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April 2009, Issue no. 170 ISSN: 1523-7893 © Copyright 2005 I. IPM NEWS --- international IPM news and programs Research Program Will Help Subsistence Farmers The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Seattle, Washington-based Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), have joined forces to fund and significantly boost research to enhance global small farm/subsistence agriculture in developing countries, according to an NSF news release Each organization will provide US million over five years (US million total) to support a competitive grants program that will seek answers to pest (insects, weeds, diseases), drought, and related challenges facing small-scale growers and their families who rely on crops for both income and subsistence. NSF will manage the program, dubbed 'Basic Research to Enable Agricultural Development' (aka “BREAD”), drawing upon a peer review process in consultation with BMGF staff. NSF funds will support research conducted by eligible U.S. academic institutions including non-profit research groups, museums, labs, and professional societies. BMGF funding will support eligible international partners as identified through sub-awards from U.S. awardees. D. Delmer, newly appointed BREAD program director, views the program as a “unique opportunity to promote international collaborations among scientists from the U.S. and those in developed and developing world countries.” The BREAD concept is to expand on previous research efforts to evolve transformative research that will generate sustainable, science-based solutions to smaller-scale agricultural endeavors in targeted areas. -> D. Delmer, NSF, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22230, USA. Voice: 1-703-292-8470. excerpted, with thanks, from the NSF website. Commentary A decades-long body of research directly aimed at improving the lot of small-scale growers and their families in developing countries will doubtlessly be accelerated and strengthened by the new program (BREAD) mentioned above. But a caveat is worth noting: new research efforts need to avoid reinventing the vast body of work carried out and duly reported by many earlier programs dating back to the mid-1960's and earlier.

The U.S. Agency for International Development has sponsored long-running programs for IPM, and improved management of weeds, among others, and still is at the forefront of funding science-based, in-field, hands-on research activities such as the Collaborative Research Support Programs (See, for example: “A Flexible Package of Practices” in Section VII). The United Nations’ many programs, plus international activities funded through European Community nations, and the evolution of Farmer Field Schools are all important earlier steps in the same direction. Of course, the elapsed decades have witnessed giant leaps forward in technology that now can be utilized to address crop production. But many of the intractable situations that have historically impinged on small-scale, developing countries cropping still exist: infertile soils, inflexible social mores, unpredictable markets, inadequate transportation, and inhospitable political structures have not disappeared. Many pioneering programs have. However, the research and extension they conducted–-the advances, minute as they may be, as well as the failures–-are documented in numerous (no doubt dusty) reports that still exist and are clearly worth reviewing before starting all over from scratch and wasting precious time and money. A.E. Deutsch, ed. GLOBAL IPM NEWS NOTES * Research scientists at Cornell Univ. have devised and tested a method of encapsulating pesticides in biodegradable nanofibers that is said to all but eliminate any pesticide drift or wash-off and to hold the compounds intact until needed by the targeted plant. -> C. Xiang, * Adding minimal pyrethroid insecticide to a low dose of slow acting biopesticide improved insect numbers reduction, cut costs, and reduced environmental impact. -> D. Kpindou, * Cover crops planted between rows in a California vineyard were found to neither affect intrarow weeds, nor vine growth, yield, or nutrition. -> K. Baumgartner, * Field trials in an Egyptian olive grove confirmed the effectiveness of mating disruption for controlling Prays oleae (olive moth). -> E.M. Hegazi, * A new genre of fungicidal compounds, dubbed “paldoxins” (phytoalexin detoxification inhibitors), are said to use a unique “green” defensive strategy to help crop plants resist disease caused by phytotoxins. -> S. Pedras, * "For every dollar spent on insecticides, U.S. growers gain [US] in increased production value." -> L.P. Gianessi, II. IPM-RELATED INFORMATION RESOURCES web, CD/DVD, video and shorter publications IPMnet NEWS welcomes information about websites, publications, CD/DVDs, or videos focused on, or related to, crop plant IPM, or invasives. Please send a review copy of the material

