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rePackage LILY CAMPBELL

SENIOR THESIS 1 PAUL CARLOS FALL 2011 PUCD 4205 F CRN: 5339

“rePackage”

1. Package again or differently. 2. Present in a new way.


rePackage LILY CAMPBELL

CONTENTS

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

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RESEARCH

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why

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materials + processes

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additional packaging inspiration

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storage

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comsumer + package

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sustainability

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production cycle

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MATERIAL SELECTION

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PROTOTYPES

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initial explorations

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polyhedra advantages

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material inspiration

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folding + collapsing inspiration

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CONTACT

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rePackage LILY CAMPBELL

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

I will be designing a new line of packaging for items found in a kitchen pantry. I want to attempt a design that will satisfy the many requirements for a truly sustainable package. Special attention will be given in areas concerning material source, recyclability/compostability, durability, weight, overall package volume to surface area ratio, functionality, appeal, and ability to remind and cause users to recycle/compost in an effort to close the loop of the packaging manufacturing process. For example, the cereal box has gone through many external redesigns and

The current packaging landscape

graphic ‘make-overs’ as far as I can remember but it has not undergone

is currently following form as op-

either of the previous are true, it’s

any long-lasting, or drastic physical/

posed to form following function,

likely the package will not be capable

shape changes. This is problematic

or the form being derived from the

of biodegrading or being recycled.

not because these packages are una-

function or behavior of the contents

This package may also use an unnec-

ble to function in today’s world, we all

and the user, these packages tend to

essary amount of packaging because

know a cereal box stands well, pours

be what I would consider inadequate.

of either layers of packaging (i.e. a

well, and if closed properly, keeps it’s

Material sources are often chemi-

box + a liner in typical cereal pack-

contents fresh. But because function

cal or pre-consumer content, and if

aging) or because the shape of the

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rePackage LILY CAMPBELL

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

This project is for the next

what currently seems like arbitrary

generation of consumers

numbers and percentages to many,

who will inevitably face this

as well a recycling reminder. (Per-

shift in packaging. Eventually

haps an infographic/visualization of

sustainable packaging will

the actual contents.) I will finally con-

be a necessity. I predict this

sider ink additions and the branding

packaging shift will happen

of the entire line(s) of packaging.

either by variation in materials used for packaging along with redesign in an attempt to make the package a more efficient item, or the in store package requires more material to

Total MSW Ge

experience itself will digress

contain the given volume than a more

to a time when consumers brought

efficient shape with a smaller surface

their own containers to market to be

area to the same volume like a cyl-

filled from larger (on shelf) contain-

inder or cube. A less obvious ineq-

ers: eliminating the packaging all

uity (at least to consumers) is in the

together. For many products, this sort

shipping of these products. Because

of collection experience will be im-

of the restricted time line and my

possible, my thesis will serve these

lack of business/shipping knowledge

products in either circumstance.

249.6 million

Total MSW Generation by Category in 2008

I will not attempt to suggests a travel methods (i.e. train, ship, truck, plane,

I have recently made contact with a

etc) but perhaps a type of packag-

few packaging designers and visited

ing that will protect the shelf-bound

Material Connection in an attempt to

package, keep them in manageable

select an appropriate material. My

“blocks� or units for shipping, and

next step is really to decide (or nar-

be capable of acting as an in store

row down) materials so I’m able to

display if one is necessary, without

begin prototype exploration. Hope-

adding layers of box, board, packag-

fully this will lead to a package not

ing fillers, etc.

dependent on preconsumer mate-

Total MSW Ge

250 Million To

PAPER

Total MSW Generation by Material in 2008

rials or adhesives that can easily

If branding does manifest in inking

collapse to be put back into a closed

the packages, careful consideration

loop system (or as close as I can

will be used when selecting colors

come to this idealistic state.) I will

(both number of colors involved and

then attempt to develop a system for

the actual tone/hue) as well as ink

delivering nutritional value in a way

source (soy v coconut v Pantone) and

that the user can truly understand

total amount of ink.

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rePackage LILY CAMPBELL

RESEARCH: WHY

INFORMATION TRANSMISSION to communicate how to use, transport, recycle, or dispose

WHY DON’T WE RECYCLE MORE? USE HIGH PERCENTAGES OF POST-CONSUMER RECYCLED

MARKETING

CONTENT

to encourage purchases

every tonne of recycled paper saves over 400 gallons of oil due to the

SECURITY

significantly lower energy loads

for tamper and counterfeit

required.

resistance

WHY WE NEED PACKAGES: PHYSICAL PROTECTION against shock, vibration, electrostatic discharge, compression, temperate, etc.

