Issuu on Google+

Seminar on

Understanding Non-Revenue Water Bangkok, Thailand January 31, 2007 Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 1

Water Utilities around the Globe, ……..

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 2

1


In Asia, ……..

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 3

on the Caribbean Islands, ……..

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 4

2


in the Middle East, ………

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 5

and in many cities in the Industrialised world, ……..

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 6

3


have a common problem.

much precious water

is being lost

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 7

There is too much ……..

NRW Non-Revenue Water

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 8

4


What is NRW

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 9

What Is NRW Definition of NRW

NRW = Volume of water supplied - metered consumption

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 10

5


What Is NRW If we take P = Production, C = Consumption

The formula :

P - C

= NRW%

P Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 11

What Is NRW Definition of Unaccounted-for-Water (UFW) UFW = Volume of water supplied – metered consumption – other legitimate uses UFW is the volume of water supplied that does not reach the customer and that has not been used legitimately (i.e. fire fighting,mains flushing, reservoir cleaning etc)

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 12

6


PWA

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 13

Typical Losses From A Water Supply System Physical losses

Treatment Works

Trunk Mains

Services Reservoirs

Reticulation System

Commercial losses

Meters

Billing

Collections

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 14

7


Typical Losses From A Water Supply System Physical losses

Treatment Works

Trunk Mains

 Trunk Main Leaks  Illegal Connections  Unrecorded Users

Services Reservoirs

 Leaks  Overflow

Commercial losses

Reticulation System

Meters

Billing

 Leaks From:   Mains  Services Pipes  Booster  Stations  Service Tanks  Overflows From:   Services Tanks

Reading Errors Slow Running Meters Tampering With Meters Broken Meters No Meters

 Pipes  Air Valves  Washout Valves  Hydrants

Illegal Connections:

Collections

 Admin. Errors  Admin. Errors  Data Entry Errors  Delays  Loss Of Records

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 15

The Value of NRW

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 16

8


The Value of NRW Why do we want to reduce NRW? Reduce electrical costs Reduce chemical costs Reduce CAPEX costs Increase billed revenue Reduce operating costs Improve reputation Increase asset life Save the environment Improve share price Achieve concession target Achieve tariff increase Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 17

The Value of NRW

What is the value of each m3 of NRW? Average tariff = 11.75 Baht/m3 However we need to take into account production costs as well!

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 18

9


The Value of NRW November 06 Water Produced Volume = 89,030,438 m3 November 06 Water Sold Volume

= 62,751,042 m3

November 06 NRW Volume

= 26,279,396 m3

Assuming the Produced Volume is 100% Then monthly NRW is 29.52% Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 19

The Value of NRW Assuming an NRW saving of 1% is made Total NRW % saved

= 1%

Total NRW Volume saved

= 890,304 m3

Average Tariff

= 11.75 Baht

Total NRW Value saved

= 10,461,076 Baht

This is the value per month Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 20

10


The Value of NRW Assuming NRW was reduced down to 20% Total NRW % saved

= 9.52%

Total NRW Volume saved

= 8,475,694 m3

Average Tariff

= 11.75 Baht

Total NRW Value saved

= 99,589,404 Baht

This is the value per month Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 21

Coffee Break 15 Minutes Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 22

11


The Components of NRW

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 23

The Components of NRW What can contribute to NRW? Leakage / Bursts Metering errors Billing errors Tank / reservoir overflows Operational activities Illegal connections

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 24

12


The Components of NRW Leakage & Bursts Mains Leaks Pipe Cracking Communication Pipe Leaks Mains Bursts Ferrule Leaks Joints Leaks Valve / Air Valve Leaks

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 25

The Components of NRW Causes of Leakage & Bursts Poor Pipe Material Poor Storage of Pipe Material Poor Transportation of Pipe Material Poor Installation High Pressure Pressure Surges Soil Conditions Poor Maintenance Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 26

13


The Components of NRW

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 27

Pipe Storage

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 28

14


Pipe Handling

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 29

Leak Repair

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 30

15


The Components of NRW Metering Errors Meter Not Working Meter Stalling Meter Inaccurate Meter Broken

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 31

The Components of NRW Causes of Metering Errors Poor meter selection Poor meter manufacturing Poor meter installation Not enough straight pipework Poor meter calibration Poor meter maintenance Old age

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 32

16


Meter Servicing

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 33

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 34

17


The Components of NRW Reservoir & Tank Errors Reservoir / Tank Overflowing Reservoir / Tank Leaking