to the address at end of this file; or, send the URL to: {$} = indicates an item can be purchased, or that there may be charges for handling and postage, or both. COMPREHENSIVE NORTH AMERICAN WEED IDENTIFIER A DVD published in 2008, 1200 WEEDS OF THE 48 STATES & ADJACENT CANADA, An Interactive Identification Guide, follows-up and expands a 2003 CD (1,000 WEEDS OF NORTH AMERICA), by adding 200 species and increasing the array of images by 2,000 to a total of over 6,200. The new offering contains an interactive identification key and full color images of 1,200 weed species, plus several searchable features for narrowing the weed list to a specific geographic area of interest (state, province, county). The disc provides up-to-date nomenclature and synonymy as well as an illustrated glossary of botanical terminology. Another feature lists page references to over 50 of the most commonly used weed reference publications. The DVD's program is said to represent the culmination of 20 years of effort to make the science of plant identification more accessible to students and the lay public. See {$} -> XID Services, Inc., PO Box 272, Pullman, WA 991163, USA. Voice: 1-509-332-2989. thanks to R.R. Old for material. PARASITIC PLANTS PERIODICAL LIVES ON With 30 years of ongoing publication, the journal/newsletter HAUSTORIUM, official organ of the International Parasitic Plant Society (IPPS), is certainly a candidate for a longevity award. The latest issue, #54,was published in December 2008, edited by a dedicated group of scientists, several of whom have been involved since day one. HAUSTORIUM blends an informative mix of current news, scientific information, meeting reports, and literature references. It includes a listing of useful websites related to parasitic plants, including a site with the full archive of HAUSTORIUM issues, as well as the IPPS website. The Society is dedicated to fostering parasitic plant research and education based on increasing biological understanding of, and decreasing the damage inflicted on crops by, parasitic plants. HAUSTORIUM is now available only as an electronic file and is no longer available in hardcopy form. -> C. Parker, 5 Royal York Crescent, Bristol BS8 4JZ, UK. WORLDWIDE BIOTECH CROPS SURVEY A comprehensive overview recently published by the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications (ISAAA) reports on the “Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2008, The First Thirteen Years, 1996-2008." According to ISAAA, approximately 13.3 million farmers in 25 countries grew GM crops on 125 million ha. (308.6 million ac.) in 2008, a 9.4 percent increase over 2007. The information was compiled by C. James, an articulate advocate for broad-scale adoption of GM crops. While the full report, “ISAAA Brief 39-2008,” can be ordered, an extensive executive summary, with a visual showing the global map of biotech crops in 2008 by country, can be freely downloaded from: {$} -> ISAAA, 417 Bradfield Hall, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

POSTERS OF VEGETABLE VILLAINS A European-based biocontrols producer/marketer has published two newer multi- lingual posters illustrating pathogens/diseases and pests (insects) of two vegetable crops. One of the 70x100 cm (27.5 x 39in.), full color posters targets Cucumis sativus (cucumber) and illustrates different stages of leaf, stem, and fruit damage. Attacking organisms are identified by scientific nomenclature as well as common names in nine languages. The second poster provides similar information for cultivar groups within the Capsicum annum species (or broadly, sweet peppers [in English]). The posters are intended to serve as visual aids for helping to identify causes of crop abnormalities. Posters are said to be freely available from distributors. -> R. Pauwels, Biobest NV, Ilse Veiden 18, Westerlo B-18,BELGIUM. Fax:32-1-425-7982. Voice: 32-1-425-7980. thanks to R. Pauwels for information. A CASE STUDY IN LEBANON A DVD entitled "Saving a Cedar Forest" describes a project implemented in LEBANON to study and manage a new pest insect attacking and killing cedar trees in local forests. The self-produced DVD is freely available on the "YouTube" website at the link: -> N.S. Kawar, 426 Carpenters Cove Lane, Downingtown, PA 19335, USA. Voice:1-484-341-8390. thanks to N.S. Kawar for information. III. IPM-RELATED PUBLICATIONS books, other longer publications IPMnet NEWS will gladly mention publications focused on, or related to, crop plant IPM, pest management, crop protection or invasives. To facilitate review please send a copy of the publication, along with full details, to IPMnet NEWS (address at end of this file). many thanks, Ed. {$} = indicates a publication can be purchased, or that the publisher may charge for handling and postage, or both. PROFILE OF THE AREAWIDE APPROACH Two recently published titles coincidently address the topic of applying a pest management plan to broad geographic areas as compared to an individual field or other small land unit, or to an entire pest population over a broad swath of real estate. The most recent of these volumes, AREAWIDE PEST MANAGEMENT, Theory and Implementation, similarly to the slightly earlier publication*, presents a series of 21 papers by a corps of experts, as edited by O. Koul , et al. The editors tasked the 2008, 604-page monograph with three purposes: to provide a condensed history of areawide pest management's (AWPM) underpinnings and a summary of current field activity; to discuss the concepts that have direct impact on the success/less-thansuccess of AWPM implementation; and, to compile recent case examples of programs that have utilized the AWPM approach and to what effect. Chapters predominantly focus on managing and containing pest insects, but also give a nod to weed-centered areawide efforts as well as social and economic aspects of AWPM. Maintaining a well established tradition, the hardbound work

