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people can be

enabled by

technology, but trust is

dependent on the

passage of time

and the

contiguity of bodies.

Telephone Switchboards,

The electromechanical

the “talk” key allowing the

the front key backwards to

sliders. This switch became

construction of the first

automatic telephone ex-

operator to speak with that

ring the called party. After

known as “The Strowger

regular telephone line

change, invented by Almon

particular cord pair. The

connecting, the opera-

Switch” and was still in use

from Boston to Someville,

Strowger in 1888, gradually

rear key on older “manual”

tor leaves both cords “up”

in some telephone offices

Massachusetts was com-

replaced manual switch-

boards and PBXs is used to

with the keys in the normal

well over 100 years later.

pleted. By the end of

boards in central telephone

physically ring a telephone.

position so the parties can

Almon Strowger was issued

1880, there were 47,900

exchanges. Manual PBXs

On newer boards, the back

converse. The supervi-

a patent on March 11, 1891

telephones in the United

have also for the most part

key is used to collect (re-

sion lamps light to alert the

for the first automatic tele-

States. The following year

been replaced by more so-

trieve) money from coin

operator when the parties

phone exchange.

telephone service between

phisticated devices or even

telephones. Each of the

finish their conversation

Boston and Providence

personal computers, which

keys has three positions:

and go on-hook. When the

The first exchange using

had been established. Ser-

give the operator access to

back, normal and forward.

operator pulls down a cord,

the Strowger switch was

vice between New York and

an abundance of features.

When a key is in the nor-

a pulley weight behind the

opened in La Porte, Indiana

Chicago started in 1892,

In modern businesses, a

mal position an electrical

switchboard pulls it down to

in 1892 and initially sub-

and between New York and

PBX often has an attendant

talk path connects the front

prevent it from tangling.

scribers had a button on

Boston in 1894. Transconti-

console for the operator, or

and rear cords. A key in the

On a trunk, on-hook and

their telephone to produce

nental service by overhead

an auto-attendant avoiding

forward position (front key)

off-hook signals must pass

the required number of

wire was not inaugurated

the operator entirely.

connects the operator to

in both directions. In a one-

pulses by tapping. An asso-

the cord pair, and a key in

way trunk, the originating or

ciate of Strowgers’ invented

until 1915. The first switchboard was set up in Boston

The switchboard is usually

the back position sends a

A board sends a short for

the rotary dial in 1896

in 1877. On January 17,

designed to accommodate

ring signal out on the cord

off-hook, and an open for

which replaced the button.

1882, Leroy Firman re-

the operator to sit facing

(on older manual exchang-

on-hook, while the termi-

In 1943, Philadelphia was

ceived the first patent for a

it. It has a high backpanel

es). Each cord has a three-

nating or B board sends

the last major area to give

telephone switchboard.

which consists of rows of

wire TRS connector: tip and

normal polarity or reverse

up dual service.

female jacks, each jack

ring for testing, ringing and

polarity. This “reverse bat-

A switchboard (also called

designated and wired as

voice; and a sleeve wire for

tery” signaling was carried

In 1877, construction of

a manual exchange) was

a local extension of the

busy signals.

over to later automatic

the first regular telephone

a device used to connect a

switchboard (which serves


line from Boston to Somer-

group of telephones manu-

an individual subscriber) or

When a call is received, a

ally to one another or to an

as an incoming or outgoing

jack lamp lights up on the

The first regular telephone

completed. By the end of

outside connection, within

trunk line. The jack is also

back panel and the op-

exchange was established

1880, there were 47,900

and between telephone ex-

associated with a lamp.

