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CELL CITIES

LILY CAMPBELL SENIOR THESIS 1 PAUL CARLOS FALL 2011 PUCD 4205 F CRN: 5339

12.19.11


CELL CITIES


PROJECT DESCRIPTION 2 RESEARCH: PHASE ONE 3 additional topics

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the analogy

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additional analogies

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cell diagram

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illustration inspiration

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cover inspiration

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cut out inspiration

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dimensional inspiration

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book size inspiration

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interactive inspiration

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additional inspiration

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MY BOOK: PHASE ONE 14 selected inspiration

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initial explorations

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RESEARCH: PHASE TWO 16 folded inspiration

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cork

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city planning

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paris, france

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the final collection

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MY BOOK: PHASE TWO 26 prototyping phase i

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sample story

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google sketch up

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TO DO LIST 30 CONTACT 31


CELL CITIES PROJECT DESCRIPTION: Children read books about people

replication, cell division, or cell

The first book will introduce the

everyday, but these are generally

mutation, by translating organelles

analogy of a cell as a city. (page 3) By

about the human as a whole, not

and proteins into memorable

using something familiar like a city,

the most basic parts of a human;

characters. When students are

kids will more easily understand how

their cells. I plan on creating a

introduced to these concepts or

the cell functions. The books that

series of books which will introduce

processes at a higher level of

follow will center around a crisis,

elementary students to rather

education, they may remember

special event, or specific part of the

difficult cellular biology & genetics

the book they once read, perhaps

city in order to go more in depth or

concepts before many educators

even unconsciously, and already be

describe a specific process of the

would consider them ready. The

familiar, comfortable, and interested

cell. For example, cell division would

books will use simple analogies

in the material.

be explained in a book in which a city

for complex concepts like DNA

produced more than it needs, and decides to break off into two cities.

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ADDITIONAL TOPICS:

THE ANALOGY:

MOLECULE TRANSPORT

One common analogy used in

Think about the postal service, or

Cells must transport nutrients and other

high school to help students

a service like UPS, they practically

molecules in and out of their cytoplasm

better understand the functions

copy this process, (although many

in order to survive and thrive.

of cellular organelles is a city. If

would probably fail to recognize

you think of the entire cell as a

this connection due to the more

DNA REPLICATION

town or city, each organelle can

difficult terminology used in the

The most important goal of a cell is to

take on the function of buildings/

description of cellular processes

survive & make more of themselves. To

departments in the community,

which prohibits many from

do so they must replicate their DNA.

while proteins act as the materials

understanding.) They receive some

used in the production of the city &

sort of material (protein) which

everything in it.

needs to be transported from it’s

CELLULAR REPRODUCTION

current location to another either

Cell replication can either occur via mitosis or meiosis. This splitting of one

Let’s look at a single organelle

inside the city (cell) or outside

cell into two is quite an amazing process.

to better illustrate this cell as

the city (to another cell.) The post

city concept. The Golgi Apparatus

office will then place the material

PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

(sometimes referred to as the

in a box, usually with bubble wrap

Proteins have diverse functions inside

Golgi Bodies or the Golgi Complex)

or peanuts for protection (fluid

the cells including being the building

modifies, sorts, and packages

filled vesicle,) and place a label

blocks for all organelles, so protein

macromolecules for cell secretion.

with the destination address

creation is crucial.

These macromolecules (usually

and return address (membrane

proteins) are delivered via the

proteins.) This way the recipient

CELLULAR METABOLISM

Endoplasmic Reticulum. The Golgi

can tell if the package was

Animals consume food to get energy,

then packages the proteins inside

intended for them, and if they

plants process sunlight for energy, but

a transport vesicle and marks the

should open it (much like the

these energy sources must be converted

vesicle with membrane proteins

membrane, should it receive a

into more useful forms of energy for use

for recognition by the recipient

vesicle.)

in the cell.

of the vesicles contents. These processes ensure the proteins will

CELLULAR SIGNALLING

be delivered safely, to the correct

Cells need to communicate with each

organelle, and opened only when

other to synchronize their functions.

intended.

CELLULAR INVASION When a foreign body enters the cell and the cell usually has to kill or be killed.

