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NVQ Level 2 Hairdressing Unit G7 Advise & Consult with Clients

Student Tutor

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Advise & Consult with Clients

Introduction This unit is about the important skill of consulting with your clients to determine their ideas and requirements. Consultation is the most important part of any service provided in the hairdressing salon. Analysis of the hair, skin and scalp is an essential part of this unit and by carrying out a full consultation you will be able to make suitable recommendations to your client. Never underestimate the value of consultation as when carried out correctly it will provide the client with confidence that you are the right person to do their hair. Your communication with your client will help to establish a professional relationship that could last for many years.

This Mandatory unit comprises of three outcomes: Outcome 1 – Identify what the client wants Outcome 2 – Analyse the hair, skin and scalp Outcome 3 – Advise your client and agree services and products. Your assessor will observe these aspects of your performance on at least 3 occasions. These must cover consultations for 3 different technical services.

What is a Consultation? Consultation for hairdressing services is a two way process between you and your client to identify their wishes. You also need to find out if their hair is suitable for the requested service and provide advice, whether it is suitable or not. This requires you to ask questions and listen carefully to what the client says so that you can accurately establish their wishes.

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Advise & Consult with Clients

During a professional consultation you should do the following: 1. 2. 3.

Consult Analyse/Identify Diagnose/Advise

 Consultation is finding out the needs and requirements of your client.

 Analysis is the process of checking the hair’s porosity, texture, length and shape, as well as checking for scalp-abnormalities or contra indications. (These will all be discussed).

 Diagnosis is the process of making professional decisions based on the analysis you undertook and in part advising your client, which may include recommendations on such items as:

 Hair shape  Colour  Movement  Shampoo  Conditioner  Hair treatment  Scalp treatment.  Home care advice

With practice and experience the three areas, Consult, Analyse and Diagnose, will blend into one professional consultation service. Consultation should be carried out with every client on every occasion he/she attends the salon.

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Consult When you undertake a consultation, it should be carried out in a relaxed manner with the client sitting down, preferably with a mirror and most definitely prior to shampooing. When you consult with a client there are several different things that you are doing almost at once.

 Asking questions & listening to the answers  Feeling & observing the hair  Looking at the scalp and observing

Asking questions There are two main types of questions; those that are open and those that are closed. Open questions are those that have no predictable answer; they require more than a one word answer and encourage the client to talk freely - questions such as:  What is it that you don’t like about your hair?  What products do you use at home to condition & style your hair? Closed questions are those that only require a short answer such as ‘yes’, ‘no’ or similar; these do not encourage the client to speak freely, but are useful to get exact information such as:  Which shampoo do you use?  How often do you shampoo your hair? A professional consultation should contain a mixture of both open and closed questions to ensure that the client feels at ease and you gather the information you need to analyse and diagnose.

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Activity The following are either open or closed questions can you identify which? Please tick either ‘open’ or ‘closed’. Closed

Open

Which conditioner do you use? How often do you have your hair cut? How do you feel about coloured hair? Do you use gel or mouse?

Can you add just one open question and one closed question? Please write them below in the boxes provided.

Closed question

Open question

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Analyse

Analysis in the hairdressing context means: The process of checking the hair’s porosity, texture, length and shape, as well as checking for scalp-abnormalities or contra indications Understanding what you see and feel.

In order to be able to analyse the hair and to advise the client correctly you must have a good knowledge and understanding of the following:

The structure of the skin

The structure of the hair

Skin and scalp disorders

Diagnostic tests

Head and face shape

Salon services available and how to promote these.

All of these things will be covered in this work pack and will provide the information required to ensure your essential knowledge and understanding of unit G7 and help prepare you for practical assessments within the salon.

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Advise & Consult with Clients

Cross section of the hair and skin

Skin Cross Section The skin forms a flexible cover over the entire body and is a very complicated structure. The skin structure is divided into two main layers called the Epidermis & the Dermis.

Epidermis consists of the top layers of the skin, the outer protective layer of the skin, which we can see and touch.

Dermis consists of the layer under the top layers. The lower layer of the skin, containing a regular network of fibres, which give the skin its elasticity.

