THE LENS WRITTEN AND DESIGNED BY
Designed and edited by Lily Stockley Printed and bound by Ripe Digital, Bristol
Through The Lens
History behind 35mm photography
02 - 11
13 - 25
26 - 31
My Photography/Gloucester Docks
32 - 43
44 - 48
Peoples favourite images
49 - 57
Photographers that influenced me
58 - 69
One object 3 images
70 - 73
Film to digital
74 - 77
Statistics and stats
78 - 83
INTRODUCTION The first time I can remember holding a 35mm camera was when I was about 11 years old. Using dads Canon to capture an image of Mum and Dad in St. Ives. At the age of 17 I began studying photography and this was when I learnt all the basic techniques such as: loading films, developing film, test strips, apertures, shutter speeds, and so on. I can vividly remember my teacher showing the class photographs taken by David Bailey and this was what inspired me to develop my skills in black and white 35mm portrait photography. So what is photography? This was the question I was asked. I thought its just a picture that you can look at whether its a memory or meant something more. My teacher replied; Photography is an art that is produced through light. Photographs capture a moment thatâ€™s gone forever, impossible to reproduce. After hearing this I never took a photograph without thinking again. The first photograph I took in sixth form was with a pinhole camera. We created a pinhole camera by using a round tin, sticking a piece of photo paper to the bottom of the tin, creating a pin prick on the lid of the tin and covering this hole with duck tape. Taking this tin outside and peeling the tape of for 5 seconds projected an inverted image onto the fast developing photo paper. We then developed the image in the darkroom.
William Henry Fox Talbot The Negative/Positive Process
NAME: William Henry Fox Talbot OCCUPATION: Inventor BIRTH DATE: February 11, 1800 DEATH DATE: September 17, 1877 PLACE OF BIRTH: Dorset, England PLACE OF DEATH: Wiltshire, England
t the same time as Frenchman Niepce and Daguerre were experimenting with early techniques of image capture, the English gentleman and scientist, William Henry Fox Talbot, was researching the same field, but via a different route. And although Daguerre was the first to announce his process to the world, it was Talbot’s invention that was to form the basis of all photography up until the introduction of electronic imagery. In 1934, Talbot invented the salted paper print. He impregnated writing paper by coating it, first with common salt and, after drying, with a coat of silver nitrate. This formed silver chloride on the paper’s surface, which proved to be more sensitive to light than silver nitrate. This ‘salt’ paper allowed him to make cameraless images of botanical specimens and other objects, such as lace. He achieved this through contact printing, which produced a negative version of the original. The coated paper simply darkened on exposure to light, so forming the image without the need for development. Talbot could then make a positive image by contactprinting the negative, although his material did not yet produce a result of acceptable density or detail. He increased the sensitivity of the paper through repeated coatings and experimented with small cameras to make negatives. In 1839, the success of the daguerreotype process in France gave Talbot fresh impetus, daguerreotypes appeared to have the brighter future, as the images were much more refined and detailed than salt prints. However, Talbot discovered that, by using iodised paper and brushing it with gallic acid after exposure, the ‘latent’ image was ‘developed’ and a negative
produced. A positive could then be made by contact-printing on to salted paper. He called this new process the ‘calotype’ (from the Greek for ‘beautiful print’), and patented it in 1841. Talbot’s work was greatly assisted by the astronomer and chemist, Sir John Herschel, who advised Talbot that, by waxing the paper negative, its improved transparency would aid production of a superior positive print. Mostly important, Herschel had discovered that sodium thiosulphate (hypo) would dissolve silver salts and so could be used to remove the undeveloped silver halide from the printing rendering it permanent. Thus were established the principles from which all photography would follow: a scene is focused and a latent image formed, which is then chemically developed. The resulting ‘negative’ can then be used to make countless identical ‘positive’ prints. It is for that reason, in particular, that Talbot is widely considered to be the father of photography.
George Eastman NAME: George Eastman OCCUPATION: Entrepreneur, Inventor BIRTH DATE: July 12, 1854 DEATH DATE: March 14, 1932 PLACE OF BIRTH: Waterville, New York PLACE OF DEATH: Rochester, New York
e was a high school dropout, judged “not especially gifted” when measured against the academic standards of the day. He was poor, but even as a young man, he took it upon himself to support his widowed mother and two sisters, one of whom was severely handicapped. He began his business career as a 14-year old office boy in an insurance company and followed that with work as a clerk in a local bank.
His first job, as a messenger boy with an insurance firm, paid $3 a week. A year later, he became office boy for another insurance firm. Through his own initiative, he soon took charge of policy filing and even wrote policies. His pay increased to $5 per week. But, even with that increase, his income was not enough to meet family expenses. He studied accounting at home evenings to get a better paying job. In 1874, after five years in the insurance business, he was hired as a junior clerk at He was George Eastman, and the Rochester Savings Bank. His his ability to overcome financial salary tripled -- to more than $15 adversity, his gift for organization a week. and management, and his lively and inventive mind made him a Trials of an Amateur successful entrepreneur by his mid- When Eastman was 24, he made twenties, and enabled him to direct plans for a vacation to Santo his Eastman Kodak Company to Domingo. When a co-worker the forefront of American industry. suggested he make a record of the trip, Eastman bought a photographic outfit with all the Boyhood The youngest of three children, paraphernalia of the wet plate George Eastman was born to days. The camera was as big as a Maria Kilbourn and George microwave oven and needed a heavy Washington Eastman on July 12, tripod. And he carried a tent so 1854 in the village of Waterville, that he could spread photographic some 20 miles southwest of Utica, emulsion on glass plates before in upstate New York. The house on exposing them, and develop the the old Eastman homestead, where exposed plates before they dried his father was born and where out. There were chemicals, glass George spent his early years, has tanks, a heavy plate holder, and since been moved to the Genesee a jug of water. The complete outfit Country Museum in Mumford, “was a pack-horse load,” as he described it. Learning how to use N.Y., outside of Rochester. it to take pictures cost $5. When George was five years old, Eastman did not make the his father moved the family to Santo Domingo trip. But he did Rochester. There the elder Eastman become completely absorbed devoted his energy to establishing in photography and sought to Eastman Commercial College. simplify the complicated process. Then tragedy struck. George’s father died, the college failed and A self-portrait on experimental the family became financially film. He read in British magazines distressed. George continued that photographers were making school until he was 14. Then, their own gelatin emulsions. forced by family circumstances, he Plates coated with this emulsion remained sensitive after they had to find employment.
were dry and could be exposed at leisure. Using a formula taken from one of these British journals, Eastman began making gelatin emulsions. He worked at the bank during the day and experimented at home in his mother’s kitchen at night. His mother said that some nights Eastman was so tired he couldn’t undress, but slept on a blanket on the floor beside the kitchen stove. After three years of photographic experiments, Eastman had a formula that worked. By 1880, he had not only invented a dry plate formula, but had patented a machine for preparing large numbers of the plates. He quickly recognized the possibilities of making dry plates for sale to other photographers.
