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March 1995, Issue no. 16 ISSN: 1523-7893 Š Copyright 2005 IPM NEWS --- international IPM news and programs I. IPM NEWS / APPLICATIONS international IPM news, and application of IPM techniques and programs. International IPM Facility Proposed An international inter-agency task force proposes to establish an "IPM Facility" to "draw upon local, national, and international expertise, knowledge, and resources to facilitate the processes of [IPM] project identification, design, and implementation," and to accelerate "effective response to the needs of farmers and national IPM programs." The proposed Facility would be operated by a small, professional staff, hosted by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, and funded with a core budget of US million per year by co-sponsors FAO, United Nations Development Program (UNDP), United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), and the International Bank for Rural Development. The task force framed its proposal in a "Concept Paper for an Integrated Pest Management Facility," issued in October 1994. Task force members included FAO, UNDP, UNEP, and the World Bank. The proposal charges the IPM Facility with seven key activities that revolve around stimulating development of IPM programs, assisting with establishment and conduct of pilot programs, and serving as a center for identifying and removing constraints to IPM implementation.

What IPM is Not Defining IPM was nearly a minor growth industry in itself. Now, in a landmark paper sponsored by an agrichemical groupwith a great deal of input from specialists in IPM-related activitiescomes a list of "What IPM is Not." The paper's authors noted that, "It is critical to know what it is not to prevent unrealistic expectations of what the concept can and cannot do for agriculture." Their list suggests that: IPM is not new: in one form or another, it has existed since the advent of agriculture. Science-based IPM programs, however, are only a few decades old. IPM is not implemented overnight: an IPM program involves many playersfarmers, advisors, scientistsand can take years to fully develop and implement. IPM is not organic farming: organic farmers, who use no synthetic inputs, are prevented from

using some low-risk IPM techniques because they involve synthetic inputs. IPM is not a formula to eliminate or reduce pesticide use: IPM can often result in reduced, safer, and more judicious pesticide use. IPM is not a rigid program of management techniques: it is a mix of suitable techniques and options designed to manage pests under a specific set of circumstances. IPM programs are not universal: the applicable techniques and options vary with geography, crop, and socio-economic factors. excerpted from: "An Overview of Integrated Pest Management," a West. Agric. Chem. Assn. white paper. Experts Keynote African IPM Seminar P.E. Kenmore, Regional Director for the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations' highly successful Intercountry Rice IPM Programme in Asia, was one of two international experts speaking at a seminar held at the headquarters of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in Nairobi, Kenya, in late February. The event focused on biological diversity conservation in pest management and implementation of integrated pest management (IPM). Dr. Kenmore, along with J. Waage, Director of the International Institute of Biological Control in the U.K., discussed, "IPM Implementation: Meeting the Goals of Agenda 21 ... on Schedule." The seminar theme was based on the fact that natural enemies, such as predators, parasites, and diseases, constitute most of the Earth's diversity, maintaining the richness of natural ecosystems and forming the basis of sustainable pest management in agro-ecosystems. IPM, through the conservation of natural enemies in crops, can help farmers' lessen their reliance on pesticides that, if used incorrectly, may have capacity for environmental damage. Following the seminar, as a practical demonstration of IPM, Dr. Waage released the weevil Crytobagous salvinae for the control of the water fern Salvinia molestain one of UNEP's ornamental ponds. The event was jointly organized by UNEP, the Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International (CABI), and FAO. For more information: H.N.B. Gopalan, Program Officer, UNEP Human Health, Welfare and Settlements Unit, Nairobi, Kenya. Phone: 254-2-62-3246/7. Fax: 254-2-62-4260.

African Rice Pests and Management Surveyed The West Africa Rice Development Association (WARDA) has embarked on a series of surveys in farmers' fields which, in conjunction with controlled research station experiments, are increasing the available knowledge of the dynamics of rice pests and their natural enemies, as well as why farmers use pesticides. That information, notes WARDA's Director of Research, P.J. Matlon, "is critical for the development of environmentally friendly integrated pest management (IPM) strategies suited to the region's rice farmers." WARDA has focused pest management research within two projects: development of

integrated pest management practices, and cropping systems. Samples of research either completed or under way include: Determinants of insecticide and herbicide adoption in rice-based cropping systems; Seedling age and plant spacing effects on insect pests in lowland irrigated rice; Sources of rice blast resistance and identification of sites for the selection of blast-resistant cultivars; Competitiveness of rice with weeds. WARDA is giving high priority to the development of pest management practices that minimize the use of purchased inputs. For more information, contact: P.J. Matlon, Director of Research, WARDA, 01 BP 2551, Bouake 01, COTE D'IVOIRE. Phone: 225-634-514. Fax: 225-634-714. E-mail: source: WARDA Annual Report, 1993.

