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Fรถrdergemeinschaft Gutes Licht

Carlos Parrondo, NEDEA, S.L.

Urban Image Lighting

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Contents

Editorial

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City marketing

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Event lighting

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Master plan for a city

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Master plan for Expo 2000

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Paths: city access routes

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Edges: bridges and paths

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Districts: pedestrian precincts, zones for shopping and eating out

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Districts: parks and gardens

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Nodes: squares and crossroads

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Landmarks: houses and faรงades

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Landmarks: public buildings and churches

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Landmarks: sculptures, fountains and towers

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The basics of lighting design

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Lamps

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Luminaires

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Literature

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Acknowledgements for photographs

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Imprint and order forms

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Information from Fรถrdergemeinschaft Gutes Licht

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Macerata/Italy

Multivision show in Aachen


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Editorial

City marketing is a phrase on many lips at present – and understandably so. Cities seeking to attract business, shoppers and tourists today face tough competition. So it is very important for municipal authorities to cast their city in the right light. Advertising campaigns, special events, shops open on Sundays and public holidays – these are just some of the tools used to sharpen a city’s profile.

Street lighting and other forms of exterior lighting normally found in cities ensure that the basic requirements of residents and visitors are met: an adequate level of lighting facilitates orientation and provides security after dark. But light can also be harnessed to create a distinctive atmosphere: an illuminated monument, a dramatically lit square, a park bathed in decorative light – these are sights that make

Zeitung carried a damning article comparing German attitudes to lighting with those in France and the United States. “While there are plenty of shining examples broad”, it read, “the powers that be in Germany’s cities seem to have nothing better to do than think of turning streetlamps off”. Looking at applications and principles, this booklet shows what needs to be borne in mind by archi-

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Erasmus Bridge in Rotterdam/Netherlands

To ensure the message gets across, new ideas are needed. And one option favoured by a growing number of cities at present is urban image lighting, lighting specifically designed for city beautification.

us feel good in a city at night. In recent years, scathing criticism has been voiced in Germany over the country’s miserly use of lighting. On 17 December 2000, the leading national daily Frankfurter Allgemeine

tects, lighting designers and local officials and politicians seeking to sculpt the night-time scenery of a city with light. It describes actual projects, addresses technical lighting issues and presents financing models.

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City marketing

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The “Speicherstadt” in Hamburg: illumination of the world's largest warehouse complex is financed by a form of public private partnership. A special sponsors’ association was created for the purpose.

Urban designers and architects have been talking since the sixties about cities in crisis. And the most conspicuous signs of crisis are the retail parks mushrooming on greenfield development sites. The impact on city centres is shown by a study of spending patterns in the eastern German city of Meissen. In 1995, retailers in and around Meissen registered revenues totalling some 280 million euros. But only 44 percent of that volume was recorded in the city itself; 56 percent – i.e. well over half of total local spending – went into the tills of retailers and service providers in the surrounding area.

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So local authorities face a major challenge: how can a city or region acquire the profile needed to keep competition at bay? One answer is through urban design lighting. As yet a fairly unconventional city marketing tool, lighting can significantly help boost a town’s or city’s image. Three factors are crucially important: ■ Urban design lighting involves a great deal more than just illuminating an individual monument or church. Any lighting concept today needs to encompass an entire town or urban district, using the tools of architectural lighting to create a harmonious lighting design concor-

dant with existing lighting structures. ■ Imposing buildings, monuments or squares are not prerequisites for creating atmosphere with light. Even the humblest village or hamlet can be visually enhanced through the use of architectural lighting tools. ■ Image-boosting lighting plans do not need to be abandoned because of budgetary constrictions. Small-scale and shortterm projects can also bear fruit, especially if designed for upgrading at a later date. Public private partnership (PPP) models have a proven track record here.

Public private partnership project: Hamburg’s “Speicherstadt” The illumination of the world’s biggest warehouse complex, the Speicherstadt in Hamburg (photo 4), is a particularly good example of a successful public private partnership project. Put on a regular organisational footing in summer 2000, the PPP has made it possible for the Speicherstadt to be illuminated nightly since 27 April 2001 (www. lichtkunst-speicherstadt.de). Prior to that, illumination was provided by temporary lighting installations. Visitors can also enjoy an evening boat trip on the canals between the warehouse buildings. Theatre performances in the Speicherstadt are another popular attraction.


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Public private partnership project: Feininger Church Feininger Church in Gelmeroda just outside Weimar is also an impressive sight. It was the favourite motif of American artist and Bauhaus lecturer Lyonel Feininger. Since 1999 – when Weimar celebrated its year as European cultural capital – the church has been a feature of the night-time landscape, bathed in light by architect Peter Mittmann. According to Mittmann, the project is “not the conventional illumination of a

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building; it is an autonomous work of art communicating with the building and the air around it”. Originally supposed to be wound up at the end of 2000, the project has been extended indefinitely and will now run for as long as the electricity costs are covered by sponsorship.

Feininger Church in Gelmeroda outside Weimar 5

Calvados A region setting accents with light Inviting squares and boulevards, imposing medieval architecture, gushing fountains – towns and cities have their privileges. And in the hands of city marketing managers, such jewels remain a tourist

magnet even after dark. But what of rural areas, which are essentially dependent on the daytime charms of the countryside to attract visitors? In the département of Calvados in France, a group of rural district councils adopted a novel idea: after dark, 19 prominent buildings in the area – farms, churches and chateaux – are illumi-

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nated to create a nighttime attraction, an attraction whose value for regional tourism is enhanced by two-hour guided tours in French and English on three different routes. The lighting is switched on only on days when tours are scheduled. And because it is remote controlled, the route can be changed at short notice, e.g. to prevent a tour

coinciding with a special event at one of the illuminated sites. Some of the funding for the project is provided by local and national government and some by the European Union but the biggest financial contribution comes from the regional electricity companies. A sponsorship model that power utilities elsewhere might well consider.

