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ACADEMIA PREUNIVERSITARIA. 2º BACHILLERATO ACADEMIA PREUNIVERSITARIA. SURNAMES............................................................ SURNAMES............................................................ NAME..................................................................... JULIO 2009 NAME.....................................................................

INGLÉS II PROGRAMACIÓN

1ª QUINCENA JULIO

2ª QUINCENA JULIO

TIEMPOS VERBALES ORACIONES CONDICIONALES ORACIONES DE RELATIVO REDACCIÓN TEXTO DE SELECTIVIDAD ORACIONES CONDICIONALES ORACIONES DE RELATIVO ORACIONES PASIVAS ESTILO INDIRECTO REDACCIÓN TEXTO SELECTIVIDAD

ÍNDICE: Pág. 2…………………………………….Tiempos verbales Pág. 7…………………………………….Oraciones Condicionales Pág 12……………………………………Oraciones de Relativo Pág. 18……………………………………Oraciones pasivas Pág. 25 ……………………………………Estilo Indirecto Pág. 28 ………………………………Redacción: “For and against” + Useful language Pág. 29……………………………………Redacción: “A Biography” + Connectors Pág. 32…………………………………Redacción: “A Narrative” + Connectors Pág. 35…………………………………Redacción: More Connectors Pág. 38 …………………………………Exercise of vocabulary Pág. 39………………………………….Questions Pág. 44………………………………….Orden de las palabras en la oración Pág 47 …………………………………..Calendar

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TIEMPOS VERBALES

Presente

Pasado

Futuro

Tiempos simples (infinitivo)

Tiempos continuos (to be + vb-ing)

Tiempos perfectos (to have + participio)

He plays

He is playing

He has played

(Él juega)

(Él está jugando)

(Él ha jugado)

He played

He was playing

He had played

(Él jugó)

(Él estaba jugando)

(Él había jugado)

He will play

He will be playing (Él estará jugando)

He will have played (Él habrá jugado)

He would be playing (Él estaría jugando)

He would have played (Él habría jugado)

(Él jugará)

condicional

He would play (Él jugaría)

Tiempos perfectocontinuos (to have + BEEN + vb-ing) He has been playing (Él ha estado jugando o él lleva jugando) He had been playing (Él había estado jugando o él llevaba jugando) FUTURO INMEDIATO (To be + GOING TO + infinitive) He is going to play (Él va a jugar) IMPERATIVO Play (juega) Don´t play (no juegues)

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EXERCISES: 1. Rellena el siguiente cuadro con el verbo “to see – saw - seen” como el anterior :

2. Translate into English: 1. Yo habré escrito ………………………………………………………………….. 2. El estaría escribiendo ……………………………………………………………. 3. el lleva escribiendo ………………………………………………………………. 4. el escribió ………………………………………………………………………... 5. el ha escrito ………………………………………………………………………. 6. el estará escribiendo ……………………………………………………………… 7. el va a escribir ……………………………………………………………………. 8. el escribe ………………………………………………………………………… 9. el estaba escribiendo ……………………………………………………………… 10. el había estado escribiendo ……………………………………………………… 11. no escribas …………………………………………………………………….... 12. el escribiría ………………................................................................................... 13. el está escribiendo ……………………………………………………………… 14. el escribira ……………………………………………………………………… 15. el había escrito …………………………………………………………………. 16. el habría escrito ………………………………………………………………… 3.Escribe el verbo “to be” en todos lo tiempos verbales con traducción.

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4. Ahora escribe el verbo “to study” en todos los tiempos verbales con traducción.

5.Escribe el verbo “drive” en todos los tiempos simples.

6.Escribe el verbo “begin” en todos lo tiempos continuos.

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7.Escribe el verbo “read” en los tiempos perfectos.

8.Escribe el verbo “drink” en los tiempos perfecto-continuos, futuro inmediato e imperativo.

9.Escribe todos los presentes del verbo “cut”.

10.Escribe los pasados del verbo “tear”

11.Escribe los futuros del verbo “see”.

12.Escribe los condicionales del verbo “watch”.

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13.Escribe el verbo “run” en: - pasado continuo: ………………………………………………………. - futuro perfecto: ………………………………………………………… - presente perfecto continuo: …………………………………………..... - futuro simple: ………………………………………………………….. - Presente perfecto: ……………………………………………………… - Imperativo afirmativo: ………………………………………………… - Imperativo negativo: …………………………………………………... - Condicional continuo: …………………………………………………. - Pasado perfecto: ……………………………………………………….. - Presente continuo: …………………………………………………….. - Pasado simple: ………………………………………………………… - Pasado perfecto continuo: …………………………………………….. - Condicional perfecto: …………………………………………………. - Futuro inmediato: ……………………………………………………… - ¿Cuál falta?: …………………………………………………………… 14.Di el tiempo verbal: - He would build: ……………….. ………………………………………… - He is going to build: ………………………………………………………. - He would have built: …………………………………………………... - He had been building: ……………………………………………………. - He builds: ………………………………………………………………. - He is building: …………………………………………………………… - He has built: ………………………………………………………….. - He had built: ………………………………………………………….. - He would be building: …………………………………………………… - build!: ………………………………………………………………… - He will be building: ……………………………………………………… - He built: ………………………………………………………………… - He will build: ……………………………………………………………. - He has been building : ……………………………………………………. 15.Dí a qué tiempos verbales corresponden los siguientes números: 2 6 4 10 15 11 7 3 12 1 16 14 5 13 9 8 1. ……………………………………………………………………. 2. ……………………………………………………………………. 3. ……………………………………………………………………. 4. …………………………………………………………………… 5. ……………………………………………………………………. 6. ……………………………………………………………………. 7. ……………………………………………………………………. 8. ……………………………………………………………………. 9. ……………………………………………………………………. 10. …………………………………………………………………… 11. …………………………………………………………………… 12. …………………………………………………………………… 13. …………………………………………………………………… 14. …………………………………………………………………… 15……………………………………………………………………. 16. ……………………………………………………………………

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CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

1ST CONDITIONAL: POSSIBLE If + present simple + future simple or modal simple (oración subordinada) (oración principal)

If it rains, If you get lost,

I will take my umbrella you can phone me

If + present simple + presente simple (oración subordinada) (oración principal)

If you heat water at 100ºC, it boils (Se utiliza para hechos científicos o verdades universales) If + present simple + imperativo (oración subordinada) (oración principal)

If you want to stay here, shut up. (Se utiliza para consejos o amenazas) 2ND CONDITIONAL: HYPOTHETICAL If + past simple + conditional simple (oración sub.) (oración principal)

If it rained, I would take my umbrella 1 No se utiliza “was” en este tipo de condicionales, sólo “were” If I were you…. 3RD CONDITIONAL: IMPOSSIBLE If + past perfect + conditional perfect/modal perfect

If it had rained, If you had got lost,

I would have taken my umbrella you could have phoned me

TIME CLAUSES

Unless=if not

If you didn´t come, I would stay here= =Unless you came, I would stay here

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Time Clauses

When As soon as+ Present simp present perfect, + fut simp Before After .+ . . (oración subordinada) (or principal)

When Jane arrives,

we will leave.

