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One hundred years after the discovery that malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes, the indomitable disease remains Africa's major problem. The World Heath Organisation estimates that malaria affects 300 to 500 million people and kills up to 2.7 million worldwide every year, 90% of them in sub-saharan Africa. Every five seconds, an African child dies of the disease.

Malaria, the killing Machine. Photographs ŠRemi Benali/Lightmediation Contact - Thierry Tinacci Lightmediation Photo Agnecy +33 (0)6 61 80 57 21 thierry@lightmediation.com


1422-02: Field Assistant David Owaga observing mosquitoes at the International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field office in Mbita.


/ 1422-01: Field Assistant David Owaga observing mosquitoes at the International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field office in Mbita. / Kenya / Mbita

/ 1422-02: Field Assistant David Owaga observing mosquitoes at the International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field office in Mbita. / Kenya / Mbita

/ 1422-03: Laboratory technician Milcah Wanjiru Gitau is in charge of the mosquitoes nursery at the International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology in Nairobi. The mosquitoes live according to a 24

/ 1422-04: Laboratory technician Milcah Wanjiru Gitau is in charge of the mosquitoes nursery at the International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology in Nairobi. She is feeding adult male and female


1422-20: Women performing their daily tasks on the shore of Lake Victoria, a few yards away from their village. A mosquitoes habitat is found on the shores of lakes, swamps and dormant waters and they are especially prevelant in this area.


/ 1422-05: Center for Disease Control and Kenya Medical Research Institut, Kisumu. Box net containing mosquitoes adults to be studied by the scientists. / Kenya / Kisumu

/ 1422-06: The Center for Disease Control and Kenya Medical Research Institut in Kisumu. The female mosquitoes need to feed on blood in order to lay their eggs and rabbits are used for them to feed on. The

/ 1422-07: The International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology in Nairobi. A sign on the door of the mosquitoes nursery. / Kenya / Nairobi

/ 1422-08: The International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology in Nairobi. The female mosquitoes need to feed on blood in order to lay their eggs. Three times per week, laboratory technician Jeremiah


1422-08: The International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology in Nairobi. The female mosquitoes need to feed on blood in order to lay their eggs. Three times per week, laboratory technician Jeremiah Ojude feeds the mosquitoes of the nursery with his own blood. Among the 2,000 adults contained in a net-covered box, half are females and will bite him. Sometimes, Jeremiah has to feed up to 6 cages, which means 18,000 bites per week. These mosquitoes are malaria-free. This lab technician comes from the region of the Great Lake Victoria and says that he does not feel the bites.


/ 1422-10: The International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology in Nairobi. The female mosquitoes need to feed on blood in order to lay their eggs. Three times per week, laboratory technician Jeremiah

/ 1422-11: The International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology in Nairobi. The female mosquitoes need to feed on blood in order to lay their eggs. Three times per week, laboratory technician Jeremiah

/ 1422-12: Female mosquitoes need to feed on blood in order to lay their eggs. One technique to help them to reproduce is to offer them human blood. Here, Field Assistant David Owaga, from the

/ 1422-13: Female mosquitoes need to feed on blood in order to lay their eggs. One technique to help them to reproduce is to offer them human blood. Here, Field Assistant David Owaga, from the International


1422-25: Two International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field assistants sampling the mosquito larvaes from the dormant water of a rice field, near the village of Karima, 50 Km North from Nairobi.


/ 1422-14: Female mosquitoes need to feed on blood in order to lay their eggs. One technique to help them to reproduce is to offer them human blood. Here, Field Assistant David Owaga, from the International

/ 1422-15: Lake Baringo in the Rift Valley. A mosquitoes habitat is found on the shores of the lakes, swamps and dormant waters of the region. / Kenya /

/ 1422-16: Lake Baringo in the Rift Valley. A mosquitoes habitat is found on the shores of the lakes, swamps and dormant waters of the region. / Kenya /

/ 1422-18: Lake Baringo in the Rift Valley. A mosquitoes habitat is found on the shores of the lakes, swamps and dormant waters of the region. / Kenya /


1422-36: International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field technician Martin Njigoya has caught this insect with a bug lamp. This system can catch up to 1,000 mosquitoes in one night.