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Event lighting

Special lighting projects and events are a popular tool of modern city marketing, a tool rightly welcomed by city fathers seeking to cast their city in the right light. This is because such events can be realised within a fairly short time frame and on a relatively low budget, especially where they are supported by private sponsors. What is more, special lighting events often attract more than just local and regional media coverage, particularly if internationally renowned artists are involved. 700,000 visitors in The Hague One event of a very special kind was staged in the Hague. To mark the city’s 750th anniversary in 1998, 42 sculptures by celebrated artists – including Rodin, Arp and Soto - were presented and illuminated in the heart of the city. For two months, visitors had a chance to see major works of sculpture in the street

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Spotlight on sculpture in the heart of The Hague: 42 works by celebrated artists were illuminated at night.

tourist attraction, presented in a “night-time show” crafted by the tools of lighting technology. 50 spots on the ground and 100 in nearby trees were selected and arranged to set off the colour and warmth or coldness of each sculpture to best advantage. Owing to

the huge success of the event, exhibitions along similar lines are now staged annually in The Hague (www. denhaagsculptuur.com). The summer 2000 exhibition entitled “De Mens in Beweging” is estimated by its organisers to have attracted

at least 700,000 visitors. More events are scheduled through to 2004. In 1996, a similar event in Paris was a blockbusting success.

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from private collections and museums all over the world. The idea is particularly interesting because it made for two exhibitions. The masterpieces could be viewed by day, in natural daylight. Then, after dark, they became a second 4

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Laser show staged outside Münster City Hall as part of the city marketing project “Ab in die Mitte”


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state of North Rhine-Westphalia (www.abindiemitte. de). This project – its title translates roughly as “taking centre-stage” – involves some 25 towns and cities in North Rhine-Westphalia and is a collaborative venture between the state ministry for urban development, the congress of municipal authorities, retail trade representatives,

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The “Kunsthaus” in Bregenz, illuminated by internationally renowned artist Keith Sonnier.

Gasometer in Oberhausen

Façade installation on the Kunsthaus in Bregenz Another example: the city of Bregenz commissioned internationally acclaimed artist Keith Sonnier to create a temporary exterior installation for the Bregenz Kunsthaus. Entitled “Millen-

two department store chains and a newspaper. As part of it, lighting projects have been realised in Münster (photo 10) and Herne (photo 13).

nium 2000”, it was on show for two months at the end of 1999 (www.lightlife. de). Sonnier, who has also exhibited at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, used 512 red, yellow and green fluorescent lamps in his installation. This was another cultural presenta-

tion made possible by corporate and institutional sponsorship. City marketing initiative “Ab in die Mitte” Urban design lighting also forms part of the “Ab in die Mitte” city marketing project launched by the

Blue gold Another lighting project was realised from September 2001 to April 2002 in the so-called Gasometer at the CentrO shopping centre in Oberhausen. The exhibition was entitled “Blaues Gold” – blue gold – (www. blauesgold. com) and featured, as one of its highlights, a 50-metre-high sculpture of water and light. Set in the 117.5metre-high interior of the Gasometer, it consisted of a 1,600 m2 spotlighted cone of canvas, down which water ran into a lake.

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“Ab in die Mitte”: lighting installation in Herne

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Master plan for a city

The Eiffel Tower in Paris, Big Ben in London, the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin – no matter how big or small a town or city, residents and visitors carry a distinctive image of it in their mind. Different people asked to make a sketch of a town or borough will draw the same basic structures: roads, paths, a central square, an outstanding building or a landmark. The lighting designer’s task is to highlight these features of the urban landscape so that people can identify their surroundings and get their bearings. Back in the 1950s, American architect Kevin Lynch made a study of perception at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). His conclusion: the perceptions, bearings and memories of people moving in an urban environment are essentially shaped by five basic elements. 1. Paths According to Lynch’s studies, paths are the most important structural element of all for residents and visitors. 2. Edges Edges provide borders between districts. Clear examples of edges are railway embankments and rivers, which draw a visible dividing line through a city. 3. Districts Districts are large or moderately large sectors, such as pedestrian precincts. 4. Nodes Nodes are important points of interest along paths, e.g. crossroads and roundabouts.

5. Landmarks Landmarks are unique, memorable objects, such as monuments. These five basic elements are not always distinct. A path, for example, can also be an edge. Lynch calls the basic drawing a person can make of a town a “mental map”. In pursuing his line of research, he hoped to provide pointers for “correct” town planning. His findings are not only instructive for town planners and architects, however; they also provide useful guidance for lighting designers seeking to enhance an urban environment through urban design lighting. In recent years, it has become increasingly common practice for urban design lighting projects to be realised on the basis of a master plan, i.e. a plan for an entire town or administrative district aimed at ensuring continuity and cohesive design. As no local authority has the financial resources to renew all the lighting in a town at once, a master plan is also a long-term instrument, one for attaining such objectives over a period of several years. Purpose of a master plan When lighting designers set about devising a master plan for a town, they first need to ask themselves a number of questions. The greatest challenge a lighting designer faces is integrating urban districts with widely differing architectural profiles. The key to developing a successful master plan here lies in establishing connections between the individual elements in line with Kevin Lynch’s theory.

Master plan for Hanover

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Lighting designers typically need to answer the following questions: ■ What is the town’s setting like? ■ Where are there parks, gardens and water and which routes do residents and visitors take from the town centre to get there? ■ Is there a traditional town centre or a particularly fine waterfront? ■ Is the town divided by a railway line? Armed with the answers to these questions, the lighting designer can then set about developing a master plan – one for casting the town in the right light with a sophisticated hierarchy and variety of light sources. Ambience is determined mainly by mounting height: a luminaire mounted on a very high column, e.g. at a crossroads, makes for a functional atmosphere. An agreeable, more intimate atmosphere can be created by luminaires set at lower mounting heights and fitted with lamps of a particularly warm light colour. A master plan can then be developed defining precisely ■ how many luminaires are needed, ■ where they should be positioned, ■ at what mounting height, ■ at what angle ■ and with lamps of which light colour.

Fig. 1

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Master plan for Expo 2000

Expo 2000 – a city within a city It was the talk of the town – and the subject of widespread debate. But in the end, its organisers were able to parade positive figures: Expo 2000 in Hanover attracted some 17 million people. The office appointed to design the lighting developed a master plan for the 160 hectare site. Because of the numerous car parks,

avenues, parkland areas and bridges, the assignment amounted to developing a master plan for a city. The lighting planners’ primary task and greatest challenge was to create a common denominator and cohesive structure for the widely differing architecture on the site. Lighting was used to make entrances visible from afar and to meet the functional lighting requirements of parking

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Expo roof

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Parkland areas at the Expo: low-level pathside lighting

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facilities. In other areas, however, its purpose was to help set the stage. One of the most important lighting assignments involved the crossing-point between the two parts of the Expo site. The lighting for the 60-metre-wide staircase was designed both to enhance the facility’s longrange visual impact and to help make it an attractive place for a moment’s rest (photo 17).

