IPMnet NEWS December 2002, Issue no. 108 ISSN: 1523-7893 ÂŠ Copyright 2005 IPM NEWS --- international IPM news and programs I. IPM NEWS International IPM news and programs Next Wave of GE Crops Coming Observers anticipate that 2003 will see a wave of second-generation genetically engineered (GE) crops begin to emerge in agricultural production. The new GE options will offer both broadened and more targeted capabilities, and likely add fuel to the ongoing controversy surrounding transgenic crops in general. Most of the additions will involve genes derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thruringiensis (Bt). Among the Bt-based items on the near and more distant horizons are: a new Bt trait toxic to Agostis ipsilon (black cutworm), Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm), Diatraea grandiosella (southwestern corn borer), and Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer); stacking (building in) two or more Bt traits in a crop plant so as to control multiple pest insect species or mutations; developing a "Bt soybean" for protection against Anticarsia gemmatalis (velvetbean caterpillar) and other insect pests; pairing insect and herbicide (glyphosate) resistance traits within one plant species; engineering to increase the toxicity, specificity, and longevity of Bt proteins; and further in the future, engineering plants to induce insecticidal characteristics in just the tissue where insects are feeding. Reporting in a recent issue of FARM JOURNAL, A. Burchett notes that, by stacking multiple novel proteins within a crop plant, resistant insect pests that survive eating one Bt protein would likely succumb to consuming the second one, thereby preventing mutant insects from reproducing. The concept has obvious implications for current refugia strategies. In "Bt's New Bite," (web version found at: www.agweb.com Burchett quotes an industry representative as saying that "essentially, all invertebrate plant pests can be managed with Bt technology." The representative also said that he can foresee a situation in the future when insect control becomes predominantly based on biological (i.e., GE techniques) rather than application of insecticidal chemicals. excerpted with thanks from FARM JOURNAL, November 2002.
GLOBAL IPM NOTES A major international pesticide maker, to streamline operations and improve profit, announced elimination of 300 jobs in its insecticide research division the next three years leaving 1,130 positions to concentrate on fungicide and herbicide research. excerpted from CP Wire, via AgNet, Nov. 22/02. Research in Nepal has identified the fungal pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae as a potential biocontrol agent of Phyllophaga sp. (white grubs) collected from local crop fields. *> Y. Dhoj, . Swedish research in lab and field found that, for hot-water weed control, drop size, water flow, wetting agent, and water temperature all affected the method's efficacy. *> D. Hansson, . An invasive bacterial plant pathogen, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) (Asiatic citrus canker), has produced far-reaching political and socioeconomic impacts in the U.S. state of Florida. *> T.R. Gottwald, . back to top IPM MEDLEY --- publications and other IPM information resources II. IPM MEDLEY General matters, publications of interest, and other resources for IPM information PUBLICATIONS PERUSED AUTHORS, EDITORS, AND PUBLISHERS IPMnet NEWS welcomes mentioning any publication, or CD, focused on, or related to, IPM. To assure coverage, please send a review copy of the publication, with full information to: IPMnet NEWS, c/o Integrated Plant Protection Center 2040 Cordley Hall, Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331-2915, USA
1. EVERYTHING ABOUT PEST MANAGEMENT Numbers alone hint at the vast magnitude and scope of ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PEST MANAGEMENT: 948 pages; 260 in-depth entries prepared by more than 300 international authorities; over 800 cited works; and a large page format. All contribute to this hardbound volume's status as a key reference in the pest management world. Well known insect ecologist D. Pimentel has edited this massive, cleverly organized information trove. From acaricides to wildlife kills, this initial, 2002 version of a comprehensive single-work source for nearly anything and every-thing relating to pest management stands as a landmark achievement. As Dr. Pimentel notes in the preface, further versions are anticipated as new information for pest management develops. A second edition would also be an opportunity to: 1.) add e-mail addresses so interested readers could more easily contact the authors of individual sections; and, 2.) correct the embarrassing typos in the preface. *> Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016, USA. Fax: 1-212-685-4540. Phone: 1-212-696-9000. Web: www.dekker.com 2. SPOTLIGHT ON NEMATODES Among newer titles from CABI Publishing that address contemporary aspects of nematology, two hardbound works are:
ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATOLOGY More than 20 international experts contributed information and insight that, taken together, provide a comprehensive overview of the growing practice of employing nematodes as biocontrol agents. Editor R. Gaugler steers the text from fundamental biology, through ecology, to the practical elements of application technology as well as regulation and safety. One chapter reports case studies that illuminate the factors affecting commercial success. The 2002, hardbound mono-graph concludes with an insider's perspective on the Biosys Experiment. PARASITIC NEMATODES - MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY AND IMMUNOLOGY This 2001 volume, edited by M.W. Kennedy and W. Harnett, discuss-es plant-parasitic nematodes, but ranges beyond agriculture by inclu-ding material describing parasitic nematode infection of humans and animals. Nevertheless, the cited recent advancements and development of molecular genetic, biochemical, and immunological tools make the 509-page, hardbound treatise an important and useful resource. *> CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE, UK. E-mail: . Fax: 44-0-1491-833508. Phone: 44-0-1491-832111. Web: www.cabi 3. RAINFED COTTON IPM India's National Centre for IPM (NCIPM) recently issued Technical Bulletin no. 11, IPM TECHNOLOGY FOR RAINFED COTTON, a full color, illustrated, 36-page booklet that describes development and application of a successful blend of procedures. Combining appropriate agronomic practices, crop varieties, pest monitoring, biocontrol, and need-based pesticide use is reported to have increased cotton yield 56 percent compared to non-IPM production. A. Singh, et al, chronicle the process of assembling and tuning the technology package as well as its validation. *> O.P. Sharma, NCIPM, Lal Bahadur Shastri Bhawan, Wing L-1, Block-F, IARI, New Delhi 110 012, INDIA. Fax: 91-011-576-5472. E-mail: . Phone: 91-011-576-5935.
PUBLICATION & CD NOTES PEST MANAGEMENT TITLES OFFERED The Colombian based Centro International de Agricultural Tropical (CIAT) has prepared a series of illustrated titles (en Espanol) dealing with "integrated pest and disease management" that range from free pamphlets to monographs. Most of the items were published in the last two years. Pamphlets (all can be downloaded in PDF) CONTROL BIOLOGICO Y MICROBIOLOGICO DEL GUSANO CACHON DE LA YUCA (Erinnyis ello) MEDIANTE UN BACULOVIRUS; AVANCE EN EL MANEJO INTEGRADO DE Cyrtomenus bergi, CHINCHE SUBTERRANEO DE LA VIRUELA, EN EL CULTIVO DE YUCA EN COLOMBIA; and BACULOVIRUS: UN NUEVO PRODUCTO BIOLOGICO ESPECIFICO PARA EL CONTROL DEL GUSAN CACHON DE LA YUCA (Erinnyis ello). Monographs GUIA PARA EL TRABAJO DE CAMPO EN EL INTEGRADO DE PLAGAS DEL ARROZ; and GUIA PRACTICA PARA EL MANEJO DE LAS ENFERMEDADES, LAS PLAGAS Y LAS DEFICIENCIAS NUTRICIONALES DE LA YUCA.
For details, see: www.ciat.cgiar.org Additional materialsvideos and publicationsand information can be found on CIAT's newer website, "Integrated Pest and Disease Management (IPDM)," located at www.ciat.cgiar.org Or contact: A.C. Bellotti, . REVISED THESAURUS RELEASED The European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO) now offers a new, stand-alone CD (version 2.1, October 2002) of the EPPO PLANT PROTECTION THESAURUS, incorporating numerous improvements and said to cover organisms important in agricultural crop protection, plus natural enemies. The new version, available in both English and French, is based on the Bayer Code System and includes approximately 27,700 plant species, 19,000 animal species (especially insects, mites, and nematodes), and 4,000 microorganism species including viruses. *> EPPO, 1 rue Le Notre, F-75016 Paris, FRANCE. Fax: 33-0-14-224-8943. E-mail: . Phone: 33-0-14-520-7794. Web: www.eppo.org
WEBSITE, VIDEO, & OTHER RESOURCES RESISTANCE TO SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE A recently released 19-page publication lists more than 650 soybean cyst nematode-resistant soybean varieties available from 71 private firms and four universities. The report, "Soybean Cyst Nematode-Resistant Soybean Varieties for Iowa," no. PM 1649, was pre-pared by G.L. Tylka, and can be freely downloaded from the website www.exnet.iastate.edu The annual compilation offers new information this year: information about factors to consider when selecting an SCN-resistant variety, including rotating different types of SCN resistance and the need for other defensive traits. Single hardcopies of the report also are available from: Extension Distribution Center, 119 Print/Pubs. Building, ISU, Ames, IA 50011-3171, USA. E-mail: . Fax: 1-515-294-2945. Phone: 1-515-294-5247. FIELD CROP DISEASE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES "The most effective and economic method of disease control," note plant pathologists at Ohio State Univ. (USA), "is to plant disease resistant varieties and hybrids." Beyond that, there are several important steps to follow. A.E. Dorrance, et al, clearly state these in their article, "Managing Field Crop Diseases with Host Resistance4 Key Points," published in the free Crop Observation and Recommendation Network Newsletter (C.O.R.N. 2002-38, 12-25 November), www.ag.ohio The research team's list includes: 1. Conduct thorough and frequent scouting; 2. Keep detailed and accurate records; 3. Limit inoculum build-up; and, 4. Take action to minimize environmental effects. The report expands on, and provides details for, specific pathogens attacking maize, soybean, and wheat crops. *> A.E. Dorrance, 118 Selby, OARDC, Wooster, OH 44691, USA. E-mail: . excerpted, with thanks, from C.O.R.N. 2002-38. ON-LINE IPM COURSES FOR 2003 AgLearn, an electronic on-line system provided through the Asia Pacific Regional Technology Centre (APRTC), offers an expanded schedule of courses in 2003many focusing on IPMfor agricultural professionals working in the Asia-Pacific region.