/ 1422-20: Women performing their daily tasks on the shore of Lake Victoria, a few yards away from their village. A mosquitoes habitat is found on the shores of lakes, swamps and dormant waters and they are

/ 1422-21: Women performing their daily tasks on the shore of Lake Victoria, a few yards away from their village. A mosquitoes habitat is found on the shores of lakes, swamps and dormant waters and they are

/ 1422-22: Farmers washing their bulls in the canal of a rice field, near the village of Karima, at 50 Km from Nairobi. Mosquitoes can be prevelant in dormant waters and canals such as this. / Kenya / Village of

/ 1422-23: A farmer in his rice field, near the village of Karima, at 50 Km North from Nairobi. His daily tasks are performed in the midst of the mosquitoes habitat in dormant waters. / Kenya / Karima


1422-29: Brick factory near the village of Nyabondo. The holes that are left behind when mud is dug up for the brick-making process often fill up with dormant water, creating a perfect habitat for the mosquitoes.


/ 1422-24: A farmer in his rice field, near the village of Karima, at 50 Km North from Nairobi. His daily tasks are performed in the midst of the mosquitoes habitat in dormant waters. / Kenya / Karima

/ 1422-25: Two International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field assistants sampling the mosquito larvaes from the dormant water of a rice field, near the village of Karima, 50 Km North from

/ 1422-26: International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field assistants Julius Omboko and David Oluoch, sampling the mosquito larvaes from the dormant water of a swamp near the village of

/ 1422-28: Brick factory near the village of Nyabondo. The holes that are left behind when mud is dug up for the brick-making process often fill up with dormant water, creating a perfect habitat for the mosquitoes.


1422-33: International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field technician Martin Njigoya using a bug lamp in the home of an inhabitant of the village of Mbui-Njeru. The system can catch up to 1,000 mosquitoes in one night.


/ 1422-29: Brick factory near the village of Nyabondo. The holes that are left behind when mud is dug up for the brick-making process often fill up with dormant water, creating a perfect habitat for the mosquitoes.

/ 1422-30: International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field assistants Julius Omboko and David Oluoch, sampling the mosquito larvaes from the dormant water of a brick factory, near the village of

/ 1422-33: International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field technician Martin Njigoya using a bug lamp in the home of an inhabitant of the village of Mbui-Njeru. The system can catch up to 1,000

/ 1422-34: International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field technician Martin Njigoya looking at the insects that have been caught by a bug lamp. This system can catch up to 1,000 mosquitoes in one


1422-41: Mosquito larvaes at the International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology in Nairobi.


/ 1422-35: International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field technician Martin Njigoya has caught these insects with a bug lamp. This system can catch up to 1,000 mosquitoes in one night. / Kenya

/ 1422-36: International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field technician Martin Njigoya has caught this insect with a bug lamp. This system can catch up to 1,000 mosquitoes in one night. / Kenya /

/ 1422-37: Field Assistant David Owaga sampling larvaes from the mosquito nursery at International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field office in Mbita. / Kenya / Mbita

/ 1422-41: Mosquito larvaes at the International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology in Nairobi. / Kenya / Nairobi


1422-49: Kimbimbi Hospital. Stella Wanjiku and her 9 month-old baby, Newton Kinyua, who is infected with malaria. The baby would have died without medical treatment.


/ 1422-42: Malaria control at the hospital in Kimbimbi. / Kenya / Kimbimbi

/ 1422-43: Malaria control at the hospital in Kimbimbi. / Kenya / Kimbimbi

/ 1422-44: Malaria control at the hospital in Kimbimbi. / Kenya / Kimbimbi

/ 1422-45: Malaria control at the hospital in Kimbimbi. / Kenya / Kimbimbi


1422-52: Village of Karima, 50 Km North from Nairobi. International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field assistants spread the BTI or Bacillus Thuringiensis Israeliensis, a lethal toxin for the mosquitoes.