A.Write conditionals for the following words: 1.I / go / abroad / I / send / you / a postcard 1st………………………………………………………………………………. 2nd……………………………………………………………………………… 3rd……………………………………………………………………………… 2.I / watch / TV / I / finish / my homework. 1st……………………………………………………………………………… 2nd……………………………………………………………………………… 3rd……………………………………………………………………………… 3.They / invite / him / to have dinner / he / guess / the bill. 1st……………………………………………………………………………… 2nd……………………………………………………………………………… 3rd……………………………………………………………………………… 4.. He / tell / the truth / the policeman / ask / him. 1st……………………………………………………………………………… 2nd……………………………………………………………………………… 3rd……………………………………………………………………………… 5.They / go /to the beach / the car / work. 1st……………………………………………………………………………… 2nd……………………………………………………………………………… 3rd……………………………………………………………………………… 6.They / invite / me / to the party / I / go. 1st……………………………………………………………………………… 2nd……………………………………………………………………………… 3rd……………………………………………………………………………… 7.Tom / not have a present / he / fail / the exam. 1st……………………………………………………………………………… 2nd……………………………………………………………………………… 3rd……………………………………………………………………………… 8. She / find / the key / she / come / into the house. 1st……………………………………………………………………………… 2nd………………………………………………………………………………

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3rd……………………………………………………………………………… 9. She / earn / more money / she / work / more hours 1st……………………………………………………………………………… 2nd……………………………………………………………………………… 3rd……………………………………………………………………………… B.Finish the following conditional sentences: 1.If we had had a lot of money … 2.I wouldn´t have gone with you …. 3.If I had given you the money… 4.They will go to Germany … 5.She would come here …… 6.If I lived in London ………. 7.If they had bought my house ………… 8.John would visit his family …………. 9.If I had arrived earlier to the party … 10.It will be a nice present ………… 11.She would teach French ………….. 12. If I had known the truth …….. 13.If I won 10,000euros ……………. 14.If I knew my friend´s e-mail password ………………. 15.If My friend lost my favourite CD ……………………… 16. If I found 50 euros in the street………………………. 17.If I were rich, I .............................................. 18.If I take a year off before university, I ......... . C.Complete the sentences in the First Conditional. Use the correct form of the verbs in brackets. (Every time you see this symbol it means that you have to translate). 1.If I ............... (ask) you to help me, ...... you ..... . (help)? …………………………………………………………………… 2.We ............... (lose) sight of our guide if we …………..(not pay) attention. …………………………………………………………………… 3. You…………(not pass) unless you ……………………..(study) hard. …………………………………………………………………… D.Combine each pair of sentences with the time words in brackets. Make any necessary changes. 1.Tom will visit London. He'll call us (when) …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… 2.Lyn will leave soon. We'll discuss her surprise party. (after) …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… 3.I will finish my homework. Then I will go out. (when) …………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………… E. Choose the correct answer. 1.The policeman (doesn't believe / won't believe / wouldn't have believed) you even if you tell him the truth. 9


…………………………………………………………………… 2.If I (was / were / would be) you, I wouldn't go. …………………………………………………………………… 3.I won't leave without you unless you (are / aren't / will be) late. …………………………………………………………………… 4.We won't come unless it (will stop / stops / doesn't stop) raining. …………………………………………………………………… 5.If Charles (had gone / will go / went) to Mexico, he would feel at home. …………………………………………………………………… 6.If Hal (hadn't taken / wouldn't take / hasn't taken) Sally for granted, she wouldn't have broken up with him. ………………���………………………………………………… 7.If you (watched / had watched / would watch) the news last night,· you would have seen me. …………………………………………………………………… 8.Dina would have a larger vocabulary if she (read / had read / would read) more books. …………………………………………………………………… 9.If I (was / would be / were) any younger, my parents wouldn't let me go to the pub. ……………………………………………………………………………….. 10.I (don't go / won't go) unless you (will come / come) with me. …………………………………………………………………… 11.If Dave (would work / worked) harder, he (would be / will be) more successful. …………………………………………………………………… 12.Marcie (would stay / would have stayed) on the Internet all night if her mother (hadn't made / wouldn't have made) her go to bed. …………………………………………………………………… F. Match I to II I 1. If I hadn´t gone to Thailand, 2. If I went to Thailand, 3. You would have had a better holiday 4. Would you do me a favour 5. I would stay longer 6. If I had stayed longer II a. I would have missed my bus. b. I wouldn´t travel alone. c. if you had travelled with us d. if you didn´t know me very well? e. If I had more time. f. I wouldn´t have met Rolf. G. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1.You will have lots of problems if you ……………(lose) your air ticket. …………………………………………………………………… 2.If you ………………(be) more careful, you wouldn't have got into trouble. …………………………………………………………………… 3.Unless you hurry, you …………………………(miss) the flight. …………………………………………………………………… 4.If you ignore him, he (go) away. …………………………………………………………………… 5.We wouldn't have seen all the villages even if we ..................... (spend) at lot of time in each one. 10


…………………………………………………………………… 6.You would enjoy this dessert if you ....................... . (like) chocolate. …………………………………………………………………… H. Choose the correct answer: 1.I won´t tell anyone if you ………… want me to. A)don´t B)won´t …………………………………………………………………… 2.Sherry ……………. the job unless she receives a good salary. A) doesn´t take B)won´t take …………………………………………………………………… 3.If you ……. upset every time someone criticises you, you won´t last long here. A) will get, B)get …………………………………………………………………… I. Fill in the blanks to form conditionals. 1.I (call) ………………… you yesterday if I (know) ………………… your address. …………………………………………………………………………………. 2.If I (have) …………….. enough money I (invite) …………… you to the cinema tomorrow

……………………………………………………………………… 3.If you (want) …………………. to come, (phone) …………………..me. ……………………………………………………………………… 4.Next week she (travel) …………. to Italy if she (earn)……….. the money. ……………………………………………………………………… 5.He (go) …………….. to the gym last year if he (have)………………any free time. ……………………………………………………………………… 6.If you …….. (eat) cake now, you .......................... (not be) hungry at dinnertime. …………………………………………………………………… J. Complete the sentences using the Second or Third Conditional. 1.My mum was using the car, so I couldn't use it. …………………………………………………………………………….. 2.It's a pity that you don't eat a lot of green vegetables, because people who do are healthy. .................................................................................................................... 3.He failed the test because he hadn't studied hard. …………………………………………………………………………… 4.That sofa is perfect for a large flat, but our flat is small. ………………………………………………………………………….. 5.I had an accident because I didn't see the stop sign . …………………………………………………………………………. 6.I won the violin competition because I practised a lot. ……………………………………………………………………………. 7.She doesn´t have an alarm clock, that´s why she is always late. …………………………………………………………………..…………. 8.He broke his leg, so he didn´t play the championships. …………………………………………………………………..…………….

K.Correct the errors. 1. They will believe your story unless you prove it. .............................................................................. 2.I would never have known that Lena is only 14 if you haven't told me. 11


.............................................................................. 3.If you go to the shop, will you have passed a postbox on the way? .............................................................................. L.Complete the sentences. Pay attention to the time words: 1. After I had checked my bank account ………………………………… 2. I´ll visit may parents before…………………………………………… 3. By the time I arrive home ……………………………………………… 4. As soon as you arrive to Paris …………………………………………. M. Write a possible conditional or time clause 1. If/Tim/eat/too much/he/gain/weight ……………………………………………………………… 2. When/I/get/home/I/call/you ……………………………………………………………… 3. As soon as/Dad/come/home/we/have/dinner ……………………………………………………………… 4. The boxes/fall/unless/I/move/them ……………………………………………………………… N. Translate into English: 1. Si hubiera sabido que estabas ahí habría ido a verte. …………………………………………………………………………. 1.Sería más feliz si vinieras conmigo. ................................................................................................................. 2.Si bebes esa agua vivirás más tiempo. …………………………………………………………………………. 4. El te habría gustado si le hubieras conocido. ………………………………………………………………………….. 3.Si tienes sed, bebe agua. …………………………………………………………………………..

RELATIVE CLAUSES Son oraciones subordinadas que empiezan con un pronombre de relativo y hacen la función de un adjetivo modificando a un nombre, junto al que se hallan, y que se llama antecedente. Pronombres relativos Who  sustituye a una persona en función de sujeto Whom  sustituye a una persona en función de complemento Whose  sustituye a un posesivo, se traduce como cuyo Which  sustituye a una cosa When  sustituye a un complemento circunstancial de tiempo Where  sustituye a un complemento circunstancial de lugar

El tipo de ejercicio más frecuente es en el que te dan dos oraciones y te piden que las combines con una oración de relativo. En ese caso tienes que buscar algo que se repita en las dos oraciones y que no sean el mismo pronombre:

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Jane is a university student. She wants to become a lawyer. Susan has bought a new house. We lived there in 2004. La segunda oración siempre es la de relativo Jane is a university student. (She wants to become a lawyer). Susan has bought a new house. (We lived there in 2004). Lo que está subrayado en la oración de relativo se sustituye por el pronombre relativo que le corresponda y se pone siempre al principio de la oración de relativo: Jane is a university student. (who wants to become a lawyer). Susan has bought a new house. (where we lived in 2004). Y ahora toda la oración de relativo se pone al lado del antecedente que es la palabra subrayada en la oración principal. Jane, who wants to become a lawyer, is a university student. (Esta oración de relativo va entre comas porque es explicativa) Susan has bought a new house where we lived in 2004. (Esta oración de relativo no va entre comas porque es especificativa)

ORACIONES DE RELATIVO ESPECIFICATIVAS Y EXPLICATIVAS Especificativas: me dan una información importante para reconocer el antecedente. Explicativas: no es importante la oración de relativo para reconocer al antecedente porque es un nombre propio o el único en su especie; va entre comas la oración de relativo. That woman is my mother. She is sitting on the sofa. That woman who is sitting on the sofa is my mother. Carol is organizing a party. I saw her buying some fish. Carol, whom I saw buying some fish, is organizing a party. They are working with Mary. Her sister lives near us. They are working with Mary, whose sister lives near us. Last year I went to Paris. It is a wonderful city. Last year I went to Paris, which is a wonderful city. Lst year I went to Paris. I met my boss there. Last year I went to Paris where I met my boss. I usually take my holidays in summer. I like going to the beach then. I usually take my holidays in summer when I like going to the beach.

