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SYMBIOTIC SKYSCRAPER:

A PRO GR AMME TEMPORALITYBASE D A P P R OACH TO HIGH DENSI TY U R BAN FORM

Liliani Saputri


SYMBIOTIC SKYSCRAPER:

A PROGRAM M E TEM PORALITYBAS ED APPROACH TO HIGH DENS ITY URBAN FORM 2016 | Term 9+10 | 28 Weeks Type: Mixed-Use Tutor: Thomas Schoepher Subject: Thesis Site: Keppel, Singapore


CONTENT 1.0 Background

1.1 Increasing Population Density

1.2 High-rise Dominating Singapore’s Skyline

1.3 Trend of Mixed-Use Skyscrapers

2.0 Problem Field 3.0 Study

3.1 Location of Mixed-Use Skyscrapers

3.2 Type of Programmes Mix

3.3 Understanding Existing Typologies

3.4 Relationships Between Programmes

4.0 Design Proposal


1.0 BACKGROUND


1.1 Increasing Population Density

82 years

65 years

Life Expectancy (Source: Worldbank) 5.4

1.2

Fertility Rate (Source: Worldbank) 15.1

3.7

The life expectancy in Singapore has increased rapidly to 82 years by 2014 while the total fertility rate (TFR) has declined over the years from 5.4 in 1960 to 1,25 in 2014. With increasing life expectancy and declining fertility rate, Singapore faces the problem of potential shrinkage of the labour force. The age dependency ratio has been inclining from 3.7 in 1960 to 15.1 in 2014. Based on the studies done, Singapore’s total population has to increase from 5.54 million in 2015 to 6.9 million in 2030 to sustain Singapore’s economic and its population to be youthful and stable. Shortage of land area is a huge problem in Singapore. Singapore’s land area has grown from 581,5 km² to 719,1 km² in 50 years through land reclamation to accommodate for its growing population (SLA, 2016). Based on the land use planning, only 54% of Singapore’s land area (excluding defence requirements, land transport infrastructure, nature and reservoirs) is buildable (MND, 2013). This shows how limited our built land area is. Thus, the densification of Singapore is inevitable.

Age Dependency Ratio (Source: Worldbank)

766 km2 718.9 km2

581.5 km2

Total Land Area (Source: Singstat.gov.sg)

Housing Industry and Commerce Community, Institution, Receration Utilities Ports and Airports Others Parks and Nature Reserve Defence Requirements Land Transport Infrastructrure Reservoirs

46% unbuildable

54% buildable

Land Use Plan in 2030 (Source: Singstat.gov.sg)


) 000 n (, o i t m) ula sqk Pop Area ( d Lan

ity ns De ) n io km lat /sq pu le Po eop (p

Population Density in Singapore (Source: Data.gov)

Medium Cities 1m to 5m

Large Cities 5m to 10m


1974 3,537 people/sqkm

Singapore’s Skyline (Source: Scott Holcomb, 1974)

2014 7,139 people/sqkm

Singapore’s Skyline (Source: Brian Evans, 2014)


5342 High-rise 69%

2164 Low-rise 28%

220 Skyscraper 3%

“LARGE POPULATION, SMALL ISLAND.. THEREFORE, WE HAVE NO CHOICE BUT TO GO HIGH-DENSITY.. Singapore Public Housing Story (2013), Liu Thai Ker

Low-rise High-rise (35-100m) Skyscraper (>100m)

Singapore’s Building Data in 2016 (Source: Emporis)


1.2 High-rise Dominating Singapore’s Skyline

In the 1960s, many people in Singapore were living in slums and crowded squatter settlements. In a city-state country where land scarcity is a huge issue, high-rise public housings were built in Singapore to solve this housing crisis. By 2016, over 80% of Singapore’s resident population live in mostly high-rise public housing (Developing Living Cities: From Analysis to Action). Hence, highrises become a major building typology in Singapore. As the population density is projected to be twofold of the current population density, high-rises buildings will not be enough to cater for Singapore’s land needs. Skyscrapers are the only option to go. In 2016, 3% of Singapore’s building already consists of skyscrapers (Emporis, 2016).

