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HYPER-DENSITY SUPER KAMPONG 2050:

02 Green Food Street

TOWARDS A SELF-SUFFICIENT VERTICAL URBANISM IN SINGAPORE ARCHITECTURE & SUSTAINABLE DESIGN | LINA FONG

05 Urban Farm


CONTENT PAGE KEPPEL SINGAPORE IN YEAR 2050 Abstract Imagine And Introduction [1] BUILDING THE 2050 HIGH-RISE VILLAGE Building High-Rises Power of High-Rises Thesis Proposal: The 2050 Vertical Food Kampong Thesis Questions Principles of Building the 2050 High-RiseVi [2] BUILDING A COMMUNITY-CENTRED VILLAGE Social: Density vs Crowding Living Communities in Singapore Demographics in Singapore Vertical Communities Before The High-Rises Case Study: Kampong Lorong Buangkok The Kampong Life Building the Kampong Spirit Principles of Building the Vertical Kampong [3] CASE STUDIES - COMMUNITY Case Study #1: Oasia Downtown Case Study #2: Skyville@Dawson Case Study #3: The Interlace Case Study #4: Sky Habitat Case Study #5: Kampong Admiralty [4] CASE STUDIES - FUTURE OF COMMUNITY SPACES Case Study #6: Home Farm By Spark Case Study #7: Khoo Teck Puat Hospital [5] EVALUATION - COMMUNITY PLOT MATRIX Learning Parameters Programme Diversity Evaluation Community Matrix Evaluation Self-Sufficiency Matrix Evaluation

[6] BUILDING A SELF-SUFFICIENT FOOD COMMUNITY Towards Food Self-Sufficiency in Singapore Food Production And Consumption in Singapore Shift in Food Farming Location & Motivations for community farms in Singapore Food Technology Case Studies Proposed food production cycle in Keppel Principles of Building a Self-Sufficient Food Kampong Summarized methodology: Parameter Principles

04 - 09

10 - 19

20 - 33

34 - 53

54 - 63

64 - 75

76 - 99


[7] APPLICATION TO KEPPEL LABRADOR SITE Keppel 2050 as an Urban Testbed Background of Keppel Club Keppel Labrador Site Analysis & Urban Strategies Microclimate analysis [8] PROGRAMMATIC PROPOSAL IN KEPPEL Proposed Programme in the Vertical Kampong Community Relationship Diagram

100 - 113

114 - 119

[9] FOOD COMMUNITY COMPONENTS Salad bowl produced in the food community Components to build a food community Food Production Breakdown Proposed programmes on Stratas Food Cycle to build a Food Community

120 - 135

[10] DESIGN EXPLORATION Design Exploration 01 - 04 Singapore's Climatic Conditions Optimal form test for sunlight Daylight Simulations Wind Simulations

136 - 157

[11] THE PROPOSAL: SUPER KAMPONG 2050 Design Proposal Daylight Simulations Drawings and Perspectives

158 - 173

[12] EXPANSION INTO THE URBAN SCALE Expansion of the 'Food Node' System Sub Regions - Primary Food Nodes Sub Regions - Secondary Food Nodes Urban Scale - Economic Returns

174 - 181

[13] REFERENCES

182 - 187


Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore Super Kampong 2050:

ACKNOWLEDGMENT I would first like to thank my thesis advisor Professor Thomas Schroepfer of the Architecture and Sustainable Design at Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD). The door to Prof. Schroepfer's office was always open for consultation and discussion on my design research. He consistently allowed this paper to be my own work, but steered me in the right direction. I would also like to also thank the experts under Professor Schroepfer's team, who were involved in our weekly discussion and reviews for my research project: Aloysius Lian, Berthold Sonja, John Naylor, Leyk Dietmar and Yuan Chao. Without their passionate participation and input, my research project could not have been successfully published. Finally, I must express my very profound gratitude to my family and my close friends for providing me with unfailing support and continuous encouragement throughout my years of study and through the process of researching and writing this thesis. This accomplishment would not have been possible without them. To God be the Glory. Thank you.

Lina Fong

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Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

ABSTRACT High-rises built today is observed to lack a sense of social coherence – making it an emotional disconnect from its community. They are seen as generic, uniform and concealed high-rises within their own skin. Moreover, as we look towards Singapore in 2050, 3 pressing issues such as the raise of Singapore’s population, raising aging population as well as Singapore’s unsustainable ways of importing food brings about the need to resolve these issues in an integrative and sustainable manner. In order to aim towards a self-sufficient food production and consumption in Singapore, it needs to think of ways to combine food production with farming innovations in its built environment The 2050 Vertical Food Kampong is envisioned to be a self-sufficient town that allows the community to actively engage in the village's production and consumption cycle. Elements of self-sufficiency focuses on having Food harvesting as the main arm of self-sufficiency, while Energy production and Water Collection would be supporting components to build the Tropical Food Community. Food is seen as a 're-connector' to bring the community closer together in a hyperdensed environment. Community spaces are created to transform itself into urban food production system to enhance the community spirit and livability within the vertical kampong. As such, the vertical kampong should cultivate a liveable and close-knitted community that embraces density while promoting diversity through the cultivation of trust, support and togetherness. This thesis aims to address 3 main challenges: 1. Creating a sense of togetherness in a hyperdensed community. 2. Implementing a sustainable food cycle that can be translated into the built environment. 3. Integrating the community as an essential component to cultivate a closed-loop cycle of food production and consumption. A self-sufficient Vertical Food Kampong would be designed based on principles researched in this thesis and eventually translate into the chosen site of Keppel Labrador district. This would then transform Keppel in 2050 into a self-sufficient food kampong with the involvement of the community.

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Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore Super Kampong 2050:

CURRENT: 2015 Keppel Site, Singapore

IMAGINE

HYPERDENSITY

In the year 2050, imagine what a hyperdensed but self-sufficient and livable community would be like in Singapore. Immerse yourself in buildings lifted from the ground – connected via multi-leveled sky streets, bringing different communities together as it raises people above the ground datum. The Sky Streets could be seen as connectors linking each hyperdensed community tower together to form clusters of Vertical Kampongs. The sky can finally be considered as Singapore’s new ground.

In this thesis, the issue of hyperdensity will be discussed based on the definition that it is a sudden influx of human population within a fixed base plane. Population is going to increase and land scarcity will increase too – leading to a diverse avenues of ‘needs and wants’. A combination of various aspects such as residential, leisure, work and transportation need to be realized to form an inter-connected village for all. With this in mind, we need to re-think, re-evaluate and re-build what a high-rise building really is in the future.

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Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore IN THE DISTANT FUTURE: 2050 Keppel Site, Singapore

INTRODUCTION My master’s thesis re-imagines what the city of Singapore in 2050 would be like when land is scarce and the only way is building upwards. The raise of Singapore's population as well as our food consumption patterns are two factors that should be resolved in an integrative manner in order to build a sustainable community. The first part of my thesis focuses on why building high-rises are essential in an urban context and how a community could be created in a vertical form. Understanding selected high-rise's built density and programmatic diversity would inform us better on each project’s significance (or non-significance) within its urban context. In addition to that, principles would be invented in order to achieve a hyperdensed city. Secondly, the concept of a 'kampong' would be studied upon to understand how communities were sustainable in the past with its 'gotong royong' spirit. This is essential to understand how a self-sufficient and community-centred village can be built to prevent the stigma of isolation and crowdedness within a hyperdensed environment. Thirdly, self-sufficiency in its food production would be selected to drive the project of building the 2050 Vertical Food Kampong. With the help of selected case studies, programs would be crafted out as part of the set of parameter principles that would be applied during the design stage.

As such, this thesis works on 3 sections of research avenues:

1

Building the 2050 High-rise

2

Building a Vertical Kampong

3

Building a Food Community

The thesis will manifest itself at Keppel Bay, located in the southern part of Singapore. Envisioned to be one of the most hyperdensed areas in Singapore 2050, the site chosen will act as an urban testbed to develop a Vertical Food Kampong for its community. The exact location in Keppel will be further analyzed and elaborated in the later sections. Key words: Towers, High-rise, Vertical, Hyper-dense, Crowding, Livability, Community, Kampong, Village, Social, Human Interaction, Tropical Climate, Self-Sufficiency, Food production, Food consumption, Sustainable, Aggregation, Sky-streets, Sky-garden, Sky-villages.

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Building the 2050 High-rise Village

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

1

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Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

We have to find a way to deploy towers in a way that creates additively, collectively, public realm. We haven't learned how to do that. And we will not solve it so long as architects are focusing on this object idea of a building and not its connectivity.

"

"

- Moshe Safdie.

Architects haven't learned to connect skyscrapers, says Safdie. (2014). Retrieved February 18, 2016, from http://www.dezeen.com/2014/12/20/moshe-safdie-skyscrapers-architecture-urban-planning-movie/

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Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore Super Kampong 2050:

History of the "World's Tallest Buildings" A Mile-High Skyscraper Isn't a Fantasy. At Least Outside the U.S. (n.d.). Retrieved February 21, 2016, from http://www.bloomberg.com/bw/articles/2013-11-14/a-mile-high-skyscraper-isnt-a-fantasy-dot-at-least-outside-the-u-dot-s

1.1 BUILDING HIGH-RISES A typical high-rise seen today can be thought of as generic, uniform and concealed. These are words that one would describe a high-rise building – one that is mostly detached from any emotional connection to the public and its community. It is a very tall, continuously habitable building. Usually a building is called a skyscraper or a high-rise tower if it clearly stands out above the surrounding built environment and significantly changes the city’s overall skyline. As such, the high-rise building has been outdone and overdone within its own volume. There has been many high-rises constructed all over the world from 1920s. Till today, there are about 1,040 number of high-rises built – and this figure is expected to raise. (skyscrapers, 2016) The construction of a high-rise building is a conventional method of packing repeated floors of residential and/or commercial activities where it has been proven in the past to be cost saving and easy for construction. Most of the high-rises constructed are in fact, just a variation of air-conditioned glass-cladded towers, concealed by their skins, soaring towards the sky with a central core and large repeated floor plates. However, the typology of the uniform and concealed high-rise would no longer be the sustained solution for to create a community-centric community living in a hyperdensed environment. According to Singapore's FSSD (Fire Safety and Shelter Department) building code, a high-rise building in Singapore is more than and/or equal to 160m (i.e. 40 storeys). Another term used is ‘supertall’ - which refers to a building over 300m. With our ever increasing need to be the ‘world’s tallest’ or ‘world’s best’, our era would require to use the term ‘mega-tall’. This has become a term official10

ly used by the CTBUH (Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat) to describe buildings now over 600m in height. (CTBUH, n.d.) The need to go higher also points towards the high-rise typology as a symbolic status of a country's economic productivity and power. Thus, they are usually constructed and delivered at the height of the booming market.


Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Trinity Riverfront Proposal by Stoss+SHoP Architects Trinity Riverfront [Infrastructure, Planning, Urbanism, Public, Waterfront]. (n.d.). Retrieved May 2, 2016, from http://www.stoss.net/projects/27/trinity-riverfront/

1.2 POWER OF HIGH-RISES High-rises are usually built for its economic status, showing off the city’s power. If we look at the construction of high-rises from the past to our present day, we can see Man’s continual desire to reach the skies. Across successful and thriving countries, high-rises are used to brand cities by having a signature skyline that helps in the country’s economy stability. However, these powerful high-rises have all been constructed based on the economy being the driver and once again, isolating the community that lives and works within it. Thus, there should be a change as to how high-rises are being built - to balance the efficiency of its land usage, its economic returns as well as to integrate the community within. (left) Supertall buildings (300m+) by location each decade Busenkell, M., & Schmal, P. C. (2010). Best High-Rises 2010 / The International Highrise Award 2010. Berlin: Jovis.

Average height of the 100 tallest buildings each decade Busenkell, M., & Schmal, P. C. (2010). Best High-Rises 2010 / The International Highrise Award 2010. Berlin: Jovis.

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Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore Super Kampong 2050:

Proposal for Downtown Athletic Club, USA Koolhaas, R. (1994). Delirious New York: A retroactive manifesto for Manhattan. New York: Monacelli Press.

1.3 REM KOOLHAAS’ BOOK “DELIRIOUS NEW YORK” A particularly critical moment of the evolution of high-rises was when the publication of “Delirious New York - A Retroactive Manifesto for Manhattan by Rem Koolhaas” was made. ‘Eating oysters with boxing gloves, naked, on the nth floor’ is how Rem Koolhaas described the vision of Downtown Athletic Club. This quote became an idiom to describe the high-rise as the ultimate facilitator for the diversity of community living and where separations between floors mean that anything can happen simultaneously with anything else. The high-rise was used as a ‘Constructivist Social Condenser’: a machine that generates and strengthen a human’s need for interaction. (Koolhaas, 1994) From this illustration, Manhattan was the testbed for New York to transform itself into a vertical city in the 1930s. With the insertion of layers, it formed various contrasting programs that the city needed. In this same spirit, my thesis would aim to re-invent what a 2050 high-rise is needed to be to integrate the community in 2050.

Sectional Drawing for Downtown Athletic Club, USA Koolhaas, R. (1994). Delirious New York: A retroactive manifesto for Manhattan. New York: Monacelli Press.

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Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

The 2050 Vertical Food Kampong is envisioned to be a self-sufficient town that allows the community to actively engage in the village's production and consumption cycle. Elements of self-sufficiency focuses on having Food harvesting as the main arm of self-sufficiency, while Energy production and Water Collection would be supporting components to build the Kampong Community.

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Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore Super Kampong 2050:

1.4 THREE THESIS QUESTIONS

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1.

Why is it essential for a vertical building to be self-sufficient in food in the year 2050?

2.

How should a Vertical Food Kampong in 2050 be designed such that it aims towards self-sufficiency?

3.

What is needed for a Vertical Food Kampong to become self-sufficient and livable at the same time?


Super Kampong 2050:

1.5 THESIS PROPOSAL: THE 2050 VERTICAL FOOD KAMPONG As observed in the previous section, high-rises built today lacks a sense of social coherence - making it an emotional disconnect from its community. Moreover, as Singapore progresses towards 2050, a need to re-connect the community within a hyperdensed environment would be crucial in order to still have an emotional connection to the public and its community. The proposal for my thesis introduced the concept of creating a 2050 Vertical Food Kampong. It aims to re-think, re-plan and revolutionize what a typical high-rise could be in Singapore 2050 while aiming towards self-sufficiency in its food cycle. The 2050 Vertical Food Kampong is envisioned to be a self-sufficient town that allows the community to actively engage in the village's production and consumption cycle. Elements of self-sufficiency focuses on having Food harvesting as the main arm of self-sufficiency, while Energy production and Water Collection would be supporting components to build the Tropical Food Community. Tropical-centered micro-climate strategies will also be implemented to address the need to foster a stronger community within a hyperdensed population. As such, a vertical kampong should cultivate a liveable and close-knitted community that embraces density while promoting diversity through the cultivation of trust, support and togetherness. These strategies would therefore be translated to transform the chosen site of Keppel Labrador district into a self-sufficient Vertical Food Kampong with the corporation of the community.

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Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

(left, right): Sky Habitat, Singapore and Solar-Powered Wood Skyscraper, Stockholm


Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

1.6 BACKGROUND CONTEXT OF SINGAPORE

North West

North East

North West South West

North East South East Central

South West

Super Kampong 2050:

92km2

South East Central

Total Building Footprint (13% of Singapore's land area) Khoo, P. B. (2010). 1000 Singapores: A model of the compact city. Singapore: Singapore Institute of Architects.

North West

North East

North West South West

161.4km

North East

2

South West

South East Central South East Central

Total Built-up Space = Building footprint x No. of floors (24.2% of Singapore's land area) Khoo, P. B. (2010). 1000 Singapores: A model of the compact city. Singapore: Singapore Institute of Architects.

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Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

North West

North East

North West South West

North East South East Central

South West

South East Central

Location/Concentration of High-rises in Singapore (High-rise defined as 100m+ and above) Singapore Skyscraper Map - SkyscraperPage.com. (n.d.). Retrieved February 19, 2016, from http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/maps/?cityID=920)

North West

North East

North West South West

North East South East

South West

Central South East Central

MRT Transportation Connectivity Network in Singapore (n.d.). Retrieved February 19, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light_Rail_Transit_(Singapore)

North South Line East West Line North East Line Circle Line North South Line Downtown Line East West Line Jurong Region Line North East Line Cross Island Line Circle Line Thomas-East Coast Lina Downtown Line Jurong Region Line Cross Island Line Thomas-East Coast Lina

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Skyscrapers Built Trend in Singapore 325m

18

300m

16

275m

14

250m

12

225m

10

200m

8

175m

6

150m

4

125m

2

100m

Number of High-Rises built in Singapore

20

75m

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2019

2017

1997

2018

2015

1996

2016

2013

1995

2014

2011

1994

2012

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2007

2012

1993

2008

2005

2011

1992

2006

2010

2003

2001

1999

2009

1990

2004

2008

1989

2002

2000 Towers 2001 2002 2003 2004 was 2005 completed 2006 2007 Year / Skyscrapers

1986

2000

1997

1985

1998

1995

1983

1996

1980

1994

1992

1978

1993

1989

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1985

1975

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1976

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1971

1975

1971

1973

0 1998

1999

2018

2019

Skyscrapers Built Trend in Singapore 20

325m 300m

18

Oasia Downtown 2016,207m

16

275m

250m

14

CapitalGreen 2014,242m

12

225m

10

200m DUO Tower 2017,185m 175m

8

South Beach 2015,182m

The Concourse 1995,175m

The Pinnacle@Duxton 2009,163m

6

150m MarinaOne 2017,141m 125m

Skyville@Dawson 2015,148m

4

Newton Suites 2007,120m No 1 Moulmein Rise 2003,102m

Pearl Bank Apartments 1976,113m

2

100m 75m

2013

Timeline of Skyscrapers built in Singapore (High-rise defined as 100m+ and above) Singapore - The Skyscraper Center. (n.d.). Retrieved February 20, 2016, from http://skyscrapercenter.com/city/Singapore

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2014

2015

2016

2017

2019

2017

2018

1997

2016

2015

1996

2014

2013

1995

2012

2011

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2010

1993

2009

2012

2007

1992

2008

2011

2005

1990

2006

2010

2004

2001

1989

2003

2009

2002

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1986

2000

1997

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2000 Towers 2001 2002 2003 2004 was 2005 completed 2006 2007 2008 Year / Skyscrapers

1998

1983

1996

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1980

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1990

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0 1998

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2018

2019

Height of High-Rises (in metres)

Number of High-Rises built in Singapore

Super Kampong 2050:

*Highlighted in green are those with community and sustainable features

Height of High-Rises (in metres)

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

1.7 HIGH-RISES BUILT IN SINGAPORE


PRINCIPLES OF BUILDING THE 2050 HIGH-RISE

3D Urban Framework

Volumetric planning should be considered rather than restraining to 2-dimensional planning. Routes are designed via connections, streets and bridges above the ground.

Sky Transfer Network

Vertical cores will act as the main sky transfer network that allows accessibility to different layers of program within the community.

Accessible Wayfinding

Residents and the public should find themselves in spontaneous/informal spaces through intuitive wayfinding. Circulatory spaces should be excitable to draw users to experience it more than once.

Program Mix-ups

Programs located horizontally, vertically and diagonally should consist of a 'wild' mix-up of community programs to facilitate interaction within excitable spaces. Collaboration rather than isolation is key.

Duplicating facilities

Duplication of facilities and amenities is essential to accommodate the increased amount of people living on the same plot of land. These functions that were once on the ground, would be made available to all residents in the sky.

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Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Looking towards the future, a different mindset of design planning needs to be in place. A hyperdensed city in 2050 requires a three-dimensional view of masterplanning and design. As such, the city should comprise of increasing its density both vertically and diagonally to distribute its program spaces within a mixed-use environment for the community. As a city is built skywards, facilities and amenities is needed to be duplicated in order to accommodate the increased amount of people living on the same plot of land. Principles below are strategies innovated to foster a strong community within a hyperdensed population in 2050.

Super Kampong 2050:

1.8 PRINCIPLES OF BUILDING THE 2050 HIGH-RISE


Building a Community-Centred Village

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

2

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Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

50,000 residents

40,000 residents

less than 5,000 5,000 - 10,000 20,000 - 40,000 40,000 - 50,000

5,000 residents

10,000 residents

20,000 residents

more than/equal 50,000

Population Density in Singapore (residential) by Planning Area, June 2015 Department Of Statistics Singapore. (n.d.). Retrieved February 21, 2016, from http://www.singstat.gov.sg/publications/publications-and-papers/population-and-population-structure/population-trends

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Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore Super Kampong 2050:

Singapore Population Size & Growth by Residential Status Department Of Statistics Singapore. (n.d.). Retrieved February 21, 2016, from http://www.singstat.gov.sg/publications/publications-and-papers/population-and-population-structure/population-trends

2.1 SOCIAL: DENSITY vs CROWDING Social relations among human beings are important to understand in order to design a new typology of living within a hyper-dense residential and mixedused environment for the community. There needs to be an understanding between the relationship of both human beings and the built environment, and the way hyperdensed spaces affect their behaviour. In 1975, psychologist Jonathan Freedman conducted a lab research on people to understand how their performance are valued under different density and crowding conditions. He concluded that “it is not density that determines the de-generative behaviour of population, but crowding." (Social and architectural Implications, 2013) He continued by saying that “crowding by itself has neither good effects nor bad effects on people but rather serves to intensify the individual’s typical reactions to the situation. But comparing crowding with density, it does generally have positive effects on humans, but it also intensifies the typical reactions towards other people involved in the crowding situation." (Social and architectural Implications, 2013) Overall, the well-being of people is inversely proportional to crowding – meaning to say that when density increases, so does the feeling of annoyance towards the surrounding environment. Density itself is not unpleasant, but the perception would depend on the situation based on the person experiencing it. The range of ‘comfortable density’ within a hyperdensed high-rise needs to be created in order to prevent the feeling of annoyance for the community living within it as the population in Singapore 22

increases rapidly. If spaces aren’t planned with this in mind, the behavioural changes in humans could develop negativity if we are not careful with distinguishing between Density and Crowding.


Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Singapore Population Size & Growth by Residential Status 10 principles for liveable high-density cities: Lessons from Singapore. (2013). Singapore: Urban Land Institute.

2.2 LIVING COMMUNITIES IN SINGAPORE In Singapore's ever increasing population, strategies need to be in place to prevent overcrowding and dissatisfaction amongst residents. Looking at the current living conditions of Singapore, every neighbourhood has been planned to consist of several sub-communities with differing similarities. This diversity allows for inhabitants of their community to find relevance and intimacy in their sub-communities, rather than generically being clustered as a typical neighbourhood. According to Centre for Liveable Cities and Urban Land Institute, Singapore has been planned such that each neighborhood comprise of small precincts of approximately 400 – 800 dwelling units, totaling itself to 2,600 residents in each neighborhood. This planning is done so that residents would have a better sense of identity in order to foster a sense of ownership and pride. (10 principles for liveable high-density cities, 2013)

From this planning strategy from WOHA, one community (one block in HDB case) should ideally have a smaller number of homes between 20-50 units. By having a smaller number of living units forming a cluster, shared spaces such as facilities, amenities and gardens could work more effectively to bring about a closer knit of residents. In addition to that, a visual connection between these residents is also essential. The daily route of residents within these vertical communities need to integrate with exciteable spaces to encourage interaction. This would be determined through design exploration of harnessing different communities within a hyper-dense complex.

Breaking it down even further, 1 HDB block would comprise of 40 - 80 units, totaling itself to 130 -260 residents per block. However, the success of creating “a sense of identity in order to foster a sense of ownership and pride" could be pushed even further as one may observe that there's little interaction amongst residents due to a vertical point block typology created in typical HDB flats. According to a public housing development project done by WOHA, the SkyVille@Dawson is a 960unit sub-divided into 12 “Sky Villages”, each with an intimate cluster of 80 units over a height of 11 stories. (Skyville, 2013)

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Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

2.3 DEMOGRAPHICS IN SINGAPORE : Citizens in working-age band of 20-64 years of age

Ratio

2000

:

8.4

2011

:

6.3

2015

:

4.8

2020

:

3.6

2030

:

2.1

*2050

:

*1.5

Elderly

Declining Old-Age Support Ratio in Singapore towards 2030 Department Of Statistics Singapore. (n.d.). Retrieved February 21, 2016, from http://www.singstat.gov.sg/publications/publications-and-papers/population-and-population-structure/population-trends *Figure for 2050 is a trend prediction - Statistics wasn't provided for 2050.