A Choose the correct answer. 1 . I would Iike to go to the shop (when / where / which) you bought that dress.

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…………………………………………………………………………….. 2.These are special flowers (who / whose / which) only grow in the jungle. …………………………………………………………………………….. 3.Did you help the tourists (whose / who / which) car had a flat tyre? …………………………………………………………………………….. 4.You should order the vegetarian meal (who / when / which) I highly recommend. …………………………………………………………………………….. 5.August is a time (which / whose / when) many people are on holiday. …………………………………………………………………………….. 6.Is that the girl (whom / whose / which) Mark is going to marry? …………………………………………………………………………….. 7. No one saw the spy (where / when / who) installed the secret miniature camera . ……………………………………………………………………………. 8.The criminals were hiding in a house (which / whose / where) the police couldn't find them . ……………………………………………………………………………. 9.That's the man (whose / who / which) children I look after. ……………………………………………………………………………. 10.I'd Iike to read a book (where / which / who) isn't too serious. ……………………………………………………………………………. 11.Sean Connery is one of the actors (who / which / when) played James Bond. ……………………………………………………………………………. 12. I´ll call you back at a time (where / when / who) you can talk for more than just a few minutes. ……………………………………………………………………………. 13.Have you got a document (who / which / where) proves your identity? ………………………………………………………………………… 14.The soldier, (when / whose / who) was supposed to guard the gate, was reading a newspaper. ………………………………………………………………………… 15.Suzy went to a drama school (where / which / when) she learned to act. ………………………………………………………………………… 16.I like to take walks in the early morning, (when / where / whose) it's very quiet outside. ………………………………………………………………………… 17.John le Carre is a famous writer (whose / where / which) spy novels have been made into films. ………………………………………………………………………… 18.I'd like to have a relationship with someone (whose / where / who) has a good sense of humour. ………………………………………………………………………… 19.Pierce Brosnan, (that / who / whose) played James Bond, was born in Ireland. ………………………………………………………………………… 20.You should look for a chatroom (where / who / which) you can talk about your problems. ………………………………………………………………………… 21.Did you really meet the star (who / when / whose) autograph you have got? ………………………………………………………………………… 22.Shelley felt absolutely miserable the other day (who / where / when) Dan broke up with her . ………………………………………………………………………… 23.The trick (whose / which / when) you played on Bill was very unkind.

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………………………………………………………………………… 24.London, (which / that / who) is the capital of England, is my favourite city . ………………………………………………………………………… 25.The subjects (when / which / whose) Suzy gets the best marks in are maths and music . ………………………………………………………………………… B. Complete the sentences with “who, which, whose, when or where”. 1.I will never forget the day ………………………..we met. …………………………………………………………………………….. 2.Jenny bought the CD ………………………she had always wanted. …………………………………………………………………………….. 3.I'm looking for the person …………………has lost this bag. …………………………………………………………………………….. 4.This is my neighbour ……………………daughter is a famous actress. …………………………………………………………………………….. 5.I failed the exam …………………..I took last Monday. …………………………………………………………………………….. 6.We visited the town ………………………..William Shakespeare was born. …………………………………………………………………………….. 7.Estopa is a group …………………….comes from Barcelona. …………………………………………………………………………….. 8.. Did you ever contact the person .......................... wallet you found? ………………………………………………………………………….. 9. We live in a small town called Cove, .......................... everyone knows everyone else's business. ………………………………………………………………………….. 10. The girl in the blue dress, …………….. is carrying a backpack, is my sister. ………………………………………………………………………….. 11. That's the TV programme ………………………. . everyone is talking about. ………………………………………………………………………….. 12. If you find a moment …………………… you have nothing to do, write me a letter. ………………………………………………………………………….. 13. I'm going to congratulate Peter, ......................... won the competition. …………………………………………………………………………..

C. Match I and II to make correct sentences. I 1.Everyone knows the spy 2.James Bond uses equipment 3.James Bond was invented by a writer 4.Bond spent some time in other countries 5.Sean Connery became famous in 1962 II a.when he starred in Dr No. b.where he spied for the British. c.who had previously been a spy. d.whose code name is 007. e.which has been specially invented for him.

D.Combine each pair of sentences with a relative clause. Make any necessary changes. 15


1.Mark was an excellent spy. He hadn't had any previous experience. …………………………………………………………………………………… 2.The Golden Dragon serves delicious food. It is run by a Chinese family. …………………………………………………………………………………… 3.Laura went on holiday to Miami. She had grown up there as a child. …………………………………………………………………………………… 4. Jane is a famous actress. Her parents are my neighbours. …………………………………………………………………………………… 5.FBI agents arrested Hanssen in February 2001. They caught him red-handed ……………………………………………………………………………………. 6.Rita recently visited London. She had lived in London as a child . ………………………………………………………………………………… 7.The dancer was very famous. He had performed on stage many times. ………………………………………………………………………………… 8.It´s better to water your garden at night. The ground dries less quickly then. ………………………………………………………………………………… 9.The film was excellent. Steve had recommended the film. ………………………………………………………………………………… 10.The famous author, Stephen King, was in a car accident. We had read his book. ………………………………………………………………………………… 11.Mona travelled alone to Katmandu. She met many backpackers there. ………………………………………………………………………………… 12 . My sister Kate has loved the theatre since she was a child. She is an actress. ……………………………………………………………………………… 13. I can't find the key. That key opens the front door. ……………………………………………………………………………… 14.Borley Rectory was a haunted house. A man lost his sight in one eye there. ……………………………………………………………………………… 15.Andy feels jealous. His younger brother won a prize. ……………………………………………………………………………… 16.Helena lives far from school. Her mother sometimes drives her home. ……………………………………………………………………………… 17. The book is very interesting. It tells you about life in China. ……………………………………………………………………………… 18. Last week I saw an old friend. I went to school with her. ……………………………………………………………………………… 19. He was expelled from Eaton school. My father studied there. ……………………………………………………………………………… 20.The car has been bought by my brother. We saw it at Peter´s house. ……………………………………………………………………………… 21.The pupil was ill. I wanted to talk to him. ……………………………………………………………………………… 22. Most of the people speak English. They live in the USA. ……………………………………………………………………………… 23. I know a shop. It sells really good meat. ……………………………………………………………………………… 24. Can you pick up the papers? They are lying on the floor. ……………………………………………………………………………… 25. I´m in love with a girl. Her eyes are green. ……………………………………………………………………………… 26. They met the actors. Their film had won an oscar. ………………………………………………………………………………

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27. We don´t like the clubs. They are in the city centre. ……………………………………………………………………………… 28. I don´t like tropical countries. The weather is very hot there. ……………………………………………………………………………… 29. This lake is very deep. It freezes in winter. ……………………………………………………………………………… E.Complete the passage with the relative pronouns who, which, whose, where and when. Mata Hari is one of the most famous female spies in history. Mata Hari, _________ real name was Margaretha Zelle, was born in Holland in 1876. When she was a young woman, she moved to Paris, _________ she worked as a dancer in nightclubs. Mata Hari, ________ was very beautiful, was also very popular. In 1914, __________ World War I broke out, many soldiers came to the clubs __________ she danced. These soldiers told her many things __________ they were supposed to keep as a secret. Mata Hari realised that she could sell the information _____ she got from the soldiers. However, her love for money made her do something ____ was very dangerous – she began to spy for both France and Germany. Soon the French Secret Services discovered the secret __________ she had tried so hard to hide. Mata Hari, ________ was caught in February 1917, was shot in October of the same year.