Central Business District (Source: Brian Evans, 2014)

High-rise Housing Estate (Source: Disckson Phua, 2014)


1.3 Trend of Mixed-Use Skyscrapers

Land Use Plan (Source: URA) Transport Green Green

Residential Industry Reserve Site Business

The number of skyscrapers built has increased exponentially in the recent decades. This increment is predicted to continue in the future to cater for Singapore’s growing population. Furthermore, there is a shift in the skyscraper’s building function. Even though most skyscrapers which were built in the 1990s, were office buildings, there are a lot of new residential and mixed-use skyscraper developments in recent years. Singapore’s city planning is predominantly based on single-use zoning, splitting land uses into residential, commercial and industrial areas. It creates a problem of disparity of urban intensity. For instance, the central areas which are mostly commercial areas are congested with many people, while the residential areas located on Singapore’s border are desolated and dull environment. Over the recent decades, mixed-use development has gained popularity among residents and investor. By putting office, residential and retail in a single development, it can bring greater convenience and reduces the need to travel. Mix land uses also convey substantial economic benefit. Commercial uses that are located in close proximity of residential areas often have higher property values, as there are more shoppers in the area. Also, mix land uses attract many residents who crave for better quality of living, increasing the property value. According to Sustainable Singapore Blueprint (2015), more mixed-use developments will be developed in the housing estates and regional centre in the future.

Activity Generating Use Plan (Source: URA)

Population Density (inhabitants/sqkm) 20,000-30,000 15,000-20,000

10,000-15,000 5,000-10,000


21 out of 108 skyscrapers 19% part of mixed-use development

83 out of 108 skyscrapers 76% residential development

Mix-Use Residential Others Office

Singapore’s Skyscrapers Data in 2016 (Source: Emporis)


5 2 12 9 1

7 11 8 10

Mixed-Use Skyscrapers (Source: Emporis)

3

4 6


As mixed-use developments gain popularity among urban planners, residents and investor, it is important to understand its strength and weaknesses to create a better typology for the future.

1. People Park Complex 1973

7. Marina Bay Financial Centre 2012

2. Raffles City 1986

8. OASIA 2016

3. Concourse 1994

9. Southbeach 2016

4. Marina Bay Sands 2010

10. Marina One Upcoming

5. Clementi Mall 2011

11. Tanjong Pagar Upcoming

6. Asia Square 2011

12. DUO Upcoming


2.0 PROBLEM FIELD


The distance from the upper floor to the street are increased tremendously as the building go higher which creates isolation from the public life.

The introduction of the new ground floor plane helps to integrate upper level to the urban life. However, each layer of the new ground is still isolated from each other.

Public spaces are commercialised (shopping mall), privatised and have low level of publicness. Each project still relies on the street to provide public space.

The movement between floor entirely relies on the use of elevators. Each floor becomes an individual entity on its own, closed and separated system.

Mix programs are confined within boundary without any opportunities for its synergy.

Overall Analysis of Mixed-Use Skyscraper in Singapore (left to right: Clementi Mall, Raffles City, OASIA)

Open Public Space Privatised Public Space

Others Lift

Culture Hotel Residential

Office Carpark/Services Shopping


By fostering relationships between programs through the use of vertical public spaces, networks of city life can be vertically extended from the city into skyscrapers, which could become a solution to liveability in a high dense situation.

Thesis Statement


1.0 Background

2.0 Problem Field

3.1 Location of Mixed-Use Skyscrapers 3.2 Type of Programmes Mix 3.0 Study

3.3 Understanding Existing Typologies 3.4 Relationships Between Programmes

4.0 Design Proposal

Methodology


3.0 STUDY


Density of floor area ratio

Single-use High-rise

Single-use Skyscraper

Mixed-use Skyscraper

3.1 Location of MixedUse Skyscrapers With high concentration of activities and people over time, mixed-use skyscrapers should be located in core urban areas with high degree of accessibility and connectivity, such as MRT Stations.