According to the Department of Statistics Singapore, Singapore’s resident population stood at 3.90 million as at end-June 2015. This comprised of 3.38 million Singapore citizens and 0.53 million permanent residents. In addition to that, there were 1.63 million non-residents, resulting in a total population of 5.54 million in Singapore today. (Department Of Statistics Singapore, n.d.) In January 2013, a projection of Singapore's population was done by Ministry of National Development. According to its Population White Paper, it is projected that Singapore would have a population of between 6.5 and 6.9 million by 2030. This will require 76,600ha of land, an increase from the current supply of 71,000ha. (data.gov, n.d.) Moreover, an increase of our depleting resources such as energy, food and water would need to be taken into consideration to meet our future needs. With this in mind, Singapore’s vision for a compact but liveable city would soon need to become reality – where shared spaces amongst residents would be even denser, and private spaces would become even smaller. Breaking down Singapore's demographics according to its age groups, Singapore sees itself as an aging population with the number of elderly citizens tripling to 900,000 by 2030. As seen in the infographic above, there will only be 2.1 working-age citizens for each elderly citizen in Singapore. In addition to that, Singapore’s birth rates have been falling, due to the raise of singlehood, as well as couples having fewer children after marriage. This change of mindset to have children could be due to social and economic factors such as motivational 24

opportunities to persue higher education in their later years as well as to excel in their workforce. These decisions pushes back the priority of setting up a family in the early stages of their adulthood. Singapore's falling birth rates and its aging population will result in an ageing and shrinking citizen population and workforce in 2050. This demographical change in Singapore would affect how living environments are being designed, how amenities are being built as well as how society is crafted out to be evolved from our yesteryears. A proposal for a multi-generational working and living environment should be the solution for Singapore's falling birth rates and aging population. By incorporating both economy and inventing new ways of living amongst the elderly and the young working society, the community would evolve itself into a 'helping one another' society within the neighbourhood. In order to create this environment in a hyperdense Singapore, vertical community-centred villages should be created with a mixture of both elderlys and working adults. The concept of a vertical community-centred village will be explained further in the next section.


Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

:

2030

Singapore's Aging Population

"

There will be 900,000 senior citizens by 2030 - that's 1 in 5 residents that are aged 65 years and above.

"

2030

Singapore's decreasing birth rate

"

There will be babies in 2015.

880,200 babies born in 2030 - a significant decrease from 980,000

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Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore Super Kampong 2050: Trend of Population Density in Singapore Population Density - Data.gov.sg. (n.d.). Retrieved February 21, 2016, from https://data.gov.sg/dataset/population-density

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Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Kampong Settlements before development in Singapore Kampong days: Village life and times in Singapore revisited. (1993). Singapore: National Archives.

2.4 VERTICAL COMMUNITIES Singaporeans: ‘We want a greater sense of home’ According to an article written on 23 June 2012 in The Straits Times, Singaporeans voiced out their hopes for a ‘greater sense of home and community’. Some of the qualities are such as avenues for citizens to engage in life within their city, green oases, urban farms and community plazas. As said by one of the interviewees Olivia Choong, 33, “The more citified we become, the more we disconnect from each other. We need these to make the city more liveable and (to make) the community stronger." (Singapore property news, n.d.) From this article, it points out that the future of Singapore should head towards the direction of community-centeredness within our built-environments. Moreover, the idea of planning a densified city without the aspect of rooting the people to their community isn’t ideal. With that in mind, my thesis would dwell deeper and understand how Singapore was able to foster a strong community in the past, by understanding the meaning of the ‘Kampong Spirit’. The Vertical Kampong The term 'Vertical Kampong' is defined as having a liveable close-knitted community that embraces density and promotes diversity through the cultivation of trust, support and togetherness. According to MVRDV’s book on Vertical Village: Individual, Informal, Intense – a Vertical Community should be “lively, intimate and diverse”. (The Vertical Village, 2012) Specifically, a liveable vertical community has to be diverse yet collective, where densities are embraced and mutually supported through shared

ways of living, working, learning, playing and so on. It has to also give a sense of liveliness to its inhabitants - allowing the inhabitant to have a sense of belonging. Kampongs in Singapore A kampong usually comes attached with this identity of a strong sense of togetherness known as the ‘kampong spirit’. The successful model of the Singapore Kampong could be seen as the origins of how a socially cohesive community was cultivated within a self-sufficient environment. In the local context of Singapore, Kampongs are defined as clusters of human settlements often located within cool, shady environments with abundance of greenery and resources within their vicinity. Besides its physical living conditions, the intangible aspect of community building and the spirit of helping one another is the most important quality of the kampong that makes it a unique community. Village residents would involve themselves in helping one another through activities such as padi-growing, fish and other agricultural practices. (Jee Yuan, 2002) Within a cluster of kampong villages, they were known for their ‘gotong royong’ spirit which translates to be a joint reciprocity of goodwill towards others. A close-knitted and community bonded village allows the kampong to develop this kindred spirit of trust and helpfulness amongst neighbours.

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Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore Super Kampong 2050: Family spending time together in the Kampong Kampong days: Village life and times in Singapore revisited. (1993). Singapore: National Archives.

2.5 BEFORE THE HIGH-RISES Before the urbanization of Singapore, there were numerous kampongs all around Singapore. However, as industralization was a pressing need, the Kampong needed to be transformed in the 1960s. The Singapore government had its top priority of implementing the public housing programme as part of its national development. These public housing were deem as the solution for overcrowding, sanitization and other housing problems. Mr Ong Ting Lye, a former resident of Kampong Radin Mas recalled, “It was very difficult for the villagers to adapt to this major change of lifestyle. Some of the farmers had their livestock while others had crops and they were self-sufficient. However, by moving to the HDB, they had to buy and pay for everything." (Tahir, n.d.) As we begin to build vertically in the future, the nostalgic and intangible elements of the Kampong is an important element to be rejuvenated in the community.

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Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

(left) Friendly interaction with Kampong resident (right) Pets roaming around freely Site Visit at Kampong Buangkok (2015).

Last remaining kampong left in Singapore - Kampong Lorong Buangkok Site Visit at Kampong Buangkok (2015).

2.6 CASE STUDY: KAMPONG LORONG BUANGKOK Long before Singapore’s rapid development and urbanization into the concrete jungle of today, Singapore used to be home to many kampongs all over the island. However, only one remains intact today. Kampong Lorong Buangkok is the last standing residential kampong in Singapore. Rich in heritage and history, it was built in 1956. Mr. Sng, the father of current landlady Ms Sng Mei Fong, purchased a plot of land at Lorong Buangkok. The land was then leased out to residents, many of whom still reside in it till today. (Ong C., Heng R., and Ho Q., 2002) There are approximately 28 dwelling units with less than 100 of residents that remain.

kok, juxtaposition against many clusters of vertical high-rises around its vicinity.

According to a research done by a group of SUTD students (myself included), Table 1 was drawn up to gain a more explicit understanding of what people found advantageous of kampong living and what they found was a constraint. (Tan, N., Lum, T., Leung, C., & Fong, L. 2015) As seen in the table, people who were interviewed attributed the Kampong to having a great sense of ‘togetherness’ as well as a ‘rich history, heritage and culture’. With this in mind, the 'Kampong spirit' is seen to be an important aspect that people think of when they are in a kampong. Moreover, the 'Kampong spirit' is seen as an integral part of cultivating a socially-charged village within Kampong Buang29


Super Kampong 2050:

The Kampong Life is seen as safe and carefree. As kampong residents, there wasn’t a need to shut the doors as the system of trust and dependency was already cultivated amongst the villagers. Children could be seen exploring the field and having a good time playing with wildlife and being one with nature. As toys were not easily available to the children, they would make their own toys with their friends and be contented with their inventions within their own village. For the adults, men would go about their work routine while the women would manage the household chores at home. This would mainly consist of cooking, cleaning, feeding their animals and gardening. As such, the kampong consisted of large multi-generational families living together in one household with a lively atmosphere.

"

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

2.7 THE KAMPONG LIFE

...because we are in the kampong, even though we are of different races, we’re like family...

(top left) Food was easily available for villagers with personal farms and mobile hawkers Kampong days: Village life and times in Singapore revisited. (1993). Singapore: National Archives. (top right) Villagers using the centralized standpipe for household chores which brought the community together Kampong days: Village life and times in Singapore revisited. (1993). Singapore: National Archives.

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"

- Madam Fatimah, current resident of Kampong Lorong Buangkok, Singapore


Super Kampong 2050:

2.8 BUILDING THE KAMPONG SPIRIT Food

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

There were essential elements found to bring out the 'Kampong Spirit'. There were mainly through food, water and entertainment. Kampongs were able to accommodate two to three generations living in the same household. As such, mealtimes were always something that everyone looked forward to especially in the evenings. Although families were living in different houses, housewives in the kampong would spend time together cooking and preparing before the mealtimes. They would do so as their kitchens were designed to be shared by more than one family in the village. This was seen as a way of bonding with each other while doing their chores. Interaction was also done by sharing food recipes with each other. After mealtimes, cleaning and washing up was also another chore that was done cohesively as a village. Younger children would help their mothers with the dishes as the rest of the adults continue their conversation with one another. Besides cooking, food was also easily available for all in the past. On typical days, residents would usually stay within their Kampongs as food is usually brought to them from food sellers on their bicycles. At specific times of the day, hawkers would go around the Kampong on their transport with pushcarts to sell their fresh produce such as fruits, vegetables and snacks to the villagers. Food to bring the kampong together As seen in the photos, food was seen as an essential element of bringing the kampong together. During the fasting month of Ramadan, a ‘barter system’ was practiced. Residents would share their cooked food with their neighbours and exchange it for another dish. It created a desired win-win situation as everyone would be able to taste special dishes from each household, learn from each other various cooking methods as well as reduce the workload for one household to be in charge of all the cooking. Bringing the kampong village together through this essential element exceeded the boundaries of age, status and personal interests. As seen in the photos previously, people in the kampong used food as the centre of their everyday lives - whether it be cooking, buying food, having food as a business for their family, or even taking on the role as a housewife to bring the family together during mealtimes.

Food as a source of bringing the family and the community together Ways Done in the Past - Kampong Days Exhibition [Digital image]. (2012, February 16). Retrieved April 13, 2016, from http://blogtoexpress.blogspot.sg/2012/02/waysdone-in-past-kampong-days.html

Street Hawkers in Singapore, 1970s Singapore’s Vanished Markets and Hawker Centres [Digital image]. (2012, August 27). Retrieved April 13, 2016, from https://remembersingapore.org/2012/08/27/singapores-vanished-markets-and-hawker-centres/

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2.8 BUILDING THE KAMPONG SPIRIT Water Besides food, water is also another essential element in the kampong. In the past, water wasn’t made easily available. Villagers had to travel to a centralized well to draw water from it for their usage. With this issue at hand, the spirit of ‘gotong royong’ allowed them to build their own village's well to make water much more accessible to their kampong village. As said by Mr Ismail who lived in Kampong Jalan Mata Ayer, “With the ‘gotong royong’ spirit, we managed to build 10 wells before the standpipe was constructed. This allowed water to be supplied efficient to our village." (Tahir, n.d.) Households would use these wells for bathing, washing and watering of their plants. The standpipe was also a source of bringing the village together since it is an essential item for survival. Women and kids would be seen spending time together to do their chores while chatting with one another.

Overwhelming turn out of villagers for screening of film shows as a source of entertainment Kampong days: Village life and times in Singapore revisited. (1993). Singapore: National Archives.

Entertainment Entertainment is also seen as a source of bringing the kampong residents together when they are not in their private quarters. The entertainment that brought the village together are mainly cultural activities such as celebratory weddings, dance celebrations and films. The spirit of togetherness was also evident at Kampong Malay weddings. Everyone would pitch in to help out in the wedding preparation, such as setting up of the tent as well as food preparation for the celebratory meal. Dance celebrations were also common in the kampong. Performers would dress up as cultural icons to curate various dance dramas based on folkloric heroes and heroines. These cultural dance was also a way of educating the younger ones on their ancestral past. Film was part of the entertainment to build the Kampong spirit. During the 1950s and 1960s, the Public Relations Office would provide film shows and documentaries in the evening for the residents. The average fee for each film show is 50 cents for adults and 30 cents for children. Due to the affordability of the films, villagers would make their way to the neighbouring kampong to catch the show every evening. Thus, the turnout at these shows would always be a big lively gathering within the kampong. Through these 3 elements identified to build the Kampong spirit, food was seen as a primary binder while water and entertainment is seen to take on a supportive role of bringing the community together. Thus, types of programs proposed in this thesis would be required to cultivate the same spirit of togetherness as an integral part of the future community. 32

Cultural dance was also a way of educating the younger ones on their ancestral past Kampong days: Village life and times in Singapore revisited. (1993). Singapore: National Archives.


Learning from the essence of the "Kampong Spirit' as studied above, principles can be form in a qualitative and quantitative manner. A vertical kampong should be cultivated by having a having a liveable close-knitted community that embraces density and promotes diversity through the cultivation of trust, support and togetherness.

PRINCIPLES OF BUILDING THE VERTICAL KAMPONG

QUALITATIVE PRINCIPLES

Descriptive information that should be applied to achieve a certain quality of space

Sense of togetherness

Emotional Connection

Create a sense of ‘togetherness’ by planning live, work and play programs in close proximity to each other, and one that would bring the community together.

Cultivate shared emotional connection amongst residents by considering the history, symbols and experiences of the site in the past. Emotional connection can also be created by cultivating a sense of belonging to the estate that the residents are living in.

QUANTITATIVE PRINCIPLES

Numerical information that should be applied to achieve a certain quality of space

Smaller Village Size

Shared Food Garden Space

Sky-village Social Space

Community Park

Informal Spaces

Create intimate clusters of 20 - 50 dwelling units within a community village.

For every 20 - 50 dwelling units, there should be a shared green facility for gardening and farming.

At every 5 – 10 floors, there should be a social space provided for the residents. This Sky-Village social space is essential as it mediates the visual of being far away from the ground datum.

For every 3-4 villages, a ‘Community Park’ is created to allow neighbouring Community Villages to interact and create opportunities for collaboration.

Intertwine informal spaces along resident’s daily routes

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Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

These parameter principles would be implemented in the design stage where components of each principle applied should aim towards creating a vertical kampong experience for the community, in a hyperdensed environment. The principles are as follows:

Super Kampong 2050:

2.9 PRINCIPLES OF BUILDING THE VERTICAL KAMPONG


Case Studies - Community

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

3

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Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

The list of case studies are chosen as they possess elements of self-sufficiency, sustainability and community centredness. They will be studied in details and sustainable elements of each case study will be extracted in order to give more insight into what could be possible for Singapore's 2050 Vertical Kampong.

[1] Case Study #1: Oasia Downtown [2] Case Study #2: Skyville@Dawson [3] Case Study #3: The Interlace [4] Case Study #4: Sky Habitat [5] Case Study #5: Kampong Admiralty

[1]

[4]

[2]

[3]

[5]

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I Information and Figures: GENERAL YEAR OF COMPLETION: 2015 LOCATION: Singapore ADDRESS: 100 Peak Seah Street TENURE: 99-year leasehold DEVELOPER: Far East SOHO Pte Ltd ARCHITECT: WOHA Singapore PROPERTY TYPE: Hospitality-Office Business Hotel UNITS

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

3.1 CASE STUDY #1: OASIA DOWNTOWN, SINGAPORE

UNIT TYPE: Typical Room (24 sqm)

Club Room (25 sqm)

Suite Room (54 sqm)

FIGURES FAR: 8.40 GFA: 19,416 sqm OVERALL SITE AREA: 2,311.4 sqm TOTAL UNITS: 314 hotel rooms HEIGHT: 206.62 m FLOORS: approx. 27 storeys SOCIAL CONNECTIVITY Programmatic Diversity Public Access

URBAN CONNECTIVITY Walkability To Public Transport Public Communal Areas

DESIGN Applicable To Tropical Conditions

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Super Kampong 2050:

II Concept:

WOHA adopted a ‘club sandwich’ approach by creating a series of different strata – each with its own garden. Elevated ground levels were introduced every 5 – 8 storeys that acted as public areas for social interaction and recreational activities. The tower is divided into 5 parts: the base, the SOHO office, the hotel, the hotel club, and the roof space. (Oasia Downtown, 2012) From the plan view, Oasia Downtown is seen as a series of L-shaped programs positioned on opposite sides of the tower with the hotel volume located between them. This is to ensure that no two building masses are

1. Ground Floor/Base

2. SOHO Offices

3. The Hotel

4. The Hotel Club

5. Rooftop Space

6. Finished Product

Progression of spaces sandwiched between each other

on top of each other. Generous amount of wind circulate these multiple sky gardens which allow users to experience dynamic and undisrupted views of the surrounding context. This concept reverses the idea of a typical skyscraper model of being enclosed, concealed and internalizing itself with air conditioned spaces. The tropical climate in Singapore was embraced in the vertical design of Oasia Downtown where greenery and fresh air is experienced in the areas where the community could gather. Landscaping is also a prominent part of the skyscraper’s design which is distinct from the surrounding glass-cladded towers within the Central Business District. Achieving an overall Green Plot Ratio of 750%, the building’s surface is treated with creepers and flowering plants – softening its form and emerging itself to be a green living façade.

1. Floor FloorSlabs Slabs 1.

2.2.Floor columns Floorwith with columns

3.3.Wrapping Walls Wrapping Walls

4.Surrounding Surrounding Greens 4. Greens

5. Full 5. Built Product

Different components in Oasia Downtown

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Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Oasia Downtown combines innovative ways to intensify land use with a tropical approach that showcases a perforated, permeable, furry, verdant tower of green in the heart of Singapore’s Central Business District (CBD).


[1] Extensive Green Roof: 9 extensive and easily accessible roof gardens and intermediate sky terraces were created on every horizontal block.

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

III Sustainable Elements:

[2] 750% Green plot ratio: Dressed in lush growing vertical landscapes, the building’s surface is treated with creepers and flowering plants – softening its form and emerging itself to be a green living façade.

[3] Cross ventilated sky gardens: With alternated L-shaped building blocks stacked on top of each other, an urban scaled sky garden is formed. Promoting openness and allowing breezeways in the sky, the sky garden allows for formal visual transparency towards the outside of the building.

(top) Rooftop perspectives (bottom) Sky garden courtyard spaces Oasia Hotel Downtown Singapore | Far East Hospitality. (n.d.). Retrieved March 04, 2016, from http://www.stayfareast.com/en/hotels/oasia-hotel-downtown-singapore.aspx

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I Information and Figures: GENERAL

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

YEAR OF COMPLETION: 2015 LOCATION: Singapore ADDRESS: 86 Dawson Rd, S141086 TENURE: 99-year leasehold DEVELOPER: HDB ARCHITECT: WOHA PROPERTY TYPE: Public Housing UNITS UNIT TYPE: 3-Bedroom (35-42 sqm)

4-bedroom (81 sqm)

5-bedroom (98 sqm)

Super Kampong 2050:

3.2 CASE STUDY #2: SKYVILLE @ DAWSON, SINGAPORE

FIGURES FAR: 3.50 GFA: undisclosed OVERALL SITE AREA: undisclosed TOTAL UNITS: 960 units HEIGHT: 161 m FLOORS: 46 storeys SOCIAL CONNECTIVITY Programmatic Diversity Public Access

URBAN CONNECTIVITY Walkability To Public Transport Public Communal Areas

DESIGN Applicable To Tropical Conditions

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Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore Super Kampong 2050:

II Concept: Skyville @ Dawson is designed upon the concept of creating a greater sense of community and identity while building a social space to enhance cohesiveness within the Dawson community. Looking at the larger context, the architect used principles such as form, space, light, ventilation and proportion to reduce the appearance of a uniform and concealed massing. The 46-storey is moulded with perforation, folds and hints of gardens inserted throughout the 3 blocks. The design focuses on 3 themes – Community, Variety and Sustainability. Community: To create a community-centric space, each home is part of a Sky Village: 80 homes which share a naturally ventilated community terrace and garden. The block is composed of 3 villages, stacked 4 times, for a total of 12 villages. (Skyville @ Dawson, 2012) ‘Community Living Rooms’ provides seating areas overlooking the greenspaces at the ground level, while the ‘Rooftop Park’ provides a recreational jogging track for residents while harnessing energy via the installation of PV (photovoltaic) solar cells to be supplied to public corridors and urban plazas. Variety: The design gives variety by offering buyers 3 flexible floor plans with a column free, beam free main space, eliminating waste and allowing diverse lifestyles, such as home office or loft living as well as future flexibility. By incorporating social and community spaces in the sky, the design ensures that residents are enjoying a high-rise, high-dense vibrant living without feeling alienated from each other. Perspective of High-rise Community , Skyville @ Dawson SkyVille @ Dawson / WOHA. (2012). Retrieved February 26, 2016, from http://www. archdaily.com/215386/skyville-dawson-woha

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Super Kampong 2050:

III Sustainable Elements:

[1] PV solar cells: Located on the rooftop park were used to power up public corridors and common areas. [2] 100% Green plot ratio: Roof landscape, vertical creepers and sky gardens were implemented. [3] Pre-cast typology: Precast, prefabricated and modular – The building process is more efficient with the reduction of site waste during construction. [4] Sun shading: All walls have vertical and horizontal sun breakers to shade both the walls and the windows. [5] Cross ventilation + Breeze windows: Kitchen and bathrooms are naturally ventilated and overhangs are installed in all windows that allow special mid-height top hung panels to remain open during monsoon period.

[6] Stormwater Collection: A swale with integrated landscape feature is used to treat storm water before discharging it to the storm water system. [7] Waste Management: Dual Refuse Chutes for separation of Organic and Recyclable waste are provided at every apartment block.

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Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Skyville @ Dawson concentrated on implementing smart energy solutions while creating a new type of community living that is different from a typical housing development in Singapore. Sustainable elements were implemented throughout the whole built product as shown.


I Information and Figures: GENERAL YEAR OF COMPLETION: 2013 LOCATION: Singapore ADDRESS: 200 Depot Rd, 109694 TENURE: 99-year leasehold DEVELOPER: CapitaLand Residential & HPL ARCHITECT: OMA & RSP Architects PROPERTY TYPE: Residential (with 8 retail shops) UNITS

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

3.3 CASE STUDY #3: THE INTERLACE, SINGAPORE

UNIT TYPE: 2-Bedroom (75-149 sqm)

3-Bedroom (117-352 sqm) 3-Family (148-488 sqm)

4-bedroom (180-529 sqm)

Garden House (267-361 sqm)

Penthouse (293-586 sqm)

FIGURES FAR: 2.10 GFA: 170,000 sqm OVERALL SITE AREA: 80,761.8 sqm TOTAL UNITS: 1040 units HEIGHT: 96 m (peak) FLOORS: 6-18 storeys, 24 storey (peak) SOCIAL CONNECTIVITY Programmatic Diversity Public Access

URBAN CONNECTIVITY Walkability To Public Transport Public Communal Areas

DESIGN Applicable To Tropical Conditions

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Super Kampong 2050:

II Concept:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

The Interlace challenges the idea of building high density horizontally rather than vertically. Instead of following the typology of building isolated towers, the design turns vertical isolation into horizontal connectivity and reinstates the notion of community living. (The Interlace, n.d.) This community of horizontal blocks are formed from a series of stacked housing blocks arranged in a hexagonal grid. The interlocking blocks create interesting an excitable “interlaced� outdoor (and indoor) spaces that connect individual apartments to its vibrant community life. Its design generates a multiplicity of qualities and choices for its inhabitants and gives a sense of multi-layered richness and freedom of possibilities for living. (The Interlace, n.d.) The character of a vertical village is seen with its rich landscape and pockets of community programs embedded in each block. Designed as an extension of the natural surroundings of 170 plant and tree species, its green coverage is maximised by incorporating sky gardens, waterbodies, communal areas and courtyard spaces vertically with the aim of social interaction amongst residents. Moreover, the total amount of green areas equate to about 112% of the development site size. In our tropical climate, the Interlace took into consideration the amount of daylight that one would receive living in the apartment. With the unique massing of the project, sufficient level of self-shading is provided in the courtyards to maintain a comfortable tropical outdoor environment all-year round. Furthermore, this would enable continual usage of the courtyards for communal functions for community building.