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Functions of the skin

1. Protection – protects the body from dirt, minor injuries, bacterial invasion & chemicals. The presence of melanin in the underlying layers helps protects from damage by UV rays in sunlight. 2. Waterproof – the sebum & epidermis control the water balance of the skin, acting as a barrier to the entry of water from the surface & to prevent moisture loss from within. 3. Regulates the body temperature – by dilation & constriction of the blood vessels in the skin, also by the evaporation of sweat which has a cooling effect. 4. Sense organ – detects change in temperature, pressure & registers pain via the nerves. 5. Produces vitamin D – by the action of Ultra Violet rays on the skin. 6. Excretion – of waste products in sweat, only a minor function.

The outer protective layer of the skin, which we can see and touch.

The lower layer of the skin, containing a regular network of fibres, which give the skin its elasticity.

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Activity: Label the diagram below:

Use coloured pencils to clearly show each part of the skin.

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Advise & Consult with Clients Activity: Discuss the diagram with your tutor and through discussion and research complete the table below:

Part of skin

Function

Epidermis

Dermis

Sweat Gland

Arrector Pili muscle

Sebaceous gland

Hair shaft

Hair Follicle

Blood Capillaries

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Advise & Consult with Clients

The Structure of hair Each hair is made up of three layers

Medulla Cortex

Cuticle

Cuticle Is the outside of the hair and is the part of the hair you can see and feel. The cuticle is made up of up to nine layers of overlapping translucent scales very similar to the tiles on a roof. • •

Fine hair has only a few layers Course hair has up to nine and often more

The cuticle acts as a protective layer to the cortex and medulla. Any thing from strong sun and sea to aggressive shampoo, can easily damage the cuticle, but strong chemicals such as perm lotion, tint and bleach cause the majority of damage.

Cuticle flat to the cortex; this means the hair is in good condition and not very porous

The cuticle is raised and away from the cortex, this indicates porous dry hair, which may be chemically damaged 11


The Cortex

The cortex is the middle of the hair similar to the wood part of a pencil; the cortex makes up most of the bulk of the hair. It is affected by the chemicals used, such as perm lotion and colours.

This is the main body of the hair and determines the strength, elasticity and texture. The cortex is made up of millions of keratin fibres known as POLYPEPTIDE CHAINS.

Section of the cortex - both are damaged; in the one on the left the cuticle is missing, the right hand side shows the hair ripped apart and the cortex exposed

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Advise & Consult with Clients Medulla

Some hair does not have a medulla. Some hair has some medulla but not all the way through

The medulla is the central core of the hair similar to the lead in a pencil, it is not always present. Some hairs have a medulla throughout their length, others only in part and in some it is absent altogether, particularly in fine to very fine hair.

All hair is not the same; hair varies in texture and porosity as well as length.

Some important facts about hair:

The hair is a protein called Keratin. It is made up from various chemicals: CARBON, OXYGEN, HYDROGEN, NITROGEN and SULPHUR. It is a strong substance - one human hair in good condition can support a weight of up to 4oz. It can stretch 30%-50% of its own length.

The hair is HYDROSCOPIC, it can absorb up to 15% of its total weight in water.

The average head contains between 100,000 - 140,000 hairs.

The rate of growth for an average hair is half an inch a month - this varies throughout the year and is also dependant on a healthy diet.

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Activity After watching the power point presentation complete the activity by filling in the blank boxes with the correct answers

If your client has identified a specific problem with his/her hair or scalp he/she may ask for your ideas as to the cause and your recommendations Health: Hair can under-perform or look dull and lank when a person is run down, ill or under stress. Pregnancy can also have an effect.

Diet: The food that we eat can make a difference to hair quality as food builds and nourishes all parts of the body.

Weather: Too much sun, wind and sea water can make the hair dry and porous.

Heat: Hair dryers that are too hot or used too close and tongs, hot brushes and heated rollers can all dry out and damage hair.

Mechanical: Elastic bands holding the hair under continual stress can break the hair and thin out hairlines. Scalp infection and damaged hair can be caused by spiky rollers or poor quality brushes. Chemical: All chemical processes have the potential to severely damage hair and scalp, e.g. perm lotion, oxidation colouring, bleaches and relaxers.