concludes with a chapter that examines the current approaches, obstacles, and potential future directions of AWPM. {$} -> CAB International, Nosworthy Way, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8DE, UK. Voice:44-0-1491-832111. Fax:44-0-1491-833508. (*First volume: AREA-WIDE CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS, M.J.B. Vreysen, et al, 2007, Springer.) A PATH TO IPM IMPLEMENTATION Two experienced IPM specialists in Australia have published a straight forward, grower oriented manual, INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT FOR CROPS AND PASTURES, that lays out elements and procedures for successfully implementing IPM in cropping and grazing operations. P.A. Horne and J. Page introduce the IPM approach, the key management methods (primarily for non-weed and non-vertebrate pest species), and then address the all-important aspect of monitoring. “One of the most important points to remember,” the authors advise, “is that the presence of a pest does not necessarily mean there is a pest problem.” The 134-page, 2008 book leads growers through making the initial determination to launch an IPM program, as well as the ongoing decision-making involved with field monitoring and related steps. Several examples of monitoring in specific cropping situations follow in this practical 2008 work, which includes 47 full color photos. The softbound publication concludes by presenting case studies and examples of grower experiences with adopting IPM. -> Landlinks Press, PO Box 1139, Collingwood, VIC 3066, AUSTRALIA. Fax:61-3-9662-7555. Voice: 61-3-9662-7666. thanks to P.A. Horne for material. LATEST UK PESTICIDE GUIDE THE UK PESTICIDE GUIDE 2009 version, as have 22 past editions, remains one of the most globally authoritative reference volumes on the topic. The latest iteration, edited by M.A. Lainsbury, lists information for over 1,300 pesticide products including five new active ingredients, plus products not profiled but still legal to use (in the UK), and a trove of additional technical information. The softbound work includes, for the first time, mode of action codes (from the International Resistance Action Committees) to help make wise choices for minimizing pest resistance problems. A comprehensive Crop/Pest Guide matches pesticides against a range of pest species for an array of important crops. Products, both those new to this revised edition and those deleted since the 2008 version are listed. More details and information for the softbound, 700-page Guide are at: {$} -> BCPC Publications, 7 Omni Business Ctr., Omega Pk., Alton, Hampshire GU34 2QD, UK. Fax: 44-0-1420-593209. Voice: 44-0-1420-593200. INVASIVE PLANTS FIELD GUIDE A newer full-color publication, INVASIVE EXOTIC PLANTS OF NORTH CAROLINA, provides technical information and identification of 74 plant species found in the named region that pose varying levels of threat to wildlife habitat, natural areas, and in some cases, agriculture. Editor/compiler C. Smith includes extensive informative text including: initial introduction and expansion in range; description and biology; habitats susceptible to invasion; and prevention and control, plus several full-color illustrations of each included species. The 2008, 189-page