Maximum density of activity

Density of activity /time


Existing MRT Track Future MRT Track

MRT Stations With limited land area and increasing transport demand, public transportation holds the key to solving future transportation problem. Mass Rapid Transport (MRT) forms the backbone of the

Singapore MRT Future Plan (Source: LTA)

public transport in Singapore (Ibrahim, 2003). Its route serves to connect various satellite towns to the most densely populated areas of Singapore. MRT Station is a critical node as it serves as an entry point

to not only a single station but also for the entire transit system comprising multiple stations and transit networks.


Section of Bedok Integrated Mixed-Use Development

Bedok Residences Facilities

Bedok Integrated Mixed-Use Development

Bedok Mall Entrance to MRT

Integrating Mixed-use Development with MRT Historically, MRT Stations are intended only for transit purposes. However, there is an increasing commercialization of MRT Station, introducing large-

scale commercial spaces into existing and future underground space (Wong, Chiam, Lovatt, & Lim). MRT Stations also become part of integrated mixed-use development such as in the case of Bedok station.

Bedok station is an integrated mixed-use developments which consist of retail and residential programme. Retailers have the assurance that they will always have customers from the train station patrons

or residences. While the residences and the train station patrons have the benefit of having retailers nearby.


Dhoby Ghaut Development

Clementi Development

City Hall Development

(Clementi Mall)

(Raffles City)

Bishan Development

Future Development

(Plaza Singapura)

Buona Vista Development

(Junction 8)

(Star Vista)

Shopping Living Carpark

Culture Office Other

Hotel Civic, Community Institution Education

Reclaiming Public Space in MRT Mixed-Use Development

spaces into existing and future underground space (Wong, Chiam, Lovatt, & Lim).

As can be seen from the case studies, there is an increasing commercialization of MRT station, introducing large-scale commercial

Integration of MRT Station with shopping malls creates privatised and sanitised spaces.

Singapore MRT Development Case Studies

In creating a future MRT programme typology, public functions should also be integrated with MRT Stations.


North Coast Innovation Corridor: More commercial centres outside the city Punggol: to be further develop Reclamation in the nearer term

Tengah: 55,000 new homes in the next 2-3 years

Bidadari: 11,000 new homes in the next 2-3 years

Tampines North: 21,000 new homes in the next 2-3 years

Southern Waterfront City: more commercial centres outside the city

Business Residential Reserve Site

Civic and Community Institution Commercial Transport Facilities

Pasir Panjang Terminal

Singapore Land Use Plan in 2030

Open Space Park

Keppel Terminal Pulau Brani

The relocation of the City Terminals at Tanjong Pagar, Keppel and Pulau Brani by 2027 and the Pasir Panjang Terminal thereafter will free up 1,000ha of land for development. The Greater Southern Waterfront — with a land area about three times

Great South Waterfront Development

Keppel Golf Club

Keppel Golf Club

Keppel Golf Club’s lease will expire on 31 December 2021 and no new lease will be offered as the land is proposed to be used as mixed-use estates as part of Greater South Waterfront Development.

the size of Marina Bay — is envisioned to be a seamless extension of the city and will open up new live-work-play opportunities.


Transportation Network

Amenities

500m radius from MRT Station


Labrador MRT

Telok Blangah MRT

Site Choosen

0

3.2 Type of Programmes Mix

it would be the primary node of Keppel’s mixed-use development.

The proposed site is Telok Blangah MRT Station. Currently, it serves the neighbourhood of Telok Blangah and residences of Keppel Bay. In the future,

Through understanding the specificity of the site, various programs are proposed to be included in this design proposal, including school,

community centre, office, and residential.