Honey Bees Help Control Earworm A test program using honey bees to deliver a naturally occurring virus has succeeded in killing 74 to 87 percent of the corn earworm larvae [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)] in clover fields according to researchers at the United States Department of Agriculture's Insect Biology and Population Management Research Laboratory in Tifton, GA. Clover is one of the main host plants for the corn earworm. Moths lay their eggs on the clover where the first generation develops; the earworm then moves on to corn where it is a much more serious pest. "The population really explodes in corn," where it hides under the husk while it devours the ear, noted one of the investigators. The generation that develops in corn "then goes on to cotton, soybeans, and peanuts," causing even more damage, he said. The virus doesn't hurt the bees. Rather, the bees are unwitting couriers delivering a knockout punch to corn earworm larvae in the nearby fields of crimson clover. "What we're trying to do is hit them in that earlier generation when there are smaller numbers to control," the researcher observed. In the experiment, hives are rigged with a device that forces exiting bees to walk through a pan where their feet and legs are coated with talc mixed with the virus. Each time one of the dusted bees stops at a flower, some of the virus gets rubbed onto the blossoms. When one of the susceptible pests contacts a virus-coated blossom, it becomes infected with the virus and dies.

USA Proposes Increased Budget for IPM The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) proposed budget for fiscal 1996 recommends significant increases to support the all out IPM

Initiative USDA launched in 1994. The increases are aimed at research and extension programs supported by the Department's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES). USDA has clearly identified the IPM Initiative as one of its top priorities in the proposed fiscal 1996 budget, according to sources involved with development and implementation of the Initiative. The IPM Initiative is based on the premises that: 1.) involving producers and practitioners (of crop protection) in the development and assessment of IPM programs increases usage of IPM; and, 2.) increasing the use of IPM systems enables producers to achieve both economic and environmental benefits. For fiscal 1995, the Smith-Lever 3(d) budget for IPM is US.9 million, including an increase of US,000 per state that will be released when a supplemental plan of work is submitted to, and approved by, CSREES. CSREES is working closely with Land-Grant universities to develop a comprehensive plan for strengthening research and extension activities that relate to IPM. The plan envisions partnerships with a variety of institutions, as well as the private sector, and others with a stake in fostering the adoption of IPM.

SPECIAL NOTICE IPMnet is now linked to the National (U.S.) IPM Network, a group of government, education, and other organizations dedicated to development and implementation of integrated pest management. As a result of this linkage, the IPMnet NEWS now can be accessed on the National IPM Network's World Wide Web system. The address is: URL - specific address for the IPMnet NEWS is: back to top IPM MEDLEY --- publications and other IPM information resources V. IPM MEDLEY general IPM information, publications of interest, and other information resources. NZ Researchers Seek Reduction of Chemicals An 18-person agricultural research center in New Zealand is focusing on finding ways of operating large-scale agricultural industries with minimalor nouse of chemicals. According to a spokesperson for the Horticulture and Food Research Institute (HFRI) headquartered at Hamilton, "Agriculture here is taking consumer demand for greater health assurance very seriously, so funding for this kind of research is quite significant by NZ standards. Substantial changes to agricultural practice are being made, especially in horticulture, and increasingly these changes are being driven by the marketing boards which coordinate most of New Zealand's agricultural exports," he said. HFRI's current interests in sustainable agriculture include:

Non-chemical fruit disinfestation; Use of beneficial fungus and fungal extracts for control of undesirable fungal infections; Practical use of pheromones for insect control (mating disruption); Non-spray herbicide application technology for control of rampant vines and trees (eg, stream-blocking willows); Minimal-chemical weed control; Minimizing use of insecticides and fungicides in large-scale production of exportable fruit; Simple controlled-release systems for disease prevention in livestock; and, Automatic trapping to control pest animals (a serious problem in New Zealand where early settlers imported a lot of small animals, but not the predators to keep them in check). HFRI, partly funded by government and partly by farming industry groups, is the main engineering R&D resource for horticultural and pastoral research in New Zealand. "A theme of our work," the spokesperson noted, "is that sustainable farming usually requires more effort (physical and mental) than conventional farming, and consequently can be limited by the availability of human resources. The role of engineers is to make human resources go further by developing helpful tools and processes. Often our aim is to find a way of turning an uneconomic ideal into an economic reality." For more information, contact: R. McDonald, HFRI, Hamilton, New Zealand. E-mail: Phone: 64-7-838-5675. Fax: 64-7-838-5655.