In the parkland areas, the aim was to create a variety of lighting scenarios and an appropriate ambience (photo 15).

Plateau, staircase, intersection and a place to take the weight of tired feet

Fig. 2

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Crossroads on a long avenue

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Paths: city access routes

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Worms city gate

Streetlighting is one of the oldest forms of public lighting – yet the only time normal streetlighting is noticed, as a rule, is when it fails to work. For a number of years, however, lighting for streets and other city access routes has played an increasingly important role in helping to shape the face of public places. The 10

profile and life of a city can thus be underscored even as the visitor approaches. Not every city has an imposing city gate like Worms (photo 18) but even roads which seem initially unprepossessing (photo 21) can be visually enhanced by appropriate lighting.

Investing in renewal: from functionalism to aesthetic appeal As streetlighting facilities constantly need to be replaced, new technologies offer a chance to upgrade existing systems one by one. The latest generation of lamps for streetlighting systems are not only more energy-efficient; they also

respond to the heightened aesthetic requirements of town planners, lighting designers and architects by offering scope – through a choice of light colour, colour rendering grades and beam characteristics – for shaping the way city access routes are experienced.


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Laatzen trade fair rail terminal near Hanover

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Autoroute A14: Viaduc Carrière/France

Where any master plan for town or city lighting is developed, one thing in particular must be borne in mind: municipal authorities are not normally the sole proprietor of all city access routes. Air and rail links, for example, have other operators, who should be involved in planning at an early stage.

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Road in Berlin

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Edges: bridges and paths

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LED lighting on Duisburg port bridge

According to Kevin Lynch, “edges” are borders between the different districts of a town. One particularly interesting border-crossing project is a bridge at Duisburg port (photo 22). The lighting is provided by LEDs (light emitting diodes). LEDs – the luminous semiconductor chips commonly used for dashboard lights in cars and indicators in electrical appliances – are at the heart of the latest revolution in lighting technology: they have extremely low power consumption ratings and a very long service life.

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Bankside path in the “VW Autostadt” at Wolfsburg

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Adolphe Viaduct in Luxembourg

The lighting design of the Duisburg port bridge is part of a revitalisation programme based on an architectural master plan by British architect Sir Norman Foster for what was once the biggest river port in Europe. The redevelopment of the port area will add a totally new district to the city, complete with offices, apartments, museums, restaurants and social amenities.

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Bankside path in the “VW Autostadt”, with the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in the background

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Districts: Pedestrian precincts, zones for shopping and eating out

City flair – nowhere is it more tangible than in street cafés and pedestrian precincts. Where a town or city displays a scintillating atmosphere, visitors and tourists spread the word. When daylight fades, lighting enhances the ambience – as here in the square fronting the Old Opera House in Frankfurt am Main (photo 26). The use of numerous light sources makes for an opulent lighting atmosphere. A special ambience also pervades the Alster Arcades in Hamburg (photo 27): the partially transparent awning roof is illuminated by indirect lighting for around 80 metres.

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Alster Arcades in downtown Hamburg

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Place de la République in Lyon/France


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Market square in Dieburg/Hesse

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Café on the Expo site 26

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Districts: parks and gardens

Nature is an increasingly popular candidate for illumination. And understandably so: light, like water, is one of the basic elements of life and a symbol of vitality – and there is lots of scope for dramatising the interplay between plants, trees and light. At a workshop in Alingsås/ Sweden, various forms of illumination were tried out. In the avenue on the right (photo 31), the light radiates down from the treetops. This illumination concept prompts associations with a summer’s day, when sunlight filters through the branches of the trees. One group at the Alingsås workshop also studied bridges and created what they called a “metaphysical” bridge of fibre-optic cables floating on the surface of a lake (photo 34). The tree on the small island was illuminated by dot-like light sources. Park and garden lighting often involves the use of recessed ground floods (photo 32). The advantage of these luminaires is that they do not require posts or columns, which would detract from the visual impact of the natural surroundings.

Avenue in Alingsås/Sweden: the light sources are mounted in the trees.

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Promenade in Sirolo/Italy

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Illumination of plants and trees

Fig. 3

Fig. 4

Where a tree or shrub is floodlit on two sides from ground level (Fig. 3), illumination is relatively uniform. Where a light source is mounted in the branches (Fig. 4) or positioned beneath the tree and directed upwards (Fig. 5), dramatic effects are produced. In this case, each individual tree appears as an island of light and the artistic arrangement of light and darkness creates atmosphere.

Fig. 5 31

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Järti Park in Alingsås/Sweden

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Lake in Alingsås/Sweden with fibre-optic “bridge”

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Nodes: squares and crossroads

Squares play a key role in urban architecture, furnishing space for assemblies, markets and cultural events. Given their massive importance, urban design lighting here should provide “guidance” for visitors and residents. When selecting the lighting for a square, it is very important to bear in mind the function or functions the square performs. The functions listed below, of course, are not mutually exclusive. ■ Is the square a meetingplace for young and old? ■ Is it primarily a venue for markets or cultural events such as theatre performances? ■ Was the square originally designed to underline the status of buildings fronting onto it, e.g. town hall or church? ■ Is the square a communications hub? Lighting depends on function The principal purpose a town square serves effectively dictates the kind of lighting climate required. A square which is frequently used for events requires uniform lighting (“carpet of light” – see box on facing page). A square with multiple functions can be divided into different “lighting zones”. And in a square originally designed to underline the importance of buildings fronting onto it, the main emphasis is on illuminating those buildings; lighting for the square itself is confined to a few “pools of light”.

Market square in Dessau

KölnArena - Germany’s largest indoor events complex seats 21,000 spectators 36

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Lighting for squares Carpet of light (Fig. 6): The square is uniformly illuminated. Light sources are mounted high, outside the field of vision of passers-by. Façades are illuminated by stray light only. Fig. 6

Lighting zones (Fig. 7): An agreeable atmosphere can be created by using a large number of low light sources to divide the square into different zones. In this case, the tops of façades surrounding the square are not illuminated. Fig. 7

Pools of light (Fig. 8): The square itself is of minor importance, so it is only punctually illuminated by luminaires. The façades of buildings fringing the square are floodlit. Fig. 8 35

The market square in Dessau (photo 35) is lit on the “pool of light” principle, whereas the Place Bir Hakein in Lyon/France (photo 37) is divided into two lighting zones. In lighting design circles, Lyons is considered a shining example of a city shaped by light.

minance requirements needed to be observed for the pedestrian access routes and the roads for motor traffic around the building.