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CELL CITIES

CELL ORGANELLES CITY ANALOGIES CELL CELL MEMBRANE CELL WALL CYTOSKELETON CYTOPLASM ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM RIBOSOMES GOLGI APPARATUS/BODIES CHLOROPLASTS NUCLEAR MEMBRANE MITOCHONDRIA NUCLEUS

City City Limits City Wall Steel Girders or Physical City Structure Lawns and Parks Highways or Road System Farms/Factories Post Office or UPS Solar Energy Plants Police Department Energy Plants City Hall (or the mayor)

DNA

Original Blueprints of the city

RNA

Copies of Blueprints

NUCLEOLUS

Farm & Factory Construction

LYSOSOMES

Waste Disposal/ Recyclers

VACUOLES AND VESICLES

Packages, Warehouses, Water Towers, or Garbage Dumps

PROTOPLASM CHROMOSOMES PROTEINS

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Air or atmosphere Rolled up blueprints Raw Material


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CELL CITIES ILLUSTRATIONS: I began looking at children’s books to understand what kind of illustrations kids relate to and appreciate. Included here are pieces with a graphic style that I personally relate to and could potentially translate into a book about cellular cities for kids.

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CELL CITIES

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COVERS: Included on the right are covers I found interesting because of either illustration or hand done type. If possible, I would like to combine some simple illustrations with hand done type to illustrate the stories of these cells.

CUT OUTS: This page includes some interesting examples of how cut outs or die cuts can provide a level on interaction within the book. Many of these examples, like the cut outs which flip to reveal more information and the spinning dial may be useful when hiding/displaying information about the related organelles.

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CELL CITIES DIMENSIONAL BOOKS: Many of the books I found incorporated some sort of 3d element, whether it be an attached element which can be played with or a textured area to illustrate material. This sort of addition may work in these books in order to differentiate between organelles and the cell or to create areas where children can physically move parts of the book to better understand the motion within the cell. For example the golgi apparatus page could include proteins that the children could remove from the endoplasmic reticulum, move through the golgi, and into a vesicle on the other side. They could even add the membrane proteins. It may also be a viable option to create a ‘kit’ containing the materials needed during the book.

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BOOK SIZE: When it comes to book sizes for

Another consideration, which I failed

book will need to fit into their bag

children, the bigger the better,

to make in earlier revisions of this

for convenience and the safety of the

in my opinion. When children

document, is the size of children’s

book. For these reasons it seems

make their own books, they want

book bags. If children are ever

logical to bind the books as small,

to use the biggest paper, write a

expected to take the book home with

portable chapters or mini stories

big as possible, and stretch their

them as either required, or personal

within a larger ‘set’ which could be

illustrations across the entire page.

reading from the school’s library, the

kept at home or in the classroom.

When reading in a group of children it seems inconvenient for one of the children to hold the book while the others look on, instead they tend to lay the book on the ground and lay in front of it, so everyone can be as close as possible, help turn the pages, follow along with their finger when they read aloud, and interact with the illustrations (especially if these are interactive illustrations.) Many times children’s books are read aloud by either a teacher or parent, in which case, it’s incredibly useful to have an oversized book. The adult (or student even) is able to read while sharing the illustrations with the entire group.

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CELL CITIES INTERACTIVITY: Because I am currently hoping to include so many interactive features, it may make more sense for this project to manifest itself in the form of an ipad app or website. I am reluctant to propose such a project because of my own limitations. But if time allows, I would really like to translate cell cities into a more accessible and interactive media like the ipad or the internet. (Perhaps as a game.)

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ADDITIONAL INFLUENCE: The book above was a book I my mom bought for me when I was about ten. The first few pages included a cartoon of a guard at an art museum waking up to realize that the museum had been broken into and 10 paintings replaced with frauds. You continue through the book doing a sort of ‘spot the differences’ technique referencing the paintings currently in the museum with those in a museum catalogue on the bottom of the book. The book kept me entertained for hours trying to solve the mystery of who stole which painting. The book may actually be the reason I became fascinated with art and decided to come to parsons. My brother had the rug on the bottom right when we younger, and we used to play on top of it with trucks, barbies, polly pockets, and animal figurines. This sort of a large scale map could work for my interactive book. A cell or city map where kids can place in organelles and interact with the system as a whole.