Biocontrol Worker Database Started Scientists involved with biological control are developing an international database for "WHO IS WHO IN RISK ASSESSMENT OF BIOCONTROL AGENTS." The purpose is to assemble a list of individuals working on this subject so that communication can be enhanced. Emphasis will be given to studies and tests related to ecotoxicology, epizootiology, ecology, biosafety legislation, and field release of control agents. For more information and an electronic registration form, send an e-mail request to:

Virus-resistant Transgenic Rice The first crop of transgenic, virus-resistant rice grown in an

unconfined test plot has been harvested in Japan. The harvest marks completion of a four-year environmental assessment conducted by the National Agricultural Research Centre and the National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences.

PUBLICATIONS AUTHORS AND PUBLISHERS The IPMnet NEWS will gladly mention a publication provided it has a connection to IPM. To assure coverage, please send a review copy of the publication, with background information where to obtain copies, data about the author(s), costs, and any other particulars or materialsto: IPMnet NEWS, c/o Integrated Plant Protection Center 2040 Cordley Hall, Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331-2915, USA After review, materials will be cataloged into the Center's extensive international IPM and crop protection literature collection (which the worldwide IPM/crop protection community is welcome to use) or returned if so requested.

Tree and Shrub Pest Management One of the latest in the informative California IPM guides series is PESTS OF LANDSCAPE TREES AND SHRUBS: AN INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT GUIDE, published in 1994. This 327-page guide emph sizes IPM methods as well as landscape designs to prevent or minimize pest problems. Author S.H. Dreistadt's text is enhanced by 330 color photos and 70 line drawings, plus 50 pages of tree and shrub pest tables. Topics cover designing an IPM program, all the major pest groups, and an easy reference problem-solving guide. The volume is cited by the publisher as "the ultimate guide for landscapers, park managers, and homeowners." Extension entomologist C.S. Koehler and plant pathologist R.D. Raabe, along with 40 experts from academia, government, and the private sector contributed information and research data. Technical editor for this publication, and the Univ. of Califo nia IPM guides series, is M.L. Flint. For free leaflet describing Publication #3359, or for more information about it or other titles in the IPM series, contact: ANR Publications, Univ. of California, 6701 San Pablo, Ave., Oakland, CA 94608-1239, USA. Phone: 01-510-642-2431. Fax: 01-510-643-5470.

Developing Country Pesticide Policies A 1994 World Bank Discussion Paper, #238, analyzes pesticide -related policies in developing countries and discusses how current economics and government policies related to pesticides and pest management in these countries induce

excessive use and minimize the importance and practice of IPM. The 42 page publication, PESTICIDE POLICIES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: DO THEY ENCOURAGE EXCESSIVE USE?, was prepared by J. Farah. For more information, contact: The World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA. Phone: 01-202-473-4502. Fax: 01-202-473-3112.

New Biocontrol Newsletter A group of scientists at several midwestern U.S. Land-Grant universities has launched MIDWEST BIOLOGICAL CONTROL NEWS, a periodical designed to provide information "to help incorporate biological control solutions into pest management systems." The monthly's target audience is extension agents, crop consultants, landscape managers, and crop producers. The newsletter's first issue was published in September 1994. Funding is provided through a grant from the Integrated Pest Management Program of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. For more information, contact: S.E.R. Mahr, MBCN, Dept. of Entomology, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA. E-mail: Fax: 01-608-262-3322. Phone: 01-608-262-9914.

Methyl Bromide Alternatives Methyl bromide (MB), a toxic fumigant gas, is one of the world's widely used pesticides primarily for control of soil borne pests. For several reasons, including its role in stratospheric ozone depletion, there is growing pressure to phase out application of MB. The February 1995 issue [XVII(2)] of THE IPM PRACTITIONER offers a roundup of "Alternatives to Methyl Bromide in California Grape Production" in an extensive article by J. Liebman and S. Daar. The narrative offers a broad overview, emerging alternative practices, and a useful list of references. For information, contact: IPM Practitioner, PO Box 7414, Berkeley, CA 94707, USA. Phone: 01-510-524-2567. Fax: 01-510-524-1758.