The 21,000-seat KölnArena – Germany’s biggest facility for indoor events – presented a special challenge for lighting designers (photo 36). Widely differing illu-

The “Place Bir Hakein” in Lyon/ France is divided into two lighting zones. 37

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Landmarks: houses and façades

For the wave-shaped building in Frankfurt am Main (photo 39), lighting artist Clemens Teichmann created an exterior lighting system based on fibre-optic cables. The building is illuminated after dark by two projectors feeding light into a 150 metre side-lighting cable. Colour filters inside the projectors change the colour of the line from white to blue. The illumination of the neoclassical building on the left (photo 38) was realised at a workshop in Alingsås/Sweden. The differentiated façade is achieved with numerous spots and floods. 38

A building with a highly structured façade

Façade lighting

Fig. 9

Fig. 10

Façades can be illuminated in two ways – either by floodlighting from outside with lighting systems on or near the building or by making effective use of interior lighting in the evening, e.g. to turn a glass façade into a backlit “stage”. Façades with a detailed structure can be illuminated most effectively by using several coordinated floods (Fig. 11). Another thing that

needs to be borne in mind when illuminating a façade is shadowing: the closer a luminaire is to the building, the greater the likelihood of deep shadows – which can add a desirable note of drama to the visual impact achieved (Fig. 9 and 10).

Fig. 11

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A building in Frankfurt am Main

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Landmarks: public buildings and churches

Church in blue On the right is an unconventional lighting production for a church (photo 41) realised during a workshop at Alingsås in Sweden. The façade is floodlit by light bounced off specular reflectors on the ground, while gleaming highlights are added to window and door arches and even the tower clock. Then, as a crowning feature, the church tower is bathed in

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Recessed ground LEDs at Bremen University

blue light by a beamer projector with filter attachment. Extraordinary lighting production Between 15 and 21 September 2001 in Aachen, more than 50,000 people flocked to a project launched as part of the North Rhine-Westphalia city marketing initiative “Ab in die Mitte”. Gathering in the Katschhof, a downtown square named after the stocks that used to Church in Alingsås/Sweden

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stand in it, spectators witnessed a multivision show projected onto the rear faรงade of the City Hall (photo 42). In the Middle Ages, the Katschhof was crossed by no less than 32 German kings on their way to be crowned in the Palatine Chapel built by Charlemagne. Artistic direction of the project was in the hands of celebrated artist Jacques Darolles, who heads the Centre National Art et Technologie in Reims/ France and has initiated and realised a variety of lighting projects worldwide.

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Multivision show on the rear faรงade of the City Hall in Aachen.

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Landmarks: sculptures, fountains and towers

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Sculpture in the "Platz der Verfassungsfreunde" in Offenburg

Illuminated fountains in Bocholt

In December 2000, the publisher Aenne Burda donated the 20 metre sculpture “Freedom – male/ female” by American artist Jonathan Borofsky for the Platz der Verfassungsfreunde (Friends of the Constitution Square) in Offenburg (photo 43). A regional power utility took the initiative and financed the lighting for the sculpture.

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The "Havelspitz" outdoor facility in Spandau, Berlin

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Winding tower in Gelsenkirchen

Aside from the height of the sculpture, the lighting designer’s task was made challenging by the fact that the aluminium tube statue had only a very small surface area for reflection. To make the most of what was available, the designer placed four recessed ground floods in the spaces between the entwined male and female figures. Two more projects involve the interplay of light and water. At the “Havelspitz” outdoor facility in Spandau, Berlin (photo 45), the lighting designer's solution strikes a decidedly tranquil note, whereas in Bocholt, in a project realised under the North Rhine-Westphalia city marketing banner “Ab in die Mitte”, the designers

went for brightly coloured illuminated fountains (photo 44). During the weeks of the water theme programme in late August/early September 2001, a 6 x 18 metre pontoon was anchored on the Aa River in the heart of Bocholt. Creating the 20-metre-high fountain spectacle called for 2,500 water jets, 500 metres of hose, 1,000 metres of cabling and 190 floodlights with a total power rating of some 20,000 Watts.

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Sculpture in Dotternhausen near Balingen

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Basics of lighting design

Fig. 12

3D computer simulation without …

Public space lighting has changed dramatically in the last 20 years. With more sophisticated lighting productions made possible by new lamps and luminaires with optimal optical control systems, lighting concepts are becoming increasingly complex. At the same time, lighting has become considerably more economical. New light sources such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) have a much longer service life and lower power consumption ratings than other lamps.

… and with façade illumination

Agencies and authorities awarding lighting contracts today favour lighting designers with formal qualifications in design and architecture and additional expertise in the use of lighting as a tool of architectural and landscape design. By manipulating brightness and shadow, lighting designers can cast illuminated objects in a graphic and dramatic light. And through the use of different light colours, they turn those objects into a special visual experience which heightens the quality of civic life. Planning Illumination project planning needs to be done in close cooperation with the client and, in the case of listed buildings, with the curator of historical monuments. Before any actual planning is done, however, it is imperative to obtain answers to the following questions:

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■ What are the principal viewing directions or primary lines of sight for passers-by? ■ What shape is the object (flat, curved, stepped, etc.)? ■ What is the surface of the object like (structure, colour, etc.)? ■ What is the object’s built environment like? ■ What precautions need to be taken to prevent road users being dazzled? ■ How can light pollution be avoided? ■ What needs to be done to ensure that the appearance of neighbouring buildings is not affected? CAAD programs Once those questions have been answered, a lighting design office develops and visualises a number of lighting variants. Nowadays, using CAAD (computer-aided architectural design)software, this step can be merged with

the development of a master plan. With the help of such software, the lighting designer can simulate different lighting situations and brightness distribution. But 3D computer simulation still tends to be the exception, mainly because of the very high costs it can entail. Take façade illumination, for example: the more complex the surface of a façade – which can be very detailed in the case of a church – the more costintensive the 3D simulation. As an alternative, a digital photograph of the facade can be used and manipulated using image processing software to demonstrate the effects of different lighting arrangements. Often, the lighting designer also invites the client to a trial illumination, in which a part of the façade is illuminated by luminaires in a variety of positions. Lighting level Lighting level is one of the most important design cri-