Turning vertical isolation into horizontal connectivity The interlace by OMA. (n.d.). Retrieved March 03, 2016, from https://www. pinterest.com/pin/459789443184428735/

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Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore Super Kampong 2050:

III 8 Community Courtyards: 5. Theatre Plaza: An outdoor extension of the theatrette at the clubhouse, the Theatre Plaza is the perfect communal space for hosting performances, exhibitions or open air movie screenings.

Designed around 8 uniquely themed courtyards, each of them have their distinct identities – enabling each community village to adapt and give personality to their neighbourhood. (Buro Ole Scheeren, 2011)

6. Bamboo Garden: For moments of quiet solitude, residents may settle in with a book at the reading nooks within the bamboo forest.

1. Water Park: The Water Park consist of 50m lap pool, family pool, children’s play pool and sun lounging decks for residents. 2. Waterfall Terrace: Tennis courts, multi-purpose area, swimming pool and party pavilions are available at the Waterdall Terrace.

7. Spa Valley: Reminiscent of a rainforest, the Spa Valley invites relaxation at its spa pool lagoon, jacuzzi, waterfall grotto, massage pools and steam rooms for a complete hydrotherapy experience.

3. Play Hills: Nestled in sculpted groundswells, this is an outdoor exercise corner and a play station for children, serving as a recreational area conducive to young and old alike.

8. Lotus Pond: this 40m-wide pond exudes a sense of calm and comfort, with its gentle lapping banks and floating blossoms, as inspired by asian gardens.

4. Central Square: This centrally located courtyard serves as a favourite meeting spot for residents as it is within proximity to the clubhouse and all the recreational facilities.

1

3

5

4

7

2

6

8

Site and Ground Floor Plan Schröpfer, T., & Christiaanse, K. (n.d.). Dense green: Innovative building types for sustainable urban architecture.

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Super Kampong 2050:

IV Sustainable Elements:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

[1] Extensive Green Roof: 9 extensive and easily accessible roof gardens and intermediate sky terraces were created on every horizontal block.

[2] Vegetated Swale: The 60-metre long vegetated swale helps to slow down runoff and remove litter and sediments from the water. The elevated walkway alongside allows the residents and visitors to get closer and enjoy the natural drainage feature integrated with greenery. (Active beautiful clean waters, 2014)

[3] Bio-retention Basin: Situated at the lowest point of the development site near to facilities, this bio-retention basin or rain garden allows detention and treatment of storm water runoff before entering into the public drain. (Active beautiful clean waters, 2014)

[4] Vertical Greenery: Green walls were erected at various locations with large vertical faces to remove airborne pollutants as well as to slow down stormwater runoff. These green walls reduce the need for air-conditioning by minimising solar gain and reflected solar energy. (Active beautiful clean waters, 2014)

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I Information and Figures: GENERAL YEAR OF COMPLETION: 2015 LOCATION: Singapore ADDRESS: 7 Bishan Street 15, 579827 TENURE: 99-year leasehold DEVELOPER: Capitaland & Mitsubishi Estate Asia Pte. Ltd. ARCHITECT: Moshe Safdie PROPERTY TYPE: Condominium

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

3.4 CASE STUDY #4: SKY HABITAT, SINGAPORE

UNITS UNIT TYPE: 1-bedroom (65 sqm) 2-Bedroom (99 sqm)

3-bedroom (116 sqm)

4-bedroom (144-278 sqm)

FIGURES FAR: 4.90 GFA: 58,786 sqm OVERALL SITE AREA: 11,997 sqm TOTAL UNITS: 509 residential units HEIGHT: 133 m FLOORS: 38 storeys SOCIAL CONNECTIVITY Programmatic Diversity Public Access

URBAN CONNECTIVITY Walkability To Public Transport Public Communal Areas

DESIGN Applicable To Tropical Conditions

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Super Kampong 2050:

II Concept:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Sky Habitat designed by Moshe Safdie, represents a high-rise, high-density housing complex. The scheme is formed of two staggered tower blocks linked at the base and connected via three bridges that connect the upper levels. Thus its name – Sky Habitat. The design for sky habitat proposes a singular, interconnected clustering of terraced apartments with lush garden spaces. The overall massing is porous and open for air and light, allowing the air to breeze through and the light to penetrate. This maximizes views for families and for the community spaces, resulting in a more humane and delicate urban fabric than its usual traditional apartment building. (Designboom, 2013) On the lower groundscape, the landscape is taken over by creating circulation routes within its complex. As seen in a CTBUH research paper titled ‘Humanizing the Megascale’, “The design of Sky Habitat responds to the particular culture and context of Singapore, the specific city of site, and to the local regulatory systems of the region. However, the core principles of the project are generic: to provide air and light, to provide windows that do not overlook neighbours, and to provide spaces for both indoor and outdoor living." (Designboom, 2015) A 'community infrastructure' is created by the provision of 3 garden bridges that interconnects the two towers. The bridges are located on levels 14, 26, and 38. These skybridges support communal gardens and swimming pools. By interconnecting the two towers, it bridges all amenities - making it accessible to the two vertical communities. Moreover, the interconnections also provide more shared space to the tenants, reinforcing the concept of a vertical neighborhood.

Village-like clustering of residential units, Sky Habitat Singapore Moshe safdie's sky habitat nears completion in singapore. (2015). Retrieved February 27, 2016, from http://www.designboom.com/architecture/ moshe-safdie-architects-sky-habitat-singapore-construction-03-20-2015/

While mitigating a sense of density and concentration and maximizing contact with nature, the complex also results in a village-like clustering of residential units, echoing hillside developments and the integration of architecture and plant life into a singular experience.

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The Sky Habitat consist of several sustainable elements incorporated into its design. Sited within the tropical climate, this case study provides 3 key design elements: Pre-fabrication of modules, porous balcony design as well as cross ventilation qualities in all apartments.

[1] Cross ventilation: In order to maximize air movement in Singapore’s tropical climate, the structure is highly rationalized, affording cross-ventilation and multiple exposures to every unit. In addition, many apartments boast individual balconies, roof terraces and gardens.

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

III Sustainable Elements:

[2] Pre-fabrication: The prefabricated-truss bridge was transported on-site and installed to accommodate the elevated swimming pool. Other common amenities are provided on the ground level such as communal gardens and outdoor gathering spaces. [3] Balcony Design: The façade design helps to mitigate the tropical heat. The cantilevered 2m deep balconies play a major role in shading the windows, and cut down on the direct solar radiation. Mounted to the face of each balcony is a custom railing screen, which serves to further shade the structure. The screen is constructed as an aluminium eggcrate, providing privacy while allowing air to flow through.

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Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

“

Th respo conte of sit syste core gene provi neigh both

Figure 5. Axonometrics of the skybridges. Site plan and Axonometrics of skybridges, Sky Habitat Singapore Ctbuh.org/papers. (n.d.). Retrieved February 27, 2016, from http://global. ctbuh.org/resources/papers/download/2697-humanizing-the-megascale.pdf

reducing the need for air conditioning and minimizing annual energy consumption. Perhaps the strongest visual feature of the building is the stepped elevation of the towers. More than one-third of the units are located along the stepping edges, with access to the penthouse-like exterior roof garden terraces (see Figure 4). The north tower splays at its base, resulting in additional terraces all the way to the ground, and containing beneath them a 15-story atrium merging into the surrounding recreational spaces. Allowances built into the state regulatory systems allow open-to-sky terrace spaces to be exempted from gross floor area (GFA), a promotion directed by Singapore’s Urban

While ste splaying b compone appear un not techn groundbreaking moves. Simple methodologies, such as the use conventional cast-in-place con and standard floor-to-floor heig the building could be built qui economically. Working with the engineers, the building was op reach high buildability scores, a from Singapore Building Contro (BCA). Buildability score is impr best practices, such as the use building components and the BIM throughout the delivery of The BCA has broader goals with to increase safety on building s become more effi cient when it 49 deployment of manpower.


I Information and Figures: GENERAL YEAR OF COMPLETION: 2017 LOCATION: Singapore ADDRESS: Woodlands Drive 71 and

Woodlands Ring Road

TENURE: 99-year leasehold DEVELOPER: HDB ARCHITECT: WOHA PROPERTY TYPE: Integrated public housing

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

3.5 CASE STUDY #5: KAMPONG ADMIRALTY, SINGAPORE

UNITS UNIT TYPE: Studio apartment 1 (36 sqm) Studio apartment 2 (45 sqm) FIGURES FAR: 3.60 GFA: 24,480 sqm OVERALL SITE AREA: 6,800 sqm TOTAL UNITS: 104 residential units HEIGHT: 44 m FLOORS: 11 storeys SOCIAL CONNECTIVITY Programmatic Diversity Public Access

URBAN CONNECTIVITY Walkability To Public Transport Public Communal Areas

DESIGN Applicable To Tropical Conditions

50


Super Kampong 2050:

II Concept:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Kampong Admiralty is crafted as a modern ‘Vertical Village’ model encourages social bonding, interaction as well as fostering the ‘Kampong spirit’. This is done by creating urban clusters and intertwining informal spaces along resident’s daily routes. The principles extracted from the Kampong spirit can be seen here – good neighbourliness, mutual care, shared ownership, watchfulness and a sense of cultural belonging. Kampong Admiralty is a flagship prototype public housing project that brings together a whole fleet of programs under one roof. Mainly for the elderly, it integrates health-care centres and public facilities are provided to foster social cohesion amongst the old and young. It is plan to accommodate 104 studio apartments with 2 types of unit floor areas - 36sqm and 45sqm. (A modern kampung, n.d.) These studio apartments are planned to accommodate 2 elderly occupants per household. Sited within a mature town and on prime land directly adjacent to the MRT station, the development is not intended to be an isolated senior cocoon. Rather, it is meant to serve as the new community heart of the whole estate by strengthening a collective identity through place-making and inter-generational social bonding encouraged by its invigorating mix of housing, medical, recreational, social and commercial programs. (CTBUH Video Library, 2014)

Public community roof gardens, Kampong Admiralty Singapore About Kampung Admiralty. (n.d.). Retrieved March 25, 2016, from http:// www10.hdb.gov.sg/hdbvsf/eampu07p.nsf/0/14JULBTOWLM_page_6147/$file/about.htm#about

The lower stratum features a fully public, pedestrianized and tropical “People’s Plaza” for community events and festive celebrations, made vibrant by a “Community Dining Room” that overlooks it, and is further supported by amenities such as retail shops, a pharmacy and supermarket. (CTBUH Video Library, 2014) The mid stratum consist of the hawker centre as well as a 2-storey Medical Centre. This ensures that a senior residents would be in close proximity to the essentials. Organized around a large central courtyard, the internal air well serves to cool the plaza, while bringing daylight and natural ventilation. Lastly, a new ground level in the sky is inserted at the top stratum. With child and elder care services, the rooftop farming on the sky decks and studio apartments for seniors enables an intimate yet elevated inclusive “Community Park” that brings the young and old together. The upper apartments are seen to be cladded with photo-voltaic panels to enable clean energy generation. Envisioned as a kampong village in the sky, Kampong Admiralty brings about the spirit of a larger community actively interacting with one another – making it a tropically-centred concept to create urban community spaces. 51


Kampong Admiralty aims to encourage a “green� lifestyle designed with several eco-friendly features.

[3] Underground bicycle storage system: Offer residents convenient and secure parking solutions and encourage cycling as an environmentally friendly form of transport.

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

III Sustainable Elements:

[2] Rooftop Solar panels: Upper apartments are cladded with photo-voltaic panels to harness solar energy for powering common services in the two residential blocks.

[1] Vegetated swales: While it greens and beautifies the landscape surrounding, it mainly helps to treat surface runoff water and prevent water from overflowing during storms. [5] Pneumatic Waste Conveyance System: Separate chutes are provided for recyclable waste and it also provides clean and fuss-free waste disposal.

52


Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

(top) Site plan of Kampong Admiralty About Kampung Admiralty. (n.d.). Retrieved March 25, 2016, from http://www10.hdb.gov.sg/hdbvsf/eampu07p.nsf/0/ 14JULBTOWLM_page_6147/$file/about.htm#about (bottom) Sectional drawing of a All-in-one Village Kampong Admiralty Concept A 'brand new' HDB typology – Modern Kampung @ Admiralty. (n.d.). Retrieved February 24, 2016, from http://www. asianurbanepicenters.com/?p=2702

53


Case Studies - Future Community Spaces

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

4

54


Super Kampong 2050:

To achieve a self-sufficient Vertical Food Kampong, food products will be produced right where it is consumed – creating a sustainable food production and consumption cycle network. Thus, by enabling the Keppel community to actively participate in this food cycle network, the Vertical Food Kampong would allow one to participate and contribute collectively. As such, additional case studies were analyzed to understand how to bridge the village with food as an essential element of bringing the community together.

[1] Case Study #6: Home Farm by Spark [2] Case Study #7: Khoo Teck Puat Hospital

[1]

[2]

55

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Case studies explained in the previous section provided a basis of how various demographics of people were able to form a community through proper space planning and integration of the environment. In general, these leisure green spaces are planned to allow the community to interact. But practically speaking, could these leisure green space also become usable production hubs for the community in 2050? As we look towards the year 2050, community spaces can be a means of an urban food production system to enhance the community spirit and livability within the vertical kampong. Food is chosen as the primary “re-connector” within the community as it is an element essential for every human being’s survival and has the potential to bring people together.


I Information and Figures: GENERAL COMPLETION: Conceptual Proposal LOCATION: Singapore ARCHITECT: SPARK Architects PROPERTY TYPE: Multi-family Senior Housing UNITS UNIT TYPE: Two bedrooms and

Multi-generational living areas

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

4.1 CASE STUDY #6: HOME FARM BY SPARK

FIGURES FAR: undisclosed GFA: undisclosed OVERALL SITE AREA: undisclosed TOTAL UNITS: 300 residential units HEIGHT: 44 m FLOORS: 60 storeys SOCIAL CONNECTIVITY Programmatic Diversity Public Access

URBAN CONNECTIVITY Walkability To Public Transport Public Communal Areas

DESIGN Applicable To Tropical Conditions

56


Super Kampong 2050:

II Concept:

The aging population in Singapore is increasing with 20% of the population expected to be over 65 by 2030. In addition to that, seniors are shifting to a non-traditional trend of living. They are moving away from their children or living singularly after retirement. However, they are going to encounter some degree of financial inadequacy due to limited funds after retirement. Therefore, a housing typology needs to be invented in order to house the needs of the seniors as well as provide an avenue for generating income for them. The commercial farming activity supports its residents in a socially and environmental sustainable environment, helping the older generation retain an active community involvement that mitigates against dementia and promotes self-esteem

The Problem with Food Security In addition to the aging population, Singapore has a high dependency on food imports (90% of food supplied is imported, 10% of food is home-grown) and poses a prominent issue of food security in our future. Currently, the Singapore Government’s Agrifood and Veterinary Authority (AVA) has in place strategies to diversify food sources and promoting the local production of leafy vegetables, fish and eggs through intensive agricultural technology. Therefore, Home Farm aims to enable residents to grow their own food to reduce the large amount of food imports to Singapore.

As said by SPARK Architect director Stephen Pimbley, “We are keen to see this project materialise at some point in the future. The concept is a realizable solution to real and pressing problems faced by many of the world’s growing cities." (SPARK Proposes Vertical Farming, 2014)

Concept of combining high density urban farming and senior citizens housing Spark designs model for Asian retirement communities that double as city farms [Digital image]. (n.d.). Retrieved April 9, 2016, from http://www.dezeen. com/2015/11/17/home-farm-spark-model-asian-retirement-housing-communities-city-farms/

57

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

SPARK Architects has came up with a conceptual research-based design proposal of high-density housing combined with urban farming for the seniors. By combining two typically separate realms into the same plot of land, it aims to integrate vertical aquaponics farming with residential living crafted amongst a garden environment in order to provide seniors with the opportunity of post-retirement employment.


Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore Super Kampong 2050:

III Sustainable Community Elements: Planned to be have 300 residential units within its complex, it has 2 unit types available to the residents – a two-bedroom apartment as well as a multi-generational apartment. Home Farm adapts a simple aquaponics system inspired by that which has been successfully used in Singapore by rooftop farming initiative ‘ComCrop’, which uses off-the-shelf components. At Home Farm, aquaponics have been adapted for use on the building facade. Soil-based farming is proposed for linear planting beds at the highest levels, as well as the rooftops of facilities buildings.

In terms of implementation of this scheme, Home Farm is planned to be operated by a ‘professional implementation team’. They will be overseeing all 3 farming operations – a soil-based farm, a soil-raised farm as well as an aquaponics-based vertical farm. These farms would be located around the housing complex on surfaces such as the facades, rooftops and on the ground datum. Overall, the concept of Home Farm benefits its community multi-dimensionally. This is through food security, social engagement, economics, place making, quality of living and healthcare provision.

Homes are designed to be within staggered curvilinear blocks that allows residents to have a visual connection to the ongoing farming activities happening internally. The building technique used were simple in its modular parts and materials for ease of construction.

Using aquaponics system integrated with staggered curvilinear residential units Spark designs model for Asian retirement communities that double as city farms [Digital image]. (n.d.). Retrieved April 9, 2016, from http://www.dezeen. com/2015/11/17/home-farm-spark-model-asian-retirement-housing-communities-city-farms/

58


Super Kampong 2050:

[4] Healthcare: Essential amenities such as healthcare centre provides the convenience for the seniors.

[1] Agricultural Centre: Food produced will be stored and later distributed in the agricultural centre.

[2] Food Produce Market: Residents are able to work in the market where they can sell the produce they have grown.

[6] Water Catchments: Water collected will be used for farming as well as household usage.

[5] Food Court / Social Centre: Residents gather on this ground level complex for social activities such as eating together in the food court.

[7] Residential Volume: 300 residential units with 2 unit types – a two-bedroom apartment and a multi-generational apartment.

59

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

[3] Central Plaza: Central green production plaza that allows the community to gather and interact with one another.


I Information and Figures: GENERAL YEAR OF COMPLETION: 2010 LOCATION: Singapore ADDRESS: 90 Yishun Central, 768828 TENURE: 99-year leasehold DEVELOPER: Alexandra Health Services ARCHITECT: CPG Consultants Pte Ltd PROPERTY TYPE: Hospital UNITS

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

4.2 CASE STUDY #7: KHOO TECK PUAT HOSPITAL

UNIT TYPE: 590 hospital beds FIGURES FAR: 3.18 GFA: 108,000 sqm OVERALL SITE AREA: 34,000 sqm HEIGHT: +/-40 m FLOORS: 10 storeys SOCIAL CONNECTIVITY Programmatic Diversity Public Access

URBAN CONNECTIVITY Walkability To Public Transport Public Communal Areas

DESIGN Applicable To Tropical Conditions

60


Super Kampong 2050:

II Concept:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Khoo Teck Puat Hospital (KTPH) has set a new benchmark in healthcare design with its ‘hospital in a garden’ concept. (Greenroofs.com Projects, 2010) Equipped with a 590-hospital bed general and acute care hospital, it aims to provide quality healthcare within a beautiful garden space to assist in the patients’ healing process. Mr. Liak Teng Lit, Chief Executive Officer of Alexandra Health Singapore was central in the planning and commissioning of the new general hospital. He said, "Our intention was to create a healing environment through gardens to engage the senses of sight, sound, scent and touch for our patients, visitors and staff. Today you can find a vibrant environment with thriving flora and fauna which the whole Yishun neighbourhood can enjoy." (Greenroofs.com Projects, 2010) There are 3 basic building blocks that overlook the central courtyard, and all the blocks have 5 levels of corridor planters and 81 balconies planter boxes, which are adjacent to 8 roof gardens. (Greenroofs. com Projects, 2010) Taking advantage of the site’s natural green surroundings, the hospital opens up to its adjacent lake (Yishun Pond), with a prominent sunken courtyard as the main node of the complex. The internal-looking waterscape as well as the garden landscape allows both staff and patient to have a connection to the external environment whilst being protected by the elements. Light and greenery penetrates to the lower levels through its porous façade treatment of light shelves and aluminium sunshades. Its façades are designed to be vertical gardens which adds to the visual sleekness of the building. In addition to that, its roof gardens and full-height glazing allows generous amount of daylighting and ventilation.

Known to be a 'hospital in a garden' KTPH aims to provide a green haven to assist patients in their healing process Khoo Teck Puat Hospital - RMJM. (n.d.). Retrieved April 10, 2016, from http:// www.rmjm.com/portfolio/khoo-teck-puat-hospital-singapore/

Members of the public involve themselves in community gardening at the rooftop of Khoo Teck Huat Hospital Volunteer at KTPH [Digital image]. (n.d.). Retrieved April 9, 2016, from https://www.ktph.com.sg/volunteer

61


[1] Selected Tropical Plants: To suit the local climate, tropical plants are the main choice for a sustainable ecosystem. Over 70% of the plants are indigenous, including many rare endangered species. Low-maintenance characteristics are a must.

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

III Sustainable Community Elements:

[2] Community in the Organic Rooftop Farm: Volunteers from the community contribute to the conservation efforts of producing 50 over varieties of edible fruits and vegetables at the organic rooftop farm. These include Chinese kale, corn, okra, and numerous fruit trees such as custard apple, papaya and banana. (Greenroofs.com Projects, 2010)

[5] Featured Green Walls: Aerial plants utilize drip-system filtering on its façade walls. These are installed as privacy screens in outdoor toilets. Outside, water plants in shallow streams serve as primary filtration of the recycled water intended for this bio-pond.

62

[3] Edible Roof Gardens: Each roof garden portrays interesting themes to keep them engaging and educational. For example, certain gardens carry edible species, while citrus plants flourishes at level 4’s podium and fruit-bearing trees were grown at the rooftops of level 8 and 10. With the fruits and edible vegetables grown in KTPH, this enables an organic source of herbs and spices for the hospital kitchen. (Greenroofs.com Projects, 2010)

[4] Integrated Irrigation System: Projected to have nearly 50% of savings from its water consumption, water from the adjacent Yishun Pond is channelled to the hospital’s irrigation system and treated for landscaping needs. Water wastage is prevented by installing rain sensors.


Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

KTPH has established the gardens in practical and self-sustaining ways. In addition to that, it has created gardens with nature and people in mind. Moreover, it has implemented energy and resource-efficient, and environmentally-friendly landscape features. Every opportunity is maximized for the creation of therapeutic green spaces. KTPH has landscape footprints at every floor to ensure patients and staff is constantly treated to garden views from different angles, and to provide for a calming surrounding that soothes and rejuvenates. (Greenroofs.com Projects, 2010)

63


Evaluation - Community Plot Matrix

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

5

64


Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

After studying all the case studies in Sections 4 and 5, a community plot matrix was created. In this matrix, all 7 case studies were compared and evaluated based on the following: 1. Learning Parameters: Strengths and Opportunity 2. Program Diversity Evaluation 3. Community Relationship Diagram 4. Community Matrix Evaluation 5. Self-sufficiency Matrix Evaluation

65


Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore Super Kampong 2050:

5.1 EVALUATION - COMMUNITY PLOT MATRIX

Oasia Downtown

Skyville @ Dawson

Learning Parameters: 1. 750% Green Plot Ratio

strength

2. Large openings for cross ventilated public sky gardens

opportunity

3. Change uniformity of form and diversity of functions within

1. Created a series of intermediate community-centric spaces rather than restricted only on the ground

2. Better its energy production and resource generation within the residental blocks by using PV on its facade

Programme Diversity Evaluation:

66

live

50%

90%

work

30%

-

meet

5%

5%

learn

-

-

eat

10%

-

play

5%

5%


Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

The Interlace

Sky Habitat

1. Creation of small but unique courtyards for residents

1. Intimate balcony space are created to humanize the megascale of the high-rise

2. Vibrant community life by differentiating indoor and outdoor spaces

2. Interconnection of the 2 vertical communities changes how a neighbourhood could be contained

3. Stacking of building blocks can change in its form and configuration as its build up

3. The bridge which acts as a 'community infrastructure' for both the sky towers could be connected to more floors rather than only strictly 3 levels horizontally

85%

85%

-

-

5%

10%

-

-

5%

-

5%

5%

67


Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore Super Kampong 2050:

5.2 EVALUATION - COMMUNITY PLOT MATRIX

Oasia Downtown Community Relationship Diagram:

Skyville @ Dawson

E

P

roof

live

meet M

play

M

Community Matrix Evaluation: Human scale Internal accessibility (for residents) External accessibility (for public) Diversity of community programs

Self-Sufficiency Matrix Evaluation: Food production Energy production Water production 68

M

live

live

live

P

M

P

live

live

live

M

P

M

live

live

live

P

M

P

live

live

live

live

meet

ground

P

M

live M

M M

M


Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

The Interlace

Sky Habitat

L L

L

play L L

L L

play L

L

L

eat

L

eat

meet

live

M

live

live

M

live

L

L

L

L

live

L L

L

M

eat L

meet

live

L

meet L

L L

play

play

69


Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore Super Kampong 2050:

5.3 EVALUATION - COMMUNITY PLOT MATRIX

Kampong Admiralty

Home Farm by SPARK

Learning Parameters:

strength

opportunity

1. Strengthening a collective identity with inter-generational social bonding with its mixed-use programs

1. Self-sufficiency in food production by using the help of the community

2. Community park and rooftop farming on the sky decks to bring the young and old together

2. Integrating various types of farms together to produce food

3. Build up residential density in the same plot area

3. Increase the number of small pocket gathering spaces within residents units and cluster them together for a better integration on a neighbourly scale

Programme Diversity Evaluation: live

70

60%

50%

work

-

20%

meet

10%

5%

learn

-

-

eat

20%

20%

play

10%

5%


Super Kampong 2050:

Legend: PROGRAMS live/ work

1. Promoting green community living through their edible roof gardens 2. Involving not just hospital staffs and patients, but also the district's community in their farming activities

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Khoo Teck Puat Hospital

Live: Place of residential and/or temporary living space. Work: Place where people are engaged in a job role to earn a living.

M

Meet: Place where people gather to communicate and/or engage in discussion

L

Learn: Place where people are educated by acquiring knowledge - either by studying or being taught by someone

E

Eat: Place where people produce+consume food

P

Play: Place where people are engaged in a physical activity with others for interactive enjoyment

CONNECTIVITY

2. Increase biodiversity in the food system to create a close-looped sustainable system (fishes could help filter the water for the plants etc.)

Close connectivity (< 2mins walk) Vertical connectivity (lifts, stairs) Medium connectivity ( 2-5 mins walk)

Definitions: Human Scale: Building spaces that fit well for people to interact within the environment.

70% 5% 5% 15% 5%

Internal accessibility (for residents): How easy and it is for residents to gain direct access to community areas. External accessibility (for public): How easy and it is for the public to gain direct access to community areas. Diversity of programs: Amount of different programs for community interaction/bonding. Food Production: Ability to be self-sufficient in food production within its built environment. Energy Production: Ability to be self-sufficient in energy production within its built environment. Water Production: Ability to be self-sufficient in water production within its built environment. 71


Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore Super Kampong 2050:

5.4 EVALUATION - COMMUNITY PLOT MATRIX

Kampong Admiralty

Home Farm by SPARK

Community Relationship Diagram:

L

live

P

meet

play

meet + eat meet + eat

Community Matrix Evaluation: Human scale Internal accessibility (for residents) External accessibility (for public) Diversity of community programs

Self-Sufficiency Matrix Evaluation: Food production Energy production Water production 72

L

L

eat L

L

live

P

L

learn

eat L

meet

L

L L

L

meet

L


Super Kampong 2050:

PROGRAMS live/ work

work

P

eat work work

Work: Place where people are engaged in a job role to earn a living. Meet: Place where people gather to communicate and/or engage in discussion

L

Learn: Place where people are educated by acquiring knowledge - either by studying or being taught by someone

E

Eat: Place where people produce+consume food

P

Play: Place where people are engaged in a physical activity with others for interactive enjoyment

CONNECTIVITY

work work L

Live: Place of residential and/or temporary living space.

M

work

M

E

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Legend:

Khoo Teck Puat Hospital

Close connectivity (< 2mins walk) Vertical connectivity (lifts, stairs) Medium connectivity ( 2-5 mins walk)

Definitions: Human Scale: Building spaces that fit well for people to interact within the environment. Internal accessibility (for residents): How easy and it is for residents to gain direct access to community areas. External accessibility (for public): How easy and it is for the public to gain direct access to community areas. Diversity of programs: Amount of different programs for community interaction/bonding. Food Production: Ability to be self-sufficient in food production within its built environment. Energy Production: Ability to be self-sufficient in energy production within its built environment. Water Production: Ability to be self-sufficient in water production within its built environment. 73


Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

5.5 PROGRAMME DIVERSITY EVALUATION

In the previous section, diversity of programs for the community in each case study were evaluated. These programmes would be used as a benchmark for the proposed programmes in this thesis. Each project would have a percentage of programme allocation according to the different mixes to cultivate a community spirit within its individual built environment. There are 6 broad programmes classified to foster a strong community - these are live, work, meet, learn, eat and play. With these definitions in mind, the average figures in the case studies show that the program allocation for all case studies were pointing towards 'live' (60%) and 'work' (17%) as a higher weightage. Smaller programmes played a supportive role to both 'live' and 'work'. These programmes were the 'eat' (10%), 'meet' (7%) and play (6%). From this evaluation, the average percentage allocated to each programs would be used as a benchmark for my project's program allocation. It would allow one to envision what would be essential in the year 2050 towards the direction of community-centeredness within our built-environments.

74

Live refers to describing a residential apartment and/or a temporary living space. Work refers to describing a place where people are engaged in a job role to earn a living for themselves. Meet refers to describing a place where people gather to communicate and engage in active discussion with one another. Learn refers to describing a place where people are educated by acquiring knowledge - either by studying or being taught by someone. Eat refers to describing a place where food is produced and consumed. Play refers to describing a place where people are engaged in a physical activity with others for interactive enjoyment.


Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

live

work

meet

learn

eat

play

50%

30%

5%

-

10%

5%

Oasia Downtown

90%

-

5%

-

-

5%

Skyville @ Dawson

85%

-

5%

-

5%

5%

The Interlace

85%

-

10%

-

-

5%

Sky Habitat

60%

-

10%

-

20%

10%

Kampong Admiralty

50%

20%

5%

-

20%

5%

Home Farm by SPARK

-

70%

5%

5%

15%

5%

Khoo Teck Puat Hospital

60%

17%

7%%

0%

10%

6%

AVERAGE

75


Building a Self-Sufficient Food Community

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

6

76


Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

In the year 2050, it is recognised that our reliance on external food sources based on market forces may not be adequate in the future. In order to aim towards a self-sufficient food production and consumption in Singapore, it needs to think of ways of combine farming innovations with its expertise in its built environment locally. This section would explore this issue in detail and come up with possible food technologies that would be implemented onto a choosen site.

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Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

6.1 TOWARDS LOCAL FOOD RELIANCE IN SINGAPORE Food Reliance on Imports in Singapore As a land scarce nation with minimal natural agriculture resources, Singapore relies predominantly on food imports. (Ludher, 2015) Although we are relying currently on 90% of food imports, Singapore’s success in its food agenda is largely attributed to its smart governance of food, led by its food authority, the Agri-food and Veterinary Authority of Singapore (AVA). Singapore relies on certain countries more than others on its food sources. For example, more than 80% of chicken in Singapore is sourced from Malaysia and Brazil and approximately 75% of Singapore’s fish is from Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. (Ludher, 2015) Decline of local food production Due to industrialization in the late 1970s, small farms, mostly in kampong settings, were relocated to make way for new towns with high density housing and industry. In the 1980-90s, farms were resettled to designated farm sites or Agro-technology Parks in the North and Northeast of Singapore. Food production gradually declined from the past until today (seen as per figure below). Farm lands gradually shrunk, and by 2014, only 1% of land, approximately 700 ha, was used for farming. There are only 117 coastal fish culture farms, 5 poultry farms, 56 vegetable farms and 9 land-based food fish farms. (Ludher, 2015)

increase and other factors. Identifying this issue would allow us to look towards the need to reduce the percentage of food spoilage and by recycling the by-products more wisely and effectively. An innovation to reuse food waste more meaningfully is currently in research. Progressive research is done on the conversion of homogenous food waste from manufacturing to other edible products. For example, this is done by converting soy bean waste to Okara for human consumption and the fish trimmings can be used for the rearing of fishes. Local production targets in the future The Singapore government has set local production targets for the 3 key food items Singapore produces, namely leafy vegetables, fish, and hen shell eggs. As land is limited, productivity improvements must come through an increase of our food harvest locally as well as a reduction of our waste generated. The solution could point us towards using innovative technological means.

Food waste reduction in the future According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), nearly a third of all food is spoiled, lost or wasted before it is consumed. According to the statistics, Singapore generated approximately 788,600 tonnes of food waste - equivalent to approximately 130kg of food waste per capita in 2014. Of this, 13% was recycled. (Ludher, 2015) Food waste has increased by 48% since 2005, and it is expected to continue to grow due to population

Singapore local food production, 1970-2013 (AVA) Ludher, E. (2015, September 1). A Case study of Singapore’s Smart Governance of Food. Retrieved April 15, 2016, from http://www.clc.gov.sg/documents/books/ Smart_food_governance_paper-SG_case_study_FINAL_Sept 28_3.pdf

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Super Kampong 2050:

Self-sufficient Food production and consumption in the future

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

It is recognised that our reliance on external food sources based on market forces may not be adequate in the future. In order to aim towards a self-sufficient food production and consumption in Singapore, it needs to think of ways of combine farming innovations with its expertise in its built environment. This can be done in green buildings, parks, biodiversity and logistical spaces etc. There needs to be a creation of a seamless integration with green leisure spaces to food production. Rather than confining ourselves to the traditional way of large land area needed for farming, farms could be de-centralized to several parts of Singapore that carries multiple functions of production, consumption, packaging, processing, logistical transport etc. For example, intensive farming in intra-urban spaces can be done in spaces such as between housing, roads, retail and educational spaces whilst still primarily functioning in their main programs. These spaces would thus provide avenues for an increase in local food production even with our limited land area. Therefore, in order to achieve a self-sufficient Vertical Food Kampong, food products is proposed to be produced right where it is consumed while integrating programs together â&#x20AC;&#x201C; creating a sustainable food production and consumption cycle for the future.

Consumption, import and local farm production (Jan to Dec 2014) Working Together as One - ava.gov.sg. (n.d.). Retrieved April 14, 2016, from https://www.ava.gov.sg/docs/default-source/publication/annual-report/ava-20142015-ar

Targets for key food items to be produced locally (AVA) Ludher, E. (2015, September 1). A Case study of Singaporeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Smart Governance of Food. Retrieved April 15, 2016, from http://www.clc.gov.sg/documents/books/ Smart_food_governance_paper-SG_case_study_FINAL_Sept 28_3.pdf

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Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

6.2 FOOD PRODUCTION & CONSUMPTION IN SINGAPORE 2015 vs 2050 FOOD PRODUCTION

Super Kampong 2050:

poultry

2015

2050 (projected)

seafood

vegetables

eggs

Meat - Poultry (%)

Seafood (%)

Vegetables (%)

Hen shell eggs (%)

2%

8%

12%

25%

Meat - Poultry ((%)

Seafood (%)

Vegetables (%)

Hen shell eggs (%)

10%

50%

95%

80%

2015 vs 2050 FOOD CONSUMPTION 34kg per capita

23kg per capita

96kg per capita

17kg per capita

56kg per capita

56kg per capita

275kg per capita

17kg per capita

2015

2050 (projected)

% of key food items from overseas imports % of key food items produced in Singapore __% represents food items produced locally (Each graphical icon represents +/- 5 kg per capita)

Comparison of Food production and consumption in 2015 and projection towards 2050 Working Together as One - ava.gov.sg. (n.d.). Retrieved April 14, 2016, from https://www.ava.gov.sg/docs/default-source/ publication/annual-report/ava-2014-2015-ar

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Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Food Production and Consumption in Singapore The pattern of food consumption from 2015 to 2050 is projected to increase due to an increase in population and eating habits. In 2015, Singapore is heavily relying 90% on its daily food consumption on food imports and the other 10% on local production. Breaking it down further, local production mainly consist of poultry (2%), seafood (8%), vegetables (12%) and eggs (25%). A change in our food production is needed that incorporates a more sustainable way of living. Thus, in 2050, a proposed projection of food produced locally should increase for poultry (10%), seafood (50%), vegetables (95%) and eggs (80%). This proposal forsees Singapore to aim towards cultivating a self-sufficient food community that embodies healthy living and incorporating future food technologies islandwide.

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Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

6.3 A SHIFT IN FOOD FARMING

Super Kampong 2050:

Traditional Farming

80% soil

80% of traditional farming methods uses soil to produce crops

50% harvest

50% of crops planted are not harvest due to poor monitoring and external factors

80% water

80% of fresh water is used for soilbased farming (of which 50-80% is lost to evaporation and surface runoff)

2.3 million kg

2.3 million kg of pesticides are used worldwide that leads to high risk of food contaminations

2400km

On average, food travels 2400km to 4000km and takes 2-3 days to get to our plate, increasing its greenhouse gas emissions

Sustainable Farming

0% soil

0% of soil use with vertical farming. Recycled agriculturral waste will be used instead

90% harvest

90% of crops planted are harvest with proper monitoring within a controlled environment

5% water

95-98% less water is used for vertical farming as compared to open field agriculture by utilizing aquaponics and aeroponics method of farming

0% pesticides

Architected to keep crittersout, the contained and controlled environment reduces the need for toxic and costly pesticides

local

local vertical farming reduces the need for long distance transport of food produce and diminishes the transport's use of fossil fuel

Comparison of traditional farming and future farming methods Vertical Farming Infographics. (n.d.). Retrieved May 05, 2016, from https://vertical-farming.net/vertical-farming/vertical-farming-infographics/

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Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

A shift of traditional farming to modern sustainable methods of food farming The infographics show the differences between traditional farming and sustainable farming. The year 2050 sees the world, including Singapore to switch its mindset on its ways of producing food due to the scarcity of land and natural resources. Vertical farming is able to yield better results to create a sustainable food production. The reduction of soil usage as well as to monitor its harvest in a controlled environment allows one to obtain optimum produce for consumption. Moreover, 95-98% of water is used for vertical farming by adopting aquaponics and aeroponics as sustainable methods of farming. Moreover, by producing food locally, it reduces food import and we would see a reduction in our carbon footprint.

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Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

6.4 LOCATION OF COMMUNITY FARMS IN SINGAPORE Sky Greens Location: 200 Lim Chu Kang Lane 3, 718804 Area: undisclosed Method of Farming: Vertical Farming "Sky Greens is worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s first low carbon, hydraulic driven vertical farm. It uses green urban solutions to achieve production of safe and fresh vegetables, using minimal land, water and energy resources."

K

Bollywood Veggies Bollywood Veggies

North West

Location: 100 Neo Tiew Road, 719026 Area: -

South West

Method of Farming: Soil-based farming "The farm is run as sustainably as possible with no pesticides or fertilizers used on site, effectively making it a planet-friendly operation."

Cen

Enabling Village Location: 20 Lengkok Bahru, 159053 Area: 3,000 sqft Method of Farming: Indoor UV lab & Recycled oil containers "Enabling Village has a food garden that is served and are supported by people with diverse abilities, making it a space for valued collaborations."

84

Open


Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Location: 90 Yishun Central, 768828 Area: 90,000 sqft

Khoo Teck Puat Hospital

Method of Farming: Soil-based Rooftop Farming "Volunteers from the community contribute to the conservation efforts of producing 50 over varieties of edible fruits and vegetables at the organic rooftop farm."

North East

South East

ntral

n Farm Community

Location: *SCAPE @ 2 Orchard Link Area: 6,000 sqft Method of Farming: Vertical Rooftop Farming "The farm can produce 8-10 times more than traditional farms over the same area by using vertical farming techniques."

Comcrop

Location: 130E Minden Road 248819 Area: 35,000 sqft Method of Farming: Soil-based Farming "Encourages growing food at under-utilized spaces, and believes that growing food re-connects urbanites to nature, conserves natural resources, and cultivates a sense of community."

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Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

6.5 LOCATION OF COMMUNITY FARMS IN SINGAPORE

North West

North East

South West

Super Kampong 2050:

South East Central

Community Farms in Singapore growing leafy vegetables Crowd-sourcing where Singapore residents grow food. (2016). Retrieved May 05, 2016, from http://foodscapecollective.org/crowdsource_maps/

North West

North East

South West South East Central

Community Farms in Singapore growing herbs Crowd-sourcing where Singapore residents grow food. (2016). Retrieved May 05, 2016, from http://foodscapecollective.org/crowdsource_maps/

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Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

North West

North East

South West South East Central

Community Farms in Singapore growing microgreens Crowd-sourcing where Singapore residents grow food. (2016). Retrieved May 05, 2016, from http://foodscapecollective.org/crowdsource_maps/

North West

North East

South West South East Central

Community Farms in Singapore growing mushrooms Crowd-sourcing where Singapore residents grow food. (2016). Retrieved May 05, 2016, from http://foodscapecollective.org/crowdsource_maps/

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1,000 community gardens 20,000 residents engaged

Chart18% Title

farming for cooking

02

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

6.6 MOTIVATIONS FOR COMMUNITY FARMS

47%

farming for personal interest

17% farming for eating

03 01

11% farming for health

04

06

personal interest eating

2.5%

farming to save money

education

Survey showing the reasons why Singaporeans are starting to grow their own food

05

cooking

(physical and mental)

4.5% farming for education

health (physical and mental) save money

Crowd-sourcing where Singapore residents grow food. (2016). Retrieved May 05, 2016, from http://foodscapecollective.org/crowdsource_maps/

There's an increasing number of community initiatives involving themselves in growing plants for consumption. As of today, there are close to 1,000 community gardens involving 20,000 residents. Moreover, many of these residents are starting to grow their own food in their own balcony, backyard, rooftops and corridors. Collective urban farmers made themselves known on an online community called 'Foodscape Collective', where they can share with others where are they growing their food, what type of food they are growing as well as their motivations for picking up gardening. As seen in the figure above, most people start growing their own food because of curiosity and personal interest. Others do it for personal consumption, ease of cooking, mental and physical health, educating their young children as well as to save money. These reasons point us to the need to continue encouraging and cultivating a bigger food farming community in Singapore.

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Super Kampong 2050:

Types of food grown in Singapore's Community Farms Vegetables | Harvest Time: 14 - 60 days

tomatoes

sweet potato dou miao

lettuce

lady's finger

chilli

cucumber

eggplant

heirloom

kai lan

kale

kang kong

mushroom

spring onion

spinach

rocket

radish

pumpkin

pepper

peppermint

pea

wheatgrass xiao bai cai

Microgreens/Herbs | Harvest Time: 14 days

chives

rosemary

coriander

curry leaves

sweet potato leaves

basil

dill

ginger

indian borage

lemongrass

pandan leaves

parsley

thyme

Fruits | Harvest Time: 9 - 12 months

aloe vera

starfruit

banana

guava

strawberry

lime

lychee

mulberry

papaya

passionfruit pomegranate

winter melon

89

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

beetroot


Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

6.7 FOOD TECHNOLOGY 1: SKY GREENS SINGAPORE With a vision of becoming the leading solution provider for an integrated, sustainable and green urban agriculture technology, Sky Greens is the world’s first carbon, hydraulic driven vertical farm. (Sky Greens, 2014) This commitment towards innovative green urban solution allows consistent re-invention in low carbon footprint agri-tech to fulfilling food supply security and food safety needs. Agri-Food & Veterinary Authority of Singapore (AVA) ensures food supply resilience to a land-scarce city-state such as Singapore. As said by AVA, "Given Singapore's limited land resources with its various competing needs, it is important for Singapore to intensify agriculture land use, and to raise the productivity and capability of our farms." (Vertical farming invention, 2015) Currently, Singapore produces 200 tons of vegetables per hectare per year. With the implementation of Sky Green, they are able to produce more than 1,000 tons of vegetables per hectare per year – that’s equivalent to currently producing 4% of the total vegetable consumption in Singapore. In addition to that, vegetables in Sky Greens take about 4 hours for the daily harvest to hit the shelves in supermarkets, as compared to imported vegetables which take up to 3 weeks. Mr Jack Ng, inventor and founder of Sky Greens, has shown that there is a need to innovate green solutions such as a highrise vertical farming system. By implementing this system, minimal water, energy as well as land resources are used to achieve a production of fresh vegetables for everyone. Vertical Farming – Sky Greens Vegetables Sky Greens harvest tropical leafy vegetables which are grown and harvested locally and daily. Such vegetables are shanghai green, xiao bai cai, Chinese cabbage, lettuce and kang kong just to name a few. As the business plans for expansion in the future, Sky Greens intend to provide higher quality and fresher green produce to their end users.