Birth of a Company
In April 1880, Eastman leased the third floor of a building on State Street in Rochester, and began to manufacture dry plates for sale. One of his first purchases was a second-hand engine priced at $125. “I really needed only a one horse-power,” he later recalled. “This was a two horse-power, but I thought perhaps business would grow up to it. It was worth a chance, so I took it.” As his young company grew, it faced total collapse at least once when dry plates in the hands of dealers went bad. Eastman recalled them and replaced them with a good product. “Making good on those plates took our last dollar,” he said. “But what we had left was more important -- reputation.” Eastman’s first office was on the third floor of this building on State Street, in Rochester.”The idea gradually dawned on me,” he later said, “that what we were
doing was not merely making dry plates, but that we were starting out to make photography an everyday affair.” Or as he described it more succinctly “to make the camera as convenient as the pencil.” Eastman’s experiments were directed to the use of a lighter and more flexible support than glass. His first approach was to coat the photographic emulsion on paper and then load the paper in a roll holder. The holder was used in view cameras in place of the holders for glass plates. The first film advertisements in 1885 stated that “shortly there will be introduced a new sensitive film which it is believed will prove an economical and convenient substitute for glass dry plates both for outdoor and studio work.” This system of photography using roll holders was immediately successful. However, paper was not entirely satisfactory as a carrier for the emulsion because the grain of the paper was likely to be reproduced in the photo. Eastman’s solution was to coat the paper with a layer of plain, soluble gelatin, and then with a layer of insoluble light-sensitive gelatin. After exposure and development, the gelatin bearing the image was stripped from the paper, transferred to a sheet of clear gelatin, and varnished with collodion -- a cellulose solution that forms a tough, flexible film. As he perfected transparent roll film and the roll holder, Eastman changed the whole direction of his work and established the base on which his success in amateur photography would be built. He later said: “When we started out with our scheme of film photography, we expected that everybody who used glass plates would take up films. But we found that the number which did so was
relatively small. In order to make one of the company’s more valued a large business we would have to assets. reach the general public.” Thanks to Eastman’s inventive genius, anyone could now take Advertising Eastman’s faith in the importance pictures with a handheld camera of advertising, both to the company simply by pressing a button. He made photographers of us all. and to the public, was unbounded. The very first Kodak products were advertised in leading papers “The word “Kodak” and periodicals of the day -- with was first registered as a ads written by Eastman himself. trademark in 1888.” Eastman coined the slogan, “you press the button, we do the rest,” Benefiting the Employee when he introduced the Kodak Beyond his inventive genius, camera in 1888 and within a year, Eastman blended human and it became a well-known phrase. democratic qualities, with Later, with advertising managers remarkable foresight, into the and agencies carrying out his building of his business. He ideas, magazines, newspapers, believed employees should have displays and billboards bore the more than just good wages -- a way Kodak banner. of thinking that was far ahead of Space was taken at world management people of his era. expositions, and the “Kodak Girl,” with the style of her clothes and Early in his business, Eastman the camera she carried changing began planning for “dividends on every year, smiled engagingly wages” for employees. His first act, at photographers everywhere. in 1899, was the distribution of a In 1897, the word “Kodak” substantial sum of his own money sparkled from an electric sign on -- an outright gift -- to each person London’s Trafalgar Square -- one who worked for him. of the first such signs to be used in advertising. An early ad featuring a slogan Camera manufacturing in the coined by Eastman. The word 1890’s. Later he set up a “Wage “Kodak” was first registered as a Dividend,” in which each employee trademark in 1888. There has been benefited above his or her wages in some fanciful speculation, from proportion to the yearly dividend time to time, on how the name was on the company stock. The Wage originated. But the plain truth is Dividend was an innovation, and that Eastman invented it out of thin represented a large part of the air. He explained: “I devised the distribution of the company’s net name myself. The letter ‘K’ had earnings. Eastman felt that the been a favorite with me -- it seems prosperity of an organization was a strong, incisive sort of letter. It not necessarily due to inventions became a question of trying out a and patents, but more to workers’ great number of combinations of goodwill and loyalty, which in letters that made words starting turn were enhanced by forms of and ending with ‘K.’ The word profit sharing. ‘Kodak’ is the result.” Kodak’s distinctive yellow trade dress, In 1919, Eastman gave one-third which Eastman selected, is widely of his own holdings of company known throughout the world and is stock -- then worth $10 million --
to his employees. Still later came the fulfillment of what he felt was a responsibility to employees with the establishment of retirement annuity, life insurance, and disability benefit plans. With these benefits, and the Wage Dividend, employees could confidently look forward to a more secure future. Carl W. Ackerman, a biographer, writing in 1932, said: “Mr. Eastman was a giant in his day. The social philosophy, which he practiced in building his company, was not only far in advance of the thinking during his lifetime, but it will be years before it is generally recognized and accepted.”
Eastman was reticent and shunned publicity. It seems paradoxical that the man whose name is synonymous with photography should have fewer photographs taken of him than many other outstanding leaders of his time. He could walk down the main street of Rochester without being recognized. Eastman lived his philosophy, “What we do during our working hours determines what we have; what we do in our leisure hours determines what we are.” A tough competitor, hardbitten and practical in business, he was gentle and congenial at home or in the field of outdoor enjoyment. George Eastman relaxing in his library. In his yearly visits to Europe, he toured the art galleries methodically -- even cycling from place to place. By the time he could afford masterpieces, he had learned enough to say, “I never buy a painting until I have lived with it in my home.” The result: his home became the showplace of one of the finest private collections of paintings.