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The Growth Cycle of hair. Stages of hair growth. The life cycle of hair is as follows. Anagen – The active growing stage of the hair. This stage may last from a few months to several years, although on average it lasts around 3 years. It is at this stage of formation at the base of the follicle that the hair’s thickness is determined. Hair colour, too, is formed in the early part of anagen. Catagen – The resting stage of the hair. A short period of time, lasting a couple of weeks, when the hair stops growing. The hair bulb gradually separates from the papilla and moves further up the follicle. Telogen – The final stage before shedding of hair. There is no further growth or activity at the papilla. The follicle begins to shrink and completely separates from the papilla area. Around 15% of the hair is in this stage at any one time and it lasts between 4–6 months. Towards the end of the telogen stage, cells begin to activate in preparation for the new anagen stage of re-growth.

Anagen

Catagen

Telogen 15


Advise & Consult with Clients

This is a continual process and it may take 3 to 7 years to complete, depending on the individual life cycle of each person’s hair.

Hair types There are three main types of hair found on the body:

Lanugo This is very fine hair found on new-born babies and soon replaced by other types.

Vellus This is fine hair, which covers all the body except lips, palms, soles and areas of terminal coverage. It replaces Lanugo hair within 4 months of birth, except scalp, eyebrows & eyelashes. These are replaced with coarse Terminal hair.

Terminal a) Primary This is found on the scalp, limbs & trunk. b) Secondary This is found in under arm and pubic areas. There are three main hair types found in the world:

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Discuss the characteristics of these hair types

..................................................................................

..................................................................................

.................................................................................. .

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There are many sub sections within these hair types

Texture Texture means how thick or fine the hair appears, this can also refer to coarse hair Density Hair density refers to the number of individual hair strands per square inch. Hair density is often defined as thin, medium, and thick hair.

Porosity Hair porosity refers to the hair's ability or inability to absorb water or chemicals deep into the cortex.

You will be analysing the hair skin and scalp using observation, questions and tests and have to perform these on clients during observations

• • • • • •

You will Conduct visual checks Identify any factors affecting services Accurately identify limiting factors Report any problems which you cannot deal with Update records accurately and completely 18


Diagnostic Hair Tests Porosity test Why:

to check the condition of the cuticle

How:

rub finger down hair shaft to assess how open the cuticle appears

Elasticity test Why:

to check inner strength of hair (cortex)

How:

take a hair & pull gently to see if it stretches & returns

Incompatibility test Why:

to check for metallic salts on the hair

How:

mix 20mls H202 with few drops of alkaline perm lotion put hair in to check for any reaction. If it bubbles or heats up, metallic salts are present & service cannot be carried out.

Skin test Why:

to check for any allergic reaction to the Para-dyes

How:

cleanse area & apply small amount of dark tint to area behind ear or in crook of arm. Leave for 48 hours and check for reaction This MUST be carried out regularly and if a different make of product is going to be used.

Test cutting Why:

to check suitability of colour

How:

take cutting of hair, colour with chosen colour and assess the result.

Pre-perm test Why:

to check the suitability of the lotion & curler size

How:

take cutting of hair, wind around curler, process, neutralize & check result 19


Development test curl Why:

to check the development of the perm.

How:

unwind curler & check if s shape is correct to the curler

Strand test Why:

to check the development of colouring processes.

How:

using damp cotton wool, gently remove a small area of colour

Briefly state the consequences of not carrying out these tests

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

The results of these tests should always be recorded on the clients’ record card; why is this important? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. •

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ACTIVITY Please complete this chart stating why you would carry out each of the tests & how you would do the test.

TEST

WHY DO THE TEST

HOW YOU DO THE TEST

CURL TEST

PRE PERM TEST

TEST CUTTING

POROSITY TEST

ELASTICITY TEST

INCOMPATIBILITY TEST

STRAND TEST

SKIN TEST

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Disorders of the skin & scalp. In your work as a hairdresser you will come into contact with skin and scalp disorders. You must be prepared to recognise certain common skin conditions and must know what you can and cannot do with them. You may come into contact with Infectious and Non Infectious conditions, if you do not recognise the condition, it would be advisable to refer the client to their doctor.

Infectious conditions – are passed on by direct contact with the source of infection or some cases indirectly through infected towels, gowns or tools. Non Infectious conditions – cannot be passed from one person to another. A few non infectious conditions can benefit from salon treatments, but most will require some form of medical treatment. If the skin is inflamed and you are not sure of the cause it is not advisable to proceed with the treatment. The client should be tactfully informed of the reason that you are unable to offer the service on this occasion and care must be taken not to make the client feel uncomfortable or hurt. Always refer the client to their doctor and do not proceed without medical advice. It is important to communicate clearly with your client and explain any limitations or contra indications that may affect the desired result. This will enable you to discuss with your client any suggestions you may have to adapt the service/hairstyle, according to the critical influencing factors, and still meet the client’s requirements.

