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Stourhead

Liesil Arredondo Ana P S Beckner


Stourhead Timeline Location History Influences Walkthrough Plan & Section Partis Comparisons Overview Pictures Bibliography


Timeline

Overview of history of England and Family


Location

Stourton, Wiltshire

Altitude: 500 ft Temperature: 38째 F Average Winter Climate Moderate

Distance: 110 miles southwest of London Bath

Stonehenge

Stourhead

London

3 miles northwest of Mere


History: 1740’s (18th century)

• England  a country where land, title, and power are very significant • Hoare Family  originally goldsmiths in London and returned to banking in the 17th century • US  Declaration of Independence (England loses control of its colony)

• Design  Does not represent disillusionment with the politics at Stourhead but a confirmation of power to withstand disaster • English ideal  to create a “contrive naturalism” (an idealized form of nature) • Stourhead  “Henry Hoare’s paradise”


Human control of Nature

Versailles Man-made

Stourhead Man-made to look “natural�

Nature Natural


Stourhead: 1741–1765 Designers • Henry Hoare I  not a professional landscape gardener; inspired by paintings & travel Designed: Grotto, Palladian bridge, 3 classical buildings • Henry Flitcroft  a professional designer associated with William Kent Designed most classical buildings: Pantheon, Temples of Flora & Apollo • Colin Campbell  designed the Palladian House • Richard Hoare  Hoare’s grandson; added exotic planting to landscape Memorial to Henry Hoare I


Influence: Claude Lourrain

Landscape with Apollo Guarding the Herds of Admetus


Influence: Claude Lourrain

Apollo and the Muses on Mount Helion


Influence: Claude Lourrain

Landscape with Aeneas at Delos


Layout • Enclosed and inward looking • Hoare dammed a stream (Stour River) to make one large lake and two small ones • Lake: central feature of garden; what ties the story together • A poetic landscape • Inspired by the Roman Campagna with allegorical allusions to the epic journey of Aeneas • A series of calculated views framed by the green – visual alignment among buildings •No strong axis or grid system • All grassy bank artificially created – different heights


Elements & Segments of the Garden

1 Manor House (Palladian) 2 Temple of Flora (Ceres) 3 1

3 Obelisk 4 Wooden Bridge

4

5 Grotto 5

6 7

2

6 Pantheon (Temple of Hercules)

9

7 Iron Bridge

8

8 Temple of Apollo 9 Stone Bridge (Palladian)


Theater of a Thousand Views 1 Manor House

By Colin Campbell - 1724


Theater of a Thousand Views 1 Manor House

Original View - Painting


Theater of a Thousand Views 1 Manor House

House well removed from garden Not the main feature View from the Front Lawn


Theater of a Thousand Views 2 Temple of Flora

Flora: the goddess of flowers “Temple of Ceres”

Contains busts after the Classical Greek; an urn representing Flora and her nymphs


Theater of a Thousand Views 2 Temple of Flora

Roman Temple at Nimes

Doric portico

Temple of Flora


Theater of a Thousand Views 3 Obelisk

The Narrative Begins

Fir Walk to Obelisk Memorial to Henry Hoare’s Grandson – Grief Light and Shade – vista to the Lake and the Pantheon are lost


Theater of a Thousand Views 3 Obelisk

Painting

Elements of surprise


Theater of a Thousand Views 4 Wooden Bridge

Crossing into the underworld

Reflection of water: extension into the earth Ambiguity in determining the ground line Circle: eternity; continuity of life & death Comparison with Scarpa’s Brion Cemetery


Theater of a Thousand Views 4 Wooden Bridge

Enclosed garden Isolation “Perfect world”

View from the Wooden Bridge towards Diana’s Basin


Theater of a Thousand Views 5 Grotto

The Underworld

Engaged to naturalistic topography Dark but alive to sound of water splashing from natural springs


Theater of a Thousand Views

River God: the deity of the river Stour, holding an urn from which the river flows It points to the direction of the Pantheon

Nymph: sleeps above the the cascade, where the waters are gathered from the bank and flow out into the lake


Theater of a Thousand Views 5 Grotto

View from the Grotto: village church & Palladian bridge


Theater of a Thousand Views Watch Cottage

A transitional point from the Grotto to the Pantheon Visual shock: no intermediate image to relate the scale of the first view to the second


Theater of a Thousand Views 6 Pantheon

“Temple of Hercules” Façade: Portico with 4 Corinthian columns Niches holding the figures of a Muse and Dionysios Interior: Statue of Hercules & other Classical figures, such as Flora, and Ceres


Theater of a Thousand Views

4 Corinthian columns, with closed bays, screening a rotunda

Rome

Stourhead


Theater of a Thousand Views


Theater of a Thousand Views 6 Pantheon

Turning point Temple of Flora seen in perspective Height of view: going up View from the Pantheon


Theater of a Thousand Views 7 Iron Bridge

Edge of Lake Right: another small lake with a cascade Makes a short descent below the water level Painting


Theater of a Thousand Views 8 Temple of Apollo

Ascent to the King of Views Climax of the Narrative Apollo: sun-god Sunshine: represented in the form of entablature, which imitates the sun’s rays


Theater of a Thousand Views

Stourhead

Temple of Venus at Baalbec

Claude Lourrain’s Painting

Todi


Theater of a Thousand Views 8 Temple of Apollo

The Highest Point All garden becomes apparent Dedicated to Wisdom Only place we trace out the path