erator responds by placing

in New Haven in 1878. Ear-

telephones in the United

changes or private branch

On the table or desk area

the rear cord into the jack

ly telephones were leased

States. The following year

exchanges (PBXs). The

in front of the operator are

and throwing the front key

in pairs to subscribers. The

telephone service between

user was typically known

columns of keys, lamps

forward. The operator now

subscriber was required to

Boston and Providence had

as an operator. Public

and cords. Each column

converses with the caller

put up his own line to con-

been established. Service

manual exchanges disap-

consists of a front key and

and finds out where the

nect with another. In 1889,

between New York and

peared during the last half

a rear key, a front lamp

caller would like to be con-

Almon B. Strowger a Kan-

Chicago started in 1892,

of the 20th century, leaving

and a rear lamp, followed

nected to. If it is another

sas City undertaker, invent-

and between New York and

a few PBXs working in of-

by a front cord and a rear

extension, the operator

ed a switch that could con-

Boston in 1894. The first

fices and hotels as manual

cord, making up together a

places the front cord in the

nect one line to any of 100

switchboard was set up in

branch exchanges.

cord circuit. The front key is

associated jack and pulls

lines by using relays and

Boston in 1877.

1875 – 1900

ville, Massachusetts was

The First Directory consisted of a single sheet listing the names of 50 subscribers, according to lore. By November, the network had grown to 391 subscribers, identified by name and address — phone numbers did not yet exist. And the phone book, although skimpy, had already taken the form in which it would become the fat doorstop of today, with advertisements and listings of businesses in the back — 22 physicians and 22 carriage manufacturers, among others. Customers were limited to three minutes a call and no more than two calls an hour without permission from the central office. Alexander Graham Bell was granted a patent on his telephone in 1876. In early 1878, he installed the first telephone exchange, in New Haven, Connecticut. The first telephone “book” - actually just a single 14 cm. x 21 cm. sheet - was issued in New Haven in facsimile of that sheet. To the right is the same text, suitable for computer searching.

November 1978

1878. Below is a 1978

Rotary Telephone is a device mounted on or in a telephone or switchboard that is designed to send interrupted electrical pulses, known as pulse dialing, corresponding to the number dialed. The early form of the rotary dial used lugs on a finger plate instead of holes. A patent was filed on August 20, 1896 by employees of Almon Strowger, namely, A. E. Keith and the brothers John and Charles Erickson. The Patent No. 597,062 was granted on January 11, 1898. The modern version of the rotary dial with holes was first introduced in 1904 but only entered service in the Bell System in 1919. The device was phased out from the 1970s onwards with the onset of Touch Tone dialing, which uses a telephone keypad instead of a dial. Some telephone systems in the US no longer recognize rotary dialing by default, in which case it would have to be ordered from as a special feature, to support older customer equipment.

1910 - 1920

the telephone company

Today the dial is a key pad or “dial pad�, generally with 12 keys numbered 0-9, *, and # that perform an equivalent signalling function to that of a rotating disk dial. From as early as 1836, there were various suggestions and inventions of dials for sending telegraph signals. After the first commercial telephone exchange was installed in 1878, the need for an automated, user-controlled method of directing a telephone call became apparent. The first telephone dial patent was jointly issued to Connolly and McTighe in 1879. There were numerous competing inventions, and 26 patents of dials, push-buttons and similar mechanisms for signalling which telephone subscriber was wanted by a caller were issued prior to 1891. Most inventions involved highly complex, and expensive, mechanisms and required the user to perform complex manipulations.

New technology seems to work best when helping people interact across time, rather than across spaces

Calligraphy is the art of writing (Mediavilla 1996: 17). A contemporary definition of calligraphic practice is “the art of giving form to signs in an expressive, harmonious and skillful manner� (Mediavilla 1996: 18). The story of writing is one of aesthetic evolution framed within the technical skills, transmission speed(s) and materials limitations of a person, time and place (Diringer 1968: 441). A style of writing is described as a script, hand or alphabet Modern calligraphy ranges from functional hand lettered inscriptions and designs to fine art pieces where the abstract expression of the handwritten mark may or may not supersede the legibility of the letters (Mediavilla 1996). Classical calligraphy differs from typography and non-classical hand-lettering, though a calligrapher may create all of these; characters are historically disciplined yet fluid and spontaneous, improvised at the moment of writing (Pott 2006 & 2005; Zapf 2007 & 2006). Calligraphy continues to flourish in the forms of wedding and event invitations, font design/ typography, original hand600 BC -720 AD

lettered logo design, religious art, various announcements/ graphic design/ commissioned calligraphic art, cut stone inscriptions.