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1/2 Carpet of light 1b Vertical lighting on façade 3 Sculptural lighting (trees) 4 Functional lighting (flexible lamping) Fig. 13

Fig. 14

Example of a master plan on paper

teria. It is defined by illuminance and by the reflectance of the surfaces illuminated. Illuminance depends on the intensity, quantity and position of the light sources used. As a general rule, the illuminance required at the surface of an object depends essentially on its reflectance and the level of background and/or ambient brightness, i.e. the defining factor is the ratio of the building's surface luminance to the luminance of the background. The visual impact of a building is greater the more brightly it stands out from its surroundings. The illuminance required for a tower in the middle of a brightly lit city, for example, needs to be higher than for a castle set in dark countryside. What is more, the darker the building’s surface – i.e. the lower the reflectance – the higher the illuminance required.

Most buildings and objects that are illuminated have matt surfaces, so illuminance E (in lx) is calculated from luminance L (in cd/m2) and reflectance ρ in accordance with the following formula:

E = L · π /ρ Reduction of reflectance due to pollution has a major impact on this equation and thus also on the visual impact of the illuminated building. The darker the original building material, the lower the effect of pollution on its reflectance. In such cases, the pollution factors that need to be applied for design illuminance are lower for dark materials than for light ones The bulk of planning involves defining the principal viewing direction and selecting the locations of the floods. Their positioning

determines not only the illuminance at the building but also the light and dark zones needed to achieve the intended scenic effect. Depending on the positioning of floods, attainable effects are ■ illumination, ■ silhouetting, ■ backlighting and ■ contouring

Mean luminance required for the illuminated building in different ambient conditions Location of building

mean luminance of building in cd/m2

free-standing

3

in dark built-up surroundings

6.5 to 10

in moderately bright built-up surroundings

10 to 13

in bright built-up surroundings

13 to 16

to 6.5

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Basics of lighting design

Where viewing direction B and spotlighting direction S are identical, illumination tends to be flat, two-dimensional. An angle of around 60° between the two directions is recommended. For fairly plain surfaces, even angles up to 90° are possible.

effects for the same building can be produced by a combination of different light colours. When choosing metal halide lamps – which are available in neutral white or daylight white light colours, depending on power rating – special attention should also be paid to colour rendering.

The visual impact achieved is also affected by the light colour of the lamps used. Yellow and reddish surfaces illuminated by highpower sodium vapour lamps often make good colour contrasts for grey buildings illuminated by metal halide lamps. Special

1. Cubic building with two floodlights in slightly asymmetrical arrangement 2. and 3. Cylindrical building with two floodlights. Two different viewing directions B1 and B2 Fig. 15

Recommended minimum illuminance set out in CIE publication 94:1993 Material and colour of the illuminated surface low

Ambient brightness in lx moderate

high

20 40 100

30 60 150

60 120 300

light-yellow brick light-brown brick dark-brown brick, red granite red brick dark brick

35 40 55

50 60 80 100 120

100 120 160 150 300 180 360

architectural concrete

60

100

200

200

300 600

120

180

360

moderately bold-coloured surfaces (ρ = 30 – 40 %)

40

60

120

Pastel coloured surfaces (ρ = 60 – 70 %)

20

30

60

light-coloured stone, light-coloured marble moderately light stone, concrete, cement, lightly stained marble dark stone, grey granite, dark marble

aluminium bold-coloured surfaces (ρ = 10 %)

28


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48

Illumination project ensuring low light immission in Recanati/Italy

Light pollution Where residents are disturbed by light from streetlamps shining into their homes, they have a right to complain – a right enshrined in Germany in the Federal Ambient Pollution Control Act. So any risk of “light pollution” needs to be eliminated at the planning stage. Neither the Pollution Control Act nor its implementing regulations set out any actual ceilings or limits but the Deutsche Lichttechnische Gesellschaft e.V. (LiTG) has published details of

useful methods of monitoring and assessing light pollution, together with maximum admissible limits based on them (see Literature, page 34).

Light and insects Artificial lighting attracts insects, so there is a risk it could interfere with the natural habits of nocturnal animals.

The ambient pollution control committee of Germany’s federal states (Länderausschuss für Immissionsschutz – LAI) has incorporated these methods and ceilings in its guideline “Measurement and assessment of light immissions” and recommends that they should be applied by environmental protection agencies.

Light with a predominantly yellow/orange spectral content is not so attractive to insects because their eyes have a different spectral sensitivity from the human eye. They respond more sensitively to the spectral composition of the light from fluorescent lamps, high-pressure mercury vapour lamps and metal halide lamps. Pale

moonlight, which insects presumably use for orientation, also appears much brighter to the insect eye than to humans. The light cast by a high-pressure sodium vapour lamp, however, appears darker. Orange and red spectral components produce virtually no response. A summary of what science knows about this subject has been published by the Deutsche Lichttechnische Gesellschaft e.V. (LiTG) (see Literature, Page 34).

29 Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht


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Seite 30

Lamps

9 2

3

4

5

8

10 6 1

7

15 19

16

2

3

6

7

8

in ba th se b bo as e th en at ds ell ips oid

gth 9

wi

plu

oid ips ell

wi

5

wi

do th

th wi

4

ub

gplu

no wi

ell

th

ips

xe

oid

r ula

1

wi

in

ba

se

17

n

17

le bu th rn er bo bas th e a en t ds tub ula r

18

tub

FGL16e

10

Lamp type

High-pressure sodium vapour lamps Metal halide lamps Features 35 35 50 35 50 70 250 70 35 70 Power rating classes from 1,000 80 100 400 400 2,000 1,000 150 400 (Watt) to 1,000 2,000 3,600 1,300 4,000 6,800 20,000 5,200 3,400 6,300 Luminous flux from 1,800 5,000 55,000 48,000 200,000 95,000 14,000 36,000 (Lumen) to 130,000 128,000 6,000 51 57 72 39 80 97 69 74 87 90 Luminous efficacy from 130 128 75 52 138 120 100 95 95 91 (Lumen/Watt) to ww ww ww ww ww ww nw, dw ww, nw, dw ww ww Light colour 4 4 3 1B 4 4 1A, 2B 1A,1B, 2B 1B 1B Colour rendering grade Base