Minister for National Development, Mr Lawrence Wong and Minister of State, Ministry of National Development, Dr Koh Poh Koon at Sky Greens Vertical Farm Visit by Minister for National Development, Mr Lawrence Wong [Digital image]. (2016, March 15). Retrieved April 14, 2016, from http://www.skygreens. com/visit-by-minister-for-national-development-mr-lawrence-wong/

Components of the Sky Greens Vertical Farming System 1. Patented vertical farming system: Sky Greens patented vertical farming system consists of rotating tiers of growing troughs mounted on an A-shape aluminium frame. Going to as high as 9 metres, it is able to accommodate different green food. With a rotational system, all plants would be able to receive ample water, nutrients and sunlight. 2. High yield: Harvests 10 times more per unit land area than traditional methods. 3. High quality & flexibility: Controlled environment to achieve optimal quality and safety. Modular structures are highly customisable and scalable according to what is needed. 5. Low energy usage: Natural sunlight is mainly used, and 40W electricity (equivalent to one light bulb) is needed to power a 9m vertical farming system. 6. Low water usage: With the plants irrigated and fertilised using a flooding method, there is no need for a sprinkler system – reducing electric and water wastage. 7. Low maintenance: Built within a controlled environment, systems would require low maintenance and low manpower dependency. Soil and Food Wastage Recycling

Sky Greens Solution farm in Lim Chu Kang houses 1,000 vertical farming towers About Sky Greens. (2014). Retrieved April 13, 2016, from http://www. skygreens.com/about-skygreens/#

90

There are strong demand for organic fertiliser and soil recycling from Singapore farms. Sky Greens soil and food waste recycling system features shorter processing time, lower energy usage and more cost efficiency. This system is part of the business’ effort to provide a 360 degree urban solution and enable cities to self-sustain an urban farming ecology with minimum reliance on imported fertilisers and resources. (Sky Greens, 2014)


Super Kampong 2050:

6.8 FOOD TECHNOLOGY 2: AEROFARM, NEW JERSEY

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

AeroFarms is a commercial leader in indoor farming, which is a fully-controlled farming system without the need for sun or soil. The exploration by AeroFarms aims to provide fresh produce to city dwellers and at the same time, cut down on the energy demands needed via transportation, traditional methods of farming as well as water usage. For example, aeroponic system uses 95% less water than traditional field farming techniques. This method of farming enables faster harvesting cycles, predicable results, less environmental impact as well as increase in its safety for food consumption. (AeroFarms, 2016) Aerofarms is currently growing over 100 different types of greens. Marketed to have highly customizable configurations with their module system, these modules would serve as building blocks that can be stacked both vertically and horizontally. According to co-founder of AeroFarms Marc Oshima, he said, “aeroponics is several times more efficient than growing crops in soil… we can take that same seed in the field that may take 30 to 45 days, and grow it in 12 to 16 days. That would add up to an annualized basis of up to 30 crop harvest a year.” (AeroFarms, 2016)

Smart Data System

(top) Constant monitoring of food grow done by plat scientist within an optimal growth environment (right) AeroFarms is a commercial leader in indoor farming, which is a fully-controlled farming system without the need for sun or soil AeroFarms - Our Technology. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2016, from http:// aerofarms.com/technology/

The indoor farming system consist of an integrated monitoring progress of these food. It is configured according to over 30,000 data points, (AeroFarms, 2016) specific to every harvest respectively. As compared to traditional agriculture, minimal risk is also realized due to constant reviewing, testing and improving of the growing systems by the plant scientists. In addition to that, constant monitoring of all the macro- and micro-nutrients needed by the plants is provided by the program to allow an optimal environment for the plants to thrive in. By undergoing this integrated system, the growth of the seed in a controlled environment takes half the time as compared to traditional means of farming which leads to an increase productivity per square foot by about 75 times. This engineered process of growing our food in the future allows us to determine the size, shape, texture, colour, flavour and nutrition needed for consumption with a high amount of precision. 91


Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

6.9 FOOD TECHNOLOGY 3: MIT OPEN AGRICULTURE

Set up of OpenAG at the MIT Media Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, United States Open Agriculture Initiative [Farming/Agriculture]. (n.d.). Retrieved April 2, 2016, from https://www.facebook.com/openag/photos

“OpenAG”, also known as Open Agriculture, is an initiative at the MIT Media Lab that aims at bringing out the farmer in everyone by creating a healthier, more engaging, and more inventive food system. By breaking down the stigma that food production can only be done by farmers, an open-source ecosystem of food technologies help to promote the idea that anyone can produce their own food. (Open Agriculture, 2016) OpenAG’s Food Computer solution was inspired by director Caleb Harper’s trip to Fukushima in Japan where the nuclear disaster happened. Due to the radiation that poisoned and damaged the land, it was uncertain whether food grown in traditional outdoor agriculture would still be safe for consumption. Thus, the idea for the Food Computer came about to solve the problem of the uncontrollable parameters of the outdoor climate. The Food Computer is a controlled-environment agriculture technology platform that uses robotic systems and technology to control and monitor climate, energy, and plant growth inside of a specialized growing chamber. (Open Agriculture, 2016) This system is able to track the operational energy, mineral and water consumption throughout the growth period. One can think of each specific set of conditions as a ‘climate recipe’ – elements that produce unique results in the phenotypes of the plants. Food Computers are made in variety of sizes for people to get their hands on this new technology. Three sizes are in the midst of development from small to large scale – the Personal Food Computer, Food Server and the Food Datacentre. (Open Agriculture, 2016) As the Food Computer sets itself as a leader in giving everyone the opportunity to grow their own food, the technology programmed within the Food Computers is a way forward to understanding how food can be easily produced in the future. 92

Fresh green produce harvested by researchers at MIT Media Lab A Personal Food Computer allows people to experiment on this new food technology Open Agriculture Initiative [Farming/Agriculture]. (n.d.). Retrieved April 2, 2016, from https://www.facebook.com/openag/photos


Super Kampong 2050:

6.10 FOOD TECHNOLOGY 4: PLANT-BASED MEAT

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

VS

Beyond Meat: Understanding what goes into plant-based protein meat Beyond Meat: What is Meat [Go Beyond meat with 100% plant-protein]. (2015). Retrieved May 6, 2016, from http://www.beyondmeat.com/what-is-meat

Animal agriculture has been the leading cause of deforestation, water consumption and pollution. Moreover, it carries more responsibility than transportation industry in its production of greenhouse gases. It has contributed greatly to species extinction, topsoil erosion and other environmental factors. (Andersen, & Kuhn, 2015) Looking towards the future, a produce is being invented called â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Beyond Meatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; that has a mission of replacing animal protein with plant protein. It aims at improving human health, making a positive impact to climate change, conserving natural resources and respecting animal welfare. Benefits of Beyond Meat 1. Improve human health: We are dedicated to creating, and constantly refining, products that pack high levels of clean nutrients using safe, high-quality ingredients like non-GMO soy and pea protein and eliminating the use of harmful additives. 2. Conserving Natural Resources: Natural resources can be conserved by firstly reducing the amount of pollutants created by industries such as factory farms. Efficient ways should be created to utilize our finite natural resources wisely and reduce unnecessary waste.

Creation of plant-based Meat Founded by CEO Ethan Brown in 2009, these plantbased meat products are created from a mixture of soy protein, pea protein isolates, yeast and other ingredients. (Brown, 2013) Beyond Meat products were made available to consumers in 2013 all nationwide in the States. Three such products available are Beyond Chicken, Beyond Beef as well as the Beast Burger beef patty. For the Beyond Chicken product, it was marketed as a healthier alternative to chicken meat. The ingredients were mixed and fed into a food extrusion machine which cooks the mixture while forcing it through a specially designed mechanism that uses steam, pressure, and cold water to form the product's chicken-like texture. (Brown, 2013) The sustainable food creation of Beyond Meat (seen below) allows them to make the world a better place starting with one delicious meal at a time. (Beyond Meat, 2015)

3. Improving Animal Welfare: Animal treatment would be improved by raising awareness of its unsustainable ways of animals in our food chain production. This could be done by working together across all industries to decrease our reliance on animal protein. 93


Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

6.11 PROPOSED FOOD PRODUCTION CYCLE IN KEPPEL

SUNLIGHT

Solar PV Cells

Super Kampong 2050:

FOOD PRODUCTION

Vertical Farming *275kg per capita

WATER SUPPLY NETWORK

rainwater

desalination

NEWater

catchment/storage

Aquaponics Farming *275kg per capita

vegetables

vegetables

pulley module

plants filter water for fish

water supply

fishes/shrimps/yabbies

water tank collection

fish waste

drip irrigation

microbes & worms

water + nutrients pump

convert fertilizer for plants

Light Farming *275kg per capita

Aeroponics Farming *275kg per capita

bio water treatment constructed wetlands

bio-retention swales

vegetables

vegetables

UV light

aeroponic plant bed

3 recipes LED light

water supply

plant cells

water + nutrients pulses mist

water + nutrients pump waste water collected waste water filtered filter

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Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

CLEAN ENERGY PRODUCTION

Plant-based Egg *17kg per capita

Bio Mass Plant Energy Generator

plant-based egg selected plant proteins mixing plant proteins processing

Waste Produced *145kg per capita

Plant-based Meat *56kg per capita

plant-based meat selected soy proteins

Food Waste (pre-consumed) Food Waste (post-consumed) Human Waste

pea protein isolates mixing soy and pea proteins processing

FOOD DISTRIBUTION Building (Market Food Hall)

Plant-based Rice

*54kg per capita

Unit (Communal Kitchen) Object (Pop-up food store)

plant-based rice selected yeast components vertical farming technology

Farm Pods Building (Urban farm pod) Unit (Indoor farm pod)

processing

Object (Plug-in farm pod)

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Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

6.12 FOOD PRODUCTION IN KEPPEL Community

input

FOOD

Super Kampong 2050:

farm-to-table concept

WATER

ENERGY

Rainwater harvesting

PV Solar Cells Biomass Plant

result

Grow to share

Grow to retail

Grow to prepare

Grow to educate

Future of Food and the Community As we look towards 2050, the notion of a self-sufficient community is inevitable with a hyperdensed population. There is a growing need to re-think how we should live and sustain ourselves within our future urban environment. In the previous section of understanding principles to build a Vertical Kampong, the kampong was used as a model to understand the importance of living collectively as a community. As seen in the kampong, villagers were able to live self-sufficiently with the concept of "reaping what you have sow" from the earth within their community. Self-sufficiency is seen as the ability to capture or produce energy efficiently according to what a community is consuming. The 2050 Vertical Food Kampong is thus envisioned to be a self-sufficient town of its own. Enabling the Keppel community to actively participate in producing what they consume, the community would involve themselves to participate and contribute collectively towards 96

a common vision of building a sustaining vertical food kampong. Communities would be envisioned to look after themselves and be self-sustainable in order to eliminate external threats. Additionally, by implementing smaller self-sufficient village sizes, it allows everyone to feel empowered, seen and heard. People would therefore begin participating in making decisions that would affect their lives and that of their community on a transparent basis. The future ties of food and the community would be considered as one entity intertwined together. Over the last 2 to 3 years, there are more than 80 plots with fruits, herbs and vegetables that have sprung up not only in private and public housing estates, but also in eateries, malls, schools and offices as urban farming all around Singapore. As reported in the Straits Times, people are cultivating an increasing interest in growing their own food. He says: "Chefs and homeowners want fresh produce for their kitchens. Companies use the gardens to help their staff relieve stress, schools use them as a tool to teach teamwork or as part of commu-


Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

nity service when they get their students to take the harvests to the poor. Moreover, it is also a good way to promote community bonding and for neighbours to get to know one another." (straitstimes, 2015) Locally grown food products is seen to bring benefits to the food supply chain as well as a way of self-sufficient living. As such, there are 6 main spheres of self-sufficient living - Water, Energy, Food, Shelter, Finances and Community. The Vertical Food Kampong aims to have Food harvesting as the main arm of self-sufficiency, while Energy production and Water Collection would be supporting components within the Community. Thus, the Keppel community would have to work together to ensure that their neighbourhood is self-sufficient with their active participation and contribution to their food cycle.

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The year 2050 would require mankind to look towards self-sufficiency in their families, within their communities. The notion of working towards a self-sufficient food kampong is inevitable with a hyperdensed population. The Vertical Kampong aims to have Food harvesting as the main arm of self-sufficiency, while Energy production and Water Collection would be supporting components to build the Kampong Community. Ways of food harvesting in the future would rely on innovative and technological ways to better the food production process. As such, principles of building a self-sufficient community is as per below:

PRINCIPLES OF BUILDING A FOOD COMMUNITY

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

6.13 PRINCIPLES OF BUILDING A COMMUNITY FOOD KAMPONG

Food Harvesting

Solar Energy

Creation of Urban-scale Food Space: Green spaces will double up its function as food production hubs. Parks will grow edible fruits while bridge walkways as well as circulatory areas will harvest edible plants for the community.

Food Consumption Cycle: To cultivate a closed-loop system, food produced will be sold to a centralized market food hall or an online food cloud for purchasing. Food consumption spaces would also incorporate communal kitchen where food will be cooked and shared amongst the residents.

Food Production Cycle: Modular building blocks of 'farming pods' would provide various avenues to activate the community to involve themselves in growing and monitoring their own produce. These building blocks would be incorporated into community spaces.

Waste-to-Energy Plant: Agricultural and human waste would be a source of energy for Keppel. Waste-to-Energy plants would be incorporated into the living areas in order for energy to be created and supplied to the community.

Primary (i.e. main arm)

98

Moving towards the supply of clean energy, PV cells would be incorporated onto its roofscapes, creating a solar canopy as well as integrated on water to create resourceful 'Energy Islands'. Secondary (i.e. supporting arm)

Rainwater Harvesting

Since Keppel is located along the coastal area, rainwater harvesting will be incorporated into the design. Storage systems will be expanded on existing waterbodies and the water collected will be distilled to become a useful source of water for the community. Secondary (i.e. supporting arm)


1

Building the 2050 High-rise: 3D Urban Framework Sky Transfer Networks connected to Main Arteries Accessible Wayfinding Skywards Program Mix-up Duplicating Facilities into the Sky

2

Building a Vertical Kampong: Sense of togetherness Emotional Connection Smaller Village Size Shared Food Garden Space Sky Village Social Space Community Park Informal Spaces

3

Building a Food Community: Creation of Urban-scale Food Space Food Production Cycle Food Consumption Cycle Waste-to-Energy Plant Solar Energy Rainwater Harvesting 99

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

From the research done in the previous sections, a set of parameter principles would inform us on how Singapore should be re-thought, re-planned and revolutionized for 2050. This section features the summarized methodology for designing the ideal Vertical Food Kampong. These principles were crafted out through researching on relevant articles and information, as well as studying and critiquing the case studies chosen in this thesis. These principles would serve as a guide for the design stage in the next section. Its aim is to act as a checklist to respond closely to the hyperdensed environment in Keppel while creating a community-centric kampong that aims towards self-sufficiency.

Super Kampong 2050:

6.14 SUMMARIZED PARAMETER PRINCIPLES


Application to Keppel Labrador Site

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

7

100


Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Before building a self-sufficient kampong community, the Consumption level of Keppel in the year 2050 needs to be taken into consideration. From various trending statistics from present years, a predicted forecast of food, energy and water consumption is listed below in relation to the proposed hyper-densed population size in the whole Keppel Site - 45,000 people. In addition to that, knowing that Keppel would need to sustain this amount of people in the year 2050, my project aims to house a hyper-densed population of 5,000 within 0.07km2. This figure was selected as a benchmark as it is able to create 40 kampongs to house 120 residents within each kampong. This benchmark sets itself to become a hyperdensed vertical food kampong which aims toward food self-sufficiency as well as to foster a new food community.

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Super Kampong 2050:

In 2050, Singapore will encompass a population of 10.7 million people. Keppel is imagined to be one of the most hyperdensed areas in Singapore. The Keppel Labrador site would be seen as the potential ground to develop living spaces that allows one to thrive in a hyperdensed environment whilst being self-sufficient. Thus, my thesis would use this site as an urban testbed to develop a vertical food kampong for its community. In order to create a community-centric environment, Keppel's mobility network will remain largely along the main arteries and the parameters of the site. This diverse multi-strata mobility network allows future capsule cars and cyclists to connect seamlessly to the Keppel Community. Residents would use the cycling network to connect to their living spaces. This network will be further expanded upon to enable residents to experience the vista views towards Labrador Park, Hort Park, Telok Blangah Hill Park as well as Mount Faber.

Opportunities from Keppel Club's existing program: Currently, Keppel Club is equipped with sports facilities to bring club members together. In the future, perhaps a development of another program would be more appropriate to enhance the need of bringing the community together in a self-sufficient manner - such as the proposal of a Vertical Food Kampong. Enhancing existing water bodies: Incorporate existing water bodies along the coast and existing golf clubâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water bodies. With its proximity to the waterfront, it is possible to create a waterfront food living.

A. Junction & MRT (Labrador MRT)

B. Bus Stop C. Bus Stop & MRT (Telok Blangah D. Junction

"

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

7.1 KEPPEL LABRADOR SITE - URBAN TEST BED

Keppel 2050 as an urban testbed to develop a vertical food kampong for its community.

"

* Figures calculated are estimated from current consumption rate and projected towards 2050 in a hyperdensed Singapore scenario

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Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

1 2 4

1

3

2

3

4

Photos of Keppel Club and its surroundings with reference to the plan Photos taken on Keppel Club site (by me)

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Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

7.2 KEPPEL LABRADOR SITE - LOCALE

Chosen Site

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Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

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Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

7.3 BACKGROUND OF KEPPEL CLUB Site Background

Current status of Keppel Club

The specific site chosen for the thesis is within Keppel Club's existing location with its undulating green and waterbodies.

As of now, Keppel Club is still equipped with 44 hectares of sports facilities such as golf, badminton, bowling, billiards, gym and a swimming pool. It also provides social space for KTV (karaoke), mahjong, jackpot, reading room and a TV lounge. F&B outlets are also provided for members for ease of convenience. (About Keppel Club, n.d.)

Within this site of 70,000m2, there is an opportunity to incorporate a re-invented food community into the proposed vertical kampongs. Sensitivity towards the existing site's conditions such as the greens and waterbodies is also essential to enhance the living experience for the community. History of Keppel Club Keppel Golf Club was founded in 1904. First owned by New Dock Co. Ltd. and transferred Tanjong Pagar Dock Board, it was finally transferred to and owned by Singapore Dock Board. Keppel Club used to be an air raid shelter built near the 14th tee box by the British when Singapore was invaded by the Japanese Army. The golf club then fell into their hands and was converted into the headquarters (Fairway 1). A sawmill workshop and small jetty was built near the 8th tee box. Overall, the golf course survived the war relatively unharmed as it was largely used for food production. The club was originally an attap house and started with a 3-hole course. It slowly expanded and by 1908, it became a 9-hole gold course. (About Keppel Club, n.d.)

Future of Keppel Club According to The Straits Times on 16 February 2014, Keppel Club will be the first private golf club in Singapore to not have its lease renewed in 2021. Its lease will expire on 31 December 2021. (straitstimes, 2014) In its statement, MinLaw noted that golfing is enjoyed by many Singaporeans and the presence of golfing facilities have added to the city's attractiveness as a business hub. "However, golfing and golf clubs are land intensive and there is a need to balance the competing demands for land," it said. "As a result, the amount of land used for golfing will have to be reduced over time and the sites would be reallocated for uses such as housing and public infrastructure." (straitstimes, 2014) With this knowledge in mind, Keppel Club has the potential to develop a self-sufficient vertical food kampong within a hyperdensed environment.

Location of Keppel Club, Singapore Chew, E. (2014, September 24). Keppel Club, Singapore [Photo taken by a camera suspended on a kite line]. Retrieved April 22, 2016, from http://www.fluidr.com/photos/38417840@N08/sets/72157630022145538

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Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Zone of Influences - Ecology and Greens

Zone 1 and 2:

Zone 3:

Given the barren land at Zone 1, there is no apparent crossing of birds between 1, 2 and 5. Expansion of water bodies to lead into the creek may be possible, however, knowledge of the pesticide levels in soil and its water-solubility may be required.

Given the relatively dense forestry in Zone 3, many animal and bird species reside within this zone. The forest also provides a dust and noise barrier and green buffer between the main road, flyover, HDBs and the heart of the future development.

Zone 4:

Outer Zones:

The forest region at Zone 4 bears no apparent significance to the flora/fauna at the golf course and vice versa Apart

Greenery of the golf course can serve as an extended foraging ground and stepping stone for birdlife. It may be an important wildlife connection between other neighbouring nature parks like those in Telok Blangah and Mt. Faber, and Sentosa

Site analysis on Keppel Club's relation to the rest of Keppppel Labrador Site Graphic Credits: Lee Fu Hui, Mak Yiing Huey, Tong Li Shi

107


31

TELOK BLANGAH ST 32

LA NG AH ST TE

ARC

LO KB

MAPLETREE BUSINESS CITY

A ROAD ALEXANDR

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

AMENITIES (DAILY) 7.4 ESSENTIAL KEPPEL LABRADOR SITE ANALYSIS

AD RO

N

O

RS

DE

N HE TELOK BLANGAH DR

LABRADOR PARK MRT

LABRADOR VILLA RD

MOUNT FABER

TELOK BLANGA H MRT

TE

LO K

BL

AN

GA

RO AD

RM

IN

RO AD

H

CH E

PO D

BU

A RO

KIT

RT

Super Kampong 2050:

ING ALK 600M W

KEPPEL CLUB

S DIU RA

REFLECTIONS

LABRADOR NATURE RESERVE CITY BEACH RESORT

DAILY AME DAILY AMENITIES

Convenienc

KEPPEL ISLAND

Convenience Store

Clinic

Clinic

School/Chil

School/Child Care/

R ING ALK 600M W

Elder Care

IUS AD

Elder Care

Playground

Playground

0 Location of200 Community Amenities

1000 M

500

31 ST AH NG

TELOK BLANGAH ST 32

LA KB TE

ARC

LO

MAPLETREE BUSINESS CITY

A ROAD ALEXANDR

100

AD RO

N

SO

ER

ND

HE TELOK BLANGAH DR

LABRADOR PARK MRT

MOUNT FABER

LABRADOR VILLA RD

TELOK BLANGA H MRT

TE

BL

AN

GA

H

RO AD

PO

CH

ER MIN

RO AD

LO K

D A RO

KIT

RT

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BER

EXISTING SITUATION

KEPPEL CLUB REFLECTIONS

LABRADOR NATURE RESERVE CITY BEACH RESORT

KEPPEL ISLAND

CYCLIN Park C CYCLING NETWORK Park Connector Network

Comm

“Cyclis

Common On-Road Route “Cyclist-Unfriendly” Routes

Network of Cycling Routes 0

200

100

108

500

1000 M


Super Kampong 2050:

EXISTING SITUATION

31 ST

TELOK BLANGAH ST 32

LA NG AH KB TE LO

ARC

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

MAPLETREE BUSINESS CITY

A ROAD ALEXANDR

VEHICULAR NETWORK

AD RO

N

SO

ER

ND

HE TELOK BLANGAH DR

LABRADOR PARK MRT

BER

LABRADOR VILLA RD

MOUNT FABER

TELOK BLANGA H MRT

TE

BL

AN

GA

H

RO AD

D

BU

A RO

KIT

RT

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CH E

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IN

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LO K

KEPPEL CLUB REFLECTIONS

LABRADOR NATURE RESERVE CITY BEACH RESORT

VEHICULAR NETWORK Car Park

KEPPEL ISLAND

VEHICULAR Car Park

Cat 1: Expressway

Cat 1: Expre

Cat 2: Major Arterial

Cat 2: Major

Cat 3: Minor Arterial

Cat 3: Minor

Cat 4: Primary Access

Cat 4: Prima

0 200 EXISTING Network ofSITUATION Vehicular Routes 100

1000 M

500

31 H ST GA

TELOK BLANGAH ST 32

AN K BL

31 ST

TELOK BLANGAH ST 32

LA

NG

AH

TELOK BLANGAH DR

KB

LABRADOR PARK MRT

31 ST AH

LABRADOR PARK MRT

TELOK BLANGAH ST 32

AD RO

N

SO

ER

ND

HE

LABRADOR VILLA RD

NG LA KB TE

ARC

TELOK BLANGAH DR

LO

MAPLETREE BUSINESS CITY

A ROAD ALEXANDR

TE

ARC

LO

MAPLETREE BUSINESS CITY

A ROAD ALEXANDR

TE

ARC

LO

MAPLETREE BUSINESS CITY

A ROAD ALEXANDR

PUBLIC TRANSPORT NETWORK

TELOK BLANGA H MRT

TELOK BLANGAH DR

MIN ER CH

BU KIT

A RO D

RO AD

MOUNT FABER

TELOK BLANGA H MRT

KEPPEL CLUB

RT

AN

GA

RO AD

RO AD

H

BU

BL

D A RO

LO K

PO

TE

KIT CH ER MIN

LABRADOR VILLA RD

RO AD

TELOK BLANGA H MRT

RT

MOUNT FABER

PO

LABRADOR VILLA RD

LABRADOR PARK MRT

KEPPEL CLUB

D

BU

A RO

KIT

RT

PO

CH

ER

MIN

LABRADOR NATURE RESERVE CITY BEACH RESORT

KEPPEL CLUB

LABRADOR NATURE RESERVE

KEPPEL ISLAND

REFLECTIONS

CITY BEACH RESORT

LABRADOR NATURE RESERVE

KEPPEL ISLAND

MAIN NETWORK CITY BEACH RESORT Main Road

MAIN NETWORK Main Road

MRT NETWORK Stations

BUS NETWORK Stops

MRT Line

Network / No. of Services

100

KEPPEL ISLAND

0

MRT Line

MRT NETWORK Stations

BUS NETWORK 0 200 Network Stops of Public

MAIN NETW Main Road

200 100

0

500

200 100

MRT NETW Stations

1000 M

MRT Line

BUS NETW Stops

1000 M 500

Network / N

Transport Routes

Network / No. of Services

1000 M

500

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Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

7.5 2050 KEPPEL URBAN STRATEGIES

01 Base plan in 2015

Integrated Green Streets Integrated waterbodies

03 Creation of a Green Boulevard along the Mangroves 110


Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Integrated waterbodies

02 Connecting existing waterbodies together

Integrated Green Streets Integrated waterbodies

N N

0 0

200 200 100 100

1000M 1000M 500 500

04 Integrated Green streets as edible parks along all waterbodies 111


Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

7.6 MICRO CLIMATE ANALYSIS: WIND SIMULATIONS Environmental Analysis The wind data (details under appendix) from Changi are referred to by wind engineers as the most representative of Singapore wind condition and are treated as the important reference to set the boudnary condition in this analysis. In the analysis that follows, a few parameters are set up in order to analyze the wind patterns at the Keppel Labrador site. Parameters:

CFD Simulation

1. Existing urban context is included in the simulation (terrain, trees, urban blocks etc.)

The wind simulation is measured at a height of 2m. With this pedestrian-level wind speed, it can be concluded that the site wind environment is acceptable if the pedestrian-level wind speed is acceptable. As seen below, the blue zones are the areas where low wind speeds are experienced.