Activity

Use your text book or the internet to find a definition for the following: A Contra Indication is: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Critical Influencing factors are: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

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Advise & Consult with Clients Check the scalp for disorders or contra indications It is important that you are aware of the skin & hair conditions that could be discovered during consultation.

Seborrhea Description: Excessive oil on the hair & scalp. Cause: Overactive sebaceous gland creating excessive natural oils Treatment: Specialist shampoos

Fragilitis cranium Description: Split ends on the hair. Cause: Harsh physical and chemical damage Also excessive heat from electrical styling equipment such as • • •

Blow dryer Tongs Straighteners

Treatment: Cut off ends & apply conditioning treatments.

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Advise & Consult with Clients Check the scalp for disorders or contraindications Pityriasis capitis Description: White, flaky scales, on scalp. Cause: Over production of the epidermal cells. Treatment: Specialist shampoos

Trichorrhexis Nodosa Description: Small swellings on the hair shaft. Cause: Harsh physical &/or chemical damage. Treatment: Restructurants

Psoriasis Description: Thick, raised, dry, silvery scales Cause: Overactive production of the epidermal cells, often hereditary & can be worse at times of stress. Not contagious Treatment: Medical treatment required 24


Advise & Consult with Clients

Check the scalp for disorders or contra indications Alopecia Areata Description: Small round bald patches, usually the skin is pale & shiny. Cause: Various causes but often stress related, sometimes result of shock & sometimes no apparent reason. Treatment: Trichologist, keep scalp stimulated Male pattern baldness Description: Hair loss, over an area of scarring. Cause: scar tissue Treatment: None Male pattern baldness Description: Usually starts with a receding hairline followed by loss at the crown area Cause: A genetic condition affecting some men from late teens to old age & some women after the menopause Treatment: GP/ Trichologist 25


Advise & Consult with Clients Check the scalp for disorders or contra indications Sebaceous cyst Description: A lump just underneath the skin/scalp Cause: Blockage of the sebaceous gland. not contagious. Treatment: Medical treatment required

Pediculosis capitis Description: Little white dots attached to the hair shaft & small parasites. Cause: Infestation of lice, highly contagious. Treatment: Refer to pharmacist for specialist or preparatory brand product 26


Advise & Consult with Clients Check the scalp for disorders or contra indications Tinea capitis (ringworm) Description: Pink round patches & grey scaly area with broken hairs. Cause: fungal infection, highly contagious by direct contact. Treatment: Medical treatment required.

Impetigo Description: Blisters on the skin, which weeps & dries to form a crust. Cause: Bacteria enter through the skin. highly contagious. Treatment: Medical treatment required. Folliculitis Description: Small yellow pustules with hair in the centre. Cause: Bacterial infection, contagious by contact. Treatment: medical treatment required. 27


Advise & Consult with Clients Check the scalp for disorders or contraindications Warts Description: Small flesh coloured raised lumps of skin. Cause: Virus, spread by contact with broken skin. Treatment: Medical treatment required.

Scabies Description: Red itchy spots & lines on the skin. Cause: parasite (itch mite) that burrows under the skin. highly contagious. Treatment: Medical treatment required.

Some of these conditions may be seen more frequently than others, use your text books and the internet to research these conditions further.

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Advise & Consult with Clients

Consider the following questions:

What action would you take and what client care advice would you give if:

a) You discovered, during the consultation, that your client had head lice?

b) You discovered during the consultation, that your client had a cut on the scalp that was infected?

c) Your client asked for a service and you felt that the hair was in too poor a condition for this service?

d) During the consultation you suspect that a female client has metallic salts on her hair and she was booked for a chemical service.

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Advise & Consult with Clients

Face Shapes As part of the consultation process it will be necessary for you as the stylist to look at the natural face shape of your client. Each client deserves a hairstyle that frames their face to its best advantage, giving the most flattering result. The best results are achieved when each of your clients’ facial features are taken into consideration. You must develop the ability to recommend suitable hairstyles to your clients depending on the critical influencing factors we have discussed throughout this unit.