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CELL CITIES

THE BOOK: After looking through the first round

chapter covers an event in the cell’s

of influences, I found a few objects

life, it could be bound beautifully like

which will provide me with a more

this one, and I could potentially be

precise direction. One thing I will

very popular with young teenagers

be sure to include is some form of

with an active interest in biology or

cut and reveal. I also appreciate the

fantastical cities.

bright graphic illustrations in the book (above center.) The PR3 book (bottom right) caused me to reconsider my target group. This book could potentially be condensed into a book where every

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EXPERIMENTATION: On the bottom of the opposite page I began to play with how parts of the city could be introduced. This illustration, however, has not undergone any revisions and I don’t believe they are very useful in conveying the information necessary.

On the bottom of this page I have

On the right, I began to play with the

begun to play around with how

buildings as simplistic icons, inspired

a cut and reveal may work to my

by the PR3 book. But then I began to

advantage, by cutting out the shape

think, why can’t the buildings be actual

of the organelle from the building it

characters, like characters in many

will imply a connection between the

traditional children’s books. This will

building and the organelle.

make the organelles more memorable and relatable.

CELL CITY

I still, however, don’t think this type of straight-forward translation of cell to building is working terribly well. It feels too educational for a child to wan to read on his/her own. This balance between ‘cool enough’ for a kids to want to spend time with, and ‘educational enough’ for a parent to want to buy the series and read them along with their kids.

chloroplasts act like factories in plants taking in energy from the sun and converting it into energy for the cell to use.

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CELL CITIES FOLDED INSPIRATION: Lack of clarity in direction caused me to look back for more inspiration. I love the red book below. The spacial quality of it is really interesting. There may be a way to incorporate this kind of intricate pop-up quality into my book. On the opposite page, a few circular forms I found interesting appear. The book in the center is particularly interesting to me because of it’s circular die-cut through the center with materials or fragments of papers added across and through the circle. The folded book below has interesting color forms which may influence the final illustrations considering many of the forms within the cell have a round symmetrical appearance.

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CELL CITIES FOLDING & CORK: Folding the entire book may be an interesting way to add interactively for kids back in. In the upcoming prototyping phases I will be sure to experiment with these kinds of folding. (Maybe out into a map.) Robert Hooke saw the first (and coined the term) cell around 1665 relating their appearance to that of a monk’s cell. Below is one of his original observational drawings of a cork cell through a microscope. Because the first cell was seen in a cork cell, I feel it would be make sense that some part of the book involve cork as either a physical material or pattern. Some uses of cork in bookmaking and design appear opposite.

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CELL CITIES CITY PLANNING: I began looking at books concerning city planning, hoping to find a city that already imitates the structure of a cell to aid in my cell city planning. I found a few real cities like Paris in the 1500s, ancient Athens, and a few imaginary cities which may serve as a stable bridge between city and cell. In my research I happened upon a list of city ‘types’ including the commercial city, the industrial city, the transportation city, the recreational city, educational cities, mining communities, retirement communities, governmental centers, and combination cities. This classification could be an alternative way to organize these cell city stories into separate books, although not all of these city ‘types’ will work for a cell (i.e. retirement city)

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CELL CITIES

CITY PLANNING: Many of the books regarding city planning that I happened upon included these city overviews which I think are visually really interesting, even by themselves. I also came across a book (on the right) that had different sized pages for pages with text and image. This, or something similar could be an interesting addition to the book which will add visual and interactive interest. The book could have many different sized pages and somehow fold out to become a large cellular city map.

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CELL CITIES PARIS, FRANCE: As mentioned earlier, the physical structure of Paris resembles that of a cell. The one major difference is the river flowing through Paris. A cell doesn’t not have water flowing freely in it, but rather cytoplasm contained within it’s plasma membrane. To illustrate this point it may be helpful to place a dome on top of the city.

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THE FINAL COLLECTION: When I have completed multiple

I do, however, really appreciate

The book below (bottom right) may

books, I would like to package them

the gesture on the spines of the

serve as an interesting piece to draw

in a box set much like the ones on

animator’s survival kit. It adds a bit

inspiration from for more of a ‘kit’

this page. I feel that what is missing

of playfulness in that they could be

feel. The box would contain all of the

with these book box-sets is a clear

reordered and possibly appear like

contents necessary to enjoy and use

and engaging relationship to the

they have different legs or feet than

the books, as well as a large fold out

material. If someone is going to

those originally intended for them. I

map and perhaps an introduction to

buy the special edition or box set

also appreciate the simplicity of the

the project.

of a series, it’s usually because the

bold circle on the Lord of the Rings

packaging itself is so special.

set with the addition of the gloss coated black on black details.