2. The terrain of the site itself is simplified as a flat ground except Mount Faber & Labrador Park 3. Annually-averaged surface wind speed at Changi Station is set at 2.8 m/s 4. Measurements are done above ground 300m = Wind speed 7.4m/s CFD 5. SIMULATION Input wind

directions: North, North-East, South

MODELLING RESULTS

CFD SIMULATION Wind Direction: North-East

MODELLING RESULTS Vectors colored by wind velocity ratio. Measurement height: 2 m; input wind direction: NEE

Definition of wind velocity ratio: ܸܴଷ଴଴ǡ௜ ൌ

௏೛ǡ೔

௏యబబǡ೔

CFD SIMULATION Wind Direction: North

MODELLING RESULTS

Vectors colored by wind velocity ratio. Measurement height: 2 m; input wind direction: N

Definition of wind velocity ratio: ܸܴଷ଴଴ǡ௜ ൌ

௏೛ǡ೔

௏య���బǡ೔

Wind Direction: South Vectors colored by wind velocity ratio. Measurement height: 2 m; input wind direction: S

Credits: Yuan Chao, Advanced Architecture Laboratory, Singapore

112

Definition of wind velocity ratio: ܸܴଷ଴଴ǡ௜ ൌ

௏೛ǡ೔

௏యబబǡ೔


Super Kampong 2050:

Potential Air Paths Based on the impact of wind speed on the thermal comfort, the wind environment is classified as:

b: 1.0 – 1.6 m/s (Acceptable) c: < 1.0 m/s (Poor).

Wind Information Map The white arrows indicates the potential air paths - ensuring good air ventilation with the existing residential areas. These zones are parameter to be kept free of any blockage. As such, the site chosen considered how to harness these air paths and integrate them with the green belts. Moreover, other green environmental and ecological strategies are identified that would bring advantages to the proposed vertical food kampong. As seen in the diagram on the left, the recommended areas for high and unblocked ventilation is within Class a (highlighted in blue), while Class d (highlighted in dark grey) is the zone where little to poor wind ventilation is present due to the existing buildings on-site. With this in mind, the site chosen for my project lies mostly between the class a and b zone. This decision was made to EVALUATION EVALUATION EVALUATION allow the project to harness both wind and water elements as important micro climatic strategies on site.

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

a: >1.6 m/s (Good);

POTENTIAL AIR PATHS POTENTIAL AIR PATHS POTENTIAL AIR PATHS

Contours wind speed Contours of of pedestrian-level wind speed Contours ofpedestrian-level pedestrian-level wind speed Wind Direction: North-East

Wind Direction: North

Wind Direction: South

Based impact speed highlight potential paths the different input wind directions, the white arrows. Based onon thethe impact of of wind speed onon the highlight thethe potential airair paths in in the different input wind directions, asas the white arrows. Based on the impact ofwind wind speed onthe the WeWe We highlight the potential air paths in the different input wind directions, as the white arrows. thermal comfort, classifies wind thermal comfort, wewe classifies thethe wind thermal comfort, we classifies the wind environment good ventilation with new development both site itself and surrounding environment as asas To To ensure good airair ventilation with thethe new development at at both thethe site itself and surrounding environment Toensure ensure good air ventilation with the new development at both the site itself and surrounding existing residential areas, these potential paths should not be blocked. existing residential areas, these potential airair paths should not be blocked. existing residential areas, these potential air paths should not be blocked. a:a:>1.6 m/s (Good); a: >1.6 m/s (Good); >1.6 m/s (Good); It Itis proposed green belts with potential paths make thethe It is suggested to to integrate thethe proposed green belts with thethe potential airair paths to to make the issuggested suggested tointegrate integrate the proposed green belts with the potential air paths to make b:b:1.0 – –1.6 (Acceptable) environmental design strategies more efficient. b: 1.0 –1.0 1.6 m/s (Acceptable) environmental design strategies more efficient. 1.6m/s m/s (Acceptable) environmental design strategies more efficient. <<1.0 (Poor). c: <c:c: 1.0 m/s (Poor). 1.0m/s m/s (Poor).

Credits: Yuan Chao, Advanced Architecture Laboratory, Singapore

113


Programmatic Proposal in Keppel

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

8

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Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

With aims of building and sustaining a community-centered food kampong in 2050, a hybrid of multi-generational families would be housed within Keppel. This section showcases suitable programmatic proposals for this chosen demographics of people.

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Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

8.1 PROPOSED PROGRAMME IN THE VERTICAL KAMPONG Proposed percentage of programmes to cultivate the 2050 Vertical Food Kampong

+

Super Kampong 2050:

48% Live

32% Grow

12% Research

6% Meet

2% Learn

5,000 Residents Hybrid Research and Living Food Labs for Multi-Generational Families

Elderly

Single Adults

Young Couples

The proposed programme in my project would focus on building and sustaining a community-centered kampong in 2050. From a socio-cultural perspective, the community spirit could be inculcated through 'Collective Spaces'. This term refers to common spaces within housing complex that aims at giving the residents a new spring through both strong and suitable contemporary architectural and urban intervention that benefits the community. (Self-Sufficient Community, 2012)

tegrating many multi-generational families together. In addition to that, pop-up stores will be strategically located within the site that allows easy pick up of food items en-route to their living units. In the future, since technology would be made accessible to all residents, an online platform would be created to allow food to be made even more accessible to all. This could be an online marketplace where the trading of food items bought and/or grown can be exchanged within the community.

Envisioning 2050 – the site chosen will house a collective hybrid of research and living food labs for multi-generational families. Food will be the essential element to bring the community together within the Vertical Food Kampong. Living units will be integrated with these research food labs to increase innovation within a community spirited environment. Mobile workspaces are provided for work to be done on-the-go since their work essentials are programmed on their technological tablet.

Having this in mind, residents wouldn’t need to step out of their village as overall accessibility to daily essentials would be within close proximity to their living units. The provision of quality meeting/learning/playing/eating spaces would act as the ‘social binder’ across neighboring vertical kampongs. By intensifying these zones, residents would be able to move easily through these zones, and to their destination.

Community meeting spaces are proposed such as the Market Food Hall, Communal Kitchen, Food Workshop Space and Pop-up Convenience Store. For example, the idea of the Market Food Hall will be expanded and made accessible to everyone – in-

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Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

+ Live

Research

Grow

Meet

Learn

Total Built Area

48%

12%

32%

6%

2%

202,000m2

97,000m2

25,000m2

63,000m2

14,000m2

3,000m2

Plug-in Farm Pod

Pop-up convenience store

Mobile Food pod

Food Maker space

Indoor Farm Pod

Communal kitchen

Food Workshop Studio space

Food Lab

Urban Farm Pod

Market Food Hall

Object/ Unit

Unit

Urban/ Building

Couple living pod (35m2)

Dual pod (60m2)

Multi-generational pod (115m2)

A macro sale of programs are proposed for the 2050 Vertical Food Kampong with 48% of Live and 32% of Grow as the majority of the program allocation. By identifying the broad categories of essential programs, a further breakdown on spatial-specific spaces are proposed. These spaces are classified by scales to give a parameter for the space planning in the design stage - from urban scale to object scale.

5,000 people will house about 120 residents in 40 kampongs to create their own community.

(Gauge: Housing 2x the amount of people within half the footprint of The Interlace)

A diversity of programs for the community is essential to be a generator of a unique food culture within Keppel. This enables the residents to take pride in their village and inculcate a sense of belonging. Through the programs proposed, residents would be able to be immerse themselves in a vibrant and intensely exciting multi-layered experience in the vertical kampong. Moreover, the aspect of aiming towards food self-sufficiency and allowing the residents to be actively involved in their village's food production would hopefully change the way they envisage the need for food production within a hyperdensed environment.

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Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

8.2 COMMUNITY RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM F

learn

grow farm

grow farm

meet

Super Kampong 2050:

F

01 Eat + Farm

02 Learn and Play + small farm

A hybrid of eating and farming is created as the main binder of the community - acting as the food node. This would incorporate the cycle of food production and consumption.

Learn and Play spaces will be planned in close proximity to the centralized food node. These spaces will also house smaller 'unit' scale food production into the community.

F

F

learn

live

learn

F

grow farm

meet

R

live

grow farm

R

live

live

R

R

live R

meet

live

F

grow

F

live

R

meet F

live

R

R

03 Residential Vertical Kampong

04 Residential attachment to amenities

A cluster of 4 residential vertical kampongs will form a village. One residential cluster will be connected to the main food node while the rest will be built upwards.

As a hyperdensed living is created with many residential clusters, amenities will be duplicated according to the kampong's needs.

live

live R

F

learn

F

learn

live

live

live

meet

R

live

grow farm

R

live

F

meet

R

live

grow farm

R

W

live R

R

meet F

live R

118

live

live

live

F

F

meet

R

R

grow

live R

R

F

F

grow

R

F

grow

live R

meet F

live R

05 Additional residential clusters

06 Vertical Kampong Community

Similarly, another set of vertical kampongs would be connected to the main food node, changing which residential cluster it is connected to. A community is slowly taking shape.

As such, the diagrammatic configuration of the Vertical Kampong is formed, using kampongs to form a village and transforming itself into a community.


Super Kampong 2050:

F

live

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

grow

R

F

learn

live R

live F

meet

F

R

live

grow farm

R

meet

live R

live R

F

grow

live R

meet F

live R

A community relationship diagram is done to understand the potential connectivity between each programs in the Vertical Food Kampong. As seen in the diagram below, eating spaces will be the main nodes binding the community together. These will have a high connectivity to each living sphere - which consist of a work space integrated with it. Living units will be connected vertically/ diagonally to achieve a high-rise and hyperdensed situation. These living estates will form a 'smaller sized kampongs' (about 120 residents in 40 kampongs) in hopes of cultivating a community identity for themselves. Each community village will have a node where activities and encounters would happen; this would be in a form of a meet, learn and play space respectively. The meet, learn and play spaces would include Farm Pods to allow residents to grow and harvest their crops - allowing self-sufficiency to be implemented in the food cycle and creating a sustaining community with the help of the residents.

Legend: PROGRAMS Live: Place of residential and/or temporary livlive+ ing space. research Research: Residents are actively engaged in food technology research to contribute to the economy. G

Grow: Place where people are actively engaged in the community's food production

F

Farm: Place where people would actively engage in harvesting their crops for consumption

M

Meet: Place where people gather to communicate and/or engage in discussion while eating

L

Learn: Place where people are educated by acquiring knowledge - either by studying or being

CONNECTIVITY

Close connectivity (< 1 min walk) Vertical connectivity (lifts, stairs) Medium connectivity ( 2-5 mins walk)

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Food Community Components

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

9

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Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

In this section, strategies and specific targets are being set as frameworks before the design exploration stage. Strategies as such building block components, distribution of programs according to stratas as well as having a sustainable food cycle helps to create an optimal food production and consumption is designed within the Keppel Community.

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Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

9.1 SALAD BOWL PRODUCED IN THE FOOD COMMUNITY NOURISH SALAD BOWL Green veggy + carbohydrates + protein Ingredients: lettuce, mushroom, coriander, basil, lemon, tomatoes, cucumber, rocket, plant-based egg, plantbased chicken, plant-based rice and sweet potatoes.

Super Kampong 2050:

coriander

basil cucumber

lettuce

strawberry

kale

mushroom

plant-based carbs sweet potato

122

plant-based egg

tomatoes

plant-based chicken


Min/max height

Angle

Sunlight condition

Water range

203 - 457 mm

304 - 609 mm

soil to be light and well-drained

early morning, late afternoon sun

average

203 - 548 mm

274 - 914 mm

soil to be light and well-drained

mid afternoon sun

average

457 - 914 mm

152 - 304 mm

soil to be moist

early morning, late afternoon sun

heavy

50 - 304 mm

25 - 304 mm

fertile clay soil with water-retensive qualities

mid afternoon sun

152 - 304 mm

304 - 457 mm

soil to be light and well-drained

early morning, late afternoon sun

< 304 mm

203 - 304 mm

soil to be light and well-drained

early morning, late afternoon sun

high, frequent watering during fruiting season

50 - 304 mm

304 - 518 mm

soil to be light and well-drained

mid afternoon sun

heavy

50 - 150 mm

63 - 152 mm

soil to be moist

indoor condition

heavy

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Min/max root depth

Super Kampong 2050:

Food Items

coriander

tomatoes

lettuce

heavy

cucumber

heavy

kale

strawberry

basil

mushroom

Due to the limited area of the site, the food community in Keppel's proposed Vertical Food Kampong would consist of growing a particular selection of ingredients. These ingredients would form a sustainable, healthy and nutritious salad bowl that is suitable for multi-generational families. The ingredients include lettuce, mushroom, coriander, basil, lemon, tomatoes, cucumber, rocket, plant-based egg, plant-based chicken, plant-based rice and sweet potatoes. This salad bowl would be grown in various technological farming pods and it would serve as the main source of food for their daily meals. 123


Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore Super Kampong 2050:

et

9.2 COMPONENTS TO BUILD A FOOD COMMUNITY OBJECT

UNIT

BUILDING

grow

01 Edible Park

F

grow

02 Green Food Street

grow

05 Urban Farm Pod

07 Plug-in Farm Pod

01 PLUG-IN FARM POD

0705Plug-in Urban 01 Edible Farm Farm Park Pod Pod

Living units will have an integrated plug-in farm pod that allows the cultivation of private farming mainly for their personal consumption.

04 INDOOR FARM POD

0602Indoor GreenFarm FoodPod Street

A controlled indoor environment to promote the cultivation of food. An online IOT sensors would assist residents to know when their crops are ready for harvest.

07 URBAN FARM POD

05 07 Urban Plug-inFarm FarmPod Pod

Collective urban scaled farming ‘food node’, where the community will be involved in monitoring the harvest.

0

12 Food Delivery OBJECT

UNIT

BUILDING

meet

12 Food Delivery

meet

11 Food Workshops

meet

12 Food Delivery

1

Bio Mass Plant

02 POP-UP CONVENIENCE STORE

10 Pop-up Convenience Similar to a mini-mart, these pop-up StoreBridge 03 convenience Green Food stores are located near

lant

N

FOOD PRODUCTION

to the living units. These 24-7 stores would carry items such that it provides convenience to the residents.

10 03 Pop-up Convenience 08 Green Market Food FoodBridge Hall Store 07 Plug-in Farm Pod

OBJECT

05 COMMUNAL KITCHEN / DINING

08 MARKET FOOD HALL

Residents buy essentials from the

A ‘farm-to-table’ market food hall allows the community to buy food products which are grown from both the Indoor and Urban Farm Pods. An online marketplace would be created to monitor products available.

04Market Waste-to-Energy Plant Food Hall to have a community Bio Mass Plant

activity of cooking various dishes for collectively.

04 09Waste-to-Energy Communal Kitchen Plant UNIT

FOOD CONSUMPTION

learn

08 Market Food Hall

10 08Pop-up MarketConvenience Food Hall Store

BUILDING

learn

F research

12 Food Delivery 03 MOBILE FOOD POD

06 FOOD WORKSHOPS

09 FOOD LAB

A family of drone system would be in place to allow efficient delivery of food produce to the community's living units.

Be inspired to make your own food to share with your family, friends and the community through curated food workshops.

Collaborative food labs will be the space where residents are involved in future food technology testings located near to their living units.

124

0


FO FO Super Kampong 2050:

URBAN

URBAN infrastructure

10 EDIBLE PARK

01 01Edible EdiblePark Park

Public ‘Growscape’ urban parks that allow the growth of edible plants, where the community would gather for communal activities as well as harvesting time.

URBAN

02 Green Food Street 02 Green Food Street

13 GREEN FOOD STREET

02 02Green GreenFood FoodStreet Street

Intensifies agricultural systems along circulatory areas which allows the harvesting of fruit trees.

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

01 Edible Park 01 Edible Park

infrastructure

05 Urban Farm Pod 05 Urban Farm Pod

05 05Urban UrbanFarm FarmPod Pod

FO FO

06 06

06 06

11 11

URBAN infrastructure

infrastructure

11 11

Bio Mass Plant Bio Mass Plant

11 GREEN FOOD BRIDGE

14 WASTE-TO-ENERGY PLANT

03 Green Food Bridge Intensify agricultural systems along 03 Green Bridge circulatory areas Food which allows the har-

04 Waste-to-Energy Plant Organic waste collected will use 04 Waste-to-Energy Plant up-cycling strategies to harvest ener-

08 Market Food Hall 08 Market Food Hall

09 09

03 03Green GreenFood FoodBridge Bridge

04 04Waste-to-Energy Waste-to-EnergyPlant Plant

08 08Market MarketFood FoodHall Hall

FO FO 09 09

vesting of smaller fruit trees.

URBAN infrastructure

Bio BioMass MassPlant Plant

gy for its community.

In order to create a self-sufficient food community, food harvesting planning strategies in the form of building blocks are developed. These building blocks are broken down into 3 main categories: Urban-scale Food Space, Food Production Components as well as the Food Consumption Components. Within these components, scales are created to understand its implication in the design - from the urban scale to the object scale.

FO FO

12 TRANSPORTATION SHARING Clean energy vehicles such as straddling tram system, capsule cars and bicycles will be activated within the community for easy access to different villages 125


Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

9.3 01 Edible ParkFOOD

PRODUCTION 02 Green Food Street BREAKDOWN 05 Urban Farm Pod I Area of Keppel

06 Indoor Farm Pod Area of chosen site

0.75 km

0.03 km2

Keppel population 2050

Choosen population to build

2

45,000

4% of land area in Keppel

5,000 FOOD PRODUCTION FOOD PRODUCTION

1/9 of total Keppel population in 2050

11 Food Workshops

Super Kampong 2050:

grow

meet

Bio Mass Plant

een Food 02 Green StreetFood Street 05 Urban Farm 05 Urban Pod Farm Pod06 Indoor Farm 06 Indoor Pod Farm Pod 07 Plug-in Farm 07 Plug-in Pod Farm Microgreens Green Food Bridge 04 Waste-to-Energy Plant Vegetables 08 Market Food Hall 09 Communal Kitchen

Vertical Farming

Aquaponics Farming

FOOD CONSUMPTION

Aeroponics Farming

11 Food Workshops 11 Food Workshops

12 Food Delivery 12 Food Deliv

Food Technology:

Bio Mass Plant

Bio Mass Plant

Description:

te-to-Energy 04 Waste-to-Energy Plant

Environment:

126

By using vertical farming techniques, Vertical Farming consist of producing 8-10 times more than traditional farms over the same area. This is Market done vertically Plant 08 Market Food 08 Hall byFood Hall09 stacking layers together and integrating it as structural elements within a highly densed environment.

Aquaponics is a synergistic Aeroponics is the process of growing technique in which growing plants in an air or fish and plants are grown tomist environment without the gether in the same systems. It use of soil or an aggregate is a natural eco-system cycle medium. The roots of the where the 09 waste of one or- Kitchen plants are suspended with- Conve 10 Pop-up Convenience 10 Pop-up Communal Kitchen Communal ganism is recycled to be feed in an internal environment for the next group of organwhere water Store and essentialStore isms. The fish waste feeds the nurtients will be sprayed onto growing plants using organic the plant cells to activate its hydroponic techniques. The growth. FOOD CONSUMPTION FOOD CONSUMPTION plants, in turn, clean and filter the water that returns to the fish environment. For food production, fresh water fish like tilapia can be raised for consumption.

outdoor environment

semi-indoor environment

indoor environment


Super Kampong 2050:

grow

research

meet

grow

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

FOOD PRODUCTION

learn

Green Food Street Herbs

05 Urban Farm Pod

Light Farming

Plant-based Egg

06 Indoor Farm Pod Plant-Based Food Produce

Plant-based Meat

11 Food Workshops

Light Farming is built withTaking away the equation of in climate controlled grow needing a chicken to prorooms, each equipped with duce eggs for our daily conseven 12-m tall grow towers sumption, plant-based eggs and 7,000 Philips GreenPoware created from a mixture er LED production of easy-to-grow-plants. The aste-to-Energy Plant modules. 08 Market Food Hall These lights require less clicommunity will be involved mate control and use less enin creating these plant-based ergy, so they can be placed eggs from the plants grown in closer to the plants, allowing the various farm pods. for more levels to be stacked Moreover, they make more efficient use of land, water and energy to grow food free of pesticides, herbicides, preservatives and GMO seeds. Bio Mass Plant

controlled indoor environment

controlled indoor lab environment

There wouldn't be a need for livestock and cattle farming for the meat we need to consume. Plant-based meat products are created from a of soy protein, 09mixture Communal Kitchenpea protein isolates, yeast and other ingredients. The community will be involved in creating these plant-based meat from the plants grown in the FOOD CONSUMPTION various farm pods.

controlled indoor lab environment

07 Plug-in Farm Pod

Plant-based Rice

12 Food Delivery

Future technologies would allow grains to produce a higher yield by increasing the process of photosynthesis and decreasing the number of unproductive tillers. Large 10 Pop-up Convenience paddy fields wouldn't be Store needed and vertical systems will be invented. Therefore, a plant-based rice would be a sustainable staple food for the community's consumption. The community will be involved in creating these plant-based rice from the plants grown in the various farm pods.

controlled indoor lab environment

127


Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

9.3 FOOD PRODUCTION BREAKDOWN II Vertical Farming

Aquaponics Farming

Aeroponics Farming

Food Technology:

Food types grown:

Food Cycle:

vegetables

vegetables

vegetables

pulley module

plants filter water for fish

aeroponic plant bed

water supply

fishes/shrimps/yabbies

water supply

water tank collection

fish waste

water + nutrients pulses mist

drip irrigation

microbes & worms waste water collected

water + nutrients pump

convert fertilizer for plants

filter

Production per capita:

275kg per capita

275kg per capita

275kg per capita

Total production needed for Keppel population:

12,375,000kg

12,375,000kg

12,375,000kg

45%

45%

45%

45,523m2

45,523m2

45,523m2

% of food produced in project site: (% for vegetables is for population in project site, while the rest of % is for the whole Keppel site)

Area needed for production:

128


Plant-based Egg

Plant-based Meat

Super Kampong 2050:

Light Farming

Plant-based Rice

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

vegetables plant-based meat UV light

plant-based egg selected soy proteins

3 recipes LED light

selected plant proteins

plant-based rice selected yeast components

pea protein isolates plant cells water + nutrients pump

mixing plant proteins processing

mixing soy and pea proteins processing

waste water filtered

vertical farming technology processing

275kg per capita

17kg per capita

56kg per capita

54kg per capita

12,375,000kg

765,000kg

2,520,000kg

2,430,000kg

45%

50%

45,523m2

6,300m2

50%

2,700m2

50%

24,770m2

129


Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

9.4 PROPOSED PROGRAMMES ON STRATAS

+ Live

Research

Grow

Meet

Learn

Strata 01

18%

5%

15%

2%

1%

Strata 02

12%

4%

12%

2%

-

Strata 03

18%

3%

5%

2%

1%

TOTAL 202,000m2

130

48%

97,000m2

12%

25,000m2

32%

63,000m2

6%

14,000m2

2%

3,000m2


Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Food production and consumption programs should be made available in close proximity to the living units. As such, different stratas were created to allocate desired percentages of the different programs. As seen below, the first strata has the most amount of food nodes while the 'meet', 'play' and 'learn' components are secondary programs to support the food nodes. The live and work units are evenly distributed in all stratas to enable equal opportunities for residents to create their own unique food community. As the stratas increases, the Vertical Kampong breaks down the scales of intervention from urban scale to object scale.