/ 1422-47: Kimbimbi Hospital. Dr. Florence Kagwaine with Stella Wanjiku and her 9 month-old baby, Newton Kinyua, who is infected with malaria. The baby would have died without medical treatment. /

/ 1422-48: Kimbimbi Hospital. Stella Wanjiku and her 9 month-old baby, Newton Kinyua, who is infected with malaria. The baby would have died without medical treatment. / Kenya /

/ 1422-49: Kimbimbi Hospital. Stella Wanjiku and her 9 month-old baby, Newton Kinyua, who is infected with malaria. The baby would have died without medical treatment. / Kenya /

/ 1422-51: Village of Karima, 50 Km North from Nairobi. International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field assistants spread the BTI or Bacillus Thuringiensis Israeliensis, a lethal toxin for the


1422-53: Village of Karima, 50 Km North from Nairobi. Brian Mwangui, 3 1/2 years-old is watching International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field assistants spread the BTI or Bacillus Thuringiensis Israeliensis, a lethal toxin for the mosquitoes. Half of the children of his classroom are infected with malaria. The day of our visit, 5 children called in sick because of their fever.


/ 1422-52: Village of Karima, 50 Km North from Nairobi. International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field assistants spread the BTI or Bacillus Thuringiensis Israeliensis, a lethal toxin for the

/ 1422-53: Village of Karima, 50 Km North from Nairobi. Brian Mwangui, 3 1/2 years-old is watching International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field assistants spread the BTI or Bacillus

/ 1422-54: Village of Karima, 50 Km North from Nairobi. International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field assistants spread the BTI or Bacillus Thuringiensis Israeliensis, a lethal toxin for the

/ 1422-56: International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field technician Martin Njigoya spreading Pyrethrum in the home of an inhabitant of the village of Mbui-Njeru. The Pyrethrum, lethal to the


1422-65: The International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field office in Mbita. The Evarcha culicivora spider (also known as the mosquitoes eater), which lives exclusively around the shores of the Lake Victoria, and feeds on mosquitoes, especially on females which have sucked blood. If farmed and dispatched on an area infested with mosquitoes, this tiny spider could be one of the solutions to control the virus in the future.


/ 1422-58: School in the village of Guu. International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field supervisor Elijah Nyarangi and his team provide education training regarding malaria control in the schools

/ 1422-60: School in the village of Guu. International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field supervisor Elijah Nyarangi, writing on the blackboard, and field assistant Eric Otiano, provide education

/ 1422-61: The Director of the International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology at Kisumu, Franรงois Omlin, in a school of the Nyabondo region, where his team provides educational training regarding

/ 1422-62: The International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field office in Mbita. Professor Robert R. Jackson, an enthomologist, stands near his research field. This scientist has dicovered a small


1422-60: School in the village of Guu. International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field supervisor Elijah Nyarangi, writing on the blackboard, and field assistant Eric Otiano, provide education training regarding malaria control in the schools of the Nyabondo area.


/ 1422-64: The International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field office in Mbita. The Evarcha culicivora spider (also known as the mosquitoes eater), which lives exclusively around the shores of the

1422-70: Dr. Paul Saoke, a public health specialist, who is the Executive Director of Physicians for Social Responsability (PSRKenya), Vice President of the International Society of Doctors for the Environment

/ 1422-67: Dr. Andrew Ghiteko, considered as one of the leading world specialist on global warming, photographed near the village of Vihiga. The scientist discovered that the mosquitoes habitat is spreading

/ 1422-68: Green-house in the International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field office in Mbita. Dr. Hortense Manda is studying the Leonotis leonorus flower, which has the capability of attracting


1422-61: The Director of the International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology at Kisumu, Franรงois Omlin, in a school of the Nyabondo region, where his team provides educational training regarding malaria control.