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 35

The Components of NRW Causes of Reservoir / Tank Errors Poor design Poor construction & materials Poor meter maintenance Lack of overflow control Old age

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 36

18


Reservoir Leakage

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 37

Reservoir Leakage

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 38

19


ADDRESSING APPARENT LOSSES THROUGH CUSTOMER SERVICES

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 39

Customer Services – Water we produce that we do not issue a bill for: – Customer Services Department role is to ensure that, as far as possible, customers are billed accurately for the water they use. Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 40

20


Customer services • Customer meters: – Meter size: Match to consumption • Replacement meters. • New installations – Review meter replacement policy • Test meters to identify accuracy with age profile. • Replace meters at agreed age

– – – –

Replace damaged/failed meters Work with manufacturers to improve service Meter servicing trial Update customer records on replacement Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 41

Customer Services • Meter reading: – Regular reading: • • • •

Accurate reading Zero readings Low readings Damaged meters

– Meter readers: • • • •

Look for water theft Look for leakage Customer side leakage Tampered meters. Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 42

21


Customer services • Customer Accounts • Identify all accounts – Ensure all properties connected and registered • Regular customer counts – Check all vacant properties – Quick update of account details • Analyse customer data – Review customer accounts to identify anomalies – Look for changes in consumption • Follow up on disconnections • Relate accounts to DMZs Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 43

Customer Services • Reticulation Mains Replacement: – Check all connections: • Illegal connections – Bypasses – Illegal connections

• Water theft – Meters bypassed

• More than one property connected.

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 44

22


Customer Services • Water Theft: – Meters reconnected without approval. – Meter bypass. – Illegal connections. – Tampered meters. – Analyse data: • Zero readings • Billing data for problems • Correct tariff Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 45

Awareness, Location & Repair

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 46

23


Awareness, Location, Repair For all of the components of NRW the calculation of water lost is:

Flow Rate x Time that loss occurs

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 47

Volume of Water Lost Cubic Metres per Day

“Timing is Everything”

Volume Lost= Quantity X Time

Volume of Water lost over Time Total Time to Stop the Leak

Awareness Time in Days

Location

Repair Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 48

24


Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 49

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 50

25


Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 51

Importance of increased activity 30 Flow (m3/hr) 10

0.1 Day

Mains Burst: 60 m3 Lost A - awareness

ALR

L - location R - repair Time (days)

Connection Burst: 504 m3 Lost

5 Flow (m3/hr)

14 days

2

A

L

R Time (days)

Valve Leak: 1080 m3 Lost

1 Flow (m3/hr)

90 Days

0.5

A

L

R

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Time (days) Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 52

26


Awareness

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 53

Awareness Contributing factors to NRW Leakage / Bursts Metering errors Billing errors Tank / reservoir overflows Operational activities Illegal connections

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 54

27


Telemetry System

Typical pressure data retrieved via telemetry

Pressure and flow data is retrieved on request via a modem using a Typical flow data computer in Thames retrieved via telemetry operations office

WTP / Pump Station Khlong

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 55

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 56

28


DMZ Flow Analysis DMZ No

NRW %

NRW Volume (m3/month)

Leakage %

Leakage Volume (m3/month)

Apparent Apparent Loss Volume Loss % (m3/month)

ILI

Unavoidable Real Loss (m3/year) 5,653

BP15

15.3

1,840

82

9,853

(67)

(8,013)

21

BP16

(108.5)

(9,050)

177

14,772

(286)

(23,822)

19

9,429

BP31

(5.7)

(2,516)

3

1,111

(8)

(3,627)

1

16,840

BP32

13.1

1,966

8

731

5

1,235

1

6,571

BP37

(87.7)

(13,187)

116

17,410

(204)

(30,597)

21

10,177

BP39

(19.7)

(5,579)

12

3,407

(32)

(8,986)

3

12,866

BP45

2.5

560

20

4,628

(18)

(4,068)

7

8,110

BP53

13.1

2,715

3

719

10

1,996

1

6,071

BP61

32.6

23,499

16

11,850

16

11,649

4

36,725

BP67

55.2

51,288

25

23,484

30

27,804

15

18,200

BP81

64.0

65,628

21

22,004

43

43,624

8

31,332

BP86

(151.4)

(8,493)

82

4,615

(234)

(13,108)

12

4,792

BP06

21.5

1,595

0

23

21

1,572

1

2,519

BP08

50.0

5,874

13

1,517

37

4,357

8

2,410

BP10

36.5

10,413

9

2,578

27

7,835

5

6,691

BP22

59.4

10,487

53

9,362

6

1,125

19

5,931

BP29

76.3

42,388

46

25,569

30

16,819

22

14,267 Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 57

Location

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 58

29


Location Contributing factors to NRW Leakage / Bursts Metering errors Billing errors Tank / reservoir overflows Operational activities Illegal connections

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 59

Active/Passive Leakage Detection  Passive Leak Detection – Repair only leaks that become visible above ground.