131


01

scale of intervention

+200m

STRATA 02

+100m

STRATA 01

Super Kampong 2050:

+300m

STRATA 03

15%

+100m

Urban

STRATA 01

12%

+200m

Unit Building

STRATA 02

5%

+300m

Object Unit

% food spaces STRATA 03

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

9.5 PROPOSED SCHEMATIC STRATA SECTION

02

scale of intervention

Object Unit

grow

5%

grow

grow

grow

grow

grow

grow

Unit Building

grow

12% grow

Urban

132

grow

grow

% food spaces

15%

grow

grow

grow

grow


Super Kampong 2050:

scale of intervention

+100m

STRATA 01

+300m

STRATA 03

+200m

STRATA 02

+100m

STRATA 01

grow F

grow

grow

grow

F

grow farm

12% grow farm

grow

15%

+200m

grow

STRATA 02

F

grow

+300m

grow F

farm

Urban

grow

F

5%

F

Unit Building

F

F

STRATA 03

Object Unit

grow

% food spaces

grow

farm

grow

farm

grow

farm

farm

04

% live spaces

F

grow

live

F

live

18%

live

grow

% food spaces live

live F

+

5%

live grow F

live

live

F

F

grow

live grow

grow F

live

grow

grow

live F

live

farm

12%

+

live

grow

12%

live

grow farm

live

live

live

+

15%

farm

live live

18%

grow

live live

live

live

grow farm

live

live

grow

live

live

grow live

live

farm

live

farm

grow live

live

live

live

farm

133

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

03


Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

9.6 FOOD CYCLE TO BUILD A FOOD COMMUNITY

The building blocks as specified previously, are essential components to create a self-sufficient closed-loop food cycle. Looking towards building a food community in Keppel 2050, an urban food production system is formed to enhance the community spirit amongst the residents. Similar to a ‘farm-to-table’ concept, residents will be made accessible to several layers of ‘urban food pods’ to grow their own food within their vertical kampongs. Growing methods would be monitored to ensure optimal quality of the food produced. Waste products will extract nutrients needed for the agricultural products in farming. High-tech farming techniques would be implemented in 2 scales – for the community (‘urban farm pods’ and 'indoor farm pods') and for the living units (‘plug-in farm pods’). The ‘urban farm pods’ would function as the main urban-scale food harvest that would also act as the ‘food node’ to bring the community together. Production of food allows the community to be responsible for their food cycle as they would be farming what they are consuming. The 'indoor farm pods' will grow selected foods in a controlled indoor environment to promote the cultivation of specialized food for the resident's diet. An online IOT senor would be integrated to assist residents to know when their crops would be ready for harvest. All food produced in these different scaled farm pods will be distributed to the market food hall and the communal kitchen where products can be bought and cooked. The market food hall and the communal kitchen would also be a means of bringing the community together. The spirit of buying, cooking and sharing the food produced would effectively increase the interaction among residents. Object-scale ‘plug-in farm pods’ are made available to better integrate the need for food production in their living units. The plug-in farm pods aims to harvest smaller grades of plants so that residents would immerse themselves in the high-tech farming experience. The smaller farm pods would concentrate on bringing a variety of different food products to be shared with other residents - each with their own unique harvest. These food products would also be a contribution to both the market food hall and the communal kitchen.

134


Super Kampong 2050:

01 Edible Park 01 Edible Park

Urban

02 Green 05 Urban 06 Indoor 07 Plug-in 02 Green Food StreetFood Street 05 Urban Farm Pod Farm Pod06 Indoor Farm Pod Farm Pod 07 Plug-in Farm Pod Farm Pod

FOOD PRODUCTION 11 Food Workshops 11 Food Workshops

FOOD PRODUCTION

12 Food Delivery 12 Food Delivery

01 FOOD PRODUCTION

Food Production:

Building

OOD PRODUCTION Bio Mass Plant

Edible Park

02 Green Food Street

Bio Mass Plant

Urban Farm Pod

02

10 Pop-up Convenience 01 Edible Park 02 Food Green Food Street 05Plant Urban 06 Indoor 07 Plug-in Farm Pod Convenience 05 Urban Farm Pod 06Bridge Indoor Farm Pod 07Farm Plug-in Farm Food Pod 03 Green 04 Waste-to-Energy Plant 08 Market Food Farm Hall09Pod 09 Kitchen Communal Kitchen 10 Pop-up 03 Green Food Bridge 04 Waste-to-Energy 08Pod Market Hall Communal Store Store

01 Edible Park

02 Green Food Street

05 Urban Farm Pod

12

12 Food Delivery

11 Food Workshops

07 Plug-in Farm Pod

06 Indoor Farm Pod

Food Learning:

07 Plug-in Farm Pod

FOOD CONSUMPTION FOOD CONSUMPTION

Waste-to-Energy Plant (nutrients extracted)

6 Indoor Farm Pod

n Food Bridge

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

FOOD PRODUCTION FOOD PRODUCTION

Food Lab+Workshops

12 Food Delivery

11 Food Workshops

12 Food Delivery

11 Food Workshops

11

Urban Building

03

Waste produced from Consumption Bridge 04 Waste-to-Energy Plant03 Green 08Food Market Food Hall

1 Food Workshops

9 Communal Kitchen

OOD CONSUMPTION

Community Sharing and Monitoring

Bio Mass Plant

Bio Mass Plant

12 Food Delivery

04 Waste-to-Energy Plant 09 Communal Kitchen

10 03 Green Food Bridge

10 Pop-up Convenience Store

Convenience 09 Communal Kitchen Bio Mass Plant10 Pop-up 08 Market Food Hall Store

04 Waste-to-Energy Plant FOOD CONSUMPTION

08 Market Food Hall FOOD CONSUMPTION

Food Consumption:

09 Communal Kitchen

FOOD PRODUCTION

Object

FOOD PRODUCTION 10 Pop-up Convenience Store

Unit

FOOD CONSUMPTION

Pop-up Store

01 Edible Park

Indoor Farm Pod 01 Edible Park

10 Pop-up Convenience Store

02 Green Food Street

05 Urban Farm Pod

02 Green Food Street 05 Urban Farm Pod Food Consumption:

06 Indoor Farm Pod

11 Food Workshops

06

COMMUNITY FOOD CYCLE 08

Building

03 Green Food Bridge

Food produced ready for consumption

Bio Mass Plant

07

Mobile 04 Waste-to-Energy Plant MarketDelivery Food Hall Food 08Pod

Market Food Hall 08 Market Food Hall

12 Food Delivery

12 Food Delivery

11 Food Workshops

Food Consumption:

04 Waste-to-Energy Plant

07 Plug-in Farm Pod

Food Distribution Network

07 Plug-in Farm Pod

Unit

Bio Mass Plant

06 Indoor Farm Pod

05

09

Communal Kitchen/ Dining

03 Green Food Bridge

04

Food Production:

09 Communal Kitchen

09 Communal Kitchen

10 Pop-up Convenience Store

FOOD CONSUMPTION

10 Pop-up Convenience Store

FOOD CONSUMPTION

135


Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore Super Kampong 2050:

10 Design Exploration

01 Edible Park

02 Green Food Street

05 Urban Farm Pod

FOOD PRODUCTION FOOD FOOD PRODUCTION PRODUCTION

FOOD PRODUCTION

FOOD PRODUCTION

06 Indoor Farm Pod

11 Food Workshops

Bio Mass Plant

01 Edible Park

02 Green Food Street 05 Urban FarmPlant Pod 06 Indoor 07 Plug-in Farm Pod Edible 01 Edible Park01 Park 02 Pod Green 02 Green Food Street Street 05 Urban 05 Urban Farm Pod Pod 06 Indoor 06 Indoor Farm Farm Pod PodFarm 07 Plug-in 07 Plug-in Farm Pod Pod 02 Green Food01 Street 05Edible UrbanPark Farm 06 Indoor Farm Pod 07 Plug-in Farm Pod 03Food Green Food Bridge 04Farm Waste-to-Energy 08 Market Food Hall Pod 09Farm Communal Kitchen

FOOD CONSUMPTION

11 Food Workshops

Bio Mass Plant

03 Green Food Bridge

136

Bio Mass Plant Bio Mass Plant

12 Food Delivery 12 Food Delivery Delivery 12 Food Delivery 11 Food Workshops12 Food 11 Food 11 Food Workshops Workshops

Bio Mass Plant

10 Pop-up Convenienc 10 Pop-up 10 Pop-up Convenience Convenience 10Hall Pop-up Green Food Bridge 04 Waste-to-Energy Plant 08 Market FoodConvenience Hall 09 Communal 03 Green 03 Plant Green Food03 Food Bridge Bridge 04 Waste-to-Energy 04 Waste-to-Energy Plant Plant 08Kitchen Market 08 Market Food Food Hall 09 Communal 09 Communal Kitchen Kitchen Kitchen 04 Waste-to-Energy 08 Market Food Hall 09 Communal StoreStore Store Store FOOD CONSUMPTION

FOOD FOOD CONSUMPTION CONSUMPTION FOOD CONSUMPTION


Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

In this section, the strategies and targets set up are being implemented in order to translate the idea of a vertical food kampong into the built environment on the chosen site. Various components are integrated together in a built form to investigate the suitable relationship between all these programs.

137


In this first exploration, components are broken down into smaller units to form a kampong that houses 120 residents, standing at 10-11 storeys. 3 various types of units are stacked above each other to form the core community. Meeting and learning spaces are anchored to the bottom of each vertical kampong, together with vegetable farm pods to create a sky-deck for each community. In addition to that, other food production components are then attached to its parameters to grant easy access from the resident's living units to these food labs.

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

10.1 DESIGN EXPLORATION 01

138

01

02

03

04

05

06

Multi-generational pod (115m2)

Plant-based Meat Lab (100m2)

Food workshop spaces (70m2)

Dual pod (60m2)

Plant-based Egg Lab (100m2)

Food meeting spaces (120m2)

Couple living pod (35m2)

Plant-based Rice Lab (400m2)

Vegetable Farm Pods (1100m2)


Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Design exploration 01 on site

139


In the second exploration, living units are stacked in a terrace manner, coupled with food production units such as vegetable farm pods and the plantbased labs. This design arrangement allows residents living in their units to be in charge of each designated farm pods that are located at their 'backyard'. Two terraces are created with learning and meeting spaces that act as bridges to form a cluster of vertical kampong that also accommodates 120 residents.

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

10.2 DESIGN EXPLORATION 02

140

01

02

03

04

Multi-generational pod (115m2)

Plant-based Meat Lab (100m2)

Food workshop spaces (70m2)

Dual pod (60m2)

Plant-based Egg Lab (100m2)

Food meeting spaces (120m2)

Couple living pod (35m2)

Plant-based Rice Lab (400m2)

Vegetable Farm Pods (1100m2)


Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Design exploration 02 on site

141


In the third exploration, a compact verison of the terrace module is created. A corridor to bridge two units on each level is seen as the binding factor for residents to meet and interact. Food production units are dedicated to each living unit to allow residents to be in charge of these farms pods that are located at their 'backyard'. In order to bring the community out from their individual units, this 120-residential module of a vertical kampong is sandwiched between spaces for the community learning & meeting spaces as well as research farm labs.

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

10.3 DESIGN EXPLORATION 03

142

01

02

03

04

05

06

Multi-generational pod (115m2)

Plant-based Meat Lab (100m2)

Food workshop spaces (70m2)

Dual pod (60m2)

Plant-based Egg Lab (100m2)

Food meeting spaces (120m2)

Couple living pod (35m2)

Plant-based Rice Lab (400m2)

Vegetable Farm Pods (1100m2)


Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Design exploration 03 on site

143


Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

10.4 DESIGN EXPLORATION 04 In the forth exploration, a compact vertical kampong is created by allowing modules to stack on top of each other. In this exploration, the idea is to have these kampong stack as blocks in order to create a macro version of a terracing design as seen in design exploration 03. On each level, 3 diverse living units are lined-up along each other to create diversity and inclusivity of its multi-generational families. A corridor is created to allow easy access to their individual farming pods - allowing residents to be charge of their farm growth in their own 'backyard'. Each vertical kampong bridges other stacks using spaces such as meeting, learning and eating platforms. Moreover, this continuous platform allows residents to cross and interact with other communities seamlessly.

144

01

02

03

04

05

06

Multi-generational pod (115m2)

Plant-based Meat Lab (100m2)

Food workshop spaces (70m2)

Dual pod (60m2)

Plant-based Egg Lab (100m2)

Food meeting spaces (120m2)

Couple living pod (35m2)

Plant-based Rice Lab (400m2)

Vegetable Farm Pods (1100m2)


Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Design exploration 04 on site

145


33�C 32�C

10.5 SINGAPORE'S CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

Singapore being a tropical climatic country, average temperature ranges from as high as 33⁰C and as low as 23.5⁰C. These temperature gives an indication of how much humidity needs to be kept out of the indoor spaces to provide a comfortable environment for the community.

temperature (�C) temperature (�C) temperature (�C)

A set of climatic data is needed in order to design for the residents as well as finding the optimal condition for the growth of the food plants.

29�C 32�C 28�C 31�C 27�C 30�C 26�C 29�C 33�C 25�C 28�C 32�C 24�C 27�C 31�C 23�C 26�C 30�C 25�C 29�C

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

28�C 24�C 23�C 27�C 26�C

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

25�C 24�C 23�C

warm

Average Temperature

cold

33.0⁰C

23.5⁰C

350 315 280 rainfall (mm)

245 350 210 315

rainfall (mm)

175 280 140 245

105 210 350 70 175 315 35 140 280

rainfall (mm)

Rainfall is plentiful in Singapore and it rains an average of 178 days of the year. Much of the rain is heavy and accompanied by heavy showers that includes thunder and lightning. Based on long-term records in Singapore between 1869 to 2015, the long-term mean annual rainfall total is 2331.2mm (Climate of Singapore, n.d.)

1050 245 Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

210 70 175 35 0 140 105

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Precipitation - Rainfall

70 35 0 Jan

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

17

15

time (hrs)

1714 1613 1512 14 11 13 1710 129 16 118 15 10 14 7 Jan 13 9

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

sunshine hours

0.2 0.4 0.6 7 0 11 Jan Feb Mar 10

8 7

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Sunshine Duration

12 8

9

146

Feb

16

time (hrs)

Since Singapore is near the equator, the length of its day and the amount of sunlight received is relatively constant throughout the year. Sunshine Duration refers to the cumulative time during which an area receives direct irradiance from the sun of at least 120 Watts/m2. Daily sunshine hours are mainly influenced by the presence or absence of cloud cover. They average from 4 to 5 hours during the wettest months (November and December) to 8 to 9 hours during the drier periods (February and March). (Climate of Singapore, n.d.)

time (hrs)

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

31�C

30�C 33�C

0.8 1.0 Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec


Super Kampong 2050:

250 225 200

150 250 125 225 100 200 75 175 50 150 25 125 0 100 Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

75 50 25 0

Wind Speed

24 21.6 19.2

time (hrs)

16.8 14.4 24 12 21.6 9.6 19.2 7.2 16.8 time (hrs)

Relative humidity shows a fairly uniform pattern throughout the year and does not vary much from month to month. The mean annual relative humidity is 84.0%. Its daily variation varies from more than 90% in the morning just before sunrise , and falling to around 60% in the mid-afternoon on days when there is no rain. (Climate of Singapore, n.d.)

4.8 14.4 2.4 12 9.61 Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

7.2 4.8

relative humidity

2.470

75

80

85

Humidity 90

95

100

1 Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

147

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Winds throughout the year show daily variation, with lighter winds during the night and stronger winds during the day. Winds in Singapore are generally light, with the mean surface wind speed normally less than 2.5 m/s. The strongest winds occur during the Northeast Monsoon in January and February. (Climate of Singapore, n.d.)

wind speed (m/s) wind speed (m/s)

175


Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

10.6 OPTIMAL FORM TEST FOR OPTIMAL SUNLIGHT Rectangles

9am

Super Kampong 2050:

10am

11am

12pm

1pm

2pm

3pm

148

Truncated Pyramid

Truncated Cylinders


Truncated Pyramid

Super Kampong 2050:

Rectangles

Truncated Cylinders

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

cd/m2 950 850 750 650 550 450 350 250 150 50

149


Falsecolor visualization on 6th June 2016, 10am

6162 cd/m2 472 cd/m2 164 cd/m2 437 cd/m2

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

10.7 DAYLIGHT SIMULATIONS

cd/m2

5875 cd/m2

950 850 750 650 550 450 350 250 150 50

Plan View

2990 cd/m2 3117 cd/m2

1067 cd/m2

741 cd/m2

cd/m2 101 cd/m2

679 cd/m2

577 kcd/m2

4994 cd/m2

23 cd/m2

View 01

950 850 750 650 550 450 350 250 150 50

993 cd/m2 831 cd/m2

587 cd/m2

787 cd/m2

386 cd/m2

744 cd/m2

cd/m2 705 kcd/m2 2042 cd/m2 167cd/m2

View 02 150

118 cd/m2

950 850 750 650 550 450 350 250 150 50


Super Kampong 2050:

Daylight visualization on 6th June 2016, 10am

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Plan View

View 01

As seen in the Daylight Simulation Studies, the east face of the building would get the most sun exposure (as highlighted). This could work to the complex's advantage by integrating green food walls as well as energy solar cells on its facade. In addition to that, its terracing U-shape form allows farm pods to be grown on its steps as well as to provide maximum shade in its inner courtyard on the ground level. View 02 151


Comparison from Design Exploration 04: Falsecolor visualization on 6th June 2016, 10am

6162 cd/m2 472 cd/m2 164 cd/m2 437 cd/m2

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

10.7 DAYLIGHT SIMULATIONS (contd')

cd/m2

5875 cd/m2

950 850 750 650 550 450 350 250 150 50

Plan View

2990 cd/m2 3117 cd/m2

1067 cd/m2

741 cd/m2

cd/m2 101 cd/m2

679 cd/m2

577 cd/m2

4994 cd/m2

23 cd/m2

View 01

950 850 750 650 550 450 350 250 150 50

993 cd/m2 831 cd/m2

587 cd/m2

787 cd/m2

386 cd/m2

744 cd/m2

cd/m2 705 cd/m2 2042 cd/m2 167 cd/m2

View 02 152

118 cd/m2

950 850 750 650 550 450 350 250 150 50


Super Kampong 2050:

Design Exploration 05: Falsecolor visualization on 6th June 2016, 10am

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

318 cd/m2 5699 cd/m2

140 cd/m2 543 cd/m2

5682 cd/m2

431 cd/m

2

319 cd/m2

Plan View

834 cd/m2 2652 cd/m2 136 cd/m2 423 cd/m2

132 cd/m2

740 cd/m2

717 cd/m2

2523 cd/m2

118 cd/m

2

326 cd/m2

View 01

1037 cd/m2 815 cd/m2 791 cd/m2 1114 cd/m2

1052 cd/m2

511 cd/m2

372 cd/m2 111 cd/m2 439 cd/m2

View 02

In the second iteration, a comparison was done to understand its improvements at each stage. In this iteration, a simplification of form was done, as well as increasing the terracing and height differences between each buliding block. This allows a more continuous shading towards the stream along the mangroves. Moreover, large facade faces are tilted away from direct sunlight as much as possible to allow cooler naturally ventilated living units. Facade faces that are exposed to direct sunlight will be used as outdoor farming areas where maximum sunlight is necessary. 153


Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

10.8 WIND SIMULATIONS Comparison from Design Exploration 04: South Direction Wind Flow Analysis Area of solid vs voids: Solid: 23,270m2 Voids: 16,954m2

Velocity (m/s) 18.541 16.057 13.110 9.270

Plan View

0

Velocity (m/s) 18.541 16.057 13.110 9.270 0

View 01

Velocity (m/s) 18.541 16.057 13.110 9.270 0

View 02

A wind simulation was done to understand how wind is engaged in the proposed high-rise and high-dense vertical kampong. Singapore has two pre-dominant wind direction - the South direction and North-East direction. As seen in the above simulation images, the first iteration incorporates the terracing design that allows wind to travel easily from a higher to a lower area. 154


Super Kampong 2050:

Design Exploration 05: South Direction Wind Flow Analysis Area of solid vs voids:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Solid: 23,270m2 Voids: 11,160m2

Velocity (m/s) 18.541 16.057 13.110 9.270

Plan View

0

Velocity (m/s) 18.541 16.057 13.110 9.270 0

View 01

Velocity (m/s) 18.541 16.057 13.110 9.270 0

View 02

The images above show the improvements made to the form in the second iteration. The aim is to change the massing's height differences to gain an increase of wind speeds. Moreover, porosity between buildings were changed to be at least 15m apart from each other. This enables cross ventilation to happen within the apartments and in the large internal courtyard. 155


Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

10.8 WIND SIMULATIONS (contd') Comparison from Design Exploration 04: North-East Direction Wind Flow Analysis

Velocity (m/s) 18.541 16.057 13.110 9.270

Plan View

0

Velocity (m/s) 18.541 16.057 13.110 9.270 0

View 01

Velocity (m/s) 18.541 16.057 13.110 9.270 0

View 02

156


Super Kampong 2050:

Design Exploration 05: North-East Direction Wind Flow Analysis

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Velocity (m/s) 18.541 16.057 13.110 9.270

Plan View

0

Velocity (m/s) 18.541 16.057 13.110 9.270 0

View 01

Velocity (m/s) 18.541 16.057 13.110 9.270 0

View 02

For the wind analysis in the North-East direction, a wind tunnel effect is also created with the height differences of its form. The second iteration shows an enhancement of this effect especially on the top vertical block where wind speeds are the highest.

157


Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore Super Kampong 2050:

11 The Proposal: Super Kampong 2050

01 Edible Park

02 Green Food Street

FOOD PRODUCTION

05 Urban Farm Pod

FOOD PRODUCTION FOOD FOOD PRODUCTION PRODUCTION

FOOD PRODUCTION

06 Indoor Farm Pod

11 Food Workshops

Bio Mass Plant

01 Edible Park

02 Green Food Street 05 Urban FarmPlant Pod 06 Indoor 07 Plug-in Farm Pod Edible 01 Edible Park01 Park 02 Pod Green 02 Green Food Street Street 05 Urban 05 Urban Farm Pod Pod 06 Indoor 06 Indoor Farm Farm Pod PodFarm 07 Plug-in 07 Plug-in Farm Pod Pod 02 Green Food01 Street 05Edible UrbanPark Farm 06 Indoor Farm Pod 07 Plug-in Farm Pod 03Food Green Food Bridge 04Farm Waste-to-Energy 08 Market Food Hall Pod 09Farm Communal Kitchen

FOOD CONSUMPTION

11 Food Workshops

Bio Mass Plant

03 Green Food Bridge

158

Bio Mass Plant Bio Mass Plant

12 Food Delivery 12 Food Delivery Delivery 12 Food Delivery 11 Food Workshops12 Food 11 Food 11 Food Workshops Workshops

Bio Mass Plant

10 Pop-up Convenienc 10 Pop-up 10 Pop-up Convenience Convenience 10Hall Pop-up Green Food Bridge 04 Waste-to-Energy Plant 08 Market FoodConvenience Hall 09 Communal 03 Green 03 Plant Green Food03 Food Bridge Bridge 04 Waste-to-Energy 04 Waste-to-Energy Plant Plant 08Kitchen Market 08 Market Food Food Hall 09 Communal 09 Communal Kitchen Kitchen Kitchen 04 Waste-to-Energy 08 Market Food Hall 09 Communal StoreStore Store Store FOOD CONSUMPTION

FOOD FOOD CONSUMPTION CONSUMPTION FOOD CONSUMPTION


Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

The proposal of a Super Kampong 2050 encompasses the concept of creating various green spines each with its own unique function to bring the community together.

159


Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

SUPER KAMPONG 2050

160


Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

161


Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

11.1 DESIGN PROPOSAL In this final exploration, an urban planning approach was taken to better fit the scheme of a vertical kampong into the 'wedge' site along the mangroves. From Labrador Park MRT, a series of 90â ° and 135â ° 'Superblocks' were developed as seen below. These 'Superblocks' are angled such that it creates a close-knitted internal courtyard that has a wind tunnel effect within each community. In addition to that, the series of Kampong Superblocks are aligned along the Mangroves creek to allow a strong relation to its waterbody. The Superblocks are designed to have various heights to allow optimal wind ventilation and sunshading for the residents. Food growing areas are also assigned according to its specific growing conditions such as its preferred steepness of growth as well as its environmental condition.