Malaria, the killing Machine. One hundred years after the discovery that malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes, the indomitable disease remains Africa's major problem. The World Heath Organisation estimates that malaria affects 300 to 500 million people and kills up to 2.7 million worldwide every year, 90% of them in sub-saharan Africa. Every five seconds, an African child dies of the disease. Malaria adds to the burden of Africa's weak economy, costing $ 1.8 billion a year to control. Agriculture is hard hit, as families suffering from malaria are able to cultivate only 40% of their land, further threatening Africa's already precarious food security. Old methods of mosquito vector control and malaria treatment that were effective in the past are now largely ineffective, due to insecticide-resistant mosquitoes and drug-resistant parasites. Climate change is another factor for new outbreaks in highland areas, where malaria is killing thousands of non-immune people. Although old approaches like insecticide-treated bednets and residual spaying with insecticides kill mosquitoes effectively, the overall impact on human infection is negligible. Efforts toward community health education and vaccine development have similarly had limited impact. For these reasons, the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, ICPE based in Nairobi, Kenya, is undertaking research on new control tools that will tackle both the parasite and the mosquito vector. The main thrust is to stop transmission of the parasite by interrupting contact between the human host and the mosquito vector. If necessary, a complete text is available from the journalist Kim Larsen who went on site with the photographer Remi Benali.


Captions. 1422-01-02: Field Assistant David Owaga observing mosquitoes at the International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field office in Mbita. 1422-03: Laboratory technician Milcah Wanjiru Gitau is in charge of the mosquitoes nursery at the International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology in Nairobi. The mosquitoes live according to a 24 hour-long rotating light schedule: 12 hours in daylight and 12 hours in the dark. The red light can be on during their obscurity period as it does not disturb their physiology. 1422-03: Laboratory technician Milcah Wanjiru Gitau is in charge of the mosquitoes nursery at the International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology in Nairobi. The mosquitoes live according to a 24 hour-long rotating light schedule: 12 hours in daylight and 12 hours in the dark. The red light can be on during their obscurity period as it does not disturb their physiology. 1422-04: Laboratory technician Milcah Wanjiru Gitau is in charge of the mosquitoes nursery at the International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology in Nairobi. She is feeding adult male and female mosquitoes with a bottle of sugar water. 1422-05: Center for Disease Control and Kenya Medical Research Institut, Kisumu. Box net containing mosquitoes adults to be studied by the scientists. 1422-06: The Center for Disease Control and Kenya Medical Research Institut in

Kisumu. The female mosquitoes need to feed on blood in order to lay their eggs and rabbits are used for them to feed on. The CDC is currently working on a new method in which live animals are not involved in this process. 1422-07: The International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology in Nairobi. A sign on the door of the mosquitoes nursery. 1422-08: The International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology in Nairobi. The female mosquitoes need to feed on blood in order to lay their eggs. Three times per week, laboratory technician Jeremiah Ojude feeds the mosquitoes of the nursery with his own blood. Among the 2,000 adults contained in a net-covered box, half are females and will bite him. Sometimes, Jeremiah has to feed up to 6 cages, which means 18,000 bites per week. These mosquitoes are malaria-free. This lab technician comes from the region of the Great Lake Victoria and says that he does not feel the bites. 1422-10: The International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology in Nairobi. The female mosquitoes need to feed on blood in order to lay their eggs. Three times per week, laboratory technician Jeremiah Ojude feeds the mosquitoes of the nursery with his own blood. Among the 2,000 adults contained in a net-covered box, half are females and will bite him. Sometimes, Jeremiah has to feed up to 6 cages, which means 18,000 bites per week. These mosquitoes are malaria-free. This lab technician comes from the region of the Great Lake Victoria and says that he does not feel the bites. 1422-11: The International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology in Nairobi.