100

200

500

Site Plan


A. Canteen B. Staff Offices C. Classroom D. Science Block (Laboratory) E. Workshop Block F. MPH

D E

A B

D E

C

Level 1 Plan

3.31 Study of Secondary School

E

F C

Level 2 Plan

Level 3 Plan

Level 4 Plan


Occupancy: 1100 Area (sqm) Unit

Courtyard typology +maximizing natural daylight +maximizing ventilation, +maximizing privacy (inward-looking form)

Workshop

Classrooms

MPH/Canteen Science

Clustered programs in a block +Maximize privacy +Minimize noise from other programs

Staff Room

Staff Room +Centrally located around the school +Easy access

Classroom

80

28

Staff Room

100

1

Admin Office

50

1

Canteen

1300

1

MPH

600

1

Basketball Court

900

1

Library

150

1

Science Lab

200

6

Fab Lab

300

1

Food Lab

120

2

Music Room

120

1

Arts Room

120

2

Dance Room

120

2

LT

240

2

Computer Lab

200

2

Printing Room

15

1

Sick Bays

25

1


A. Basketball Court B. Activity Room C. Food Store D.Staff Room E. MPH F. Arts Room G. Dance Studio

B

C

A E B

B

D

Level 1 Plan

3.32 Study of Community Centre

B

B

B

Level 2 Plan

F

B

G Level 3 Plan


Area (sqm)

Unit

Office

210

1

MPH

525

1

Basketball Court

Shaded court +maximizing the usage of the court due to harsh weather in Singapore

Inward-looking typology +Visual connection to the basketball court

Retail as the attraction +Retail as the attractor point to the community centre

1

Activity Room

64

8

Arts Room

120

1

Dance Studio

120

1

Food Store

280

1


A. Office B. Meeting Area C. Lobby D. Breakout Area

B

B

B

B

C

D A

B

3.33 Study of Office

B

B


Occupancy: 219

B

B

B

B

Meeting areas are clustered and located near the entrance + maximize privacy + minimize noise buffer

A

A

A

Working areas are located near the perimeter + maximize privacy + minimize noise buffer + maximize daylight

Area (sqm)

Unit

Office

9

219

Meeting Room

25

21

Pantries

25

2

Activity Room

64

8

Breakout Area

200

1


A. Religious Institution B. Pavilion C. Healthcare D. Gym/Fitness Equipment E. Retail F. Childcare G. Playground H. Hardcourt I. CC

D D

E B

F E

C

B A

G H E I

E H A

C

E

D C

F F

3.34 Study of Neighbourhood

G


Residential

Community Community space are located on the ground + Mazimizing foot traffic

F F

G

Playground located near childcare

D C

Fitness/gym equipment located near heathcare centre


Weekday

Weekend

Occupation Schedule (before)

Weekday

Weekend

Occupation Schedule (after) School Office

Community Centre Retail

3.4 Relationships between programmes As can be seen from the occupation schedule graph, school or offices are typically occupied during weekday 9-6pm. While community centre is typically occupied

after working hours and weekend. Hence, there is an opportunity for a space to be occupied for different programmes at the distinctive timing. Through studies of understanding various

spatial needs of each programme and its occupation schedule, a programme temporalitybased approach can be implemented in a mixed-use development.


SHARED SPACES: CHANGING NATURE OF MIXED-USE DEVELOPMENT..


e or St

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b

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sR

Dan

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ce S

Lecture

tudio

Theatre

Computer Lab Office s

Fitnes

nd

grou

mm

en m te oo m an R o C taff ssro S la C

School Office Community Centre Retail

Food and B everages

Food

Court

re Sto

eck

Ch ild ca

He al

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re

Ce

M

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in

Cl

re

o

urp

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C se

Vo id D

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Ga

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Play

Be d an od ry urt om Ro Fo ibra dco e c L oo e F tor eren rt e S onf cou oom urt tag C ood ty R Co all + S F ctivi tball se H A ske urpo Ba lti-P ck Mu id De Vo ildcare Centre Ch lthcare Hea ic Clin RC Pavilion rpose Court Multi-pu urt Basketball Co Community Garden Playground Fitness Office Special Pantry Function Room Meeti + Breakout A rea Sick ng Room Com Bays p Lec uter Da ture T Lab Art nce S heatre M s Ro tudio Fo usic R om oo F od Sc ab L Lab m Lib ien ab P ra ce M ar ry Lab Fi ult ade el i-P S d u qu rp a os re/ e Ba Ha sk et ll ba ll

ro

b

b

La

Ro

Classroom

Field

ll

all

y

La

La

Art

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Mu

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Compression of programmes space(right=before, left=after)


Adjacency Diagrams


4.0 DESIGN PROPOSAL


Sectional Axo


WEEKEND

WEEK DAY

School Office Community Centre Retail

Sectional Axo

The classroom is adjacent to a library as to bring students closer to the library. However, during the weekend, classrooms can be transformed to activities room for library expansion.