publication is freely available online at: and includes lists of native plants and seeds, the U.S. federal noxious weed list, references, and other information. -> C. Smith, thanks to C. Smith for information and material. IV. IPM MEDLEY Professional Opportunities Equipment, Products, Processes, & Services Corrections PROFESSIONAL OPPORTUNITIES POST-DOC IPM-WEEDS, Dijon, FRANCE * Determine constraints hampering adoption of weed-IPM cropping systems by growers, taking into account farming structure, soil type, and climatic diversity; utilize typology of French farms to apply multi-criteria analysis of alternative farming systems with low reliance on herbicides; investigate labor organization at the farm scale; investigate and determine economic profitability. * REQUIRES: PhD in cropping/farming systems, agronomy and/or agricultural economy; French language ability required. * CONTACT: N. Munier-Jolain, INRA, UMR Biologie et Gestion des Adventices, BP 86510, 21065 Dijon Cedex, FRANCE. Fax: 33-3-806-93222. Voice: 33-3-806-93035. EQUIPMENT, PRODUCTS, PROCESSES, & SERVICES MULTI-PURPOSE SOFTWARE AVAILABLE The American Phytopathological Society (APS) has published ASSESS 2.0,Image Analysis Software for Plant Disease Quantification, comprised of a CD and a textbook quality manual containing 19 tutorials. According to APS, ASSESS software quantifies and measures plant diseases quickly and accurately and provides rapid measurement of leaf area, percent disease, root length, lesion count, and percent ground cover, all at a fraction of the cost of general image analysis software. Multi purpose ASSESS 2.0, (2008), by L. Lamari, also can be used as an interactive laboratory tool for real-time length and area measurements of anything that can be imaged (scanned, digitally photographed, microcopied, etc.) and is hardwareindependent, requiring only a computer with a 32-bit computer operating system. The program supports Twain-compliant imaging devices, such as scanners, frame grabbers, or digital cameras, for image acquisition, although images can be imported from any computer drive, CD, network, or other applications. The software/manual package is seen as a useful tool for anyone needing to analyze, quantify, and measure plants and plant diseases. Automated installation is said to be straight forward, and both single and multiple user versions are offered. A demonstration video and additional details are at {$} -> APS Press, Attn: A. Armstrong, 3340 Pilot Knob Rd., Saint Paul, MN 55121, USA. Voice: 1-651-454-7250. CORRECTION IPMnet NEWS issue #169, March 2009, IPM News section: an article introducing I. Hoeschle-Zeledon as the new coordinator of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research Systemwide Program on Integrated Pest Management mistakenly stated that Dr. Hoeschle-Zeledon formerly was IPM advisor to GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Tecnische Ausammenarbeit) for eight years when she actually held the position for 18 years. IPMnet NEWS regrets the error and the loss of a decade. Ed. V. IPM-RELATED RESEARCH/TECHNICAL PAPERS SELECTED TITLES Selections from current literature. IPMnet NEWS will gladly provide the address and email, as

available, for first authors of the following titles. Direct requests to: Phytopathology """"""""""""""""""""" “Integrated Control of Root and Crown Rot in Sugar Beet: Combined Effects of Cultivar, Crop Rotation, and Soil Tillage,” Buhre, C., et al. * PLANT DIS., 93(2), 155-161, February 2009. “Movento[R], an Ideal Tool for Integrated Pest Management in Pome Fruit, Citrus, and Vegetables,” Schnorbach, H-J., et al. * BAYER CROPSCIENCE JRNL., 61(2), 377-402, 2008. Weed Science """"""""""""""""" “Focus on Ecological Weed Management: What is Hindering Adoption?,” Bastiaans, L., et al. * WEED RESCH., 48(6), 481-491, December 2008. Entomology """""""""""""""" "Assessing Yield and Efficiency Implications of Relying on Parasitoids for Control of Cereal Stemborers: The Case of Small-scale Maize Farmers in Kenya," Kipkoech, A.K., et al. * CROP PROT., 27(10), 1318-1326, October 2008. "Generalist Predators in Organically and Conventionally Managed Grass-clover Fields: Implications for Conservation Biological Control," Birkhofer, K., et al. * ANNS. OF APPLD. BIOL., 153(2), 271-280, October 2008. “Insect Pests of Tea and their Management,” Hazarika, L.K., et al. * ANN. REV. OF ENTOM., 54, 267-284, 2009. General """""""""" “Direct and Indirect Impacts of Integrated Pest Management on Pesticide Use: A Case of Rice Agriculture in Java, Indonesia." Mariyono, J. * PEST MGMT. SCI., 64(10), 1069-1073, October 2008. “Effects of Training on Acquisition of Pest Management Knowledge and Skills by Small Vegetable Farmers,” Yang, P., et al. * CROP PROT., 27(12), 1504-1510, December 2008. VI. U.S. NATIONAL IPM REGIONS