The most frequently seen face shapes are these: Oval The oval shaped face is about 1.5 times longer than its width across the brow. The forehead is slightly wider than the chin. An oval shape face suits most hairstyles. Round A round face shape has a wide forehead, wide cheekbones and fullness at the chin. Aim to create the illusion of length to the face when choosing a hairstyle. Heart shaped This is represented by a wide forehead and narrow chin line. When choosing a style aim to reduce the width of the forehead and increase the width in the lower part of the face. Rectangular/Long A wide & long forehead,wide flat cheekbones and slightly narrower chin. Try to add width to the face by creating fullness at the sides. A fringe may shorten the forehead. Square Straight hairline, wide jaw line and wide face give a square appearance. Choose a style to soften the jaw line. Pear shaped. These have narrow forehead with wide jaw and chin line. A style with fullness at the temples and softness over the jaw will help to even out the different widths.

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Advise & Consult with Clients Activity: Now use those descriptions to help you to label the diagrams.

Activity: Now that you are familiar with different shaped faces; look through some magazines, style books or the internet to see how many you recognize. Select 2 or 3 of EACH shape, cut them out and stick them on a piece of card to make a creative collage. Label each face shape and consider the way their hair is styled; you may wish to write a sentence about whether or not the style compliments the face shape and why.

Remember: When consulting with the client; it is important that you treat each person as an individual. All clients want a hairstyle which shows off their most attractive features and enhances their appearance. You MUST be professional, use tact and diplomacy. The client must not feel like you are being critical of their face shape or style ideas. Never make a client feel embarrassed or insulted; it is important to respect their wishes and approach each situation sympathetically.

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Hair Growth patterns Hair Growth patterns refer to the natural direction of the hair growth. These are often quite strong and cannot be changed; for example, if hair grows straight forward, it can be very difficult, if not impossible, to cut a style that is swept back. Some people have localised hair growth patterns which affect only a small part of the hair. These are called cowlicks, widow's peak or a whorl. Some even have a combination of these characteristics. Natural hair fall and growth patterns can be seen on wet and dry hair and strong directional growth will have a major impact on the lie of the hair when it is styled; so it is essential to take this into account during consultation.

As a general rule hairstyles will remain in place longer if they follow or go with the direction of hair growth.

Cowlicks Cowlicks are portions of hair that grow strongly to the left or right and can usually be found in straight or wavy hair. They usually occur at the front of the hairline or on the crown, but can also occur at the nape of the neck. Cowlicks should be cut following the direction the hair naturally falls. The hair should be left a little longer in this area to avoid it sticking out. Widow's Peak A widow's peak is hair that forms a point at the hairline at the top of the forehead. It shows as a strong V shape. When recommending a cut to a client that has a strong widow's peak, consider a slightly longer fringe as this will help to avoid Crown & Double Crown At the top of the head is located the crown of the hair, it forms a circular pattern and everyone has one. Double crowns are two areas of hair close to each other that have hair growing in opposing directions. They can be seen clearly as two circles or whorls, usually side by side. These usually lie better if a little length is left in this area. Whorls Whorls are sections of hair that grow in a circular pattern, often at the nape or the crown. These can be very clearly seen when checking the natural lie of the hair at the nape. These require special consideration when styling and cutting techniques would need to be adapted to ensure that the hair will lie as required at the end of the service Remember: Always check the hair growth patterns when the hair is both dry and after shampooing; as hair will lie in its natural fall when it is wet. 32


Activity: Using the information we have just discussed and your text book, complete the following table.

Hair growth pattern-

Influences of hair growth pattern during consultation.

(Draw an example)

Double Crown

Nape Whorl

Cowlick

Widows peak

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The PH Scale • • • •

This 14 point scale is used to indicate the Acidity or Alkalinity of a substance The symbol pH (Potential Hydrogen) refers to the quantity of Hydrogen ions present. The centre of the scale (7) is neutral and is a point which is neither Acid or Alkaline A simple test with litmus paper can establish the pH values of various substances.

In this diagram you will see a range of substances identified with their relevant PH, in the second where hair and hair products sit on the PH scale.