EXPLORE TREE-FREE CONVENIENCE in distribution, handling, stacking,

ALTERNATIVES hemp, kenaf, switchgrass, and straw

display, sale, opening, reclosing, use,

grow rapidly, need littler or no chemi-

dispensing, reuse, recycling, and

cals & have low water needs.

disposal

agricultural waste like palm-oil processing ‘waste’ which naturally in

PORTION CONTROL

fibre which can serve as a laminate

for single serving or single dosage

and still biodegrades.

BARRIER PROTECTION against oxygen, water vapor, dust,

SUPPORT SUSTAINABLE

etc.

FORESTRY $7.7 - 11.6 billion of illegal forestry in

CONTAINMENT OR

developing nations annually

AGGLOMERATION

FSC ensures fair share of profit along

for liquids & powders

entire supply chain.

or grouping small objects

current sustainable packaging alternatives

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rePackage LILY CAMPBELL

RESEARCH: MATERIALS + PROCESSES

current sustainable packaging alternatives

INSIST ON CHLORINE-FREE

WATERLESS PRINTING

DESIGN PACKAGES WITH RECY-

PAPERSTOCK

(DRYOGRAPHY)

CLING IN MIND

process chlorine free (PCF) = recy-

no dampening solution needed to

design-for-recycling (DfR) design-

cled paper > 30% PCC

prepare plates - fast & clean - re-

for-disassembly (DfD) design-for-en-

duces paper and energy use

viroment (DfE) plastic waste streams can be contaminated by other plastic,

FINISHING MATERIALS + MISC: ASK FOR AQUEOUS VARNISHES standard varnishes and adhesives contain high levels of VOCs aqueousbased varnished are water-based and low-VOC can be recycled and re-

COMPUTER-TO-PLATE (CTP) OR

paperboard, wire, adhesives, etc. A

DIRECT-TO-PLATE (DTP)

lot of plastic with never be recycled

eliminates film production, reduces

because this process has not been

both VOC-release and energy-use

considered in the design

UV INKS

SUPPORT BIOPLASTIC

do not requires high temperature to

INNOVATION

dry, but binds to pulp strongly = hard

bioplastics = biodegradable plastics

to remove for recycling

from renewable sources farming for 6 million people = a lot of left

pulped without harmful by-products USE WATER-BASED ADHESIVES

over husks, stalks, leaves, shells,

PLASTICS

starch residues, etc. corn-based PLA (polylactic acid) can be reprocessed

binding adhesives are often petroleum-based, emit high levels of VOCs

USE POST-CONSUMER RECY-

and biodegrades in a few months.

and are difficult to remove in the de-

CLED PLASTICS

cornstarch Plantic is water solu-

inking process. water-based glues

virgin HDPE (#2 resin code) takes 7 x

ble. biopolymers are in resin group

to not use VOCs and dissolve during

more energy to make than recycled

#7 “other,” should be in their own

de-inking

HDPE by mixing virgin and recycled

category so resulting material can be

content original quality is obtainable

used

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rePackage LILY CAMPBELL

RESEARCH: MATERIALS + PROCESSES

EXPLORE TREE-FREE

SUPPORT SUSTAINABLE

ALTERNATIVES

FORESTRY

hemp, kenaf, switchgrass,

$7.7 - 11.6 billion of illegal forestry in

and straw grow rapidly, need

developing nations annually FSC en-

littler or no chemicals & have

sures fair share of profit along entire

low water needs agricultural

supply chain.

waste like palm-oil processing ‘waste’ which naturally

INSIST ON CHLORINE-FREE

in fibre which can serve as a

PAPERSTOCK

laminate still biodegrades.

process chlorine free (PCF) = recycled paper > 30% PCC

PAPER & PAPERBOARD: USE HIGH PERCENTAGES OF POST-CONSUMER RECYCLED CONTENT every tonne of recycled paper saves over 400 gallons of oil due to the significantly lower energy loads required. current sustainable packaging alternatives

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INKS :

RESEARCH: MATERIALS + PROCESSES

USE LESS INK COVERAGE ink usage creates a more intensive extraction and manufacturing process more post-industrial & post-consumer waste to be de-inked if recycled USE ‘GOOD’ BLACK black ink from recycled color ink.