Online IPM Course Targets Retail Personnel The California Statewide IPM program conducted by the Univ. of California/Davis recently added another title to its free series of online pesticide training courses: "Moving Beyond PesticidesEnvironmentally Safe Tools for Use in an IPM Program," targeting retail employees. The self-study course is aimed at retail, garden center, or other employees or individuals who advise consumers about the best tools and products to use for solving pest problems. The course, a basic overview of IPM and how to diagnose and manage pest problems, features information on low-toxicity tools and a range of products sold in most garden centers, as well as in many 'big box' retail stores. Course participants receive information about resistant plant varieties, types of pest trapping apparatus, beneficial species, and much more. The course, at (scroll down to ‘online training’) is divided into six sections and takes about one hour to complete. This is the second course aimed at retail employees, the first being "Introduction to Pesticides for Retail Employees," available at

the same website. The pair of training programs aims to increase awareness and provide knowledge that can then be utilized when advising consumers about pesticides and alternative pest management options. -> S.J. Klunk, UC Statewide IPM Program, Robbins Hall Annex, One Shields Ave., Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. Voice: 1-530-754-6724. thanks to S.J. Klunk for information. IPM Entities Publish Annual Reports Two more regional IPM centers and an additional state IPM program have published annual reports for 2008: * North Central IPM Center 2008 Annual Report, 10 pages. -> NCIPM, Dept. Of Crop Sciences, Univ. of Illinois, 1102 S. Goodwin Ave., Urbana, IL 61801, USA. Western IPM Center 2008 Annual Report, 8 pages, available online at -> WIPMC, 4249 Meyer Hall, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. * Michigan State Univ. IPM Program 2008 Annual Report, 12 pages, online at -> MSU-IPM, B18 Food Safety, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI 48824-1302, USA.

VII. U.S. AID's IPM-COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM (IPM-CRSP) A Flexible Package of Practices Before one can observe the hoary edict “eat your vegetables,” someone has to grow them, and now the IPM-CRSP, based on years of helping to develop IPM-based practices for increasing sustainable, often smaller-scale, vegetable production under tropical conditions, has evolved a comprehensive IPM package of practices for vegetable crops in the tropics. While pest problems will vary dependent on each geographical area’s specific conditions, many of the package’s elements are, with tweaking, broadly applicable and transferable to various sites. The package first addresses preparatory steps: seed selection; seed treatment; seed nursery; seedling selection; and pre-plant soil preparation. Special attention is then given to grafting, the mating of high yield scions with disease-resistant root stock, an increasingly useful technology that has the added benefit of job creation. Selective mechanical/physical elements–-mulching, or staking–-are also cited as possible enhancements. Not surprisingly, pest management practices receive the bulk of attention in the IPM-CRSP package which sets forth well established methods of pest trapping, monitoring, use of biocontrol, and related topics. Spray application of “conventional” pesticides is downplayed in lieu of considering biopesticides and thereby avoiding growers (or others) inadvertent exposure to pesticides. IPM-CRSP officials note that adoption of some variant of the vegetable IPM package can help to alleviate food insecurity as well as boost grower income in both subsistence and commercial