F. Translate the sentences into English. 1 . No fue difícil para la policía encontrar al acosador, que había dejado una pista. ………………………………………………………………………………….. 2. ¿Recuerdas el día en el que ocurrió el accidente? ………………………………………………………………………………….. 3. Cogimos un taxi hasta la embajada británica, donde renovamos nuestros pasaportes. ………………………………………………………………………………….. 4. La carne, que estaba demasiado hecha, sabía fatal. ………………………………………………………………………………….. 5.Dimos las gracias a los voluntarios cuya organización había acordado ayudamos …………………………………………………………………………………..

G.Correct the errors. 1. Let's go to the pizza restaurant which Tony works. …………………………………………………………………………………… 2.The driver of the delivery van, which was tall and muscular, helped us carry the boxes. …………………………………………………………………………………… 3.There should be a sign telling people where road to take. …………………………………………………………………………………… 4.This is the teacher whose I was telling you about. …………………………………………………………………………………… 5.Canberry Park, when I go running every morning, is very peaceful ……………………………………………………………………………………

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Passive sentences 1º. Analizar la oración y buscar cd o ci para que pase a sujeto paciente

The policeman is following the thief throughout Europe cd 2º. Buscar el verbo y el tiempo verbal dárselo al verbo to be y poner el verbo en participio . 3º. El sujeto de la oración activa pasa a complemento agente precedido de la preposición “by” siempre al final de la frase: The thief is being followed throughout Europe by the policeman Suj pac Comp Agente 4º No se pone complemento agente cuando el sujeto activo sea -people: People buy lots of presents for Christmas Lots of presents are bought for Christmas -compuesto de –one o –body: Someone stole my car yesterday My car was stolen yesterday -pronombre personal: He had cooked dinner Dinner had been cooked -el que se supone: The postman delivers the letters everyday The letters are delivered everyday

5º. Si en una oración hay ci y cd salen dos oraciones pasivas distintas: I will be told the truth He will tell me the truth The truth will be told to me

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A. Rewrite the following exercises into the active or the passive: 1.Thousands of houses have been destroyed. ………………………………………………………………………………….. 2.Women and children were evacuated from the town. ………………………………………………………………………………… 3.Nobody was killed. ………………………………………………………………………………… 4.They are going to give each student a computer. ………………………………………………………………………………… 5.The watch will be repaired at a high price. ………………………………………………………………………………… 6.They had to sell all the tickets for the concert at school. ………………………………………………………………………………… 7.John is writing an article for the newspaper. ………………………………………………………………………………… 8.You should group the sentences in the correct order. ………………………………………………………………………………… 9.The postman must have delivered all the letters. ………………………………………………………………………………… 10.The painters will use white painting for the school wall. ………………………………………………………………………………… 11.You mustn´t leave the milk out of the fridge. ………………………………………………………………………………… 12.People buy many faked t-shirts in the market ………………………………………………………………………………… 13.These flowers have just been picked up. ………………………………………………………………………………… 14.The director will employ new teachers for next course. ………………………………………………………………………………… 15.Scientists can´t explain the origin of the universe. ………………………………………………………………………………… 16.This newspaper isn´t read by my family. ………………………………………………………………………………… 17.Her employer had paid her the minimum wage ………………………………………………………………………………… 18.Mr. Jones offered Mike a new job. ………………………………………………………………………………… 19.We have based the article on a report. ………………………………………………………………………………… 20.Many people are employed in the car industry. ………………………………………………………………………………… 21.The report will be published in an important journal. ………………………………………………………………………………… 22.The children have been forced into illegal employment ………………………………………………………………………………… 23.The students´ results were studied by the headmaster. ………………………………………………………………………………… 24.The government should regulate piercings. ………………………………………………………………………………… 26.This picture had been painted by Picasso,

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………………………………………………………………………………… 27.They are going to invest their savings in a flat. ………………………………………………………………………………… 28.She is interviewing the applicants. ………………………………………………………………………………… 29.The police must discover the truth. ………………………………………………………………………………… 30.Jane has sent Peter some postcards. ………………………………………………………………………………… 31.He has written his family a long letter from Brazil. ………………………………………………………………………………… 32.Susan can play the piano with only one hand. ………………………………………………………………………………… 33.The teacher will show the exam results on the notice board, ………………………………………………………………………………… 34.Everybody should have visited the painting exhibition. ………………………………………………………………………………… 35.The school nurse vaccinated all the pupils at school. ………………………………………………………………………………… 36.The manager hasn´t promoted anyone in this section. ………………………………………………………………………………… 37.You must tell him because he looks worried. ………………………………………………………………………………… 38.The traffic could have delayed Peter. ………………………………………………………………………………… 39.They will call an ambulance to the scene of the crime. ………………………………………………………………………………… 40.The garage was being built with the help of the neighbours. ………………………………………………………………………………… 41.Tom has been sent a postcard from his mother. ………………………………………………………………………………… 42.A local artist is organizing the exhibition of paintings. ………………………………………………………………………………… 43.The parcel shouldn´t be brought today. ………………………………………………………………………………… 44.Carol has bought her mother a skirt in Harrod´s. ………………………………………………………………………………… 45.Everybody should visit the painting exhibition. ………………………………………………………………………………… 46.They don' t speak Arabic in Irak. ………………………………………………………………………………… 47.They freeze food to keep it in good condition. ………………………………………………………………………………… 48.The photographers have photographed the fashion models 20 times today. ………………………………………………………………………………… 49.Animals cause many road accidents. ………………………………………………………………………………… 50.The thieves forced us to give them our credit cards. ………………………………………………………………………………… 51.We can use a dictionary in the exam. …………………………………………………………………………………

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IT IS SAID …., IT IS THOUGHT …, IT IS KNOWN …,IT IS BELIEVED …, IT IS EXPECTED …, IT IS REPORTED …, IT IS UNDERSTOOD …, IT IS CONSIDERED … They say that he is 108 years old It is said that he is 108 years old. He is said to be 108 years old. They say that Henry eats 10 eggs a day. It is said that Henry eats 10 eggs a day. Henry is said to eat 10 eggs a day. People believe that the wanted man is living in New York. It is believed that the wanted man is living in New York. The wanted man is believed to be living in New York. They expect that the strike will begin tomorrow It is expected that the strike will begin tomorrow. The strike is expected to begin tomorrow. They report that he stole $60 It is reported that he stole $60. He is reported to have stolen $60. They reported that he stole $60 It was reported that he stole $60. He was reported to have stolen $60. They reported that two people were killed in the explosion It is reported that two people were killed in the explosion. Two people are reported to have been killed in the explosion.

B.Rewrite the following sentences into the other two forms as above: 1.It is said that many people are homeless after the floods. ………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… 2. It is expected that the government will lose the election ……………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………

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3. It is thought that the prisoner escaped by climbing over the wall. ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… 4. It is reported that two people were seriously injured in the accident. ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… 5. They will ask you a lot of questions at the interview. ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… 6.She wants you to give him the presents. ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… 7. We will send you your examinations results as soon as possible. ……………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………… 8. It is believed that cosmetic surgeons can perform miracles ……………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………

PASSIVE INFINITIVE Verbs which are followed by “to + infinitive” keep the same structure “to + infinitive” in the passive. a. verbs about asking, allowing, ordering, or helping: advise, allow, ask, encourage, forbid, force, help, invite, order, permit, persuade, remind, teach, tell, warn.

We allowed them to stay out late They were allowed to stay out late They We

have encouraged

us

to sing

have been encouraged

to sing

EXERCISES 1.We´d like them to do it at once. ………………………………………………………………………………………. 2.He wants someone to film his son´s birthday party. …………………………………………………………………………..

