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By: Alyssa Reaves


Title:

Beta Fish

Species #:

Common Name: Siamese fighting fish Scientific Name: Micropterus salmoides Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Osphronemidae

Geography / Habitat: Bettas are one of the most recognized, most colorful, and often most controversial fish in the freshwater hobby. Debates rage about the appropriateness of keeping them in small bowls. To fully understand their needs it is important to become familiar with their native habitat. Bettas originate in the shallow waters in Thailand (formerly called Siam, hence their name), Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, and parts of China. They proliferate rice paddies, shallow ponds, and even slow moving streams. Although many fish keepers are aware that Bettas come from shallow waters, what is often overlooked is the water temperature. The home countries of the Betta are tropical, which means the water temperature is quite warm, often into the 80's. Bettas thrive on heat, and will become increasingly listless when the water temperature falls below 75 degrees F. Water temperature is perhaps the biggest argument against keeping a betta in a tiny bowl (which cannot readily be heat controlled). Even though Bettas do well in waters low in dissolved oxygen, which does not mean they require less oxygen than other fish. Bettas have a special respiratory organ that allows them to breathe air directly from the surface. In fact they inherently must do so. In experiments where the labyrinth organ was removed, the fish died from suffocation even though the water was saturated with oxygen. For this reason, Bettas must have access to the water surface to breath air directly from the atmosphere

Life Strategy: Bettas have a fairly short lifespan, and are most successful as breeders when they under a year old (bettas in pet shops are usually at least six months old). They breed in bubble nests and do not require a large tank or special equipment. Most breeders find that a bare bottomed tank of roughly ten gallons works well, although smaller tanks are also suitable. Ideally the fish should be conditioned prior to breeding, by feeding them a diet of live foods. The water should be at a pH of about 7.0, and temperature around 80 or slightly above. The male will blow an elaborate bubble nest when he is ready to spawn. The female should be provided with a hiding place, as males may become aggressive during courtship. Even with a hiding place, it is common for the female to lose a few scales or have their fins frayed during spawning. When they are ready to spawn, the pair will display intense coloration and begin circling each other under the bubble nest. The male will wrap himself around the female who has turned on her back. As she expels the eggs, they are fertilized and begin to sink. The male will scoop up the eggs and spit them into the nest. From this point on the male will tend the brood. It is advisable to remove the female, as the male may become aggressive towards her as he tends his young. The male will continue to tend the bubble nest, spitting eggs that fall out back into the nest. In one to two days the eggs will hatch, and the fry will be visible hanging in the bubble nest with their tails pointing downward. They will feed off their yolk sack for another thirty six hours, during which time the male will continue to pick up any fry that fall out of the nest. The male should be removed within two days after the fry hatch, as they may eat the young once they are free swimming.


Food / Feed Strategy:

Beta fish are not big eaters but should be fed a small amount once a day to once every other day.[4] They can be fed floating flake food, freeze dried blood worms, live black worms, or frozen brine shrimp. Beta pellets are small, round edible pellets that are food for most beta species. Beta pellets are made out of crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, crude ash, moisture, phosphorus, certain vitamins, and other ingredients.

Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: Citation:

Sharpe, Shirlie. "Siamese Fighting Fish (Betta Splendens)." About Freshwater Aquariums - All About Freshwater Aquariums and Fish. About.com. Web. 14 Nov. 2011.\


Title:

Tiger Oscar

Species #:

Common Name: marble cichlid Scientific Name: Astronotus ocellatus Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Cichlids, Cichlidae

Geography / Habitat: A. ocellatus is native to Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, and French Guiana, and occurs in the Amazon river basin, along the Amazonas, Içá, Negro, Solimões, and Ucayali river systems, and also in the Approuague and Oyapock drainages.[1][2] In its natural environment, the species typically occurs in slowmoving white-water habitats, and has been observed sheltering under submerged branches. [5] Feral populations also occur in China,[11] northern Australia,[12] and Florida, USA[13] as a by-product of the ornamental fish trade. The species is limited in its distribution by its intolerance of cooler water temperatures; the lower lethal limit for the species is 12.9 °C (55.2 °F). [14]

Life Strategy: Although the species is widely regarded as sexually monomorphic,[5] males have been suggested to grow more quickly, and in some naturally occurring strains, males are noted to possess dark blotches on the base of the dorsal fin. [6][7] The species reaches sexual maturity at approximately one year of age, and continues to reproduce for nine to ten years. Frequency and timing of spawning may be related to the occurrence of rain. [15] A. ocellatus fish are biparental substrate spawners, though detailed information regarding their reproduction in the wild are scarce.

Food / Feed Strategy: Carnivorous - Not picky. Likes to eat live smaller fish. They do well on live food such as, feeder fish, worms, crickets, brine shrimp (only as a treat, as brine shrimp has very little nutritional value). They will accept a variety of foods such as cichlid flakes, cichlid pellets, frozen foods and krill. Food formulated for cichlids must be a staple part of their diet because of the nutritional value. Feeders and insects do not often contain enough nutrition to keep an Oscar healthy. Care must always be taken when using feeder fish, as they are often poorly fed and can carry diseases.


Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: Citation:


Title: Species #:

Large Mouth Bass

Common Name: widemouth bass, bigmouth, black bass, bucket mouth Scientific Name: Micropterus salmoides Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Actinopterygii

Order: Perciformes

Family: Centrarchidae

Geography / Habitat: Largemouth bass seek protective cover such as logs, rock ledges, vegetation, and man-made structures. They prefer clear quiet water, but will survive quite well in a variety of habitats.

Life Strategy: In Texas spawning begins in the spring when water temperatures reach about 60째F. This could occur as early as February or as late as May, depending one where one is in the state. Males build the nests in two to eight feet of water. Largemouth bass prefer to nest in quieter, more vegetated water than other black bass, but will use any substrate besides soft mud, including submerged logs. As in Guadalupe bass, once the female has laid eggs in the nest (2,000 to 43,000) she is chased away by the male who then guards the precious eggs. The young, called fry, hatch in five to ten days. Fry remain in a group or "school" near the nest and under the male's watch for several days after hatching. Their lifespan is on average 16 years. Immature largemouth bass may tend to congregate in schools, but adults are usually solitary. Sometimes several bass will gather in a very small area, but they do not interact. Largemouth bass hide among plants, roots or limbs to strike their prey.

Food / Feed Strategy:


The juvenile largemouth bass consumes mostly small bait fish, scuds, small shrimp, and insects. Adults consume smaller fish (bluegill), snails, crawfish (crayfish), frogs, snakes, salamanders, bats and even small water birds, mammals, and baby alligators.[12] In larger lakes and reservoirs, adult bass occupy deeper water than younger fish, and shift to a diet consisting almost entirely of smaller fish like shad, yellow perch, ciscoes, shiners, and sunfish. It also consumes younger members of larger fish species, such as pike, catfish, trout, walleye, white bass, striped bass, and even smaller black bass. Prey items can be as large as 25 to 50% of the bass's body length.

ely 4 x 3 inches Body Form or Style: Swim / Locomotion Style: Mouth Position: Citation:

Marine Biology Book  

a book that consists of 125 fish