Pest Management Developments The summer 1994 issue of THE FURROW, sponsored by Deere & Co. and subsidiaries, contains two stories related to pest management. "Cutting Back on Chemicals," by veteran reporter R. Gogerty, cites the worldwide reduction trend in pesticide usage. A combination of using alternative methods, reduced application rates, and low-volume products helps account for the change. In another article, C. McClintic, in "Here Come Bacterial Herbicides," reports on the increasing use of soil bacteria that can help control weeds in a wide range of crops. For more information, contact: The Furrow, John Deere Road, Moline, IL 612658098, USA.

MATERIALS & EQUIPMENT NEW METHOD FOR VIRUS DETECTION A simple, low cost test has been developed to help researchers and producers identify Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV), one of the worst diseases of cereal crops worldwide and a disease whose impact is often underestimated because its symptoms mimic drought and other conditions. To replace

expensive serological methods, a Canadian r searcher developed a diagnostic strip based on Tissue Blot Immuno Assay (TBIA) that can capture virus particles on special paper, which is then developed in a 3-hour process. TBIA uses an antiserum for specificity and can work with cheaper crude antiserum. Antisera, which are expensive products, can be recycled, which helps reduce costs about 10-fold. The test is faster than more expensive methods and proved to be more sensitive than expected. Field kits are ultra-light: several razor blades, and a few square centimeters of special paper, wrapped so as to be kept free of fingerprints. The TBIA was developed through Agriculture Canada during collaborative work sponsored by the Canadian International Development Research Center, and in collaboration with a virologist from the International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria. The TBIA method is currently being presented to virologists of developing countries through a special course at ICARDA, and is now being used in Canada and will soon be applied in Morocco and Chile. Though currently used for BYDV detection, TBIA met odology could be adapted to other disease detection. By using another specialized antisera, viruses of roses, potato, or any plant could be detected. For more information, contact: A. Comeau, Centre de Recherche Agriculture et Agro-alimentaire Canada, 2560 Blvd. Hochelaga, Ste-Foy, Que. G1V 2J3, CANADA. Fax: 01-418-648-2402. E-mail: . back to top IPM RESEARCH/TECHNICAL PAPERS --- categories and topics related to IPM III. FORUM / EDITORIAL viewpoints, opinions, and open discussion of IPM issues. "IPM is perhaps at an advantage over other alternative agricultures in that the IPM philosophy or approach is clearly spelled out in several areas, including scouting techniques, the use of threshold figures to time applications, careful scouting and spraying record maintenance, planting cover crops, using resistant varieties and using biological controls. "The consensus of low wholesale adoption of IPM practices but high adoption of specific components suggests that a `piecemeal' or `selective' adoption process whereby certain practices are assimilated and others discarded or ignored would appear to be a better model for IPM than simpler diffusion models." "The key to understanding the adoption of IPM, however, appears to be as much a matter of understanding how IPM will fit into everyday practices as providing information on techniques." excerpted from: "Difficulties in Measuring Adoption of Apple IPM: A Case Study," D.G. McDonald and C.J. Glynn, AGRICULTURE, ECOSYSTEMS & ENVIRONMENT, 48, 219-230, 1994.

"The volume of herbicides, which account for about 70 percent of all pesticides used on major field crops, has been reduced by approximately 100 million pounds per year worldwide. Part of

that reduction has resulted from increasing use of low- volume herbicides. But many farmers are also using lower application rates with standard chemicals and turning to non-chemical controls." R. Gogerty, "Cutting Back on Chemicals," THE FURROW, 99(5), 10-13, Summer 1994.

IV. RESEARCH ROUNDUP research and findings that have an impact on IPM. Important African Crop Pest Surveyed The bean flower thrips [Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybom)], according to research conducted in West Africa, is the first major pest to attack the reproductive structure of one of the continent's important crops, cowpea [Vigna unguiculata]. What makes this pest especially difficult, the research by M. Tamo et al confirmed, is that: the thrips can breed on a wide range of alternative hosts throughout the agroecological zones where cowpea is cultivated; the pest is able to survive unfavorable climatic episodes, such as dry periods; and, there are no identified predators in the region to effectively reduce thrips populations. Individual cowpea inflorescences can compensate for thrips- caused damage only so long as no more than six thrips larvae are present in a consecutive 5-day period. The research team found that that threshold is often exceeded under current conditions. Migration and dispersal aspects of M. sjostedti remain largely unknown. The same is true for host plant preference. The lack of efficient natural enemies, combined with a high damage threshold, makes M. sjostedti a suitable target for biological control measures, the scientists concluded. For more information, contact: IITA, Plant Health Management Division, BP 08-0932, Cotonou, REPUBLIC OF BENIN. excerpted from: "Assessing the Pest Status of Bean Flower Thrips in West Africa," IITA RESEARCH, 9, September 1994.