APRTC notes that internet-enabled learning, or eLearning, is an expeditious way to deliver useful information for busy ag professionals to help improve both their skills and value to the agricultural community. Expert trainers/educators prepare course material speedily delivered via the Internet anytime, anywhere (so long as all elements of the computing system function!). In addition to the courses, such as "Basics of Vegetable IPM," and "Responsible Pesticide Use," APRTC and a group of partner organizations have developed a scholarship fund to which applicants can apply. Most of the courses are repeated during the year to accommodate applicants' schedules. The website www.aprtc.org contains sub-pages with a variety of information. *> R. Raab, APRTC, 28th Floor, Rasa Tower, 555 Pahonyothin Rd., Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, THAILAND. E-mail: . Fax: 66-0-293-70491.Phone: 66-0- 293-71321. thanks to APRTC for information. AQUATIC WEED BASICS Nineteen organizations with an interest in limiting the spread of noxious aquatic plants have cooperatively sponsored production of UNDERSTANDING INVASIVE AQUATIC WEEDS, Homework & Classroom Activities for the 5th Grade, as an informative electronic publication. With extensive full color photos and simple text, the 16-page work introduces the topic of aqua-tic plantsthe good and the badand then describes five of the worst aquatic weeds. The document can be freely downloaded from the website: www.apms.org Or, for hardcopies send an expression of interest to: .
EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS, & SERVICES INSECT IMAGES AND MUCH MORE More than 5,400 high quality insect and insect damage photographs, taken by more than 240 photographers, are now available in digital format from the Bugwood Network. Entries in this large collection, known as "Insect Images," are classified by subject, common name, scientific name, life stage, andwhere appropriatehost. From the easily navigated website: www.insectimages.org one can quickly click to the desired target. Up to five levels of resolution for each image are available for downloading and use for educational applications with no royalties or fees required, as long as appropriate credit is given to the source. The Bugwood Network www.bugwood.org also offers IPM Images with numerous crop and other broad categories of image, and Invasive and Exotic Species Images. These sites result from collaboration between the Univ. of Georgia (USA), the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, and the U.S. National Science Foundation Center for IPM.*> G.K. Douce, Dept. of Entomology, Univ. of Georgia Coastal Plain Exp. Station, PO Box 748, Tifton, GA 31793, USA. Fax: 1 229 386 3352.E-mail: . Phone: 1 229 386 3298. NEW HERBICIDE MARKETED A firm in New Zealand has developed and recently begun marketing "Organic Interceptor," a non-selective, contact spray herbicide cleared for use in organic agricultural production. Interceptor is derived from the liquid residue created when pine trees are processed to produce pulp and paper, then blended with other natural components to create the final product. According to the manufacturer, it is "not a systemic 'poison'" and "leaves no harmful residue." Interceptor's mode of action is dehydration; it is said to start working within 15 minutes of application, and that after 5 days treated plants are completely dead. The product
"penetrates green tissue and disrupts normal membrane permeability and cellular physiology. Disrupting the cell membrane causes cell leakage, desiccation, and the collapse of all contacted tissue." It has a natural tendency to foam, a feature that can be enhanced by delivery through specialized nozzles. The recommended starting mixture is one part Interceptor to four parts water (a 20 percent mix). Best results are achieved by applying during warm, sunny conditions; application during rain or cold weather should be avoid-ed. *> E. Stevens, Certified Organics, PO Box 74 382, Market Rd., Auckland, NEW ZEALAND. E-mail: . Fax: 64-9-525-3462. Phone: 64-9-525-3432.Web: www.certified