The Vision of a Pioneer
He was a modest, unassuming
man... an inventor, a marketer, a global visionary, a philanthropist, and a champion of inclusion.
“Mr. Eastman was a giant in his day.” Eastman died by his own hand on March 14, 1932 at the age of 77. Plagued by progressive disability resulting from a hardening of the cells in the lower spinal cord, Eastman became increasingly frustrated at his inability to maintain an active life, and set about putting his estate in order. “Eastman was a stupendous factor in the education of the modern world,” said an editorial in the New York Times following his death. “Of what he got in return for his great gifts to the human race he gave generously for their good; fostering music, endowing learning, supporting science in its researches and teaching, seeking to promote health and lessen human ills, helping the lowliest in their struggle toward the light, making his own city a center of the arts and glorifying his own country in the eyes of the world.”
Edwin Land The Polaroid
NAME: Edwin Land OCCUPATION: Inventor BIRTH DATE: May 7, 1909 DEATH DATE: March 1, 1991 PLACE OF BIRTH: Bridgeport, Connecticut PLACE OF DEATH: Cambridge, Massachusetts
hile George Eastman can be credited with the invention of snapshot photography in the 1880s. It was Edwin Land who took this to its ultimate conclusion, in developing a camera system that would produce ‘instant’ photographs. Land entered the imaging business through his research into polarising materials. The principle of light polarisation was well understood and had many application: yet there was no know way of producing such materials economically. Land’s breakthrough was to devise a way yo make a sheet of film containing millions of microscopic polarising crystals, which, in the manufacturing process were made to align with each other, so extending their polarising quality to the entire sheet. In 1932, he set up a commercial laboratory to exploit this research with his physics tutor from Harvard which, in 1937, became the Polaroid Corporation. Land’s invention of the ‘instant’ camera was in response to his young daughter wondering why she couldn’t immediately see the snapshots he would make of her. In 1947, he demonstrated the first instant camera system: it used unique film packs, a roll of negative and one for the positive print which carried pods of developing agent. After exposure, development took place in the camera: the negative and positive were squeezed together with the reagent sandwiched between them, and the image transferred from one to the other via the process of diffusion transfer. After a minute, the two were peeled
apart and a sepia print revealed. The Land camera went on sale at a Boston department store in the run-up to christmas 1948. Customers were so impressed that the entire initial production run of 57 cameras and film were sold on the first day. Polacolor film introduced colour to instant photography in 1963 and, over the years, many different camera models appeared – some snapshot, others for professional and scientific applications. In the mid – 1970s, Kodak came out with a competitor, but the patent lawyers made sure the competition was shortlived.; Fuji was later and more fortunate: the company still produces an instant-film product for professional use. Indeed Polaroid’s instant-print products were an essential tools of the trade among professionals for many years, in particular studio photographers wishing to check light setups before committing the shot to film. For the professional, the relatively high cost per print was easily offset against the time and money saved; and, despite the high cost, massmarket demand held up through a combination of the appeal of the instant snapshot and the fact that Polaroid had a monopoly. Until, that is, digital photography came along, with even quicker results and no film costs at all. In developing a system that produced instantly viewable results, Edwin Land continued the popularisation of photography that George Eastman had begun with the original Kodak camera.
IN THE DARKROOM STEP BY STEP GUIDE
1. SET UP Set out the film and equipment in a logical order, so that you will be able to find them in the dark. You need only the equipment to get the film out of the cassette and into the light-tight developing tank. Note: if the film end has not been wound completely into the cassette, you can trim the end and start it in the spiral in daylight. Of course the exposed part of the film must be wound on in complete darkness.
2. SOLUTIONS If you have three cylinders or plastic containers, mix up the stop bath and fixer as well. For the stop bath use 15ml of ILFOSTOP plus 285ml of water. For the fixer, use 60ml of ILFORD RAPID FIXER plus 240ml of water. Stand the three containers in a bath of water that is a couple of degrees warmer than the chosen working temperature of 20°C/68ºF.
3. PREPARING THE FILM Take hold of the cassette and your end cap remover and turn out the light. Lever the cap off the cassette, and slide the film spool part way out. Find the film‘s shaped leader, slot this through the light-trap opening, then slide the spool back.
4. LOADING THE CASSETTE Pick up the spiral and find the projecting lugs which mark the film entry point. Have these lined up and pointing towards you. Grip the end of the film and pull about 5cm/2in into the first channel, between the lugs. Pull about 30cm/1ft of film out of the cassette. Rotate the sides of the reel back and forth to wind the film into the spiral.
4. LOADING THE CASSETTE CONT. Continue with the last step until you reach the end of the film, then cut this away from the cassette spool. Give a few extra turns to wind the film all the way on. Finally, put the spiral into the developing tank and screw on the tank lid. The film is now sealed inside a lighttight container, so you can switch on the room lights.
5. DEVELOPER Start the development by pouring the developer solution smoothly, but as quickly as possible, into the tank. The developer should start at 21°C/70ºF, to allow for a slight temperature drop during processing. The tank should stand in a development dish or tray, to collect drips. Start your timer when you finish pouring.
6. AGITATION Fit the sealing cap and turn the tank upside down four times during the first 10 seconds and again for 10 seconds (that is, four inversions) at the start of every further minute to agitate the developer. Each time you invert the tank tap it on the bench to dislodge any air bubbles which may have formed on the film.
7. END DEVELOPMENT 100 DELTA PROFESSIONAL film needs 12 minutes. Therefore, 15 seconds before the 12 minute mark is reached, start to pour the developer out of the tank. This developer solution won‘t be used again, so it can be poured straight down the sink. The timer should come to 12 minutes just as you finish pouring.
8. STOP BATH AND FIXER Pour the stop bath solution (at 20°C/68ºF) into the tank. Agitate by turning the tank upside down twice. After 10 seconds, pour it out. The time in the stop bath is not critical. It must be at least 10 seconds. Zero the timer and pour in the fixer solution (also at 20°C/68ºF). Start the clock as you finish pouring, then agitate, as during development, until fixation is complete, this will take 3 minutes. Once again the time is not critical provided it is over 3 minutes.