Need to Control Pests in Conifers A Canadian research team suggests that insect pest management will be required in many, if not all, of Canada's conifer seed orchards in order to meet established seed production targets. Seed orchard managers will soon need to know the basic requirements and what information is available to implement an effective insect pest management program. In "Status of Cone and Seed Insect Pest Management in Canadian Seed Orchards," P. Degroot, J.J. Turgeon, and G.E. Miller provide a synthesis of the major components of an integrated pest management program for cone and seed insects. The text includes a list of the insect pests of conifer cones and seeds in Canada as well as features of their life cycles and population dynamics that could influence pest management strategies. The authors discuss current and future needs for insect damage appraisal and insect monitoring

techniques, and review various strategies and tactics to control insects. The paper appeared in FOREST CHRON., 70(6), 745-761, November-December 1994. excerpted from: CURR. CONT. Ag, Bio. & Env. Sci., 26(5), January 1995.

A supplement to vol. 75 of PHYTOPROTECTION carries the proceedings from an Herbicide Resistance Workshop held in December 1993 at Edmonton, Alb., Canada. A sampling of paper titles includes: "Herbicide Resistance in the Canadian Prairie Provinces;" "Population Genetics and the Evolution of Herbicide Resistance in Weeds;" "Herbicide-resistant Crops: A Weed Scientist's Perspective;" "Identification and Documentation of Herbicide Resistance;" "Resistant Pests: A Producer's Perspective." PHYTOPARASITICA, 23(1), includes abstracts of papers co cerning "Microbial Control of Insect PestsResearch and Application," presented at the 7th Conference of the Entomological Society of Israel, December 1994.

A supplement to JRNL. OF NEMATOL., vol. 26, no. 4, December 1994, includes four papers presented in the "Workshop: Organisms and Methods for Biological Control of Nematodes."

A special issue of AGRICULTURE, ECOSYSTEMS & ENVIRONMENT, 52(1), January 1995, features "Augmentation and Enhancement of Aphidophaga."

Noted Research Papers "Activation of Systemic Acquired Disease Resistance in Plants." Kessmann, H., et al. EUROPEAN JRNL. OF PLANT PATH., 100(6), 359-370, December 1994. "Chilo-Partellus (Swinhoe)(LEP, Pyralidae) Oviposition on Non-hosts - A Mechanism for Reduced Pest Incidence in Intercropping." Ampongnyarko, K., K.V.S. Reddy, and K.N. Saxena. ACTA OECOLOGICA, 15(4), 469-476, 1994. "Comparative Efficacy of Nematicides and Nematicidal Plants on Root-Knot Nematodes." Oduorowino, P. TROP. AGRIC., 71(4), 272-274, October 1994. "Control of Moth Pests by Mating Disruption: Successes and Constraints." Carde, R.T., and A.K.