SUSTAINABILITY SUGGESTIONS:

20% of pantone colors contain harmful chemicals, metallics = high levels of zinc and copper, warm reds = barium

»» eliminating toxic constituents »» using less material »» making packaging more reusable »» using more recycled content »» making packaging more readily recyclable

current sustainable packaging alternatives

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RESEARCH: MATERIALS + PROCESSES

SPECIFY SOY-BASED INKS OR OTHER VEGETABLE INKS petroleum-based inks require destructive extraction techniques & non renewable resources. they do not biodegrade, but remain toxic - soy beans are abundant and lowmaintenance. soy inks spread 20% further, can be cleaned off with water-based solvents for reuse/disposal. other vegetable inks include: coren, walnut, coconut, linseed, and canola SPECIFY LOW-VOC INKS Volatile Organic Compounds are chemicals that vaporize contributing to smog, ozone, and greenhouse gases.

current sustainable packaging alternatives

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rePackage LILY CAMPBELL

RESEARCH: ADDITIONAL PACKAGING INSPIRATION

current sustainable packaging alternatives

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rePackage LILY CAMPBELL

RESEARCH: ADDITIONAL PACKAGING INSPIRATION

current sustainable packaging alternatives

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RESEARCH: STORAGE

Packaging at home and in store

STORAGE:

nicely, bring all the items from separate shelves home and this doesn’t

Some inadequacies in pack-

happen as smoothly. The shelves at

aging appear when the

home tend to accumulate piles of

product comes off the shelves

products ready to tumble out when

of the store and into your

you pull out the can on the bottom. If

home pantry, cabinet, or

these packages better complimented

refrigerator. In the store, like

one another, or possessed some

products are shelved close to

sort of quality like that of the top and

one another, and therefore fit

bottom of tuperwear which allows for

together and organize quite

easy stacking.

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rePackage LILY CAMPBELL

RESEARCH: CONSUMER + PACKAGE

package purchase process influences heart, mind, perception, knowledge, attention, motivation, other people, barriers to action

re

INFLUENCES ON CONSUMER + PACKAGE: Regardless of what kind of packaging being produced, it’s important to keep in mind some of the influences acting on the consumer. These vary from the consumer’s perception of the product, to their attention to the product on the shelf, to how others respond to the product, and possible barriers to action (or reasons not to buy the product.) Ideally these influences with result in a purchase. garbage, and produced for noth-

Together these ingredients make

It’s equally, if not more important,

ing. For this reason, it may become

for a difficult scale to balance. And

to keep in mind the influence of the

essential to use some pre consumer

to make matters more complicated,

environment on the package when

products, but these will be used only

many of these environmental interac-

redesigning. The packaging serves

in cases of need.

tions have inverse relationships, I.e. a smaller environmental footprint, usu-

as the protective layer between the package harmful outside elements

It’s also important to keep in mind

ally comes with increased production

which, dependent on the product,

marketing, distribution, the design of

costs, and therefore an increase in

may include moisture, oxygen, tem-

the package as a whole, the envi-

price for the consumer. Raise this

perature, etc. In many cases, if this

ronmental impact of the package,

price level too much and only a select

barrier is broken the package is now

the price level, and communication.

few can purchase your product,

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rePackage LILY CAMPBELL

RESEARCH: SUSTAINABILITY

Some have also included the

responsibility for people, planet, and

term ‘ethics’ in their defini-

profit, the three ps in a triple bottom

tions as an overriding rule

line company. The representation on

encompassing all previ-

the right speaks to an ordered sys-

ously described. Below are

tem on importance, ethics governing

three visual variations of the

your entire process, then the environ-

definition of sustainability. You

ments, society, and finally economy.

will notice the bottom representation replaces social, environmental, and economic

Visualizat

pillars by (adapted

Visualizations of sustainability by author (adapted fr

om Wikipedia, Mar ch 2010 )

THE SUSTAINABLE INTERSECTION: The intersection of social, economic, and environmental responsibility is what many consider the definition of sustainability. It must be bearable both socially and environmentally. It

Visualization of th e

must be equitable (both socially and

3Ps under consideration of

economically) and it must be environ-

ethics by author (adapted fr om

mentally and economically viable.

Wikipedia, Mar ch 2010 )

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rePackage LILY CAMPBELL

RESEARCH: PRODUCTION CYCLE

(For productsforconsumptio)( n

For productsforservice )

PRODUCT PRODUCTION: These diagrams illustrate the process of turning material into a product, and what happens to that product after use. Ideally this afteruse could be the production of another generation of packaging for the product. If this happens, the loop you see on the lower diagram becomes closed (following the recyclers arrow.) As you can see, by moving only along this inner loop far fewer materials are disposed of and far fewer are needed to be put into production. Above, this inner loop has been separated into two circles for comparison. is preferred to a ,line, or a cycle The left loop represents the biological loopofdescribes technical recycling Visualization the packaging pr oduct life cycle by authoreither (adapted fr om the SPC not returning products to the begincycle of producing and recycling a Sustainable where technical nutrients are reused. Packaging Coalition, May 2010) product in the earth, while the right

The biological cycle is preferred, but

ning of the system.