30

E27 E40

E27 E40

PG12-3 PG12-1 E27

E27 E40

Fc2 Rx7s

E40

E27 E40

G12

Rx7s Fc2

11

12

13

14

Mercury L.p. vapour sodium

50 1.000 1,800 58,000 36 58 ww, nw 2B, 3

18 180 1,800 32,000 100 178 – –

55 165 3,500 12,000 65 73 ww, nw 1B

100 150 8,000 12,000

ww, nw 1B

E27 E40

BY22d

Special

Special

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Good lighting concepts call for the right choice of lamp. The table below shows the most important lamp types for decorative exterior lighting. Power rating class indicates how much power in Watts (W) is consumed by the lamp. The operation of discharge lamps (lamps 1 – 20) requires ballasts, which consume additional electricity. Ballast power consumption is not taken into account in the table, except in the case of induction lamps (lamps 13, 14) and energy-saving lamps (lamps 19, 20). 11

12

13

Luminous flux is the rate at which light is emitted by a lamp in all directions. It is measured in lumens (lm). Luminous efficacy is the measure of a lamp's energy efficiency. It is the luminous flux of a lamp in relation to its power consumption and is expressed in lumens per Watt (lm/W). The higher the ratio of lumens to watts, the more light a lamp produces from the energy it consumes. Lamps have different light colours. These are classed as warm white (ww), neutral white (nw) or daylight white (dw), depending on the colour temperature of the lamp (see bottom right). The colour rendering properties of a lamp are defined by its colour rendering index Ra. The highest Ra value possible is 100. The lower a lamp’s Ra index, the poorer its colour rendering properties. For practical purposes, DIN 5035 groups indices into six colour rendering grades: 1A (Ra ≥ 90), 1B (Ra = 80 – 89), 2A (Ra = 70 – 79), 2B (Ra = 60 – 69), 3 (Ra = 40 – 59) und 4 (Ra < 40).

20

The base provides the mechanical connection with the luminaire and supplies power to the lamp.

14

9

10

11

12

Mercury L.p. vapour sodium

35 150 3,400 14,000 87 95 ww 1B

70 400 6,300 36,000 90 91 ww 1B

50 1.000 1,800 58,000 36 58 ww, nw 2B, 3

18 180 1,800 32,000 100 178 – –

G12

Rx7s Fc2

E27 E40

BY22d

23

h flu -ou or tp es ut c hig ent la h flu -ou mp or tp es ut ce nt ˇ lam 38 p m m thr ee hig -ba h nd lum la i m 2, 4 nou p, ˇ 6- - an s ef 16 m fic tub d a m e –i lam llu cy , s p tra 2ted tub e – lam p wi th E sc 27 re w ba se pe ar -sh ap ed wi th jac ke t wi th bo bas th e a en t ds LE D (e nla rg ed )

22

hig

r ula tub

wi

wi

th

plu

g-

in ba th se bo bas th e a en t ds ell ips oid

21

13

14

15 16 17 18 Linear Compact Induction lamps fluorescent lamps fluorescent lamps 55 100 20 18 5 18 165 150 65 58 57 552) 3,500 8,000 1,150 1,350 250 1,200 12,000 12,000 4,400 5,200 4,300 4,800 65 58 751) 50 67 80 73 68 931) 75 88 ww, nw ww, nw ww, nw ww, nw, dw ww, nw ww, nw 1B 1B 2A, 2B, 3 1B 1B 1B G23 Special Special G13 G13 G24, 2G7 2G11 GX24

19 20 Energy-saving lamps 5 5 23 15 240 200 1,500 900 48 40 65 60 ww ww 1B 1B E27

E27

21 22 230 V tungsten halogen lamps 60 60 250 2,000 820 840 4,200 44,000 14 14 17 22 ww ww 1A 1A E27

R7s

23 1)

LED 0.7 1.5 18 27 13 23 – – Special

2)

Where lamps are operated by electronic ballasts (EBs), luminous efficacy is increased to 81-100 lm/W. Power consumption decreases from 18 W to 16 W, from 36 W to 32 W and from 58 W to 50 W. 40 W and 55 W only with EB

ww = warm white colour temperature below 3,300 K nw = neutral white colour temperature 3,300 to 5,000 K dw = daylight white over 5,000 K

31 Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht


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Luminaires

Luminaires, floods and spotlights should be selected on the basis of the lighting requirements corresponding to the lighting task, especially the intended lighting effect. Secondly – but not of secondary importance – is the matter of lumi-

naire design and the visual impact made during the day by non-concealed luminaires. It definitely pays to invest in quality luminaires. Crucial advantages of their design and manufacture are

■ high light output ratios for economical operation, ■ lighting quality and functionality, ■ mechanical and electrical reliability (VDE, ENEC), ■ long service life (material quality, surface treatment, compact design),

Fig. 16

Fig. 18

Fig. 20

Fig. 17

Fig. 19

Fig. 21

Fig. 16 Flood (symmetrical intensity distribution) fitted with high-pressure discharge lamps with high power ratings or small flood/spot fitted with high-pressure lamps with low power ratings for floodlighting

Nu- 1st numeral meral

Protection against foreign 2nd numeral bodies and physical contact

Protection against water

0

unprotected

unprotected

1

Fig. 17 Round flood (axially symmetrical intensity distribution) with high-pressure discharge lamps or tungsten halogen lamps for floodlighting

protected against solid foreign bodies > 15 mm

protected against water falling vertically

2

protected against solid foreign bodies > 12 mm

protected against water falling up to 15° from the vertical

3

protected against solid foreign bodies > 2,5 mm

protected against spraywater

Fig. 18 Flood (asymmetrical intensity distribution) with high-pressure discharge lamps for floodlighting

4

protected against solid foreign bodies > 1 mm

protected against splashwater

5

protected against harmful dust deposits

protected against jetwater

6

protected against ingress of dust

protected against floodwater

7

protected against the effects of immersion

8

protected against effects of submersion

Fig. 19 Recessed ground flood with metal halide lamps or tungsten halogen lamps for floodlighting from below Fig. 20 Underwater floodlight with low-voltage tungsten halogen PAR lamps

32

…m


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Seite 33

■ quality control throughout production, ■ easy assembly and low maintenance. In addition, manufacturers of quality luminaires offer professional advice and planning assistance.

