex system can have larger effects elsewhere. This project is a small acknowledgment of a man who gave the world so much but ended up with so little, and a small change to how we treat people facing that fate today. I hope that all who may come here, to visit a loved one, to learn about Tesla, to cope with a loss, will be inspired to make a change after they leave. This may come in the form of new solutions for funerary architecture, policy changes in how we treat those with no one to care for them, or a better awareness of the benefits of paying it forward. On a larger scale, I hope this project inspires a change in how architecture can speak for people who cannot speak for themselves.


BUTTERFLY CONSERVATORY AND CHAPEL ENTRANCE


RESEARCH


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GRADUATE

CONTRIBUTING AUTHOR I completed a case study analysis of Hart Island and how it related to the five rational game-theoretic games described in Elinor Ostrom’s book, Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. My case study was selected to be featured in Darla Lindberg’s book, Outside the Skin: Systems Approaches to Society’s Larger Structural Issues. The book takes a whole-systems look into the mechanisms behind the production of the built environment. It aims to be a resource in relation to questions of social justice and equity within design research.


50 The Institution: The New York City Department of Correction is responsible for operating and maintaining New York City’s public burial ground. The city’s hospitals, nursing homes, and hospices are also part of the institution because their policies perpetuate the current burial practices. Because none of these institutions stand to gain and money from the unclaimed deceased, there is little to incentivize a more sensitive, humane treatment of the individuals under their care.

HART ISLAND AND THE

The Site: The cemetery for New York city occupies 101 acres in the Long Island Sound on the eastern edge of the Bronx. Hart Island is currently managed by the Department of Correction. The site was previously used as a Union Civil War prison camp, a psychiatric institution, a tuberculosis sanatorium, potter’s field, and a boy’s reformatory.

Reflections On the commons

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The Situation: Every year in the United States, thousands of people die alone, unclaimed, or unidentified. In most cases, people in these situations fall into the hands of the city or county they live in. The places they are finally laid to rest are often inaccessible, indecent places like Hart Island, the largest tax funded cemetery in the world. Since 1898, over one million unclaimed and unidentified New Yorkers have been buried in unmarked, mass graves on the island. To reduce costs to the tax payers, the burials are conducted by inmates from the nearby Rikers Island prison. Visiting the island is a complicated bureaucratic process that only permits visitors once a month. Once there, families are not allowed to visit the actual grave sites, and must stay in a small gazebo far from their family member’s actual burial site. The people interred on Hart Island are not necessarily indigent or homeless, many people simply could not afford a private funeral or were not claimed by relatives within a month of their death. Some people end up on the island simply because their family did not understand what they were signing when they agreed to a “city burial.” The problem is compounded by the substandard record keeping practices of the city and the prison system, which makes it hard to find out if someone is buried on the island or not.

told

Hart Island erases the lives and stories of the people who are buried there. It is a physical result of the many chronic adversities of the human condition. It is a manifestation of the harshest consequences of mental illness, addiction, or families scattered or distracted by their own misfortune. While the island shrouds individual tragedies, it also obscures systematic failings that stack the odds against people who cannot defend themselves. This graveyard hides the wrongdoings of the institutions in charge of protecting New Yorkers, and reveals the city’s haphazard treatment of their remains.1

The Common Pool Resource: is access to a dignified death and adequate burial. This is both a natural and man-made resource system because being treated with dignity is a right we are ascribed at birth as humans, but the institutions, systems, and places we rely on for death and dying are man-made. Because the systems are man-made, they are vulnerable to flaws, corruption, and especially in this case study, inequalities because of economic situations.

us

it Nina Bernstein, "Unearthing the Secrets of New York’s Mass Graves." May 15, 2016. Accessed November 5, 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/05/15/nyregion/new-york-mass-graves-hart-island.html.

1

This situation is especially complex because of one group of appropriator’s inability to speak up against the operational rules set by the institutions. Currently, the Department of Correction is both an appropriator and in charge of monitoring the conditions of the CPR it is involved with. Given that many of the individuals involved in the CRP cannot participate in modifying the rules or enforcing their efficacy or fairness, the DoC becomes an unregulated authority with no threat of sanctions for not following the rules of the CPR. This case study is a clear example of a situation that started without mutual monitoring, that lead to an absence of credible commitment and new rules being proposed, which then perpetuated the undignified burials of indigent and unclaimed people.


D E

51 was

The Collective: New York Department of Correction People buried on Hart Island People at risk of being buried at Hart Island Families and loved ones of those buried there Citizens who can afford proper burials Game 1: The status quo is for Player 1 (the Department of Corrections) to defect by continuing to deny decent and dignified burials to Player 2 (the unclaimed, indigent people under their care). Player 2 cooperates only because they have no say in what happens to them.

HIGH CoST OF DYING ALoNE

Game 2: Both players will cooperate in the presence of an omnipotent and informed external agent that advocates for the rights of the deceased and has the power to regulate and/or impose sanctions on Player 1 for defections. The external agent would ideally consist of the family members of people buried on Hart Island, advocates for the individuals without families, health care professionals, New York City government officials, and members of the DoC. An external agent like this will attempt to find the best solutions for the needs of both players, and ensure that Player 1 cooperates along with Player 2. The external agent would also provide a more suitable, accessible final resting place for Player 1 and their visitors than what Hart Island currently provides.

Game 3: With an imperfect external agent, Player 1 and Player 2 will more equally cooperate than in Game 1, but not to the extent that they do in Game 2. However, because the external agent has incomplete information, they will sometimes fail to sanction Player 1 for defections. Knowing the external agent will fail to punish them on many occasions, Player 1 has more reason to defect because it is simpler and most cost-effective for them to defect than to cooperate. This will result in Player 1 perpetuating the status quo, and continuing to deny dignified burials for Player 2. Game 4: In response to the imperfect external agent from Game 3, another authority is created to monitory Player 1 and 2. However, unlike in Game 2 where the external agent can impose sanctions, this agent has less power over the players. Instead, it adds an additional level of bureaucratic ‘red tape’ to the overall process. While this authority may try to regulate and remedy the actions of the players both in Hart Island’s scenario and across the nation, it ultimately makes the burial process more circuitous for all the institutions involved.

too late Game 5: This is the game where Player 2 finally gets a say. Game five allows Player 2 to design their own contract and cooperative strategy. Similar to how one indicates if they want to be an organ donor on their driver’s license, people would be given the opportunity to communicate their end of life wishes before their death. A valuable role for the external agent would be to compile, manage, and archive these wishes in a database shared with Player 1. Player 1 could then use this information to determine how best to care for the deceased under their supervision. Although not perfect or all-encompassing, Game five creates a platform for Player 2’s voice and wishes to be heard, mitigating the possibility of falling back into the Game 1 situation. Ideally, sites like Hart Island would start to be phased out by Player 1 in favor of more accessible and dignified final resting places.


CONTACT LINDSAY MAE CONNELLY

LINDSAYMAE518@GMAIL.COM 908.246.8374


Architecture Portfolio  

Work: 2011 - 2017

Architecture Portfolio  

Work: 2011 - 2017

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