Minks. ANN. REV. OF ENT., 40, 559-, 1995. "Crop Sequences for Managing Cereal Cyst Nematode and Fungal Pathogens of Winter Wheat." Smiley, R.W., et al. PLANT DISEASE, 78(12), 1142-1149, December 1994. "Effects of Tillage Systems and Weed Management on Weed Populations in Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)." Vencill, W.K., and P.A. Banks. WEED SCI., 42(4), 541-547, October-December 1994. "Greenhouse Evaluation of Rice Cultivars for Resistance to Gall Midge, Orseolia-Oryzae (Wood-Mason) and Studies on Mechanism of Resistance." Sain, M., and M.B. Kalode. INSECT SCI. AND ITS APPLIC., 15(1), 67-74, February 1994. "Influence of Weed-control Measures on Weed Growth, Yield and Yield Attributes of Rainfed Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea)." Rafey, A., and K.B. Nigam. INDIAN JRNL. OF AGRIC. SCI., 65(1), 42-45, January 1995. "Insecticides and Acaricides: Resistance and Environmental Impact." Kunz, S.E., and D.H. Kemp. REV. SCIENTIFIQUE ET TECHNIQUE DE L'OFFICE INTERNATIONAL DES EPIZOOTIES, 13(4), 1249-1286, December 1994. "Management of the Beet Armyworm (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Cotton - Role of Natural Enemies." Ruberson, J.R. et al. FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGIST, 77(4), 440-453, December 1994. "Periodicy and Individualism in the Granary Weevil, Stophilus granarius (L) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). A Contribution to the Dispersal of Stored-products Pests." Stein, W. ANZEIGER FUR SCHADLINGSKUNDE PFLANZENSCHUTZ UMWELTSCHUTZ, 67(8), 168-175, December 1994. "Socio-economic Constraints to the Adoption of Weed Control Techniques - The Case of Striga Control in the West African Semi-arid Tropics." Debrah, S.K. INTL. JRNL. OF PEST MGMT., 40(2), 153-158, April-June 1994. "Statistical Simulation of Daily Air Temperature Patterns in Eastern North America to Forecast Seasonal Events in Insect Pest Management." Regniere, J., and P. Bolstad. ENVIRON. ENTO., 23(6), 1368-1380, December 1994. "The Need for International Research Programmes on Some Potato Pathogens." VanderZaag, D.E. POTATO RESCH., 37(3), 323-330, 1994. "Winter Management of Grass Grub (Costelytra-Zealandia (White))." Atkinson, D.S., and M.W. Slay. NEW ZEALAND JRNL. OF AGRIC. RESCH., 37(4), 553-558, 1994.

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back to top U.S. REGIONAL IPM CENTERS AND THE IPM-CRSP --- news, developments back to top U.S. AID's IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM CRSP) back to top IPMNET CALENDAR --- recent additions and revisions to a comprehensive global IV. CALENDAR future events: meetings, seminars, conferences, and training courses that relate to global IPM. NOTE: sponsors and organizers are cordially encouraged to send information about future events to: IPMnet NEWS, c/o Integrated Plant Protection Center 2040 Cordley Hall, Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331-2915, USA. Fax: 01-503-373-3080 E-mail: # = new entry since the last issue of IPMnet NEWS. {+} = additional information. or changes.

1995 27 March-1 April LATIN AMERICAN WORKSHOP ON PEST RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT, Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuaria (INIA), Las Brujas, Uruguay, co-organized by INIA and Michigan State University (USA). Goals of this workshop are: 1) provide training and literature to Latin American scientists on resistance detection and resistance management for insects, plant pathogens, and weeds; 2) assess the current status of the resistance problem in Latin America; 3) develop regional strategies to cope with the problem within an IPM framework. Lectures and laboratory demonstrations will be instructed by research specialists from the U.S., Uruguay, Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. Enrollment in the workshop is open to researchers worldwide, but ideally participants should be working in the field of resistance. Additionally, participants should have a good knowledge of English as well as Spanish since most of the lectures will be in English. Contact: S. Nunez INIA Las Brujas CC 33085 Las Piedras Canelones, Uruguay Fax: 598-32-77609 E-mail: 28-30 March PACIFIC RIM PEST & WEED CONTROL EXPO & CONFERENCE, Singapore. Contact: Advanstar Communications Asia, Ltd. 23rd Floor, Tai Yau Bldg. 181 Johnston Rd. Hong Kong 3-6 April European Weed Research Society/Spanish Weed Science Society present,

INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON WEED AND CROP RESISTANCE TO HERBICIDES, Univ. of Cordoba, Cordoba, SPAIN. First time held in Spain. Five sections involving presentations, poster sessions, and roundtable discussions. Contact: J. Jorrin Depto. de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular ETSIAM, Univ. of Cordoba Apartado 3048 14080 Cordoba, Spain Phone: 34-57-218-439 Fax 34-57-218-830 E-mail: 3-7 April CONFERENCE INTERNATIONALE SUR LES NOUVELLES STRATEGIES DE LUTTE ANTIACRIDIENNE, Bamako, Mali. Contact: S. Krall/H. Wilps Projet de la GTZ Lutte Biologique et Integree contre les Acridiens P.O. Box 5180 65726 Eschborn, Germany Phone: 0049-6196-793289 Fax: 0049-6196-797413 24 April-19 May BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF ARTHROPOD PESTS & WEEDS, Ascot, U.K. A joint International Institute of Biological Control/Imperial College course for agricultural and crop protection researchers, extensionists, field trainers in farming, forestry and conservation NGOs. Contact: S. Williamson, IIBC Silwood Park Ascot, Berks. SL5 7TA, U.K. Phone: 44-0344-872999 Fax: 44-0344-875007 E-mail: 9 May 47th INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CROP PROTECTION, Univ. of Gent, Belgium. Contact: L. Tirry, Fac. of Agric. and Applied Bio. Sciences Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent, BELGIUM Phone: 32-9-264-6152 Fax: 32-9-264-6239 14-20 May 11th TRIENNIAL SYMPOSIUM ON FUNGICIDES, Reinhardsbrunn, Germany. Contact: P. Russel, AgrEvo UK Chesterford Park Saffron Walden CB10 1XL, U.K. 26-29 June 3rd INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON POPULATION DYNAMICS OF PLANT INHABITING MITES, Denmark. For a preliminary program and other detailed information, contact: G. Nachman Zoological Institute Dept. of Population Biology Univ. of Copenhagen 15 Universitetsparken DK 2100 Copenhagen O, DENMARK Fax: 45 35 32 13 00 E-mail: 2-7 July XIII INTERNATIONAL PLANT PROTECTION CONGRESS, "Sustainable Crop Protection for the Benefit of All," The Hague, The Netherlands. Includes an IPM symposium. Contact: J.C. Zadoks, Organizer XIII IPPC c/o Holland Organizing Centre Parkstraat 29 2514 JD The Hague, The Netherlands Phone: 31-70-365-7850 FAX: 31-70-361-4846 3-7 July 10th CONGRESS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF SOUTHERN AFRICA 1995, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa. The proposed program includes paper and poster sessions, work shops, a photographic exhibition (of the "Big Twelve" insects), informal social functions, and a formal conference dinner. Contact: M.H. Villet Department of Zoology and Entomology Rhodes Univ. Grahamstown 6140, SOUTH AFRICA Phone: 27 [0]461 318-527 Fax: 27 [0]461 24377 E-mail: 10-12 July 9TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CHALLENGES FOR WEED SCIENCE IN A CHANGING EUROPE, Budapest, Hungary. Contact: L. Radics Kerteszeti es Elelmiszeiripari Egyetem Mezogazdasagi Termelesi Tanszek Budapest, Hungary

24-28 July 15th ASIAN-PACIFIC WEED SCIENCE SOCIETY CONFERENCE, Dai-ichi Hotel, Tsukuba Science City, Japan. Contact: K. Usui Institute of Applied Biochemistry Univ. of Tsukuba Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan Phone: 81-298-53-4748 Fax: 81-298-53-4605 6-10 August THIRD INTERNATIONAL CARIBBEAN CONFERENCE OF ENTOMOLOGY, Cariari Hotel, San Jose, Costa Rica. Held in conjunction with the 78th Annual Meeting of the Florida Entomological Society. Contact: R. Mizell, IFAS Univ. of Florida Agricultural Research Center Rt 4, Box 4092 Monticello, FL 32344, USA Phone: 01-904-997-2596 Fax: 01-904-997-8178 E-mail: 12-16 August AMERICAN PHYTOPATHOLOGICAL SOC. ANNUAL MEETING, D. L. Lawrence Convention Ctr., Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Contact: APS 3340 Pilot Knob Road St. Paul, MN 55121-2097, USA Phone: 01-612-454-7250 Fax: 01-612-454-0766 23-26 August SYSTEMATICS OF INVERTEBRATES AND MICROORGANISMS GLOBAL WORKSHOP, Cardiff, Wales. Contact: M.A. Cook, Technical Secre tariat BioNET-INTERNATIONAL 56 Queen's Gate, London, SW7 5JR, U.K. Phone: 44-171-584 0067 Fax: 44-171-581-0067 E-mail: 28 August-2 September 9th SYMPOSIUM OF IOBC/WPRS ON INTEGRATED PLANT PROTECTION IN ORCHARDS/3rd SYMPOSIUM OF ISHS ON INTEGRATED FRUIT PRODUCTION, Cedzyna (near Kielce), POLAND. Contact: R.W. Olszak Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture Pomologiczna 18 PL 96-100 Skierniewice P.O. Box 105, POLAND Phone: 48-40-2021 Fax: 48-40-3238 Conference language: English September/October 19th BIENNIAL SESSION OF THE ASIA AND PACIFIC PLANT PROTECTION COMMISSION, AUSTRALIA. Contact: APPC Maliwan Mansion Phra Atit Road Bangkok 10200, THAILAND 1996 21-26 January 9th INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS. Contact: J.H. Hoffmann Zoology Dept. Univ. of Cape Town Rondebosch 7700, SOUTH AFRICA Fax: 27-21-650-3726 E-mail: 6-9 February WEED SCIENCE SOCIETY OF AMERICA, annual meeting, Marriot and Omni Hotels, Norfolk, VA, USA. Contact: WSSA 1508 W. University Ave. Champaign, IL 61821, USA 25-28 June INTERNATIONAL WEED SCIENCE SOCIETY, Copenhagen, DENMARK. Contact: ICS PO Box 41 DK-2900 Hellerup, DENMARK - OR - IWSS c/o IPPC Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331- 2915, USA Phone: 01-503-737-3541 Fax: 01-503-737-3080 E-mail: 8-10 July INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INSECT PESTS IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT, Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh, U.K. Contact: W. Robinson Urban Pest Control Resch. Ctr. Dept. of Entomology VPI&SU Blacksburg, VA 24061-0319, USA 27-31 July AMERICAN PHYTOPATHOLOGICAL SOC. ANNUAL MEETING, Indianapolis,