Special attention should be paid to the degree of protection: the higher it is, the greater the luminaire’s resistance to external factors and the longer its useful life. It is recommended that the luminaire wiring compartment should be protected to at least IP 23 and the lamp compartment to at least IP 54. The table on the left

Fig. 22

lists and explains all the IP codes (Ingress Protection). The first numeral (1– 6) describes the degree of protection against solid foreign bodies, the second (1– 8) indicates protection against moisture. The higher degrees of protection also indicate conformity to the degrees lower down the scale.

Fig. 24

Fig. 26

Fibre-optic lighting systems Although fibre-optic lighting systems (Fig. 26) comprise light guides several metres long, they have only a single light source. The lamp – a 230 Volt tungsten halogen lamp or a metal halide lamp – feeds its luminous flux into a cable of fibre-optic light guides, which then direct the light to where it is needed.

Fig. 23

Fig. 21 Secondary luminaire (indirect optical control) with high-pressure sodium vapour lamps or metal halide lamps for decorative lighting in pedestrian precincts and downtown squares Fig. 22 Conical luminaire with decorative louvers (narrow-angle beam) and highpressure sodium vapour lamps or compact fluorescent lamps for decorative streetlighting

Fig. 25

Fig. 24 Bollard luminaire with compact fluorescent lamps, energy-saving lamps, tungsten halogen lamps or incandescent lamps for path lighting in parks and gardens. Fig. 25 Recessed wall luminaire with compact fluorescent lamps, energy-saving lamps or tungsten halogen lamps for path lighting, mainly used on stairs and approach paths

The light guides are flexible. They can be different lengths and thicknesses. Optical connectors fix the end of the cable and determine the direction and spread of the beam. Special lighting effects can be achieved with filters or rotating coloured discs mounted in front of the light emission elements. The cables carry no electric current and emit only minimal IR and UV radiation.

Fig. 26 Fibre-optic lighting system

Fig. 23 Decorative luminaire with highpressure sodium vapour lamps, metal halide lamps or compact fluorescent lamps for pedestrian precinct and square lighting

33 Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht


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Seite 34

Literature

Brandi, Ulrike/Geissmar-Brandi, Christoph: Lichtbuch, Die Praxis der Lichtplanung, (Practical guide to lighting design) Birkhäuser-Verlag für Architektur, Basel, Boston, Berlin 2001 Expo 2000 GmbH: Masterplan Licht Expo 2000 Hannover, (Lighting master plan for Expo 2000 in Hanover) Dölling und Gaur-Verlag, Hamburg Guide for floodlighting, Publ. 94, Commission Internationale de L’eclairage (CIE) publications, 1993, available from Deutsche Lichttechnische Gesellschaft e.V (LiTG), LiTG-Geschäftsstelle, Burggrafenstraße 6, 10787 Berlin, orders: phone 0 69/9 89 55-127, fax -198 Messung und Beurteilung von Lichtimmissionen künstlicher Lichtquellen (Measurement and assessment of light immissions from artificial light sources) LiTG publication no. 12.2:1996, 2nd revised edition 1996, available from Deutsche Lichttechnische Gesellschaft e.V. (LiTG), LiTG-Geschäftsstelle, Burggrafenstraße 6, 10787 Berlin, orders: phone 0 69/9 89 55-1 27, fax -1 98 Lynch, Kevin: Das Bild der Stadt (The image of the city) Bauwelt Fundamente 16, published by Ulrich Conrads und Peter Neitzke, Bertelsmann Fachzeitschriften Gütersloh –

Square in Vitré/France

34

Berlin, Birkhäuser Verlag für Architektur, Basel - Boston Berlin 2001, 2nd edition 1989, 1st impression 2001 Straßenbeleuchtung und Sicherheit, (Streetlighting and safety) LiTG publication no. 17:1998, available from Deutsche Lichttechnische Gesellschaft e.V. (LiTG), LiTGGeschäftsstelle, Burggrafenstraße 6, 10787 Berlin, orders: phone 0 69/9 89 55-1 27, fax -1 98 Zur Einwirkung von Außenbeleuchtungsanlagen auf nachtaktive Insekten (Impact of exterior lighting systems on nocturnal insects), LiTG publication no. 15: 1997, available from Deutsche Lichttechnische Gesellschaft e.V. (LiTG), LiTG-Geschäftsstelle, Burggrafenstraße 6, 10787 Berlin, orders: phone 0 69/9 89 55-1 27, fax -1 98 DIN standards: DIN 5035: Interior lighting with artificial light DIN 5044: Stationary traffic lighting – Street lighting for automobile traffic Part 1: General requirements and recommendations Part 2: Calculation and measurement E DIN 5035: Draft European standard on workplace lighting

49


FGL*: 12–13, 15 * provided by members of Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht

Brandi, Ulrike: 1–2, 14

Eichler Graphik GmbH for FGL: 16–26

Zorn-Robeis, Ilonka for FGL: 3–11

Numbering of photos on back page:

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58 R 9,– R 9,– R 9,–

08 Good Lighting for Sports and Leisure Facilities (3/02)

09 Prestige Lighting (8/97)

10 Notbeleuchtung, Sicherheitsbeleuchtung (4/00)

Date

R 9,–

07 Good Lighting for Health Care Premises (7/94)

G G

14 Ideen für Gutes Licht zum Wohnen (9/99)

15 Gutes Licht am Haus und im Garten (9/94)

Please fill in address on back of postcard.

Signature/stamp

R 9,–

R 9,–

Lamp page photos: Kelm, Andreas

Place

16 Urban Image Lighting (3/02)

G

13 – out of print –

R 9,–

R 9,–

06 Good Lighting for Sales and Presentation (3/02)

R 9,–

R 9,–

05 Good Lighting for Trade and Industry (4/99)

Münken, Thomas for Bocholt Municipal Authority: 44

12 Economical Lighting Comfort with Lighting Electronics (8/96)

R 9,–

04 Good Lighting for Offices and Office Buildings (3/92)

LBM: 39

4/04/00/16E

City, Postal Code

Address or P.O. Box

c/o

Department

Name, Company, Office

60591 Frankfurt am Main Germany

Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht Postfach 70 12 61

Photos:

11 Good Lighting for Hotels and Restaurants (4/00)

R 9,–

G

R 9,–

Figures:

03 Good Lighting for Safety on Roads, Paths and Squares (5/00)

Schröder, Bernd for Aachen Municipal Authority: 2, 42

R 9,–

Brandi, Ulrike: 14–17, 23, 25, 40, 50 Postcard

Cover photo: Carlos Parrondo NEDEA, S.L.