Conditioner Quasi colours Permanent colour

Bleach Alkali perms

PH Scale

7- 14 Indicates Alkali

Neutral Hair

0 -7 Indicates Acid

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Acid products are best for the hair and generally sit between 4 - 6 PH, These close the cuticle Shampoos, conditioners and treatments sit between 3.5 – 6.9 generally. Chemical products such as Perms, Tints, and Bleaches are Alkali and swell open the cuticle, the hair and cause damage to the hair. Always use an Acid product after a chemical treatment.

PH Indicator paper, this can give you a rough guide to the PH of the product being used.

If the PH of the product is above 9.5, it will generally act as a depilatory and literally disintegrate the hair.

Chemically treated hair

Same hair some time later broken and damaged beyond repair

Only option a good cut

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ACTIVITY State possible problems to the hair / scalp that may be caused by the following; and list your recommendations.

PROBLEM

RECOMMENDATIONS

Health

Diet

The weather

Rough Treatment

Strong Chemicals

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After care & Retail Giving the client professional after care advice and recommending home use products as a home prescription is as important as giving a good salon service, remember you only see your client at salon visit times which may be every six weeks. What she uses on her hair can either benefit your service in the salon or create a difficult to manage hair style for her at home. Recommending after care products is not so much selling to your client, as continuing the professional service you offer and being responsible for her hair through out the period she is not in the salon. The wrong shampoo can strip out the colour she has just had in the salon The wrong conditioner can make her hair ‘flyaway or heavy’ It is your responsibility to offer her your advice experience and knowledge. To be able to offer after car YOU MUST understand what ingredients each product holds, what they do, the effect and benefit to your clients hair. This means taking time and learning; • • •

the ingredients (often called features) the effects of the ingredients the benefits of the ingredients to the clients hair.

Example Ingredient :

plant Aloe Vera

Effect Sooths the scalp helps to prevent scalp irritation, smoothes the cuticle. Ideal for dry and itchy scalp conditions and dry hair. Benefits to the client Less itching, better condition of the scalp, improved hair condition, style lasts longer

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After care & Retail Activity Name two products found in your salon, research the ingredients features and benefits and then complete the form below, Remember Feature means ingredient

Product Name:

FEATURES

Product Name:

FEATURES

________________________________________________

EFFECT

BENEFITS

________________________________________________

EFFECT

BENEFITS

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Salon services and prices You will need to know the services & products that are available in your salon, as well as the prices, as this will enable you to give accurate & knowledgeable information to your clients. Activity To help you do this you are required to compile the following: 1. A price list of all services available 2. Details of the range of products sold and their prices. You may write up these details or you may collect price lists & product details and present them as a small project Client Confidentiality A clients personal details must be protected at all times and is any information is held on a computer about clients, the company must be registered with the Data Protection Registrar. The information which is stored on computer must be accurate and there should be no misuse of information, i e this information should not be passed onto anyone else without the clients written permission. Salon rules for confidentiality All salons have responsibility to their clients and to their staff to maintain confidentiality relating to their personal details. All employees have a responsibility to adhere to and maintain the salons confidentiality policy. Information to consider under the salons confidentiality policy: Client and staff personal details:

• • • • • • •

Name Address Telephone number Salary details Information held on the clients record card Personal information about staff Information that relates to the business

The consequences of breaking the confidentiality rules vary from one salon to another. It may result in the employee losing their job. The salon may lose the client, the salon reputation may be affected and the client may sue the salon. If the Data Protection Act is contravened the salon may have to pay a heavy fine! Remember: Be professional be confidential! 40


Legal Requirements Services carried out in salons and products displayed for retail come under legal requirements from different Acts. These Acts are there to protect the consumer (client). The Sale and Supply of Goods Act The Sale of Goods Act and parts of The Consumer Protection Act – require that goods must be ‘of satisfactory quality’. This means that goods must not cause any threat to health or safety and that they can do the job that you say they can do.

The Supply of Goods and Services Act The Supply of Goods and Services Act - states that all services must be provided ‘with reasonable care and skill’. This means that learners must ensure that they are competent to provide the services that they supply; they must practise and take training to reach competence and to gain experience.

The Trade Descriptions Act The Trade Descriptions Act states that products should not be falsely or misleading described in relation to its quality, price, fitness or purpose by advertisements, displays, orally or through descriptions. From 1972 it is also a requirement to label a product clearly so that the consumer can see where the product was made.

The Price Act This Act states that prices or products have to be displayed so that consumers are not given a false impression of their value.

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G7 advise and consult new