W E E KDAY Classroom

Library

Office

Library

Office

WEEKEND Activities Room

Level 13 Plan


W E E KE N D

WE E KDAY

School Office Community Centre Retail

Sectional Axo

The vertical public realm can accommodate for various uses. When the vertical public space is adjacent to office and residential areas, it can serve as meeting spaces/ breakout room during working hours and void deck for the residences after office hours.


Weekday 8 am

Weekend 10 am

12 pm

School Office Community Centre Retail

2 pm

4 pm

6 pm

8 pm

10 pm

12 am

8 am

10 am

12 pm

2 pm

4 pm

6 pm

8 pm

10 pm

Transformation of the Programmes


Sectional Axo


The porous facade allows for better urban ventilation in high-density situation.


Physical Model 1:2000

Thin Block Maximising Natural Ventilation

Thin Block Maximising Daylight

NS Orientation


Connection are created between mix programmes through vertical circulation which also serve as a public space. This public space helps to extend public life from the ground to the upper level. Physical Model 1:2000

Physical Model 1:500


This project challenged the norms of a mixed-use skyscraper and set out to create a new alternative prototype for a utopian hyper-dense urban form. It focuses on creating lively public space by integration of circulation with public space and programme temporary-based approach. Through a continuous public space stretch from MRT basement to roof garden at the top most level, urban life can be extended from the ground to the upper level. It also encourages movement between floor. Also, by using programme temporarybased approach, lively space can be introduced throughout the building. It also focuses on sustainability through the slenderness of the building which maximises daylight and cross ventilation. Furthermore, the use of programme temporarybased approach optimises space usage and reducing the need for construction.

Continuous circulation from MRT Station (underground)


Physical Model 1:200


REFERENCES

Amin, A. (2006). Collective culture and urban public space. Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris, R. E. (2009). Sidewalks: Conflict and Negotiation Over Public Space. The MIT Press. Centre for Liveable Cities, Urban Land Institute. (2013). 10 Principles for Liveable High-Density Cities. Singapore: Centre for Liveable Cities, Urban Land Institute. Cho, I. S., Heng, C. K., & Trivic, Z. (2016). Re-Framing Urban Space: Urban Design for Emerging Hybrid. Oxon: Routledge. Emporis. (2016). Singapore Building Directory. Retrieved from Emporis: http://www.emporis.com/city/100422/singapore-singapore Hogeschool van Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences. (2010). Workshop IP Streets of Amsterdam. Amsterdam. Ibrahim, M. F. (2003, June). Improvements and integration of a public transport system: the case of Singapore. Cities, pp. 205-216. Limin Hee, G. L. (2003). The politics of public space planning in Singapore. Ministry National Development. (2013). Land Use Plan to Support Singapore’s Future Population. Singapore: Ministry National Development. Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources, Ministry of National Development. (2015). Singapore Sustainable Blueprint. Singapore: Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources, Ministry of National Development. Simone, A. (2010). City life from Jakarta to Dakar. Routledge. Singapore Department of Statistics. (2015). Our Population, Our Future. Retrieved from http://population.sg/infographics/#module-2 Singapore Land Authority. (2016). Total Land Area of Singapore. Singapore. Wong, R., Chiam, B., Lovatt, A., & Lim, K. (n.d.). INTRODUCTION OF LARGER-SCALE COMMERCIAL SPACES INTO UNDERGROUND. Yeang, K. (2002). Reinventing the Skyscraper: A Vertical Theory of Urban Design. Academy Press. Yuen, B. (2007). Squatters No More: Singapore Social Housing. Global Urban Development. Yuen, B., & Kallidaikurichi, S. (2010). Developing Living Cities: From Analysis to Action. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Company.


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