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rePackage LILY CAMPBELL

MATERIAL SELECTION

EHENIS: Eius denducipis volorepe pa doluptat quuEius dducipis volorepe pa doluptakt quu Eius dendkjh lkj

EHENIS:

EHENIS:

EHENIS:

Eius denducipis

Eius denducipis

Eius denducipis

volorepe pa do-

volorepe pa

volorepe pa

luptat quu

doluptat quu

doluptat quu

EHENIS:

EHENIS:

EHENIS:

Eius denducipis

Eius denducipis

Eius denducipis

volorepe pa do-

volorepe pa

volorepe pa

luptat quu

doluptat quu

doluptat quu

EHENIS:

EHENIS:

EHENIS:

Eius denducipis

Eius denducipis

Eius denducipis

volorepe pa do-

volorepe pa

volorepe pa

luptat quu

doluptat quu

doluptat quu

EHENIS:

EHENIS:

EHENIS:

Eius denducipis

Eius denducipis

Eius denducipis

volorepe pa do-

volorepe pa

volorepe pa

luptat quu

doluptat quu

doluptat quu

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PROTOTYPES: INITIAL EXPLORATIONS

REC TANGULAR PRISM 3100 CM

2

rectangular prism dimensions = 40 x 30 x 5 cm material = 3100 cm2 + lining bag, adhesives, & ink volume = 6000 cm3

cube box dimensions = 17 x 17 x 17cm material = 1754.46 cm2 of paper + lining bag, adhesives, & ink material saved = 1345.54 cm2

CUB E 1754 CM 2

cylindrical tube dimensions = 9.85r x 19.7 cm material = 1524 cm2 + lining bag, adhesives, ink & lid material saved = 1576 cm2

cy li nd ri ca l tube 1524 CM 2

PILL OW BAG A 21 75 CM 2

pillow bag A dimensions = 35 x 31 cm volume = 5891 cm3 material = 2175 cm2 + ink & label material saved = 925 cm2 + lining bag or box

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rePackage LILY CAMPBELL

pillow bag A dimensions = 35 x 31 cm volume = 5891 cm3 material = 2175 cm2 + ink & label material saved = 925 cm2 + lining bag or box

PROTOTYPES: INITIAL EXPLORATIONS PILL OW BAG B 2520 CM

2

pillow bag B dimensions = 45 x 28 cm volume = 5689 cm3 material = 2520 cm2 + ink & label material saved = 580 cm2 + lining bag or box

PILL OW BAG C 2610 CM 2

block bottom bag A dimensions = 24.7 x 15 x 15 cm + 4 cm triangular top material = 2022 cm2 + adhesives, ink & label material saved = 1078 cm2 + lining bag or box

BLOCK A 2022 CM

pillow bag C dimensions = 45 x 29 cm volume = 6093 cm3 material = 2610 cm2 + ink & label material saved = 490 cm2 + lining bag or box

2

block bottom bag B dimensions = 38 x 30 x 5 cm + 4 cm triangular top material = 3113 cm2 + adhesives, ink & label material saved = -13 cm2 + lining bag or box BLOCK BO TTOM B 3113 CM 2

block bottom bag with clip would have similar material needs + extra material at closure & a clip

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PROTOTYPES: POLYHEDRAL ADVANTAGES

POLYHEDRA: Because volume increases with the number of sides (keeping surface area constant,) an important question to answer seems, how many sides can a well functioning package have? And if the answer is more than 6, can we use these extra sides to our advantage?

an assortment of polyhedrons

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PROTOTYPES: MATERIAL INSPIRATION

package form + folding inspiration

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PROTOTYPES: FOLDING + COLLAPSING INSPIRATION

package form + folding inspiration

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rePackage LILY CAMPBELL

PROTOTYPES: FOLDING + COLLAPSING INSPIRATION

package form + folding inspiration

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rePackage LILY CAMPBELL

PROTOTYPES: FOLDING + COLLAPSING INSPIRATION

package form + folding inspiration

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rePackage LILY CAMPBELL

PROTOTYPES: FOLDING + COLLAPSING INSPIRATION

package form + folding inspiration

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rePackage LILY CAMPBELL

CONTACT

email:

lily.k.campbell@gmail.com campl073@newschool.edu phone:

802.236.5724 mailing address:

Lily Campbell 439 W 51st Apt 1E New York, NY 10019

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10.13.2011 parsons cdt thesis document