IN, USA. Contact: APS 3340 Pilot Knob Road St. Paul, MN 55121-2097, USA Phone: 01-612-454-7250 Fax: 01-612-454-0766 no date SIXTH INTERNATIONAL PARASITIC WEED SYMPOSIUM, Cordoba, Spain. Contact: M.T. Moreno Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Agrario Apartado 4240 14080 Cordoba, SPAIN Fax: 34-57-202721 IPMnet Sponsors IPMnet, a Global IPM Information Service, was conceived by the Consortium for International Crop Protection (CICP) and developed and implemented with guidance and support from the National Biological Impact Assessment Program (NBIAP) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The Consortium, 13 U.S. educational/research institutions with strong interests in research, development, and productive application of rational crop protection and pest management, has been an international presence for over 15 years. Current members are: Univ. of California, Cornell Univ., Univ. of Florida, Univ. of Hawaii, Univ. of Illinois, Univ. of Miami, Univ. of Minnesota, North Carolina State Univ., Oregon State Univ., Univ. of Puerto Rico, Purdue Univ., Texas A&M Univ., and the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. M. Kogan (Oregon State Univ.) chairs CICP's Board of Directors. R. Ford (Univ. of Illinois) is vice chairman, and G.A. Schaefers (Cornell Univ.) serves as acting executive director. The Consortium maintains a business office at: CICP, Cornell Univ., NYSAES, Geneva, NY 14456-0462, USA. E-mail: Phone: 01-315-787-2252. IPMnet co-sponsor NBIAP was established to facilitate the applications of biotechnology in agriculture and the environment, and is funded by direct U.S. Congressional appropriation. The program operates a national communications system for biotechnology in the U.S. and is cooperating, through these resources, to assist CICP in globally extending IPM information. D.R. MacKenzie (USDA-CSRS) is NBIAP director. D.M. King (Virginia Tech) administers the IPMnet bulletin board.

The IPMnet NEWS co-sponsored by the Consortium for International Crop Protection (CICP) and the National Biological Impact Assess ment Program (NBIAP) of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Mention of specific products, processes, institutions, organizations, or individuals in the IPMnet NEWS does not imply support nor criticism by CICP, NBIAP, nor any individual associated with either organization. Information in IPMnet NEWS may be re printed or quoted providing the IPMnet NEWS is identified as the source. A.E. Deutsch, IPMnet NEWS Coordinator/Editor.

Contributions to the IPMnet NEWS ..... are encouraged from individuals, organizations, and institutions engaged in any aspect of crop protection, and especially IPM. Short items describing experiences, successes, problems, and solutions are welcome. So too are questions, recommendations, viewpoints (pro and con), and IPM-related opinion statements.

Communications to the IPMnet NEWS ..... may be sent to any of the following: E-mail: Fax: 01-503-737-3080 Postal: IPMnet NEWS c/o Integrated Plant Protection Center 2040 Cordley Hall, Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331-2915, USA Phone: 01-503-737-6275

IPMnet NEWS (A.E. Deutsch, coordinator/editor) c/o Integrated Plant Protection Center, 2040 Cordley Hall Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-2915, USA Fax: 01-503-737-3080 Phone: 01-503-737-6275

This mosaic version of IPMnet NEWS was marked up by J. E. Bacheler for the Center for IPM. The Center takes full responsibility for the appearance of this mosaic document.


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