9. WASH Now the film is fixed you can remove the tank lid. If you have running water at about 20°C/68ºF, use a piece of rubber tubing to feed this down the centre of the spiral to the bottom of the tank. Wash the film in running water for about 5 to 10 minutes. Drain the water away and refill. Invert the tank ten times. Once more drain the water away and refill.
10. RINSE AND PREPARE FOR DRYING Add 5ml of wetting agent to the final rinse water, stir briefly, then lift the film spiral out of the tank. Pull the end of the film out of the spiral, and securely attach a wooden or plastic film clip to it. (To get a tight grip you may have to double over the end of the film.)
11. SQUEEGEE Hang the film from a hook, nail or line which must be about 2m/6ft 6in off the ground. Slowly unwind the film out of the grooves of the spiral. To remove any excess water carefully run squeegee tongs or a clean piece of chamois cloth down the length of the film. (Take care as any grit caught up here will scratch the whole film.)
12. DRYING Attach a weighted film clip to the bottom end of the film, with a developing dish or tray under it for drips. Leave it to dry in a still, dust-free atmosphere. Drying can be speeded up by using a hair-dryer on a low setting, kept moving and about 30cm/1ft away from the shiny side of the film.
13. STORAGE Count the negatives: a 36-exposure film may give 37 or 38 pictures. The best way to store them is in filing sheets which take six or seven strips of six negatives, so try to cut them up in this way. (You may be able to drop a blank shot or bad exposure to do this.) Date and label the filing sheet straight away, and they are ready for making prints.
Producing a Picturegram
When producing a picturegram, you need to firstly turn off the light and pour the fixer solution over the entire piece of light sensitive paper. Layer up the paper by placing various objects on the page; for example fabric or letter transfers. Line the paper and the objects up under the photo enlarger and turn the light on to expose the image. When the paper turns grey or black switch the light off and removed all the objects from the paper. Develop the image by placing the paper into the developer solution and allow the image to appear on the paper. When the image has developed enough remove the paper and place it into the stop solution for 2 minutes. Place the image into the fixer for about 30 seconds to fix the image to the paper. Finally rinse the image under running water for about 30 seconds.
Producing a Test Strip
1. Start by putting the negative in the enlarger, get it focused, get it sized, and stop the enlarger down to ƒ8 or ƒ11. You want an aperture that’s somewhere in the middle. The size of your enlargements, and the general density of your negatives will determine exactly what aperture you start at. Smaller enlargemennts will usually take a smaller aperture, and denser negatives will usually require a larger aperture. Regardless, the first test will show you. 2. Cut a piece of paper into strips. Place the strip on the printing easel, emulsion side up, in an important area that (hopefully) has both dark shadows and highlight areas. If there doesn’t seem to be a good area with both, choose an important shadow. (We’ll establish the shadows first, and adjust for highlights later). 3. Tape the strip down, with a small piece of masking tape. Set your timer for 2 seconds. This will allow adjustment, if needed. Cover about 4/5ths of the paper with your board. Make sure you use opaque board- not another piece of photo paper! You need to completely mask the light. Also, orient the board so that the dark and light areas will be on each strip. 4. Pop the timer to make a 2-second exposure. Move the board down (or over) a fifth, and make another exposure. This will give you a strip of 4 seconds (the first exposure plus the second) and a strip of 2 seconds. 5. Repeat step 4, moving your board down another 1/5th, making another 2-second exposure. Get the drift? Keep going until you run out of paper. 6. Process the paper. Make sure and do everything for the full amount of time. It may be boring, but if you rush, the results will not be accurate. It will be a waste of time and money. 7. Take the strip out of the darkroom, and view it in good light. Ideally, one of the exposures will be correct— it will show details in both the shadows and the highlights. 8. If you were lucky enough to get a solid result, go ahead and make a test print, on a full piece of paper. Do exactly what you did before. 9. Process the paper. Again, try and do everything the same. Consistency counts. This full print will tell you more than the test strip, and should guide you in adjusting and refining contrast and exposure.
PINHOLE Pinhole camera
PINHOLE CAMERA You can use a shoe box or any type of box that is light proof. Paint the interior of the box flat black. When the lid is on and the shutter is closed the inside is completely dark. Make sure there are no holes or openings in the box. The pinhole is like the lens of the camera. Poke a tiny hole into the front of the box with a small needle. Place a little tape over the hole the best tape that I found is electrical tape. This must be done in complete darkness. Tape a piece of light sensitive photo paper to the bottom of the box. Put lid on and make sure the tape is across the pinhole. Now you can go out in the light. Point the camera at what you want to shoot. It works best when it is bright and sunny. Depending on lighting and clouds pull back tape for 30 seconds to 4 minutes then close (This will take some experimenting). Everything has to stay perfectly still. Go back to the dark room and take paper out to develop.
Take the photo paper out of the camera. Only do so once you are in a darkroom lit only by a safelight. White light will destroy your photo in seconds. Place your photo paper into the developer using a pair of tongs. Gently rock the tray back and forth to spread the solution over the photo paper. Watch as the image appears on the paper and take the image out of the solution using tongs as soon as it is as dark as you want it to be. REMEMBER: Keep in mind that the image will appear a bit darker in white light once you are outside of the darkroom. Transfer the photo paper to the stop bath for about ten seconds. The stop bath should consist of room temperature water. Using tongs, place the photo paper in the fixer for two minutes. Remove the photo and rinse over running water for two minutes. Allow the photo to hang dry completely.
Waste of Time
Before I even developed the film I knew that something had gone wrong towards the end of the film as the camera wasn’t winding forward. I’m guessing that I didn’t load the film right, but I decided to still have the images developed as the first couple of shots might have been successful. I held the pack with all my images in, opened it and found that all the images I had taken were blurred. This was the first time I’ve shot in film for 3 to 4 years so i’m not surprised that the photos taken were unsuccessful, I’m still getting used to the process. This shoot failed but you learn from your mistakes. Time for round 2.