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3.There is far too much to organise. ………………………………………………………………………….. 4.David wants us to sell the house. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 5.I prefer you to do your homework in ink. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 6.Ian doesn´t like me to criticize him. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 7.We want the police to notify us of any news. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 8.They told the boys to stop talking …………………………………………………………………………… 9.We will warn them not to go there alone …………………………………………………………………………… 10.I would like them to take me out for dinner. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 11.He is believed to be a dangerous criminal. ………………………………………………………………………………… 12.John was said to work in London. ………………………………………………………………………………… 13.Everybody knows Peter is very good a t business ………………………………………………………………………………… 14.People believe the queen is very rich ………………………………………………………………………………… 15.We have to do it. ………………………………………………………………………………… 16.It is believed that the fire started late last night. ………………………………………………………………………………… 17.It is supposed that he moved to New York last year. ………………………………………………………………………………… 18.It is said that three men were arrested after the explosion. ………………………………………………………………………………… 19.It is known that the Prime Minister is in favour of the new law. ………………………………………………………………………………… 20.The recepcionist advised us to lock the door. ………………………………………………………………………………… 21.I would like you to do your homework everyday. ………………………………………………………………………………… 22.My mother didn´t allow me to come back after 1 am. ………………………………………………………………………………… 23.The director wants the worker to arrive on time. ………………………………………………………………………………… 24.The teacher asked the student to bring some chalk. ………………………………………………………………………………… 25.There is one book to read. ………………………………………………………………………………… 26.The mister encouraged the football player to run faster. ………………………………………………………………………………… 27.I prefer my brother to drive the car. …………………………………………………………………………………

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28.The policeman forbade us to cross the road. ………………………………………………………………………………… 29.Paul doesn´t like Susan to phone him. ………………………………………………………………………………… 30.Carol will force her son to study piano. ………………………………………………………………………………… 31.They have invited us to visit them in Boston. ………………………………………………………………………………… 32.The captain ordered the soldiers not to shoot the bottles. ………………………………………………………………………………… 33.We persuaded Peter not to go alone. ………………………………………………………………………………… 34.We need people to phone the programme. ………………………………………………………………………………… 35.My mother reminded me to phone the dentist. ………………………………………………………………………………… 36.I´m teaching my students how to do passive sentences. ………………………………………………………………………………… 37.There are lots of words to learn. ………………………………………………………………………………… 38.They warned us not to visit that area. ………………………………………………………………………………… 39.He wants someone to film his son´s birthday party. ………………………………………………………………………………… 40There´s far too much to organize. ………………………………………………………………………………… 41.I prefer you to do your homework in ink. ………………………………………………………………………………… 42.Ian doesn´t like me to criticize him. ………………………………………………………………………………… 43.We want the police to notify us of any news. ………………………………………………………………………………… 44.I would like them to take me out for dinner. ………………………………………………………………………………… 45.It is believed that the fire started late last night. ………………………………………………………………………………… 46.I prefer him to write the letter with the word processor. ………………………………………………………………………………… 47.I think Pam arrived yesterday. ………………………………………………………………………………… 48.We will warn them not to go there alone ………………………………………………………………………………… 49.Almodovar is said to have paid for the oscar. …………………………………………………………………………………

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REPORTED SPEECH

SUJETO + VERBO + CI + NEXO + SUJETO + VERBO + COMPS

Cambios que se producen en la oración. 1. Cambios que afectan al orden de las palabras en la oración. Hay varios tipos de oraciones: A/ Statements:(Se reconocen porque empiezan por sujeto) verbo introductor: said y told nexo : (that) She said me that She told me that She said to me that She told to me that She told that She said that John: “I will go tomorrow” John said that he would go the following day B/ Questions: Hay de dos tipos: - Yes / No questions:(empiezan por verbo auxiliar) verbo introductor: asked nexo: if She asked me if She asked to me if She asked if Tom: “Can you help me?” Tom asked me if I could help him -

Information questions: (empiezan por wh-pronoun)

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verbo introductor: asked

nexo (wh-pronoun)

Peter: “Where do you live, Sarah?” Peter asked Sarah where she lived C/ Commands:(empiezan por infinitivo sin “to” o “don´t”) Verbo introductor: asked, ordered nexo: no hay Teacher:”Open the door and don´t close the window” The teacher asked to open the door and not to close the window. D/ Suggestions: (empiezan por “let´s) Verbo introductor: suggested

nexo: that o ninguno

Lizzie: “Let´s try again” Lizzie suggested that they try again Lizzie suggested trying again 2. Cambios que se producen en los tiempos verbales: Presente ----------------}pasado Pasado ------------------} pasado perfecto Will ---------------------} Would May---------------------} might Shall --------------------} should Must---------------------} had to

3Cambios que se producen en los adverbios de tiempo: now ---------------------} then today -------------------} that day yesterday --------------} the day before tomorrow --------------} the following day next week / month / year ----------}the following week / month / year last week / month / year ----------} the week / month /year before ago ---------------------} before 4. Cambio que se produce en el adverbio de lugar: Here -------------------}there 5. Cambios que se producen en los demostrativos: This --------------------}that These ------------------} those

6. Cambios que se producen en los posesivos y en los pronombres personales: Cambian según la persona que hable: Daniel: “I will go with my car” Daniel said he would go with his car Paula: “I will go with my car” 26


Paula said that she would go with her car

Más verbos introductores: Declare declarar Apologise pedir perdón Explain explicar Announce anunciar Offer ofrecer Reply responder Boast presumir

A.Rewite into reported or direct speech 1.“Don´t touch that switch, Jess” her mother said. …………………………………………………………………………….. 2. “Mike wrote to him the day before yesterday” Sean told Mark. …………………………………………………………………………… 3. My wife wants to take a job” Frank said. …………………………………………………………………………… 4. “Are you interested in acting?” asked Peter. …………………………………………………………………………… 5. “Close the window, Paul”, Mary said. …………………………………………………………………………… 6. “Don´t drive so fast!”, the teacher told Ann. …………………………………………………………………………… 7. “Would you like to join our drama group?” she said …………………………………………………………………………… 8.”What happened to Mr. Budd?” said one of the men. 9. “I don´t know what your father will say when he sees what a mess your puppies have made” said my mother. …………………………………………………………………………… 10. “Let´s get into the haunted house” Ann said. …………………………………………………………………………… 11. “Which team has won?” asked Tom. …………………………………………………………………………… 12.”Which of his sons inherited his house?” asked the judge. …………………………………………………………………………… 13. “Do you play rugby?” the teacher asked the students. …………………………………………………………………………… 14. “Help your mother, Peter!” Mr Smith said. …………………………………………………………………………… 15. “Don´t put your hands near the bars!” The zoo keeper warned us. …………………………………………………………………………… 16. Jack inquired if Tom was avoiding him. …………………………………………………………………………… 17. The policeman ordered not to throw the rubbish on the grass. …………………………………………………………………………… 18. My friend suggested going then. 27


…………………………………………………………………………… 19. Susan asked me whay I had left early the day before. …………………………………………………………………………… 20. He suggested no to take part in the show. …………………………………………………………………………… 21. He told me to answer then all the questions on the booklet. …………………………………………………………………………… 22. She said that Brad Pitt´s new film had come out the week before. …………………………………………………………………………… 23. She claimed that she hadn´t seen anything from her house. …………………………………………………………………………… 24. Tom insisted that I had to help him. …………………………………………………………………………… 25. She said that Peter would talk to him the following day. ……………………………………………………………………………

REDACCIÓN FOR AND AGAINST ESSAY En este tipo de redacciones hay que presentar un punto de vista objetivo mostrando ventajas y desventajas. Consta de cuatro párrafos: 1st paragraph: Introducción : presenta el tema 2nd paragraph: ventajas 3rd paragraph: desventajas 4th paragraph: cierre : resume el tema. Suele ser una paráfrasis del primero. ☺ argumenta a favor y en contra dando ejemplos, sin mezclar ventajas y desventajas. USEFUL LANGUAGE On the one hand…. ….on the other hand

Por una parte…. …. Por otra parte

In contrast,

En contraste

Moreover,

Además

Furthermore,

Además

Finally,

Finalmente

In the first place,

En primer lugar

Firstly,

En primer lugar

Secondly,

En segundo lugar

In conclusión,

En conclusión

To sum up,

Resumiendo

In short,

Resumiendo

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Una biografía Cuando escribimos una biografía damos información sobre una persona en orden cronológico. Tiene dos párrafos. 1. opening sentence: Se presenta a la persona y se explica por qué se ha elegido. 2. body: la información se organiza en orden cronológico. Useful language First later Then before eventually finally after when while soon In (year) In (month) In (season) On (day) On (specific date)

Primero Más tarde Después Antes de Finalmente Finalmente Después de Cuando Mientras Pronto En (año) En (mes) En (estación) En el (día) En (una fecha específica)

CONNECTORS ADDITION In addition

Además

Furthermore

Además

Moreover

Además

CONTRAST However

Sin embargo

Nevertheless

Sin embargo

Yet

Sin embargo

On the one hand….. ….on the other hand

Por una parte……… ….. por otra parte

Although

Aunque

A Match each sentence in I with a sentence in II. I 1. Jean hasn´t got a car. 2. Carol took the shortest route home. 3. Julie left home late. 4. Jill has never driven to London before. 5. Kenny doesn´t feel well.