QWERTY Keyboard Typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical device with a set of “keys” that, when pressed, cause characters to be printed on a medium, usually paper. For much of the 20th century, typewriters were indispensable tools for many professional writers and in business offices. By the end of the 1980s, word processor applications on personal computers had largely replaced the tasks previously accomplished with typewriters. Typewriters, however, remain popular in the developing world and among some niche markets, and for some office tasks. The QWERTY layout of keys has become the de facto standard for Englishlanguage typewriter and computer keyboards. Other languages written in the Latin alphabet sometimes use variants of the QWERTY layouts, such as the French AZERTY, the Italian QZERTY, and the German QWERTZ layouts. The QWERTY layout is not the most efficient layout possible, since it requires a touch-typist to move his or to type the most common letters. A popular story suggests that it was designed and used for early typewriters exactly.

1875 – 1900

her fingers between rows


might be a better

communication meium than

vision in the way that it


and hold our

attention through time.

Cassette Tape,

direction. This reversal is

often referred to as audio

achieved either by manually

cassette, cassette tape,

flipping the cassette or by

cassette, or simply tape,

having the machine itself

is a magnetic tape sound

change the direction of tape

recording format. Although


originally designed for dictation, improvements

The mass production of

in fidelity led the Com-

compact audio cassettes

pact Cassette to supplant

began in 1964 in Hanover,

reel-to-reel tape recording

Germany. Prerecorded

in most non-professional

music cassettes were

applications.[1] Its uses

launched in Europe in late

ranged from portable audio

1965. The Mercury Record

to home recording to data

Company, a U.S. affiliate

storage for early microcom-

of Philips, introduced M.C.

puters. Between the early

to the U.S. in September

1970s and late 1990s, the

1966. The initial offering

cassette was one of the

consisted of 49 titles.

two most common formats Sony even made the WM-

alongside the LP and later

10 which was smaller than

the Compact Disc.[2] The

the cassette itself and

word cassette is a French

expanded to hold and play

word meaning “little box.�

a cassette. In 1970s In-

Compact Cassettes consist

dia, they were blamed for

of two miniature spools,

bringing unwanted secular

between which a magneti-

influences into traditionally

cally coated plastic tape is

religious areas. Cassette

passed and wound. These

technology created a boom-

spools and their attendant

ing market for pop music

parts are held inside a

in India, drawing criticism

protective plastic shell. Two

from conservatives while at

stereo pairs of tracks (four

the same time creating a

total) or two monaural audio

huge market for legitimate

tracks are available on the

recording companies and

tape; one stereo pair or one

pirated tapes.[8] In some

monophonic track is played

countries, particularly in the

or recorded when the tape

developing countries, cas-

is moving in one direc-

settes still remain the domi-

tion and the second pair

nant medium for purchasing

when moving in the other

and listening to music.

1930 -1940

for prerecorded music, first

we’re are filling up the world with amazing devices and systems - on top of the natural and human ones that were already here - only to discover that these complex system seem to be out of control : too complext to understand, et alone to shaoem or redirect.

Editor-in-chief Paul Hauge Contributing Editors Emerson Velazquez Chris L. Christina Yea Yvonne Kang Lily Ou Conor Hunter Manny P. Text and Images Resources In the Bubble Wire Magazine A handwriting Manual Apple Copyright Š 2008 BYE MAGZINE. All rights reserved. Nothing in this publication may be copied or reproduced without prior written permission of the publisher. All material is compiled from sources believed to be reliable, but published without resposibility for errors or omissions. BYE assumes no responsibility for unsolicited man scripts or photos. PRINTED IN THE USA