All so strange and cool. Griffin Simm
I started shooting film for the fun of it. Having never used 35mm photography before it was all so strange and cool, and I really liked the images I got out of my first rolls, so I kept it up. My favourite 35mm camera would be my dilapidated Yashica Lynx 14E, it has so much charm and the lens is amazing. Although it’s crazy heavy and hard to work with, I still find it fun and a challenge! The first film camera I recieved was my dad’s old Nikon 35ti point and shoot.
Recently I haven’t been using a lot of film, and have been using my Fujifilm X100. But I have been using a Nikon F2 Photomic on and off.
I love rangefinder style ca meras. Derek Clark
I began shooting film in high school as part of a science class using the schools darkroom. I love rangefinder style cameras and I own 2 Yashica Rangefinders. This type of camera has a good viewfinder and focusing style, plus they are reasonably compact compared to a modern DSLR. I also have an Olympus OM2-n an OM10 and a Rollei 35 which are all old cameras.
My first proper camera was a very clunky SLR made by Practika back in the late 1970’s. I don’t know what happened to that camera as I still have most of the cameras I have owned. But I still have a photo that I shot into my Dad’s shaving mirror with that camera. I still have the Yashika’s, Olympus’s and the Rollie, but these days I’m a digital shooter. I have a full Nikon kit, but the cameras I use most are the Fuji X Series. I have 4 models of the Fuji X and seven lenses. The Fuji X cameras have the same style and feel of the old film rangefinders.
My 35mm comes everywhere with me. Rosa Furneaux
Like most young photographers in this digital age, my first camera was a dSLR. I really enjoyed experimenting and learning basic techniques on a camera which would show me instant playback, but it wasn’t until I started using film that I really began to learn the mechanics behind what I was doing with my digital camera. I was inspired to start shooting in film in order to become better at my craft and, on a purely practical level, to have a camera which was more compact than my dSLR, and which I could carry around on my travels more easily. I first shot with a Minolta X-300. It’s a neat little thing but battery-powered, which makes it slightly more fragile than bodies which are fully mechanical and much harder to fix. My 35mm comes everywhere with me, whether on short weekend trips to the city or two-month extended assignments in rural Tanzania, so I like my cameras to be reliable and hard-wearing. Even so, when my first Minolta broke beyond repair I replaced it with the same model for sentimental reasons, and the X-300 is still part of my analogue arsenal. I’ve kept my Minolta, but nowadays I also shoot with a Canon AE1 and a much-loathed Konika for school. Recently I’ve also begun working with medium format cameras such as the Minolta 645AFD and the Fuji GSW690 rangefinder, and the Mamiya C220 twin-lens reflex camera. I’d like to try out some large format cameras soon, too. In the last few months I have been spending a lot of time in the studio, and I’ve been lucky enough to have access to a Hasselblad 501CM. It is by far my favourite film camera, partly because of the beautiful negatives it produces, and it’s clean tones, but also because of the ritualistic way it requires the photographer to use it. There is something very special about only have twelve exposures to create within, and the Hasselblad in particular carries a special historical weight.
PEOPLES FAVOURITE IMAGES TAKEN ON A 35 MM CAMERA
To gather information about peoples favourite image I wrote an email, Facebook message or spoke to my friends and family asking if they could dig out a favourite image. It could be in either black and white or colour, the only requirement was that the photograph had to be taken on a 35mm camera either shot by themselves or family member back in the day.
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My favourite images taken on a 35mm camera. All of these images have a meaning to me whether itâ€™s my first day at school, birthdays, family or my first uni house.
FOUR THAT INFLUENCED PHOTOGRAPHERS
Henri Cartier - Bresson Henri Cartier – Bresson was the greatest and most influential photographer of his generation. He was an artist at heart and claimed he saw photography as no more than: ‘A way into painting, a sort of instant drawing’. Yet it was a medium on which he made an indelible mark.
It was while studying literature and painting at Cambridge that Henri Cartier – Bresson became interested in photography. He studied painting and drawing in the studio of Andre Lhote and, in 1931, left to travel the Ivory Coast with his first camera, a Leica. The Leica 1 model had appeared the previous year and was the invention of Oskar Barnack. The camera used perforated 35mm cine film to produce a 24x36mm negative in what was known as the ‘miniature’ format; the Leica was very small, portable and unobtrusive. From the Ivory Coast, Cartier-Bresson and his Leica travelled around Europe for 2 years. His photographs we an immediate success and he continued his travels on assignment for various magazines.
He took for his subject ordinary composition and timing of exposure, he transformed into single-frame stories. His work reveals the inner truth of human existence and he travelled widely to record the situation of the world’s people: ‘I kept walking the streets, high-strung and eager to snap scenes of convincing reality, but mainly I wanted to capture the quintessence of the phenomenon in a single image.’ And it is the way in which he succeeded in doing so that marked him out as the greatest photographer of his generation, if not of all time.
In 1947, with fellow photojournalists Robert Capa, David ‘Chim’ Seymour, George Rodger and William Vandivert, Cartier-Bresson founded the Magnum Photos agency. CartierBresson began to turn away from photography in the mid – 1960’s, to return to his passion for painting, although Magnum continued to distribute his pictures. One of the greatest photographers of the twentieth century, Henri Cartier-Bresson was an influence and inspiration.
Martin Parr rose to prominence during the blossoming of British ‘social documentary’ photography in the 1980’s. He had begun photographing in black and white, but it was a shift to colour, using fill-in flash, that produced his unique style of strident, garnish tones.
Parr’s subject is invariably on a social theme, in particular the idiosyncrasies of the British and its class system. He is a publisher of books and the ironically titled Last Resort – photographs of the working class seaside town of New Brighton, published in 1986 – he was breakthrough. Photographed in what by then was his trademark style, Parr’s subjects are captured blithely unware, enjoying their chips and ice creams among the detritus of discarded paper cups and cigarette ends, sunburnt lobster red against a background of tatty beach huts, reading tabloid newspapers in knotted handkerchiefs: the archetypal British on holiday. The increased interest in social documentary photography in 1980s Britain was, in the large part, a response to unpopular government policies during Margret Thatcher’s premiership. More picture stories on social themes were being made and
published, providing a platform for Parr and his contemporaries. Matters of taste have been abiding theme for him: he contributed the photographic illustration for Nick Barker’s film; Sign of the Times, in which people’s tasted in interior decoration are dissected mercilessly. It may have been Barker’s film, but the subject and the execution was quintessential Parr.