02 Good Lighting for Schools and Educational Establishments (1/94)

Muhs, Andreas: 21

From

FGL*: 1, 3–9, 11, 18–20, 22, 24, 28, 30, 32, 35–37, 43, 45–49, 51–52, 54–55, 57 * provided by members of Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht

01 Lighting with Artificial Light (4/93)

Werner, Oliver for Münster Municipal Authority: 10 Qty

Postage stamp

Acknowledgements

Booklet No./Title

20:57 Uhr

Please tick booklet(s) required. Prices given include postage (G = Available only in German):

17.04.2002

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FGL16e Seite 35

Helin, Patrik for ELDA/PLD: 31 (project leader: Kai Piipo, Stockholm), 33 (project leaders: Serena Tellini and Franco Iannone, Milan), 34 (project leader: Kevan Shaw, Edinburgh), 38 (project leader: Gad Gilaldi, Israel), 41 (project leader: Roope Siiroinen, Tampere), 57, 59 The photos were kindly provided by the periodical “Professional Lighting Design”.

Hempel, Jörg: 27, 53

Sickinger, Uwe for FGL: 26, 29

Stadt Herne: 13

Volz, Wolfgang: 12


Seite 36 22:17 Uhr 18.04.2002 FGL16e

The titles and numbers of all the booklets in this series are given on the opposite page.

16

This booklet is No. 16 in the series Information on Lighting Applications published by Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht (FGL) to provide information on good lighting with artificial light.

The booklets can be ordered using the detachable postcards on this page. They will be delivered with invoice.

Booklet No./Title 01 Lighting with Artificial Light (4/93) 02 Good Lighting for Schools and Educational Establishments (1/94) 03 Good Lighting for Safety on Roads, Paths and Squares (5/00) 04 Good Lighting for Offices and Office Buildings (3/92) 05 Good Lighting for Trade and Industry (4/99) 06 Good Lighting for Sales and Presentation (3/02) 07 Good Lighting for Health Care Premises (7/94) 08 Good Lighting for Sports and Leisure Facilities (3/02) 09 Prestige Lighting (8/97) 10 Notbeleuchtung, Sicherheitsbeleuchtung (4/00) 11 Good Lighting for Hotels and Restaurants (4/00) 12 Economical Lighting Comfort with Lighting Electronics (8/96) 13 – out of print – 14 Ideen für Gutes Licht zum Wohnen (9/99) 15 Gutes Licht am Haus und im Garten (9/94) 16 Urban Image Lighting (3/02)

Place Please fill in address on back of postcard.

Date

R 9,– R 9,– R 9,– R 9,– R 9,– R 9,– R 9,– R 9,– R 9,– R 9,– R 9,–

R 9,–

R 9,–

G

Signature/stamp

R 9,–

G

G

G

Please tick booklet(s) required. Prices given include postage (G = Available only in German):

Order form

Imprint

Technical consultant:

Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht

Editing and realisation:

rfw. redaktion für wirtschaftskommunikation Darmstadt

Design:

Breschinski/Stammler Darmstadt

DTP/Lithos:

Layout Service Darmstadt

Printed by:

westermann druck Braunschweig

Acknowledgements VDE stipulations:

The booklets in this series contain references to DIN standards and VDE stipulations. 4/04/00/16E

City, Postal Code

Address or P.O. Box

c/o

Department

Name, Company, Office

From

Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht (FGL) Stresemannallee 19 60596 Frankfurt am Main Germany phone (0 69) 63 02-0 fax (0 69) 63 02-317 e-mail fgl@zvei.org Qty

Publisher:

ISBN:

3-926 193-32-8

Reprints:

With the express permission of the publisher. 4/04/00/16E

60591 Frankfurt am Main Germany

Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht Postfach 70 12 61

Postcard

DIN Normen: Beuth Verlag GmbH 10787 Berlin Germany DIN-VDE-Normen: VDE-Verlag 10625 Berlin Germany

Postage stamp

Printed on paper bleached without chlorine.


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Seite 37

Information from Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht

Fördergemeinschaft Gutes Licht (FGL) provides information on the advantages of good lighting and offers extensive material dealing with every aspect of artificial lighting and its correct usage. FGL information is impartial and based on current DIN standards and VDE stipulations. Information on Lighting Applications The booklets 1 to 16 in this series of publications are designed to help anyone who becomes involved with lighting – planners, decision-makers, investors – to acquire a basic knowledge of the subject. This facilitates cooperation with lighting and electrical specialists. The lighting information contained in all these booklets is of a general nature. Lichtforum Lichtforum is a specialist periodical devoted to topical lighting issues and trends. It is published at irregular intervals.

Die Beleuchtung mit künstlichem Licht

1

Gutes Licht für Schulen und Bildungsstätten

2

Gutes Licht für Sicherheit auf Straßen, Wegen, Plätzen

3

Gutes Licht für Büros und Verwaltungsgebäude

4

Gutes Licht für Handwerk und Industrie

5

Gutes Licht für Verkauf und Präsentation

6

Gutes Licht im Gesundheitswesen

7

Gutes Licht für Sport und Freizeit

8

Repräsentative Lichtgestaltung

9

Notbeleuchtung Sicherheitsbeleuchtung

10

Gutes Licht für Hotellerie und Gastronomie

11

Wirtschaftlicher Lichtkomfort mit Beleuchtungselektronik

12

13

Ideen für Gutes Licht zum Wohnen

14

Gutes Licht am Haus und im Garten

15

Stadtmarketing mit Licht

16

www.licht.de FGL is also on the Internet. Its website “www.licht.de” offers tips on correct lighting for a variety of domestic and commercial “lighting situations”. These are linked to a “product/manufacturer” matrix which not only lists products but also contains the addresses of more than 140 FGL members. Under “FGL publications”, visitors can view specimen pages of all FGL print publications. Other site features include hotlinks and a discussion forum.

Gutes Licht für kommunale Bauten und Anlagen

37


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Seite 38

Information on Lighting Applications Booklet 16 Urban Image Lighting

Fรถrdergemeinschaft Gutes Licht

licht.wissen 16 Urban Image Lighting  

Описание принципов и подходов к освещению городских пространств

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