back to top IPM RESEARCH/TECHNICAL PAPERS --- categories and topics related to IPM III. RESEARCH/TECHNICAL PAPERS categories and topics related to IPM. IPMnet NEWS will gladly provide the postal address for any first author mentioned in the titles that follow. E-mail requests to: IPMnet@bcc.orst.edu. This Month's SELECTED TITLES (broadly grouped by pest or tactic categories). General "Comparing an IPM Pilot Program to a Traditional Cover Spray Program in Commercial Landscapes," Stewart, C.D., et al. * JRNL. OF ECON. ENTOM., 95(4), 789-796, August 2002. Biocontrol "Biological Control of Black Rot (Xanthomonas campestris Pv. campestris) of Brassicas with an Antagonistic Strain of Bacillus subtilis in Zimbabwe," Wulff, E.G., et al. * EURO. JRNL. OF PLANT PATH., 108(4), 317-325, May 2002. "Optimal Application Strategies for Entomopathogenic Nematodes: Integrating Theoretical and Empirical Approaches," Fenton, A.C., et al. * JRNL. OF APPLD. ECOL., 39(3), 481-492, June 2002. Phytopathology "Field Evaluation of Transgenic and Classical Sources of Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus Resistance," Sharp, G.L., et al. * CROP SCI., 42(1), 105-110, January-February 2002. "Use of Multiline Cultivars and Cultivar Mixtures for Disease Management," Mundt, C.C. * ANNU. REV. OF PLANT PATH., 40, 381-410, 2002. Weed Management "Integrated Weed Management: Quo Vadis?" Zoschke, A., and M. Quadranti. * WEED BIOL. AND MGMT., 2(1), 1-10, March 2002. "Site-specific Weed Control in Maize, Sugar Beet, Winter Wheat, and Winter Barley," Gerhards, R., et al. * PRECISION AGRIC., 3(1), 25-35, March 2002. Entomology "Farmers' Perceptions of Aspects of Maize Production Systems and Pests in Semi-arid Eastern Kenya: Factors Influencing Occurrence and Control of Stemborers," Songa, J.M., et al. * INTL. JRNL. OF PEST MGMT., 48(1), 1 11, January-March 2002. "Pheromones Control Oriental Fruit Moth and Peach Twig Borer in Cling Peaches," Pickel, C., et al. * CALIF. AGRIC., 56(5), 170-176, September-October 2002. Special Bt Sub section: "Modeling the Development of Resistance by Stalk-boring Lepidoptera
(Crambidae) in Areas with Irrigated Transgenic Corn," Guse, C.A., et al. * ENVIRON. ENTOM., 31(4), 676-685, August 2002. Nematology "Population Dynamics and Economic Threshold of the Nematodes Radopholus similis and Pratylenchus goodeyi on Banana in Australia," Pattison, A.B., et al. * INTL. JRNL. OF PEST MGMT., 48(2), 107 111, April-June 2002. Vertebrates "Birds and Wine Grapes: Foraging Activity Causes Small-scale Damage Patterns in Single Vineyards," Somers, C.M., and R.D. Morris. * JRNL. OF APPLD. ECOL., 39(3), 511-523, June 2002.
back to top U.S. REGIONAL IPM CENTERS AND THE IPM-CRSP --- news, developments IV. U.S. REGIONAL PEST MANAGEMENT CENTERS News, developments Transgenic Crops Adoption Assessed Two researchers surveyed 1,000 agricultural producers in the U.S. state of South Dakota during early 2002 to assess attitudes toward transgenic crops (TCs), and to analyze factors contributing to, or mitigating against, adoption. In their illuminating paper, "Farm Level Transgenic Crop Adoption Rates in South Dakota," E. Van der Sluis and A. Van Scharrel found concrete differences in both adoption of and attitude toward the three major TCs currently available on the market: Bt corn, herbicide-tolerant (HT) cotton, and HT soybeans. A logistic regression analysis for Bt corn indicated that profits per hectare, improved pest insect management, reduced insecticide use, and improved yields all were statistically significant determinants of adoption. Other factors worked as impediments to adoption. For HT soy-beans, both technology fees and profits per hectare statistically impeded adoption. The two main reasons for non-adoption, or for reverting to non-transgenic crops, were satisfaction with current varieties and procedures and dissatisfaction with TCs. A number of other factors were found to affect adoption pro or con such as operator age, farm size, presence of livestock, farm income, and whether a respondent was a seed dealer. *> E. Van der Sluis, . excerpted with thanks from ISB NEWS REPORT, 9-11, October 2002. Web: www.isb.vt.edu