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CELL CITIES PROTOTYPING PHASE 1: Having completed a second round of research, I began playing with illustration. My illustrator sketches were turning out too childish like the one below, so I decided to try making the spreads a bit darker. Below right, are two variations of one of these spreads. Above is a possible overview of the city, the white is proposed ‘road ways’ through the city. The nucleus or town hall will be placed in the center with other buildings placed in empty quadrants of the circle. These may end up in the shape of a C as seen on the opposite page. Many of these quadrants will be left empty for use in the stories.

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& THE CITY WENT TO WORK, SLOWLY PUSHING THEIR CITY IN TWO


SAMPLE STORY: ... The people of the city worked hard,

In the meantime, the town hall was

With the {centromere} on the opposite

and the city thrived.

carefully drawing copies of the entire

side of the city, citizens unwrapped {the

town’s specifications. {Including the

centromeres} and ran to the center of

They produced more food than

book of laws, blueprints to all the

town.

they would ever be able to eat,

buildings in the city and city plans.} Upon their arrival, they were greeted by

more power than they would ever be capable of consuming,

As soon as the {centromere} had

the rest of the town who had gathered to

more materials than they

completed it’s replication, the people

witness the ceremonies.

would ever be able to use,

of {} city gathered to aid in the

and more waste than they

transportation of the new building

The blueprints had been laid across the

had room for in their {dome}.

across town.

hall’s lawn in pairs. The town quickly wrapped one of every pair in the ribbons.

In fear of lysis, the town assembled at the town nucleus where the mayor

A parade of people rushed in following

demanded all government buildings

the ribbon bearers from the opposite

begin doubling their staff and

side of the city.

construction of new facilities. They tied the remaining blueprints in Knowing how energy intensive avoiding

the ribbons, just as the group before had

a break in the dome was going to be, he

done, until all the blue prints had been

asked energy plants to quickly take over

tied; each to a different color ribbon.

the entire southern quarter of the city. The crowd grew silent. Building materials were quickly delivered to construction sites, and the

{TRANSLATION OF CELL SIGNAL: phone

city doubled within a few days.

call to mayor?} And the city went to work, slowly pushing their city into two cities, stretching and reconfiguring the supports for the dome along the stretch.

& THE CITY WENT TO WORK, SLOWLY PUSHING THEIR CITY IN TWO

...TOWN HALL SPLITS RECONFIGUREDS ON OPPOSITE SIDES AND RUNS ITS OWN TOWN THROUGH THE REMAINDER OF THE DIVIDE...

*To be continued. {} Indicates and area of complication which will need specific attention.

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CELL CITIES GOOGLE SKETCH UP: Because I have to illustrate an entire cellular city, and because I was having such a difficult time deciding how to draw the city, I decided it would beneficial to begin drawing the physical city structure in google sketch up. Perhaps these models could eventually be turned into illustrations by bringing them into photoshop. Even if these only end up being reference for perspective drawing or as a map of the city to ensure consistency throughout the book, I believe they will be well worth it.

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You will probably almost immediately notice that I’ve begun construction on two essential components of the cell, and left the rest rather generic for the time being; the nucleus and the cell wall/membrane. The development of the nucleus should be fairly straight forward from here, but the membrane may need to be rethought a bit. The problem here being that a cell must have a membrane to keep it’s own cytoplasm in (like the air to the city) and invaders or harmful bacteria out (like pollutants, terrorist attacks, etc.) Where the cell/city divides, the immediate reconstruction of this membrane may be difficult to convey.

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CELL CITIES

TO DO LIST: PROTOTYPING: WINTER 2011-2012 »» Draft of text for all books »» Storyboard for all books »» Finish SketchUp model »» Size exploration »» Binding exploration »» Type/format exploration »» Integration of cork/cutouts/folding PRODUCTION: SPRING 2012 »» Finalized text »» Illustrations for spreads »» Branding »» Cover design »» Packaging/extras? »» Box set TESTING: SUMMER 2012 »» Summer camp testing »» Game/Interactive integration REVISIONS: FALL 2012 »» Thesis II »» Feedback from summer 2012 testing

early mockup of cytocity book

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email:

lily.k.campbell@gmail.com campl073@newschool.edu phone:

802.236.5724 mailing address:

Lily Campbell 439 W 51st Apt 1E New York, NY 10019

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{APPLAUSE}

Cell Cities 12.19  

Lily Campbell Cell Cities Thesis I Paul Carlos

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