 Active Leak Detection – Actively seek non visible leaks and repair them in targeted way.

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 60

30


Location Visual • Customer Complaints • Operational Staff Sounding • Acoustic Listening Sticks • Ground Microphones • Electronic Listening Equipment Correlating • Leak Noise Correlator • Leak Noise Loggers Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 61

Leak Detection

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 62

31


Leak Detection

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 63

Location Billing & Meter Reading Meter reader reports Customer feedback Operational staff reports Customer surveys Automatic billing checks - zero reads - low readings

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 64

32


Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 65

Complicated piping causing problems in identifying meters to property

Multiple meters causing problems in identifying meters to property

Pipeline re-routed causing difficulty in identifying meter to property

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 66

33


Repair

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 67

Good Working Practices • Good Quality Materials • Good Quality Tools & Equipment • Backfill & compact sand around pipe • Good experienced supervision • Provided Personal Protection Equipment • Increased Health & Safety

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 68

34


The Components of NRW

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 69

Repair

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 70

35


Repair

Copyright �� 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 71

Repair

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 72

36


Pressure Management

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 73

Pressure Management – Reduce Pressure • Meet Customer Service Standards • Release pressure for other parts of the network • Reduce Leakage

– Produce a Stable Network • Eliminate pressure variations • Reduce Bursts • Maintains the Asset

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 74

37


Stable Networks Stable networks provide: Increased asset life • Reduced pressure surges • Reduced burst incidents Improved Water Quality • Less rapid pressure and flow changes • Reduced burst incidents • Less disturbance of sediments in pipes • Less ingress of pollutants into the pipe Improved customer service • More constant supply flow and pressure • Better quality water • Less shutdowns to repair leaks • Reduced electricity bills Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 75

Why Control Pressure? Pressure Related Demand When under pressure water will be forced through a hole As this pressure increases, the force will increase as well Therefore as pressure in a water system increases the demand will increase as more water is forced through holes: • • • •

Leaks Taps Showers Hosepipes

This is known as pressure related demand

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 76

38


Why Control Pressure? Conclusion Pressure control is a balancing act between providing a good customer service, which will increase sales, and in minimising leakage.

The most efficient way of undertaking this balancing act is through providing high pressures during the day, when customer demands are high, and reducing the pressure at night, when demand is at its lowest. Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 77

How To Control Pressure

• • • •

Pump Control Gate Valves Pressure Control Valves Break Pressure Tank

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 78

39


Summary

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 79

Value of NRW

The reduction of NRW has great value to everyone.

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 80

40


Components of NRW

The reduction of NRW is the responsibility of all departments.

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 81

Pressure Management

Control of pressures is essential to ensure stability of networks and control of NRW.

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 82

41


The Worldwide Challenge NRW is a world wide problem  It is a Management Measure Problem! 

Pressure

Monitor Maintain

Time

Repairs

Equipment

Detection Strategy

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 83

Water Balance IWA Standard Water Balance Authorised

Billed Authorised Consumption

Billed Metered Consumption Billed Unmetered Consumption

Revenue Water

Consumption Unbilled Authorised Consumption

System Input

Apparent Losses

Volume Water Losses

Real Losses

Unbilled Metered Consumption Unbilled Unmetered Consumption Unauthorised Consumption Customer Meter Inaccuracies and Data Handling Errors Leakage on Transmission and Distribution Mains Leakage on Overflows at Storage Tanks Leakage on Service Connections up to point of Customer Meter

Non Revenue Water

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 84

42


NRW Reduction Programme ENABLING WORKS District Metering

Baseline Studies

Telemetry Implementation

Digital Mapping Leakage

Network Analysis

Reporting

NRW REDUCTION ACTIVITIES Detection & Repair

Pressure Control

Pipe Replacement

Customer Surveys

Reservoirs Controls

Trunk Mains

Billing Analysis Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 85

Any Questions

Copyright © 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 86

43


Thank You

Copyright Š 2003 NRW Dept.

NRW Awareness Workshop Provincial Waterworks Authority, Thailand 87

44


http://www.waterlinks.org/sites/default/files/Managers_NRW%20Awareness%20Seminar%20-%20ALL%20FINAL%2