Although his style was superficially at odds with the reputation of prestigious humanist photo agency, Magnum Photos, Parr joined the cooperative in 1994. The agency was based on a serious commitment to reportage and photojournalism, typically in black and white, and Parr’s association with the group did not meet with universal approval among some of the longer established members. The combination of Martin Parr’s unique style and wry humour made his work stand out in a genre that was burgeoning in the 1980’s. Furthermore, because his trademark style could be applied successfully to commercial photography – advertising and fashion – and its quirkiness provided book publishers with ready-made best-sellers – his influence on the medium has been greater than any other of his generation.
Lee Friedlander Lee Friedlander was one of a number of photographers championed by the influential John Szarkowski, director of the photography department at the New York Museum of Modern Art from 1962 to 1991. Friedlander photographed the social landscape of the city in a way that captured the look of modern life.
Friedlander began taking photographs at the age of 14 and studied photography at the Art Centre College of Design in Pasedena, California – although he didn’t stay there long because: ‘The assignments were too boring’. One of his tutors suggested that he should pursue his career in New York, and he moved there in 1956, where he started by photographing jazz musicians. He was an admirer of the work of Eugene Atget and near contemporaries Robert Frank and Walker Evans, and saw himself carrying forward the tradition that they had begun. Like many street photographers, Friedlander worked in black and white with an unobtrusive Leica cameras and was a key figure among the generation of 1960s photographers who sought to document everyday life without artifice. His first solo exhibition was held in 1963, at George
Eastman House, and in 1967 the museum of Modern Art staged a landmark show, ‘New Documents’, where his worked appeared alongside other Szarkowski favourites, Garry Winogrand and Diane Arbus. Friedlander’s work organises and conveys the visual chaos of the urban environment, imposing and order and meaning on the messiness of everyday life. He places himself in his world, often literally, but you may have to look hard for the shop window reflection or maybe his shadow. His subject matter is usually commonplace, but hugely varied, and photographed in a consistent style – cars and people on the street, the jazz musicians, flowers, trees, telegraph poles, the cities structures and memorials, rear view mirrors, workers, motel rooms, landscapes, television screens, direct and indirect portraits, nudes – in the latter case, some of his most famous images are of Madonna when she was plain Ms Ciccone in the late 1970’s, published in Playboy in 1985.
Although his work is in essence documentary, it has been extremely influential – along with that of some of his 1960s contemporaries – in the development of photography as an art form.
Like many photographers, Ansel Adams began making pictures when he was young. He first took up photography at 14, during one of his regular family holidays in California’s spectacular Yosemite Valley, a location he would return to many times and where many of his most famous images were made. Adams knew and worked with many of the great names in the history of American photography, and it was a meeting with Paul Strand, in 1930, that inspired him to make a career in the medium. He began along the path to becoming one of the most famous landscape photographers in the world, and one of the finest black and white printers, by forming Group f/64 with Imogen Cunningham and Edward Weston in 1932, themselves both giants of the medium. Group f/64 was a camera club of sorts. Its members shared a philosophy of photography, a philosophy you might call ‘slow’ photography, carefully considered and deliberate. F/64 is the smallest aperture found on the lens of a large-format or ‘view’ camera. This, on one hand, provides a maximum depth of field in the image, and on the other requires a long (slow) shutter speed and therefore, a static subject.
Key to his success and enduring reputation was Adams’ collaboration with Fred Archer in the formulation of the Zone System. The system was devised to calculate the exposure needed to produce the optimum negative, one in which all the required tonal values from shadow to highlighting would be recored, and so give the photographer a flying start on entering the darkroom to make a print. The ‘zones’ were designated 0-10:0 representing pure black and 10 white; zone 5 being mid grey. For guidance, Adams set out elements of a typical scene against each of the zones to be recored: for instance, zone 8 represents ‘lightest tone with texture, textured snow.’ The system is still widely used today by ‘slow’ landscape photographers. During his career, Adams produced more than two-dozen albums dedicated to the breathtaking landscapes of American national parks. His painstakingly crafted crafted original prints change hands for small fortunes. Adams’ work is the inspiration for photographers who continue to carry bulky, fiddly and oldfashioned camera equipment into the wild and slowly set about creating their art; his Zone system for exposure is their means of aspiring to make prints as fine as he did.
Pentax ME Super FIlm Camera
Canon EOS 700D DSLR
Image number 3 was the best photograph which was taken with a Canon 700D DSLR camera with a 55mm lens. This was the last of the 3 cameras used to capture the shot of the disposable camera. I believe that this camera has an amazing depth of field compared to the Pentax and the iPhone and looks a lot better when printed onto paper.
Film to Digital
For 160 years, the negative/positive process, invented in the eighteenth century, remained the essence of how photographs were made. Films and cameras constantly improved, but the process at the heart of the matter remained essentially the same. Then, as a new century dawned, film photography was pushed into the back seat by the digital image. The beauty of the photograph process invented by William Henry Fox Talbot in 1839 was that it produced a negative from which any number of ‘positive’ prints could be made. With the introduction of the Kodak snapshot camera the hitherto complex business of photography was greatly simplified and made available to anyone. Photography became a popular past time, either simply for recording memories, or as a more serious hobby. The adoption of the so-called ‘miniature’ film format as a standard (35mm) made for small, portable, cameras, and by the 1960’s the widespread availability of affordable single-lens reflex (SLR) cameras encouraged many to take up the hobby. Given the right equipment, black and white film was easy to develop, and the home darkroom prospered. By the mid-1980’s, with the introduction of inexpensive ‘compact’ cameras with automatic exposure and focusing, and the availability of cheap colour processing and printing, plenty of photographs were still being taken, but the home darkroom was in decline. New technologies – hi-fi, computer games and video cameras – were competing for the public’s disposable income. At this time, the first consumers electronic cameras came, using technology derived from camcorders to capture a still image. The technology was clever, but the image quality was poor: what viewers were used to as a moving picture on a television screen did not stand up to scrutiny as a single freeze frame. The image was made up of lines, something you don’t notice when the image is moving. Then came digital. With computers and colour monitors becoming commonplace at work and in the home, the scene was set for imaging technology that would exploit them. Microchips were developed that were able to convert light into electronic data, converting the intensity and colour of the light into a set of numbers or digits – hence ‘digital’. The chips were divided up into thousands (now millions) of discrete picture elements or ‘pixels’, each capable of recording the value of light falling on it. By storing the data in a way that could be read back in the correct order and displayed on a monitor, even printed out, the digital image has been born.