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6. Mike crashed his father´s car. II a) Moreover, he hasn´t even got a licence. b) Nevertheless, he insists on driving c) Furthermore, she got stuck in a traffic jam. d) However, she often borrows her father´s. e) yet the journey took over an hour. f) in addition, she left her map at home. B Complete the sentences. Make them true for you.

1.I (have got/haven´t got) a driving licence. However,…………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… 2.My friend (is/isn´t) usually late for school. In addition,………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… 3.Our teacher (gives/doesn’t give) us lots of homework. Moreover, …………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… 4.I agree/don´t agree) with my parents.Nevertheless,………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………… 5.On the one hand I (like/don´t like) going to the cinema with my friends. On the other hand,……………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… 6.The weather (will be/won´t be) cold tomorrow. Furthermore………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… 7.My parents (are/aren´t) strict about my staying out late, yet………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………… 8.Although I (take/don´t take) good notes in class, I…………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………

C Choose a suitable sentence to follow 1.This restaurant does not have a licence to serve alcohol. a.However, you can bring your own wine or beer. b.However, it's an expensive restaurant. ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2.Our neighbours have an old-fashioned car. a.Furthermore, they have a brand new computer . b.Furthermore, all their furniture is antique. ………………………………………………………………………………………… 3.Jan enjoyed the sights and sounds of the market. a.In addition, she was very tired at the end of the day. b.In addition, she visited an art museum. ………………………………………………………………………………………… 4.Jeremy doesn't have very much money. a.Nevertheless, he just bought a moped. b.Nevertheless, he will need help to pay for university. …………………………………………………………………………………………

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D Choose the most suitable connector to complete each sentence. 1. I had never taken that route to London ..... , I got there in an hour. a. Moreover b. Nevertheless 2. Fred has enough knowledge to do the job ..... , he doesn't have enough selfconfidence. a. However b.Furthermore 3.Dave borrowed a large amount of money ..... , I'm sure he'll return it. a. However b. In addition 4.I don't know all the rules of tennis ..... , I don't practise very much a. Nevertheless b.Moreover E Complete the sentences in a logical manner. 1. I study hard. Moreover, ……………………………………………………….. 2. My parents give me lots of personal freedom. Furthermore, they…………… . ……………………………………………………………………………………. 3.My best friend ......................................................... on the other hand, he / she is very dependable. 4. My school has old-fashioned rules. In addition,……………………………………. 5.My neighbourhood ........................................... ........................................... , yet I love living here. F.Choose the correct connector. The taxi driver charged me too much. (However / Moreover), he demanded a tip! ……………………………………………………………………………. We got totally lost in Birmingham. (In addition / Nevertheless), we eventually found our hotel. …………………………………………………………………………… Most people prefer driving. (On the other hand / Furthermore), you can see more as a passenger. …………………………………………………………………………… Jan missed the last bus home. (However / Furthermore), she didn't find a taxi. …………………………………………………………………………… There was a lot of traffic on the roads (yet / moreover) we got home quickly. …………………………………………………………………………… G.Choose the correct answer 1.He is a talented, young artist. (Furthermore / On the other hand), he doesn't have any formal education in art. …………………………………………………………………………… 2.Mitchell borrowed a suit for the interview. (However / Moreover), he forgot to wear his good shoes. …………………………………………………………………………… 3.We will give you a map showing the route. (Moreover / Nevertheless), you can call

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for directions if you need them. …………………………………………………………………………… 4.Cathy arrived late to the train station. (Yet / Furthermore) she forgot to bring her suitcase. …………………………………………………………………………… A Narrative To describe past events it is important to follow a clear, logical sequence. Use different expressions to explain when the events happened in relation to one another. A variety of expressions will make your story easier to follow and more interesting. Structure: First paragraph: Introduction: First of all describe the context of the narrative, who takes part, where, when,… Second paragraph: Body: this is the main paragraph, tell the events of the story chronologically.

deducir una moraleja,something important like a teaching experience. Third paragraph: Conclussion: you should

CONNECTORS OF SEQUENCE Se usan sobre todo en una narración para establecer el orden en el que ocurrieron los hechos. Para el primer párrafo al principio: in the beginning, at first, first of all, Para terminar de narrar: eventually, at last, finally, in the end Para secuenciar los demás hechos: later, then, next, when, by the time, before, after, soon.

H. Study the connectors of the sequence below and use them to complete the sentences which follow. There may be several suitable answers. In the beginning, at first, first of all, later, then, next, when, by the time, before, after, soon, eventually, at last, finally, in the end

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1.We had made all our hotel reservations ……………… we left for our holiday. ………………………………………………………………………………………. 2.I met an old triend………. we were on holiday in Venice………….... we met once again in Rome. ……………………………………………………………………………………… 3 .It was difficult tor me to get used to living in a large city……..I made some friends and I love it here. ……………………………………………………………………………………… 4. I really enjoyed the film but it was too long, and ........ I lost interest. ……………………………………………………………………………………… 5. It is easy to make soup you go to the supermarket and buy a can of soup……. , you come home and put it in a pan………., you heat it. And …………., you eat it! ………………………………………………………………………………………

I. Write the events of the story in the order that they happened. Use the connectors of sequence to help you. …...a. It was a beautiful day as the climbers prepared to climb the last stage of the mountain. ……b.While they were walking, they noticed the sky was getting very dark. ……cIn the end, they all returned tired but healthy to the base camp. ……d.First of all, they checked their equipment and made sure they had enough food for the day's climb. ……e.A few minutes later, a tremendous snowstorm began. They decided to stop and set up their tents . ……f.Once they had set up their tents, they radioed for help. ……g.Shortly after, they started their climb up the mountain. ……h.Eventually, after hours of anxiety, they heard the engine of the rescue helicopter. ……i.By the time the storm had calmed down, they had been in their tents for more than five hours.

J Choose the correct connector of sequence. 1.At first it looked like our team would lose the competition, but (at last / in the end), we won! ………………………………………………………………………………… 2.(By the time / A few hours later) I heard about the street fair, it was already over. ………………………………………………………………………………… 3.Maths problems are difficult in the beginning, but (finally / eventually), they get easier. ………………………………………………………………………………… 4.Nan thought she had made a good decision at the time. (Later / After), she changed her mind. ………………………………………………………………………………… 5.Mike mixed the ingredients for the cake and (then / before) he put the mixture into the oven. …………………………………………………………………………………

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K. Number the sentences to show the order in which the events happened. Pay attention to the connectors of sequence ..... a. While we were drinking our tea, we ran into a friend who was also going to the wedding . .. .. b. Several of us decided to travel together from London to a friend's wedding in Rome. ..... c. In the end, though, we made it to the wedding. ..... d. When we woke up, we heard the announcement of our flight number. ..... e. Then the ticket agent told us that we could take a flight the following morning. …..fWe decided to stay that night in the airport since there wasn't enough time to go home and come back again. ..... g. After getting the new tickets, we left the ticket agent and went to get some tea. ..... h. By the time we finally arrived in Rome, we were completely exhausted. ..... i. When we got to the airport in London that evening, the ticket agent said that our flight to Rome had been cancelled . ..... j After a few hours of talking with our friend, we went to sleep on some benches. L. Complete the passage with the words below: while _ at first _ soon _ by the time _ later Last summer, my friend Ted invited me to go backpacking with him. 1 ........................ , I was a bit nervous because I didn't know if I could carry such a huge weight. 2 ......................... , though, I got used to it and it hardly bothered me. The first few nights, we slept in hostels, but 3……………, we used the tent that we'd brought with us. 4…………….. the trip was over, I was used to sleeping outdoors. 5 ………………..we were travelling, we met many interesting people. I promised to write to them all when I returned home . M. Choose the correct connector: 1 . I waited in the queue for a long time, but (finally / in the end) I reached the customs agent. ……………………………………………………………………………… 2.Be sure to lock the door (later / after) you leave . ……………………………………………………………………………… 3.(While / By the time) we were taking the exam, the teacher was looking around the class. ……………………………………………………………………………… 4.(In the beginning / First of all), I thought Ben wasn't nice, but now he seems very nice. ……………………………………………………………………………… 5.First save some money and (soon / then) make travel plans. ……………………………………………………………………………… 6.(At last / At first) I liked him, but then I changed my mind when I found out that he had lied to me. ……………………………………………………………………………… N.Complete the sentences with the correct connector: while _ first of all _ eventually_ a few moments later _ before 1.It was hard to gain the knowledge to become a taxi driver, but …………., I did it. ………………………………………………………………………………