55m

A 45m

B

inner courtyard

30m 45m

C

45m 30m

Developmental process - Plan View - Series of schematic Kampong Superblocks

162


Super Kampong 2050:

Lines were drawn to allow a series of

formed along the wedge site along 02 are the mangroves

height to achieve better wind 03 varying ventilation and visual connection

Superblocks opposite each other are of

is designed to bridge all Super04 storeys bocks together as an active food com-

Superblocks were lifted at various nodes as a lower ground intervention and reaction to its surrounding context

Focusing on the block nearest to Bukit Chermin Hill, a series of modular living units and food pods were angled to optimize daylight and connectivity each other other

05

Intermediate meeting spine at every 10 munity

06

Developmental process - Axonometric View - Series of schematic Kampong Superblocks

163

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Clusters of high-densed food villages

to be aligned parallel to 01 Superblocks the site's Mangrove's creek


Falsecolor visualization on 6th June 2016, 10am.

865 cd/m2

425 cd/m2

664 cd/m2 212 cd/m2 6072 cd/m2

164 cd/m

2

256 cd/m2

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

11.2 DAYLIGHT SIMULATIONS

cd/m2

5810 cd/m2

6275 cd/m2

950 850 750 650 550 450 350 250 150 50

3471 cd/m2

808 cd/m2

942 cd/m2 2659 cd/m2

646 cd/m2 2711 cd/m2

674 cd/m2 838 cd/m2 323 cd/m2

1137 cd/m2 509 cd/m2

157 cd/m2 208 cd/m2

746 cd/m

2

470 cd/m2

cd/m2 950 850 750 650 550 450 350 250 150 50

815 cd/m2 2644 cd/m2 963 cd/m2 2702 cd/m2

744 cd/m2

555 cd/m2 347 cd/m

2

757 cd/m2 699 cd/m2

564 cd/m2 214 cd/m2 87 cd/m2

733 cd/m2 3469 cd/m

2

499 cd/m

2

164

cd/m2

454 cd/m2

235 cd/m2

191 cd/m2

950 850 750 650 550 450 350 250 150 50


Super Kampong 2050:

Daylight visualization on 6th June 2016, 10am

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

In this design exploration, a daylight testing was done on the entire Kampong Superblock massing to understand its effects on its surrounding site. As seen, inner courtyards are shield from direct sunlight and this cultivates a cool and breezy food community along the strip. The perimeters of the Sueprblocks will be used as outdoor farming areas as they are prone to be exposed to direct sunlight as compared to the living units facing inwards.

165


Falsecolor visualization on 6th June 2016, 10am.

5863 cd/m2

487 cd/m2

314 cd/m2 261 cd/m2 5737 cd/m2

314 cd/m2 581 cd/m2

449 cd/m

v

581 cd/m2

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

11.2 DAYLIGHT SIMULATIONS (contd')

468 cd/m2

cd/m2

377 cd/m2

2

950 850 750 650 550 450 350 250 150 50

385 cd/m2

311 cd/m2 896 cd/m2 309 cd/m2

381 cd/m2

623 cd/m2

180 cd/m2

323 cd/m2

857 cd/m2

96 cd/m2 1870 cd/m2

948 cd/m2

333 cd/m2

cd/m2

186 cd/m2

730 cd/m2

403 cd/m2

950 850 750 650 550 450 350 250 150 50

836 cd/m2

898 cd/m2 886 cd/m2 3979 cd/m2

1149 cd/m2 159 cd/m2

347 cd/m2

587 cd/m2 699 cd/m2

153 cd/m2 438 cd/m2

908 cd/m2

3469 cd/m2 275 cd/m2

198 cd/m2

113 cd/m2 558 cd/m2

383 cd/m2 431 cd/m2

166

cd/m2

82 cd/m2

548 cd/m

2

648 cd/m2

950 850 750 650 550 450 350 250 150 50


Super Kampong 2050:

Daylight visualization on 6th June 2016, 10am

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

In this second iteration, elements such as breezy courtyards as well as maximizing sunlight on outdoor farming areas on the perimeters were improved. As seen in the simulations, areas where there is shade during most of the day were dedicated to building living units while perimeters facing both east and west as well as the top terraces were dedicated to be farming areas for food that requires full sun exposure (i.e. cucumbers and tomatoes)

167


B

'

B

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

A

Super Kampong 2050:

11.3 SITE PLAN

'

A

view of the village's mangrove boulevard

168


Super Kampong 2050:

11.4 EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

169


Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

11.5 COMMUNITY LIVING UNITS

Village's Block A | 10th storey floor plan

village's multi-tiered spine for community food living

170


Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Flexibility of living units for to form a various community villages

Section BB' 171


Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

11.6 SECTION

172


Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

view of the village's rooftop spine

Section AA'

173


Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore Super Kampong 2050:

12

Expansion into the Urban Scale - Singapore

01 Edible Park

02 Green Food Street

05 Urban Farm Pod

FOOD PRODUCTION FOOD FOOD PRODUCTION PRODUCTION

FOOD PRODUCTION

FOOD PRODUCTION

06 Indoor Farm Pod

11 Food Workshops

Bio Mass Plant

01 Edible Park

02 Green Food Street 05 Urban FarmPlant Pod 06 Indoor 07 Plug-in Farm Pod Edible 01 Edible Park01 Park 02 Pod Green 02 Green Food Street Street 05 Urban 05 Urban Farm Pod Pod 06 Indoor 06 Indoor Farm Farm Pod PodFarm 07 Plug-in 07 Plug-in Farm Pod Pod 02 Green Food01 Street 05Edible UrbanPark Farm 06 Indoor Farm Pod 07 Plug-in Farm Pod 03Food Green Food Bridge 04Farm Waste-to-Energy 08 Market Food Hall Pod 09Farm Communal Kitchen

FOOD CONSUMPTION

11 Food Workshops

Bio Mass Plant

03 Green Food Bridge

174

Bio Mass Plant Bio Mass Plant

12 Food Delivery 12 Food Delivery Delivery 12 Food Delivery 11 Food Workshops12 Food 11 Food 11 Food Workshops Workshops

Bio Mass Plant

10 Pop-up Convenienc 10 Pop-up 10 Pop-up Convenience Convenience 10Hall Pop-up Green Food Bridge 04 Waste-to-Energy Plant 08 Market FoodConvenience Hall 09 Communal 03 Green 03 Plant Green Food03 Food Bridge Bridge 04 Waste-to-Energy 04 Waste-to-Energy Plant Plant 08Kitchen Market 08 Market Food Food Hall 09 Communal 09 Communal Kitchen Kitchen Kitchen 04 Waste-to-Energy 08 Market Food Hall 09 Communal StoreStore Store Store FOOD CONSUMPTION

FOOD FOOD CONSUMPTION CONSUMPTION FOOD CONSUMPTION


Super Kampong 2050: Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

In this section, the idea of expanding the vertical food kampong to the rest of Singapore on an urban scale is explored. 'Food Node' Systems in both primary and secondary scales are strategically proposed according to the variety community types in Singapore.

175


Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

12.1 URBAN SCALE - EXPANSION OF THE FOOD NODE

NORTH REGION

Super Kampong 2050:

EAST REGION WEST REGION

SOUTH REGION

Keppel as Start-up Food Node in South Region Keppel, located in the South Region, is used as a test bed and a case study to evaluate its suitability of building a food community to the rest of Singapore's regions. Looking at the urban scale of Singapore, the proposed ‘food node’ system within Keppel's Vertical Food Kampong could be implemented to different communities around Singapore to drive the vision of creating food self-sufficiency on a nationwide scale. The diversification of ‘food nodes’ will be unique and distinct according to where the ‘food node’ system is located. These food node locations would enhance the embodiment of the community’s diversity and unique identity.

176


Super Kampong 2050:

Urban

01 Edible Park

+

GreenPark Food Street 0102Edible

Building

05 Urban Farm Pod 02 Green Food Street

FOOD PRODUCTION

06 Indoor 05 Urban FarmFarm Pod Pod

11 Food Workshops

Bio Mass Plant

03 Green Food Bridge

FOOD PRODUCTION

07 Plug-in Farm Pod 06 Indoor Farm Pod

12 Food Delivery 11 Food Workshops

07 Plug-in Farm Pod

12 Food Delivery

Bio Mass Plant

04 Waste-to-Energy 08 Market FoodPlant Hall 03 Green Food Bridge Plant 04 Waste-to-Energy

09 Communal Kitchen 08 Market Food Hall

FOOD CONSUMPTION

10 Pop-upKitchen Convenience 09 Communal Store

10 Pop-up Convenience Store

FOOD CONSUMPTION

SUTD Food Node Urban

Westgate Food Node Urban

+

Building

FOOD PRODUCTION

01 Edible Park

FOOD PRODUCTION

+

GreenPark Food Street 0102Edible

Building

05 Urban Farm Pod 02 Green Food Street

FOOD PRODUCTION

06 Indoor 05 Urban FarmFarm Pod Pod

11 Food Workshops 01 Edible Park

GreenPark Food Street 0102Edible

05 Urban Farm Pod 02 Green Food Street

06 Indoor 05 Urban FarmFarm Pod Pod

07 Plug-in Farm Pod 06 Indoor Farm Pod

03 Green Food Bridge

12 Food Delivery

Bio Mass Plant

12 Food Delivery 11 Food Workshops

09 Communal Kitchen 08 Market Food Hall

10 Pop-upKitchen Convenience 09 Communal Store FOOD CONSUMPTION

Bio Mass Plant

04 Waste-to-Energy 08 Market FoodPlant Hall 03 Green Food Bridge Plant 04 Waste-to-Energy

10 Pop-upKitchen Convenience 09 Communal Store

09 Communal Kitchen 08 Market Food Hall

FOOD CONSUMPTION

10 Pop-up Convenience Store

FOOD CONSUMPTION

Keppel Food Node Urban

01 Edible Park

+

GreenPark Food Street 0102Edible

Building

05 Urban Farm Pod 02 Green Food Street

FOOD PRODUCTION

06 Indoor 05 Urban FarmFarm Pod Pod

11 Food Workshops

Bio Mass Plant

03 Green Food Bridge

Primary Food Nodes in 4 Regions

07 Plug-in Farm Pod

12 Food Delivery

Bio Mass Plant

04 Waste-to-Energy 08 Market FoodPlant Hall 03 Green Food Bridge Plant 04 Waste-to-Energy

FOOD CONSUMPTION

03 Green Food Bridge

07 Plug-in Farm Pod 06 Indoor Farm Pod

07 Plug-in Farm Pod

Bio Mass Plant

12 Food Delivery 11 Food Workshops

11 Food Workshops

FOOD PRODUCTION

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Woodlands Food Node

FOOD PRODUCTION

07 Plug-in Farm Pod 06 Indoor Farm Pod

12 Food Delivery 11 Food Workshops

07 Plug-in Farm Pod

12 Food Delivery

Bio Mass Plant

04 Waste-to-Energy 08 Market FoodPlant Hall 03 Green Food Bridge Plant 04 Waste-to-Energy

09 Communal Kitchen 08 Market Food Hall

FOOD CONSUMPTION

10 Pop-upKitchen Convenience 09 Communal Store

10 Pop-up Convenience Store

FOOD CONSUMPTION

The diagram above shows how the food nodes could be deployed to different regions around Singapore. A primary food node is defined as a location selected where urban and building scaled food systems are implemented with aims towards food self-sufficiency and bringing the larger community together. As such, these primary food nodes identified in the 4 separate regions is according to the potential of its existing site as well as the community's diversity from each other. Keppel will be the primary food node for the South Region which would cultivate a multi-generational living within a fast-paced lifestyle. In the West Region, the Jurong Westgate would be its primary food node that incorporates the industrial hub as an integrated community. The North Region sees Woodlands-Admiralty as a seniors intensive food node that allows the welfare of these elderly to be taken care of while using food as a means to do so. Lastly, the East Region sees SUTD as its primary food node where students will be the main contributors to the food production cycle within their campus.

177

10 Pop-up Convenience Store


Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

12.1 URBAN SCALE - EXPANSION OF THE FOOD NODE

Yishun Food Node

Woodlands Food Node

Seletar Food Node

Super Kampong 2050:

Choa Chu Kang Food Node

Punggol Waterway Food Node

Downtown East Food Node SUTD Food Node Bishan Food Node

Westgate Food Node Bedok Food Node

Holland Village Food Node Jurong Island Food Node

Keppel Food Node

Expansion of Secondary Food Nodes After identifying the primary food nodes that will be using urban and building scale food systems, secondary food nodes could also be deployed. These secondary food nodes would incorporate the 'unit' and 'object' scale food systems - making it a more portable and 'plug-in' system. It will be a way of enhancing food as the main binder and 're-connector' for community living without demolishing the existing buildings. For example, a secondary food node could be deployed in Orchard Road, where a pop-up convenience stall could be plugged-in to the existing high-rise shopping malls to give its location a better sense of community. Through various scales of food nodes implementation, Singapore would be able to achieve a family of diversified food communities all over Singapore.

178

Orchard Food Node East Coast Food Node


Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

179


In my proposal, a vertical food kampong should also be able to contribute economically to the residents as well as the when it is expanded nationwide. Creation of jobs through inner circle community production should therefore be considered. As seen below, an estimated calculation of elements according to each food that would be produced within the Vertical Food Kampong. This setup allows the community to understand its economical benefit to a new typology of living and hopefully brings about a holistic perspective to the future vertical urbanism in Singapore. Food Items

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

12.2 URBAN SCALE - ECONOMIC RETURNS

Requirements for plant growth

Food growing area needed

No. of farm pods

Total amount of produce (per day) (per year)

-

33,700m2

337 farm pods

-

-

10 plants: 0.025m2

8.25m2

1 farm pod

5 cups

1,825 cups

20 plants: 6.0m2

4,950m2

50 farm pods

200 cups

73,000 cups

5 plants: 0.2m2

660m2

7 farm pods

20 cups

7,300 cups

6 plants: 5.4m2

4,455m2

50 farm pods

90 cups

32,850 cups

5 plants: 0.2m2

660m2

7 farm pods

10 plants: 4.0m2

13,200m2

132 farm pods

917 cups

334,583 cups

10 plants: 0.025m2

8.25m2

1 farm pod

5 cups

1,825 cups

1 plant: 1.5m2

4,950m2

50 farm pods

16 cups

5,615 cups

plant-based meat & egg

coriander

tomatoes

lettuce

cucumber

20 cups

73,000 cups

kale

strawberry

basil

mushroom 180


Super Kampong 2050:

Note: - Calculated based on 3,500 residents living in the proposed Vertical Food Kampong - A plant-base diet is considered and luxury items such as fresh poultry and red meat are excluded in the proposal's calculation

Weight of produce (per day) (per year)

No. of manhours needed

No. of employees

Potential earning amount (per day) (per year)

-

-

14,008 hrs

1,751 employees

$21.47

$7,836.55

5 kg

1,825 kg

40 hrs

5 employees

$23.00

$8,395

28 kg

10,220 kg

2,000 hrs

250 employees

$38.75

$14,143.75

8 kg

2,920 kg

280 hrs

35 employees

$32.00

$11,680

27 kg

9,855 kg

2,000 hrs

250 employees

$67.50

$24,637.50

280 hrs

35 employees

8 kg

2,920 kg

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

- Size of 1 farm pod = 10m x 10m

$32.00

$11,680

11 kg

4,015 kg

5,280 hrs

660 employees

$48.43

$17,678

5 kg

1,825 kg

40 hrs

5 employees

$22.25

$8,121.25

0.6 kg

219 kg

2,000 hrs

250 employees

$10.50

$3,832.50

181


References

Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

13

182


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Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

Koolhaas, R. (1994). Delirious New York: A retroactive manifesto for Manhattan. New York: Monacelli Press.

Super Kampong 2050:

13.1 REFERENCES


Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

13.1 REFERENCES (contd') Brown, A. (2013, September 17). Alton Brown on the End of Meat as We Know It. Retrieved May 06, 2016, from http://www.wired. com/2013/09/fakemeat/

13.2 CASE STUDY REFERENCES Archdaily Oasia Downtown / WOHA. (2012). Retrieved February 21, 2016, from http://www.archdaily.com/215376/oasia-downtown-woha SkyVille @ Dawson / WOHA. (2012). Retrieved February 26, 2016, from http://www.archdaily.com/215386/skyville-dawson-woha The Interlace. (n.d.). Retrieved February 26, 2016, from http://www.theinterlace.com.sg/ The Interlace - Buro Ole Scheeren. (2011). Retrieved February 26, 2016, from http://buro-os.com/the-interlace/ Active beautiful clean waters: Design guidelines. (2014). Singapore: PUB Singapore. Designboom, Moshe safdie designs fractal-based sky habitat for Singapore. (2013). Retrieved February 27, 2016, from http://www. designboom.com/architecture/moshe-safdie-designs-fractal-based-sky-habitat-for-singapore/ Moshe safdie's sky habitat nears completion in Singapore. (2015). Retrieved February 27, 2016, from http://www.designboom.com/ architecture/moshe-safdie-architects-sky-habitat-singapore-construction-03-20-2015/ A modern kampung. (n.d.). Retrieved March 25, 2016, from http://www10.hdb.gov.sg/hdbvsf/eampu07p.nsf/0/14JULBTOWLM_ page_6147/$file/about.htm#about CTBUH Video Library. (2014). Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://global.ctbuh.org/video/2023 SPARK Proposes Vertical Farming Hybrid to House Singapore's Aging Population. (2014). Retrieved April 09, 2016, from http://www. archdaily.com/573783/spark-proposes-vertical-farming-hybrid-to-house-singapore-s-aging-population-2 Greenroofs.com Projects - Khoo Teck Puat Hospital (KTPH). (2010). Retrieved April 10, 2016, from http://www.greenroofs.com/projects/pview.php?id=1622

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Lauber, W., Cheret, P., Ferstl, K., & Ribbeck, E. (2005). Tropical architecture: Sustainable and humane building in Africa, Latin America, and South-East Asia. Munich: Prestel. Anderson, K. (n.d.). Design energy simulation for architects: Guide to 3D graphics

Biomass (n.d.). Retrieved February 27, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomass Sustainable Architecture (n.d.). Retrieved February 24, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_architecture Solar Photovoltaic Systems. (n.d.). Retrieved February 24, 2016, from https://www.ema.gov.sg/Solar_Photovoltaic_Systems.aspx Preparing Singapore: Areas of Work in Progress. (n.d.). Retrieved February 24, 2016, from https://www.nccs.gov.sg/nccs-2012/preparing-singapore-areas-of-work-in-progress.html Hoban, A. (2009). Concept design guidelines for water sensitive urban design. Brisbane: SEQ Healthy Waterways Partnership. ABC Waters Design Guidelines. (n.d.). Retrieved February 27, 2016, from http://www.pub.gov.sg/abcwaters/abcwatersdesignguidelines/Pages/ABCDesignGuidelines.aspx Beach road towers by foster partners take shape in Singapore. (2015). Retrieved February 26, 2016, from http://www.designboom.com/ architecture/norman-foster-and-partners-south-beach-road-singapore-towers-construction-03-23-2015/ Beach Road | Foster Partners. (n.d.). Retrieved February 26, 2016, from http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/beach-road/ Solaris - Singapore Science Centre - e-architect. (2012). Retrieved February 26, 2016, from http://www.e-architect.co.uk/singapore/ solaris-singapore Archello - How It's Made. Discover the products, stories and building teams behind the project. (2014). Retrieved February 26, 2016, from http://www.archello.com/en/project/solaris/1509931 Bullivant, L. (2011). Ken Yeang: Eco skyscrapers. Mulgrave, Vic.: Images Pub.

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Natural ventilation in non-domestic buildings. (2005). London: Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers.

Super Kampong 2050:

13.3 APPENDIX REFERENCES


Super Kampong 2050:

Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore

13.4 GLOSSARY TERMS Aeroponics Farming: A process of growing plants in an air or mist environment without the use of soil or an aggregate medium. Aquaponics Farming: A synergistic growing technique in which fish and plants are grown together in the same systems. Biomass Plant: A biomass plant is a source of energy that is derived from waste products of living, or recently living organisms. Communal Kitchen: Residents would buy essentials from the Market Food Hall to have a community activity of cooking various dishes for collectively. Community Farms: A particular network, or association of individuals that actively participate in growing their own food for consumption. Community Matrix Evaluation: The amount of community space allocated within a building’s site area. Edible Park: Urban parks that allow the growth of edible plants, where the community would gather for communal activities as well as harvesting time. Farm-to-table: A system of locally produced food within the same area with components such as harvesting, storage, processing, packaging, sales and consumption. Food Computer: A controlled-environment agriculture technology platform that uses robotic systems and technology to control and monitor climate, energy, and plant growth inside of a specialized growing chamber. Food Kampong: A multi-layered community that focuses on harvesting their own food for the community’s consumption, while promoting diversity through the cultivation of trust, support and togetherness Food Node: A prominent intersection point that brings the community and the people together through the means of food. Green Food Street: Intensified agricultural systems along circulatory areas which allows the harvesting of fruit trees. Green Plot Ratio: The amount of landscaped surfaces compared to a building’s site area. Ground Datum: Earth’s solid surface used as a reference point towards building vertically. Hyperdensity: A built environment that supports a sudden influx of human population within a fixed base plane. Indoor Farm Pod: A controlled indoor environment to promote the cultivation of food. An online IOT sensors would assist residents to know when their crops are ready for harvest. Kampong Spirit: Also known as the ‘gotong royong’ spirit, it’s an intangible aspect of community building and the spirit of trust and helpfulness within their neighbourhood. Kampong/Village: A liveable close-knitted community that embraces density and promotes diversity through the cultivation of trust, support and togetherness. Light Farming: A controlled indoor environment that uses UV LED lights together with necessary nutrients for the growth production of vegetables. Market Food Hall: A ‘farm-to-table’ market food hall allows the community to buy food products which are grown from both the Indoor and Urban Farm Pods. An online marketplace would be created to monitor products available. Multi-generational Family: Consist of more than two generations living under the same roof. Plant-based Egg: Created from a mixture of easy-to-grow-plants that doesn’t require a chicken to be part of the growth equation. Plant-based Meat: Created from a mixture of soy protein, pea protein isolates, yeast and other ingredients that doesn’t require cattle to be part of the growth equation. Plant-based Rice: Reinventing large paddy fields needed to grow wheat through the idea of increasing the process of photosynthesis and decreasing the number of unproductive tillers within a vertical setting. Plug-in Farm Pod: Living units will have an integrated plug-in farm pod that allows the cultivation of private farming mainly for their personal consumption.

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Qualitative principles: Descriptive information that should be applied to achieve a certain quality of space

Rainwater Harvesting: The collection of rainwater from roofs and podiums above- or below-ground storage systems for re-use. Self-Sufficiency Matrix Evaluation: A buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s capacity to provide its own energy, food and water. Sky Transfer Network: Vertical and/or diagonal cores that allows accessibility to different layers of program within the community. Solar Energy: Clean energy production through the conversion of sunlight into electricity by using photovoltaic solar cells. Sustainable Farming: An integrated system of food production that is sustainable towards mankind as well as the earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s natural resources. Technological methods would be implemented to allow a decrease in land use and an increase in the harvestâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s quality and quantity. Traditional Farming: A type of farming that uses techniques developed over decades or centuries to ensure vast yield of food produce with a large use of land area and natural resources. Urban Farm Pod: Collective urban scaled farming food node, where the community will be involved in monitoring the harvest. Vertical Kampong: A multi-layered community that embraces density and promotes diversity through the cultivation of trust, support and togetherness.

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Quantitative principles: Numerical information that should be applied to achieve a certain quality of space

Super Kampong 2050:

Pop-up convenience store: Similar to a mini-mart, these pop-up convenience stores are located near to the living units. These 24-7 stores would carry items such that it provides convenience to the residents.


Towards a self-sufficient vertical urbanism in Singapore Super Kampong 2050:

http://cargocollective.com/linafong | https://issuu.com/linamusing lina.fongml@gmail.com | +65 98500759

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Architecture Masters Hyperdensity Thesis: The Food Kampong 2050