Why Digital Is Dead For Me In Photography by Eric Kim
I never really understood the appeal of film in the digital age. After all, shooting film was expensive, cumbersome, and a pain in the ass to do compared to digital. Not only that, but with digital I had all the instant gratification I wanted. I didn’t have to wait before seeing my images - they would come to me instantly. I could post -process them all I wanted - to give my images that certain ‘look’ that I desired.
Of course I was concerned if my exposures were incorrect- but K.P. reassured me that I shouldn’t worry too much, as b/w film has a far better dynamic range than digital. At the end of the day, I had a fantastic time shooting on the streets, and was curious to see what I got on my film.
Shooting film in Mumbai, India
After a few days, we decided to process the film. K.P. took out all the chemicals, beakers, and tools necessary to process the film. It was like a mad lab out of a science-fiction movie. K.P. then showed me how to mix the chemicals, explained the theory of rolling the film on the spool (he did this for me), as well as agitating the film and when to stop. He mentioned the whole process of processing his film was like a religious and meditative experience for him ñ something that caught my attention. We then processed the film, and when it was done- took it out to let it dry. I was still concerned that my film would all be black and nothing was properly developed, but I gasped with awe when I saw my photos on the negatives. It was beautiful something I had never seen before. It was like magic, something wonderful and unexpected. Scanning the negatives was a breeze- and after seeing the images on the computer screen, there was something special about the look of the black and white images. They weren’t cold and lifeless like the digital images I usually shootbut they had character in the grain structure, ink-jet blacks, and the best of all- great details in the highlights. I still wasn’t convinced about making the full conversion to film. After all, I had my Leica M9, my hard drives, my quadcore computer at home, and my Lightroom workflow down to a science. I convinced myself I didn’t have the time, money, or the effort to shoot street photography with film.
The madness then started when I first visited Mumbai, India and stayed with my friend and fellow street photographer Kaushal Parikh (founder of Indian Street Photography Collective “That’s Life”). Kaushal (nicknamed K.P.) shot with two cameras: his Leica M6 TTL for film, and his Fujifilm X-100 for digital. He used both mediums, yet in the end he told me his love for film. He shoots black and white Tri-X film, and gets his film imported overseas and gets all his film processed/scanned himself. It all seemed like a hassle and I didnít understand why he did it. He then suggested that I try shooting with the Leica M6- and give film a go. I had some negative experiences shooting street photograpy with film before (I opened the back of my grandpaís Contax IIIa and ruined at least 5 rolls of film on accident) and was reluctant. Regardless to say, I was intruiged and decided to try giving it a go. I then held his Leica M6, and felt a sense of calm. I loved the simplicity of the design ñ and the lack of extraneous buttons and an LCD screen of my Leica M9. The most intruiging was the film advance lever- something I would learn to adore very soon. I gave it a go shooting on the streets of Mumbai, and I started to understand the appeal of shooting street photography with film. The experience was much more zen-like, and rather than thinking about the shot I just took (in digital) I would look forward to the next shot.
My first time processing film
Then came Tokyo.
Tokyo and film: The madness begins I went to Tokyo to teach a street photography workshop sponsored by Leica alongside Charlie Kirk, Bellamy Hunt, and Alfie Goodrich. Charlie and Bellamy both shoot film exclusively- and told me to give it a go. I then met a bunch of other passionate photographers in Tokyo- a ton of them also shooting film. After visiting the vintage camerastores in Tokyo and seeing the stores of still dedicating to selling film, I thought I would give it another try. But I still needed a film camera. I was quite fond of K.P.ís Leica M6 I shot in India - and knew it was reasonably priced. I then started to talk to my friends about getting a Leica M6 and trying more film- when I talked to Todd Hatakeyama, my good friend and gallery owner of the Hatakeyama Gallery and Simple Studio Lighting. I was in casual conversation with Todd, when he casually told me that he had a spare Leica M6 he never used. He then asked me, “Do you want it?” I gasped, held my cool, and said, “Sure- why not?” for the next several months, I decided to shoot exclusively film to see what I would get. I then shot the rest of my trip in Tokyo in exclusively b/w with Tri-X, and headed to Korea afterwards to get my film processed. Having used my Leica M9 for a while, it was quite easy to transition into shooting with film. After all, everything was the same except shooting fully-manual instead of aperture-priority on the M9.
Discovering advantages of shooting in film I noticed a few advantages when shooting with film- namely that when people asked me to delete the photo I told them I couldn’t- as it was film. Also while in Tokyo I was working on a small project titled: “Dark Skies Over Tokyo” - a project about the irony of Japanese society: they are one of the richest countries in the world, yet have one of the highest depression and suicide rates. Shooting film helped me stay focused on the project and the wholepicture, rather than individual images. I got my
film developed and scanned when visiting Korea the month afterward- and fell in love with my film shots from Tokyo. The depth, soul, and the dynamic range were to die for. Shots that were blurry or outof-focus (that would have looked horible in digital) looked more like beautiful mistakes in film. While in Korea I would then embark on another small project titled “Korea: The Presentation of Self”. The project was an exploration of how Koreans try to present themselves in a positive manner to others by the way they look and dress, the cars they drive, and the material things they own. I shot the entire project on Kodak Tri-X pushed to 1600, and once again- was able to focus on my project (rather than individual images). Shooting film for me has made me a better street photographer. I am now far more selective when shooting on the streets, I enjoy the zen-like process more, and I am able to edit my shots better. I generally donít process my film until a month after I take my shots, which means that I am able to emotionally detach myself from my photographs and judge them more objectively. Film is still quite expensive, yet a cost I am willing to take. After all, I think everyone is entitled to one expensive hobby (for others it is cars, expensive clothes, etc). For others it is buying a new Mercedes. For me, it is shooting film. Also I like not worrying about buying the newest and greatest digital camera. Remember: Buy Film, Not Megapixels. Shooting film is not for everybody, but I still highly recommend everyone to try it out. If you have an old film camera collecting dust at home, blow off the dust, change the batttery, pop in a load of film, and go out and try it out. You might like it a lot more than you expect. You might hate it. Just try it out! I am now fully-committed to film for my street photography, but who knows how long it will be for. If something better than digital comes out, who knows- I might switch to that! But for now, I am enjoying the ride!