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2.I can't go to the film………. , I haven't got a ticket, and besides, I need to study . ……………………………………………………………………………… 3.Jeff put his diving suit on ……………………... he entered the water. ……………………………………………………………………………… 4.You shouldn't talk ……………………….. you're eating. ……………………………………………………………………………… 5.Everyone arrived at the party but ……………... it started to rain. ………………………………………………………………………… CONNECTORS OF CAUSE AND RESULT Cuando escribimos las conjunciones de causa (connectors of cause) y las consecutivas (result) nos muestran la influencia de una acción sobre otra. Connectors of cause: -because (porque) -since (porque) -as (porque) -due to (debido a) Connectors of result: -as a result (como consecuencia) -therefore (por lo tanto) -consequently (como consecuencia) -for this reason (por este motivo) -so (por lo tanto)

More Connectors Temporales When, afer, before,since, until, as, as soon as, while He met his wife when he was in Bangkok

Condicionales If, unless, as long as, supposing that, provided that, on condition that You will succeed providing that you work hard

Concesivas Though, although, while, whereas, even, even if, even though, however, nevertheless Though he had no chance of winning he entered for the race

Causales Because, since, as, due to I bought that pen because it was cheap

Finales To, so as to, in order to, so that 35


They came here in order to buy machinery Consecutivas So, so that, as a result, therefore, consequently, for this reason It rained so hard that the streets flooded O.Read the sentences below. Which of the connectors in bold show the cause of a particular action and which show the result? 1.Hanssen had strong anti-communist views, therefore no one suspected him of being a Russian spy. ……………………………………………………………………… 2.Due to the information received from Hanssen, two Russian spies were executed. ……………………………………………………………………… 3.The tunnel had remained a well-kept secret since the FBI used it to Iisten in to conversations. ……………………………………………………………………… 4.Hanssen thought the FBI had discovered his secret,consequently, he cut off his contacts with the KGB. ……………………………………………………………………… P Choose the correct answer: 1.The service in the restaurant was bad (because / so) we complained to the manager. ……………………………………………………………………… 2.John missed the meeting (for this reason / due to) the late arrival of his train. ……………………………………………………………………… 3.She had told me many lies before. (Consequently / Because), I didn't believe her this time. ……………………………………………………………………… 4.It was raining and we didn't want to get wet, (since / therefore) we decided to go by car. ……………………………………………………………………… 5.Billy borrowed my jacket (because / therefore) he didn't have one of his own. ……………………………………………………………………… 6.I decided to volunteer at the homeless shelter (because / consequently) I like to help people. ……………………………………………………………………… 7.There is a food shortage now (due to / therefore) the war. ……………………………………………………………………… 8.It was a formal party, (so / as a result of) Nancy wore a long black dress. ……………………………………………………………………… 9.Jack missed the bus, (since / consequently) he was late for work ……………………………………………………………………… 10.Everyone respects Jill (due to / as a result of) her hard work ……………………………………………………………………… 11.Jeff's motorbike was making strange noises (so / because) he took it to be repaired. ……………………………………………………………………… 12.The game was cancelled (since / due to) the bad weather. ……………………………………………………………………… 13.Ann frequently arrives late (therefore / since) she hasn't got a watch. ………………………………………………………………………

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14.The secret agent wasn't very careful. (Due to / Consequently) he was caught. ……………………………………………………………………… 15.(As a result of / So) playing a lot of computer games, Sergio's English is excellent. ……………………………………………………………………… 16.Paul hasn't got many friends (because / therefore) he isn't very outgoing. ……………………………………………………………………… 17.John hadn't studied for the exam. (Since / Consequently), he was very nervous. …………………………………………………………………… 18.The house was destroyed (due to / as a result) of the fire that the arsonists started. …………………………………………………………………… 19.I didn't pass my exam (so / since) I hadn't paid attention in class. …………………………………………………………………… 20.Colin needed a cheap means of transport, (therefore / because) he bought a moped. …………………………………………………………………… 21.Tara is very independent (due to / since) being the oldest child in her family. …………………………………………………………………… 22.Bill borrowed a tuxedo for the dance (since / as a result) he didn't have one of his own. …………………………………………………………………… Q.Match A and B A 1.Geoff was really annoyed 2. As a result of her success, 3.Sue and Mark have got lots of free time. 4. These men aren´t good workers, 5. Paul hadn´t heard the news, 6. Due to her illness, B since they haven´t got a job. so we phoned him early in the morning. she couldn´t appear at the concert. she is asked to act in many films. because we phoned him early in the morning. therefore they haven´t got a job. R. Complete the sentences in a logical manner. 1. I didn´t go to the party since………………………………………………….. 2. My dad can´t sleep at night, so……………………………………………….. 3.We have an exam next week. Consequently..................................................... 4. It is my best friend´s birthday tomorrow, therefore…………………………….. 5. I can´t concetrate due to…………………………………………………………. 6. I would/wouldn´t like to bungee jump because…………………………………. 7.There´s no electricity in the whole neighbourhood, so…………………………… 8.He became a very famous star as a result of……………………………………….. 9.We don´t usually go swimming since……………………………………………… 10.The new film is a big success, consequently…………………………………….. 11.She decided to leave her job because…………………………………………….. S. Read and complete the text about Ian Fleming, by choosing the correct connectors: IAN FLEMING – WRITER/SPY!

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Ian Fleming wrote many books and newspaper artlcles but is best known for his creation of James Bond. In the fourteen Bond books, this famous spy saves the world from danger and captures women's hearts. What many people do not know is that l'(since / therefore) Fleming hintself was a spy, many of the ideas in his novels were taken from bis personal experience. From 19291933, he worked as a journalist in the former Soviet Union, where his work included covering a major spy trial. During the Second World War, Fleming worked as a spy with British Intelligence. He was involved in planning dangerous missions which he also took part in. 2'(Consequently / Because), when Fleming turned his hand to writing spy stories, he was successful, 3·(so / due to) the fact that he combined the skills of Fleming the author, with those of Fleming the intelligence expert. T.Match I to II. Pay attention to the connectors. I The embassy is closed today Jenny joined the fire brigade Today is a national holiday. A girl attacked the famous actor John exercises every day. Many people have stalked the actress II ..... a. Consequently, all schools are c1osed. ..... b. so the police arrested her. ..... c. As a result, he feels better. ..... d. due to her popularity. ..... e. because it's a holiday. ..... f. since she likes exciting work

Fill in the series with an appropriate word: 1.Rose – tulip – Jasmine - ………. 2.Shirt – trousers – skirt - ………… 3.Pencil – ballpen – pen - ………… 4.Chinese – Japanese – Korean - ………. 5.English – Irish – Welsh - ………….. 6.bracelet – necklace – earrings - ……. 7.bee – fly – mosquito - …………. 8.elephant – lion – monkey - …………. 9.apple – orange – pear - …………. 10.fridge – oven – washing machine - ….. 11.Mars – Earth – Jupiter - …….. 12.car – lorry – van - ……

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13.sunny – rainy – cloudy - ……….. 14.onion – tomato – lettuce - …….. 15.train – ship – plane -…………. 16.high heels – boots – trainers - ………. 17.cow – chicken – horse - ………… 18.star – comet – satellite - ……………. 19.headache – toothache – stomachache ……… 20. tennis – squash – badminton - ……..