Theater of a Thousand Views 9 Palladian Bridge

Leaving the underworld

Threshold between past and present; a symbol of transition


Influence: Andrea Palladio Andrea Palladio’s design - never built Published in the Quattro Libri dell’Architettura

Rialto Bridge - 1570

Stourhead - 1762


Parti

Past (Death) x Present (Life)

Symmetry


Parti

Alignment

Entry Sequence


Parti

Topography

Circulation


Comparison: English Gardens

500’

1000’

2000’

Chatsworth

100’

500’

Stourhead


Comparison: Framed Views

Gamberaia

Stourhead


Comparison: Rotation

Gamberaia

Stourhead


Comparison: UTA Architecture Building

500’

0’

100’


Conclusion

“ The relation of all the arts to one another, through the pictorial appreciation of nature, was so close that poetry, painting, gardening, architecture and the art of travel may be said to have been fused into the single ‘art of landscape’ ” Hussey


Conclusion

“The genius of the 18th-century landscape garden designer was his ability to create subtle views every few paces, offering glimpses framed by trees, and a constant promise of something new around the corner. The effect is not of walking through a garden, but of moving in and out of a thousand vignettes.� Martin Davidson


Overview


Overview


Overview


Overview


Bibliography

Books •Jellicoe, Geoffrey & Susan.1986. The Oxford Companion to Gardens. Oxford, UK. : Oxford University Press. •Tyack, Geoffrey & Brindle, Steven. 1994. Blue Guide Country Houses of England. London, UK. : A&C Black Publishers Limited. •Woodbridge, Kenneth. 1965. “Henry Hoare’s Paradise.” Art Bulletin, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. [83]-116. ( March 1965). •Pieper, Jan. 1995. “Palladiobrucken= Palladian Bridges.” Daidalos, no. 57, pp. 88-93. (September 1995). •Turner, James. 1979. “The Structure of Henry Hoare’s Stourhead.” Art Bulletin, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 68-77. (March 1979). •Jarrett, David. 1978. The English Landscape Garden . New York, NY. : Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. •Taylor, Patrick. 1998. The Garden Lover’s Guide To Britain . New York, NY. : Princeton Architectural Press.

Websites •http://www.tjhsst.edu/~dhyatt/trip/stourhead.shtml •http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stourhead •http://www.armin-grewe.com/holiday/wiltshire/stourhead-house.htm •http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/main/w-vh/w-visits/w-findaplace/w-stourhead.htm •http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Stourhead_Garden.html •http://www.gardenvisit.com/g/stour2.htm •http://www.faculty.de.gcsu.edu/~rviau/ids/Artworks/stourhead.html •http://www.pantheon.org/ •http://www.uk-genealogy.org.uk/england/Wiltshire/towns/Stourhead.html •http://www.burrows.uk.com/photos/chas/stourhead2/ •http://www.york.ac.uk/depts/arch/landscapes/ukpg/sites/stourhea.htm


Bibliography

Additional Photo Sources

•http://www.armin-grewe.com/holiday/wiltshire/stourhead-garden.htm •http://brodick.smugmug.com/keyword/stourhead/1/26647861 •http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl =http://www.msualum.com/evecoll/oxford-03/photos/stourhead/stourhead03.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.msualum.com/evecoll/oxford-03/photos/stourhead/page •http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.uk-genealogy.org.uk/england/Wiltshire/images/Stourhead002.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.uk -genealogy.org.uk/england/Wiltshire/towns/Stourhead.html&h=960&w=1280&sz=205&tbnid=bDZsMSxocKlfxM:&tbnh =112&tbnw=150&hl=en&start=4&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dstourhead%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D •http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.apl.ncl.ac.uk/coursework/IThompson/stourhead_panth.gif&imgrefurl =http://www.apl.ncl.ac.uk/coursework/IThompson/Informal_3.htm&h=271&w=400&sz=84&tbnid=P4kjTqMBdUDJhM:&tbnh=81&tbnw=120&hl=en&start=5&prev •http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.faculty.de.gcsu.edu/~rviau/ids/Artworks/Stourhead/stourhead.gif&imgrefurl =http://www.faculty.de.gcsu.edu/~rviau/ids/Artworks/stourhead .html&h=262&w=400&sz=85&tbnid=Ua0oe9FW9MtfSM:&tbnh=78&tbnw=120&hl=en&start=6&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dstourhead%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3D •http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.calpoly.edu/~lndnstdy/photo_albums/photos/stourhead/Stourhead_Bridge.jpg&imgrefurl =http://www.calpoly.edu/~lndnstdy/photo_albums/stourhead .html&h=361&w=482&sz=62&tbnid=7eVmCnNjZBuflM:&tbnh=94&tbnw=126&hl=en&start=7&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dstourhead%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3De •http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.uwosh.edu/faculty_staff/shaffer/stourhead.jpg&imgrefurl =http://www.uwosh.edu/faculty_staff/shaffer/18thc998.htm&h=231&w=200&sz=28&tbnid=LCnnJA5_i_ZNhM:&tbnh=103&tbnw=89&hl=en&start =8&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dstourhead%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D •http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/main/w-093456-stourhead-property_image&imgrefurl= http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/main/w-vh/w-visits/w-findaplace/w-stourhead.htm&h =206&w=379&sz=20&tbnid=M-gZHFS8dWIIKM:&tbnh=64&tbnw=119&hl=en&start =10&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dstourhead%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D


Stourhead - Presentation  

Stourhead Stourhead Liesil Arredondo Liesil Arredondo Ana P S Beckner Ana P S Beckner Overview Pictures Overview Pictures Bibliography Bibli...

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