The female mosquitoes need to feed on blood in order to lay their eggs. Three times per week, laboratory technician Jeremiah Ojude feeds the mosquitoes of the nursery with his own blood. Among the 2,000 adults contained in a net-covered box, half are females and will bite him. Sometimes, Jeremiah has to feed up to 6 cages, which means 18,000 bites per week. These mosquitoes are malaria-free. This lab technician comes from the region of the Great Lake Victoria and says that he does not feel the bites. 1422-12: Female mosquitoes need to feed on blood in order to lay their eggs. One technique to help them to reproduce is to offer them human blood. Here, Field Assistant David Owaga, from the International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field office in Mbita on the shores of Lake Victoria, is feeding the mosquitoes of his nursery. According to the mosquitoes demand from the scientists, he can be biten up to 18,000 times per week and seems to be insensible to the pain. 1422-13: Female mosquitoes need to feed on blood in order to lay their eggs. One technique to help them to reproduce is to offer them human blood. Here, Field Assistant David Owaga, from the International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field office in Mbita on the shores of Lake Victoria, is feeding the mosquitoes of his nursery. According to the mosquitoes demand from the scientists, he can be biten up to 18,000 times per week and seems to be insensible to the pain. 1422-14: Female mosquitoes need to feed on blood in order to lay their eggs. One technique to help them to reproduce is to offer them human blood. Here, Field

Assistant David Owaga, from the International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field office in Mbita on the shores of Lake Victoria, is feeding the mosquitoes of his nursery. According to the mosquitoes demand from the scientists, he can be biten up to 18,000 times per week and seems to be insensible to the pain. 1422-15: Lake Baringo in the Rift Valley. A mosquitoes habitat is found on the shores of the lakes, swamps and dormant waters of the region. 1422-16: Lake Baringo in the Rift Valley. A mosquitoes habitat is found on the shores of the lakes, swamps and dormant waters of the region. 1422-18: Lake Baringo in the Rift Valley. A mosquitoes habitat is found on the shores of the lakes, swamps and dormant waters of the region. 1422-20: Women performing their daily tasks on the shore of Lake Victoria, a few yards away from their village. A mosquitoes habitat is found on the shores of lakes, swamps and dormant waters and they are especially prevelant in this area. 1422-21: Women performing their daily tasks on the shore of Lake Victoria, a few yards away from their village. A mosquitoes habitat is found on the shores of lakes, swamps and dormant waters and they are especially prevelant in this area 1422-22: Farmers washing their bulls in the canal of a rice field, near the village of Karima, at 50 Km from Nairobi. Mosquitoes can be prevelant in dormant waters and canals such as this. 1422-23: A farmer in his rice field, near the


dormant water of a brick factory, near the village of Nyabondo.

village of Karima, at 50 Km North from Nairobi. His daily tasks are performed in the midst of the mosquitoes habitat in dormant waters 1422-24: A farmer in his rice field, near the village of Karima, at 50 Km North from Nairobi. His daily tasks are performed in the midst of the mosquitoes habitat in dormant waters. 1422-25: Two International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field assistants sampling the mosquito larvaes from the dormant water of a rice field, near the village of Karima, 50 Km North from Nairobi. 1422-26: International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field assistants Julius Omboko and David Oluoch, sampling the mosquito larvaes from the dormant water of a swamp near the village of Nyabondo. 1422-28: Brick factory near the village of Nyabondo. The holes that are left behind when mud is dug up for the brick-making process often fill up with dormant water, creating a perfect habitat for the mosquitoes. 1422-29: Brick factory near the village of Nyabondo. The holes that are left behind when mud is dug up for the brick-making process often fill up with dormant water, creating a perfect habitat for the mosquitoes. 1422-30: International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field assistants Julius Omboko and David Oluoch, sampling the mosquito larvaes from the

1422-33: International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field technician Martin Njigoya using a bug lamp in the home of an inhabitant of the village of Mbui-Njeru. The system can catch up to 1,000 mosquitoes in one night. 1422-34: International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field technician Martin Njigoya looking at the insects that have been caught by a bug lamp. This system can catch up to 1,000 mosquitoes in one night. 1422-35: International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field technician Martin Njigoya has caught these insects with a bug lamp. This system can catch up to 1,000 mosquitoes in one night. 1422-36: International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field technician Martin Njigoya has caught this insect with a bug lamp. This system can catch up to 1,000 mosquitoes in one night. 1422-37: Field Assistant David Owaga sampling larvaes from the mosquito nursery at International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field office in Mbita. 1422-41: Mosquito larvaes at the International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology in Nairobi. 1422-42-43-44-45: Malaria control at the hospital in Kimbimbi 1422-47: Kimbimbi Hospital. Dr. Florence Kagwaine with Stella Wanjiku and her 9 month-old baby, Newton Kinyua, who is infected with malaria. The baby would

have died without medical treatment.

flowers cultivated in Kenya.