Hay dos tipos de preguntas: - Yes / No questions - Information questions

AUXILIAR + SUJETO + VERBO + COMPLEMENTOS ? Son verbos auxiliares: - to be - to have - to do - will - modales

Ejemplos: - I woke up late - He visits me once a month - He is working now - They have studied English - He would have gone to NY - She is happy

Did you wake up late? Does he visit me once a month? Is he working now? Have they studied English? Would he have gone to NY? Is she happy?

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Rewrite as interrogative sentences: 1. They went to New York. ……………………………………………………………………………………....... 2. It takes four hours to get there. ………………………………………………………………………………………... 3. He earns a hundred pounds a week. ………………………………………………………………………………………... 4. They came by bus. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 5. I´ve been here for two months. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 6. I´ve had this cough since the beginning of October. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 7. I can smoke forty cigarettes a day. ………………………………………………………………………………………... 8. Those lakes are twenty feet deep. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 9. Anne gave me a present for my birthday. ………………………………………………………………………………………. 10. I found her address by calling at every house in the village. ………………………………………………………………………………………. 11. He broke his leg in a skiing accident. ………………………………………………………………………………………. 12. They were buying the big one. ………………………………………………………………………………………. 13. The concert will begin at 8 p.m. ………………………………………………………………………………………. 14. She has broken another of your best plates. ………………………………………………………………………………………... 15. He´s borrowed your typewriter. ………………………………………………………………………………………... 16. We had been talking about Margaret. ………………………………………………………………………………………... 17. This stamp may be from Denmark. ………………………………………………………………………………………... 18. He comes to London about once a month. ………………………………………………………………………………………... 19. This knife would be for opening oysters. ………………………………………………………………………………………... 20. I´m looking for a telephone box. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 21. I live fifteen kilometres from here. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 22. This castle is four hundred years old. ………………………………………………………………………………………..

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WH- PRONOUN + AUXILIAR + SUJETO+ VERBO + COMPLEMENTOS ? Pero también hay

SUBJECT QUESTIONS:

Who / What + verbo + complementos ?

Wh- Pronouns: Who Whom Whose Where When Why which What What´s like How How much How many How long How far How old How often

Give a question for the underlined words: 1. They went to New York. 41


……………………………………………………………………………………....... 2. It takes four hours to get there. ………………………………………………………………………………………... 3. He earns a hundred pounds a week. ………………………………………………………………………………………... 4. They left the country ten years ago. ………………………………………………………………………………………... 5. They came by bus. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 6. I´ve been here for two months. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 7. I´ve had this cough since the beginning of October. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 8. The hotel was awful. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 9. I smoke forty cigarettes a day. ………………………………………………………………………………………... 10. I borrowed my brother´s car. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 11. The lake is twenty feet deep. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 12. Anne gave me a present for my birthday. ………………………………………………………………………………………. 13. I found her address by calling at every house in the village. ………………………………………………………………………………………. 14. I threw it away because I was tired of it. ………………………………………………………………………………………. 15. He broke his leg in a skiing accident. ………………………………………………………………………………………. 16. I bought the big one. ………………………………………………………………………………………. 17. The concert will begin at 8 p.m. ………………………………………………………………………………………. 18. She has come to visit me. ………………………………………………………………………………………. 19. Jack taught me to play poker. ………………………………………………………………………………………... 20. He´s borrowed your typewriter. ………………………………………………………………………………………... 21. We were talking about Margaret. ………………………………………………………………………………………... 22. This stamp is from Denmark. ………………………………………………………………………………………... 23. Your father told me about it. ………………………………………………………………………………………... 24. He comes to London about once a month. ………………………………………………………………………………………... 25. This knife is for opening oysters. ………………………………………………………………………………………... 26. He escaped by climbing over the prison wall.

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……………………………………………………………………………………….. 27. I live fifteen kilometres from here. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 28. This castle is four hundred years old. ……………………………………………………………………………………….. More Practice: 1. This is Jane´s car. 2. I go to the cinema twice a week. 3. The airport is 3 kms from the city. 4. She doesn´t drive because she doesn´t like it. 5. There is a lot of cheese in the fridge. 6. Ann will stay in Cairo for four weeks. 7. This city is 4,500 years old. 8. I gave John the money. 9. A lot of people go to the cinema once a year. 10. 300 students came from Liverpool last year. 11. My house is 15 kms from school. 12. I have worked here for 12 years. 13. You can see Guernica in the Reina Sofía 14. You can see Guernica in the Reina Sofía 15. Jackson Pollock painted abstract expressionist paintings. 16. Jackson Pollock painted abstract expressionist paintings. 17. The Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersbourg has over 3,000,000works of art. 18. The Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersbourg has over 3,000,000 works of art. 19. The sculptures have been on display for two months. 20. The sculptures have been on display for two months. 21. The sculptures could have been created by an unknown local artist. 22. The sculptures could have been created by an unknown local artist. 23. Peter makes his sculptures out of limestone. 24. Peter makes his sculptures out of limestone.

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Basic sentence pattern Subject + verb + indirect object + direct object + ccmanner + ccplace + cctime

Este es el orden de oraciones enunciativas afirmativas, las imperativas son iguales pero sin sujeto. También hay que tener en cuenta los adverbios de frecuencia que van delante del verbo principal y detrás del verbo “to be”. *orden del cd y ci como pronombres: I bought Mary a present io

do

I bought her a present io

do

I bought it for Mary do

io

I bought it for her. do

io

Reorder the following words to form correct sentences: 1. his / we / violin / want / to / him/ play 2. make / afraid / Steve / speech / his / to / is 3. wild / tame / wants / the /she /to / horse 4. sure / the /verb /the /make /agree /subject /and 5. any /don´t / with / help / I / exercise / this / need 6. night / last / the / went / to / they / all / pub 7. to / disc / want / I / my / listen / favourite / to 8. we / the art exhibition / yesterday / visited. 9. English / speaks / Laura / frequently 10. the truth / me / told / the children 11. necklace / left / my aunt / me/ her 12. Parks / are / no / there / here

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13. the university / in / are / students / 10,000 / there 14. Not / please / the animals /do / feed 15. stole / someone / my car / yesterday 16. went / last year / the Jones family / to Spain / with my family. 17. at 9 / a taxi / took / they / to the airport. 18. booked / they / a hotel / in Madrid / easily. 19. in 8 hours / they / on Monday / the museums / visited 20. for their families / bought / a lot of souvenirs / at the market / the players 21. often / in Canada / it / in the winter / snows 22. a party / at 11 o´clock / am / at my house / having / I 23. tired / sometimes / Sam / at work / is 24. cake / mother / is / my / delicious / cooking / a / in the kitchen / happily / now 25. school / after / I / quickly / do / the / dishes 26. in / last / father /week / bought / a / Germany / new / car / my 27. boys / than / girls / take / in class / notes / usually / better 28. class / I / never / late / am / for 29. Saturday / on / Martin / rarely / his / grandmother / visits 30. is / the / feeding / baby/ mother / quietly / the / this bedroom / in / moment / at / the

Questions Yes / No Questions Auxiliar + sujeto + verbo principal + complementos? Information Questions Wh-pronoun + Auxiliar + sujeto + verbo principal + complementos? *Subject questions: Who/What + verbo+ complementos? Sujeto

1. Smoke / you / do?

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2. TV programmes / which / watch / you / do? 3. British / do / teenagers / alcohol / drink / much? 4. Does / do / your brother / what / on Saturday nights? 5. Was / kind / artisit / of / what / Dali ? 6. What / do / have / to / day / we / the / go / to / art exhibition ? 7. sculptures / how / Botero / by / many / there / are / Madrid / in 8. long / you / working / how / have / as / art critic / an / been? 9. should / type / painting / bought / I / have / what / of ? 10. When / will / opened / the / be / art gallery? 11. for / you / prepare / are / what / lunch / going / to? 12. what / she / does / him / want / do / her / to / to? 13. time / his / spend / does / spare / he / how? 14. do / me /you / help / want / to / you ? 15. call / want / she / me / did / to / her ? 16. phoned / TV / she / when / was / I / watching /? 17. night / you / where / last / were / ? 18. jeans / steal / they / did / the / ?

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repaso 2º bat ingles