35mm Film Processing Pricelist Photographique Bristol
35mm C41 30 min 2 hr
B&W 10 - 14 days Extra Set
Specialists Film Services
Irregular frame size
Manual cropping and adjustment Square 35mm
+£4 per film
+£3 per film
+£2 per film
+£4 per film
+£3 per film
+£5 per film
Large Format Developing
E6, C41 and black & white.
C41 30 min 2 hr
B&W 10 - 14 days Extra Set
£5 per sheet
£7 per sheet
Sleeved in 6s
add 50p per film
Push/Pull Add a CD scanning resolutions, specialist film scanner produces scans suitable for anything from Facebook to large format printing.
Low CD - 350kb (1228 x 1818)
Medium CD - 1MB (2433 x 3637)
High CD - 4MB (3648 x 5444)
Tiff CD - 50MB (3648 x 5444)
Scan sizes are based on a 35mm 24x36mm negative
add £3 per film
Digital Printing Pricelist Standard Prints
1 - 199
200 - 349
350 - 499
Cost Difference Between Digital and Analogue
Cost of an Beginners to Intermediate SLR, Lens and Memory Card Prices taken from Amazon.co.uk
Canon EOS 700D Digital SLR Camera Body
Canon 18-55mm f/3.5-5.6 Lens
Sandisk 32gb SDHC Card
Cost of a Pentax ME Super 35mm Camera Prices taken from ebay.co.uk
Pentax ME Super Pentax f1.7 50mm lens £35.00
Cost of 35mm Film, Colour developing 36 exp film, 24 hour developing
Kodak Gold 135 Ultra 36 Exposure Film
Full price of SLR 649.41
46 Films x
Film & Developing 13.99
= 46 films & developing
= 1,656 photos taken on Pentax
The Canon EOS 700D and the Pentax ME Super are two cameras that I use as they are sold at reasonable and affordable prices and are packed with high specifications. The 700D was paired with a 50mm lens which is similar to the lens that is used on the Pentax so that the results are fair. The prices for the Nikon were taken from Amazon online and the Pentax was originally my fathers but researching on Ebay a couple of old analogue Pentax cameras were selling for similar prices. There is a large difference in price between the digital and film SLR’s. However, the analogue camera’s cost will rise depending on how many photographs are shot and developed, where as the DSLR’s cost will never change after purchasing unless you want to buy more advanced lenses or more SDHC cards. The cost of the Pentax was £35.00 which included the camera body, lens and one film. The Canon EOS 700D totalled £649.41. The Pentax 35mm camera will be able to shoot and develop 1,656 photographs until the costs meet at nikons £649.41. That means 46 films developed for the same price as buying a new DSLR. The results are interesting as it shows how cost efficient digital cameras are. A 32GB can hold 5,700 photographs, and once that is full, it can be transferred onto computer and wiped clean to start again. So photos can be shot endlessly on DSLR’s. However it would be argued that the quality of the analogue camera is worth the little extra cost.
WEBSITES photographique http://www.photographique.co.uk jessops http://www.jessops.com ebay http://www.ebay.co.uk The online darkroom http://www.theonlinedarkroom.com/p/how-todevelop-film.html Magnum photos http://www.magnumphotos.com
IMAGES http://www.rosajoy.com/filter/analogue/35mm-film http://www.filmsnotdead.com/2013/07/12/happy159th-birthday-to-george-eastman/ http://www.biography.com/people/edwin-land9372429#awesm=~oBMegEsftUwTxb http://www.usc.edu/schools/annenberg/asc/projects/ comm544/library/images/457.html
BOOKS John Hedgecoeâ€™s Guide To 35mm Photography Basic 35mm Photo Guide: For Beginning Photographers Photography: The 50 Most Influential Photographers of All Time by Chris Dickie
ARTICLES http://erickimphotography.com/blog/2012/04/22/ why-digital-is-dead-for-me-in-street-photography/ http://www.biography.com/people/george-eastman9283428#death-and-legacy&awesm=~oBMeal9hyH6 o3M http://www.biography.com/people/edwin-land9372429#awesm=~oBMegEsftUwTxb http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_ Fox T _ albot http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HenriC _ artier-Bresson http://www.martinparr.com/introduction/ http://fraenkelgallery.com/artists/lee-friedlander http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AnselA _ dams
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRINTING
http://www.photographique.co.uk 27 Clare Street, Bristol, BS1 1XA 0117 930 0622 Mon – Fri: 10.30am-6pm Sat: 11am-5pm
http://www.bristolcameras.co.uk 47 High Street, Bristol, BS1 2AZ 0117 929 0435 Mon – Sat: 9am-5.30pm
LONDON CAMERA EXCHANGE http://www.lcegroup.co.uk 53 The Horsefair, Bristol, BS1 3JP 0117 927 6185 3 Alliance House, Baldwin Street, Bristol, BS1 1SA 0117 929 1935 Mon – Sat: 9am-5.30pm
Online PHOTO EXPRESS
A photograph is a moment that you capture that’s gone forever and impossible to reproduce. This book is a journey and exploration of 35mm film photography through the eyes of an amateur looking to develop an understanding of the subject and the medium. “Through the Lens” presents the spellbinding ideas and images from the most influential photographers in history, together with an exploration into darkrooms and developments in the field. This intriguing book sheds light on the inspirational forces that have shaped the way in which the world views itself. From development techniques to the most influential photographers “Through the lens” offers a clear, concise understanding of 35mm film photography. “To me, photography is an art of observation. It’s about finding something interesting in an ordinary place… I’ve found it has little to do with the things you see and everything to do with the way you see them.” Elliott Erwitt