settings while simultaneously decreasing pesticide exposure and potential health issues. -> IPM-CRSP Program Director, IAO, 526 Prices Fork Rd. (0378), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. Fax: 1-540-231-3519. Voice: 1-540-231-3516. –-thanks to R. Muniappan for information. VIII. IPMnet CALENDAR UPDATE recent additions and revisions (only) to a global listing of forthcoming IPM-related events, 2009-2013. NOTES: 1=> The IPMnet CALENDARUpdate, lists only: (N)ew events not previously cited in IPMnet NEWS; and, [R]evised events incorporating new information compared to a previous mention in IPMnet NEWS. 2=> The IPMnet CALENDAR, Latest Complete Version, can be requested any time from It is online at courtesy of the International Society for Pest Information (ISPI) and B. Zelazny, ISPI's executive director. The site is designed with features intended for user convenience. The "IPMnet CALENDAR Update" appears in each IPMnet NEWS issue. 3=> Please send information about future events, or revisions, to: IPMnet NEWS, at Information listed in the IPMnet CALENDAR was supplied by, and collected from, various sources; IPMnet greatly appreciates all cooperation. (N)ewly Listed, or [R]evised Entries: as of 14 April 2009 2009 (N) 17-21 May * 109th AMERICAN SOC. FOR MICROBIOLOGY, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Contact: ASM, 1752 N St. NW, Washington, DC 20036, USA. 21-26 June * FUSARIUM LABORATORY WORKSHOP, Manhattan, KS, USA. * Contact: J.F. Leslie, Dept. of Plant Pathology, Throckmorton Hall, Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS 66506-5502, USA. Voice: 1-785-532-6176. Fax: 1-785-532-5692. www.plantpath.k 22 June-06 July * SHORT COURSE IN NEMATOLOGY, Potchefstroom, SOUTH AFRICA. Contact: A. Mcdonald, School of Environ. Sci. and Devel., Pri. Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520, SOUTH AFRICA. Fax: 27-18-299-2503. Voice: 27-18-299-6369. 03-07 August * 42ND CONGRESSO BRASILEIRO DE FITOPATOLOGIA, Rio de Janeiro, BRASIL. Contact: (N) 17-19 December * NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CLIMATE CHANGE, PLANT

PROTECTION AND FOOD SECURITY INTERFACE, Lake Hall, Kalyani, West Bengal, INDIA. Contact: Assn. for Advancement in Plant Protection, Directorate of Research, BCKV, Kalyani, Nadia 741235, West Bengal, INDIA. Fax: 91-033-250-25235. Voice: 91-033-258-08511-ext. 47. 2010 (N) 20-23 September * IOBC WORKSHOP ON INTEGRATED SOFT FRUIT PRODUCTION, Budapest, HUNGARY. Contact: C. Ioriatti, Plant Protection Dept., Research Ctr., Via Edmondo Mach 2, I-38010 S. Michele all’Adige (TN), ITALY. Fax: 39-0461-615500. Voice: 39-0461-615514. www.iobc 2011-2013 No (N)ew or [R]evised listings to report for these years. ********* About IPMnet IPMnet is a free, global, IPM information resource service produced in collaboration with the Integrated Plant Protection Center (IPPC) at Oregon State Univ., USA, and underwritten by the U.S. Agency for International Development's IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture's Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service and IPPC. IPMnet maintains working relationships with the International Society for Pest information and the International Association for the Plant Protection Sciences IPMnet NEWS April/May 2009 Issue #170 ISSN: 1523-7893 Disclaimer .....Mention of specific products, processes, institutions, organizations, or individuals in IPMnet NEWS implies neither support nor criticism by the underwriting institutions nor any of their staff members. Views expressed in IPMnet NEWS do not necessarily reflect those of the underwriters. Reprinting .....IPMnet NEWS content is copyright protected; however, items appearing in the NEWS may be reprinted or quoted without permission, provided IPMnet NEWS is fully identified as the source. Contributing material to IPMnet NEWS .... Notices of events, publications, materials, or processes are welcome, as are short articles describing research, or other IPM-related information. To Subscribe (free), or to Unsubscribe .... Send the message "subscribe," or "unsubscribe" to:, being sure to state the specific e-mail address involved. The IPMnet NEWS Mailing List .... Is a PRIVATE list owned by IPMnet and strictly limited to use by IPMnet; it is neither rented, sold, nor authorized for use by any institution, organization, or individual for any other purpose. IPMnet highly values the confidence, and respects the privacy, of its global readership.

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NSF will manage the program, dubbed 'Basic Research to Enable Agricultural Development' (aka “BREAD”), drawing upon a peer review process in...


NSF will manage the program, dubbed 'Basic Research to Enable Agricultural Development' (aka “BREAD”), drawing upon a peer review process in...