1422-48-49: Kimbimbi Hospital. Stella Wanjiku and her 9 month-old baby, Newton Kinyua, who is infected with malaria. The baby would have died without medical treatment.

1422-58: School in the village of Guu. International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field supervisor Elijah Nyarangi and his team provide education training regarding malaria control in the schools of the Nyabondo area.

1422-51: Village of Karima, 50 Km North from Nairobi. International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field assistants spread the BTI or Bacillus Thuringiensis Israeliensis, a lethal toxin for the mosquitoes. 1422-52: Village of Karima, 50 Km North from Nairobi. International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field assistants spread the BTI or Bacillus Thuringiensis Israeliensis, a lethal toxin for the mosquitoes. 1422-53: Village of Karima, 50 Km North from Nairobi. Brian Mwangui, 3 1/2 years-old is watching International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field assistants spread the BTI or Bacillus Thuringiensis Israeliensis, a lethal toxin for the mosquitoes. Half of the children of his classroom are infected with malaria. The day of our visit, 5 children called in sick because of their fever.

1422-60: School in the village of Guu. International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field supervisor Elijah Nyarangi, writing on the blackboard, and field assistant Eric Otiano, provide education training regarding malaria control in the schools of the Nyabondo area. 1422-61: The Director of the International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology at Kisumu, Franรงois Omlin, in a school of the Nyabondo region, where his team provides educational training regarding malaria control.

1422-54: Village of Karima, 50 Km North from Nairobi. International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field assistants spread the BTI or Bacillus Thuringiensis Israeliensis, a lethal toxin for the mosquitoes.

1422-62: The International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field office in Mbita. Professor Robert R. Jackson, an enthomologist, stands near his research field. This scientist has dicovered a small spider called the Evarcha culicivora (the mosquitoes eater), which lives exclusively around the shores of the Lake Victoria, and feeds on mosquitoes, especially on females which have sucked blood. If farmed and dispatched on an area infested with mosquitoes, this tiny spider could be one of the solutions to control the virus in the future.

1422-56: International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field technician Martin Njigoya spreading Pyrethrum in the home of an inhabitant of the village of Mbui-Njeru. The Pyrethrum, lethal to the mosquitoes, is extracted from plants and

1422-64: The International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field office in Mbita. The Evarcha culicivora spider (also known as the mosquitoes eater), which lives exclusively around the shores of the Lake Victoria, and feeds on


mosquitoes, especially on females which have sucked blood. If farmed and dispatched on an area infested with mosquitoes, this tiny spider could be one of the solutions to control the virus in the future. 1422-65: The International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field office in Mbita. The Evarcha culicivora spider (also known as the mosquitoes eater), which lives exclusively around the shores of the Lake Victoria, and feeds on mosquitoes, especially on females which have sucked blood. If farmed and dispatched on an area infested with mosquitoes, this tiny spider could be one of the solutions to control the virus in the future. 1422-67: Dr. Andrew Ghiteko, considered as one of the leading world specialist on global warming, photographed near the village of Vihiga. The scientist discovered that the mosquitoes habitat is spreading in altitude and infecting new populations. 1422-68: Green-house in the International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology field office in Mbita. Dr. Hortense Manda is studying the Leonotis leonorus flower, which has the capability of attracting mosquitoes. 1422-70: Dr. Paul Saoke, a public health specialist, who is the Executive Director of Physicians for Social Responsability (PSRKenya), Vice President of the International Society of Doctors for the Environment (ISDE Africa region) and a fervent detractor of the use of DDT.

Malaria, the killing machine.  

One hundred years after the discovery that malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes, the indomitable disease remains Africa's major problem. The...