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Association of Licensed Architects

$6.00 Volume 14, No. 4 Winter 2010

LicensedArc hitect

What’s Inside: • 2010 Design Award Winners • The Architect as Expert Witness – A Survival Guide • Use Caution When Certifying Contractor’s Applications for Payment • Forensics and Innovation • Continuing Education Article • Building Code Myths & Facts


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LICENSED ARCHITECT • VOL 14 NO. 4 • WINTER 2010

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ALATHEPRESIDENT’SLETTER

am pleased to be writing my first letter as President of the ALA. It is an honor to be your new President and I look forward to serving you over the next couple of years.

I

First, I would like to thank outgoing president Steve Pate for his leadership and tireless efforts in moving ALA and its agenda forward over the last 7 years. Steve presided over many changes during his tenure some of which include: a rapid growth in membership to almost 1300; the incubation and continued growth of five chapters; the opening of ALA’s new headquarters in Barrington, Illinois; the addition of the ALA short form contracts; the new upgraded ALA website (ALAToday.org); and circulation growth and the redesign of the ALA Magazine. Steve received the ALA Lifetime Achievement Award at the recent Design Awards Banquet. On behalf of all of ALA’s Members and the Board of Directors, Congratulations Steve on a hard earned and much deserved award! Additionally, Peg McLean, our longtime Executive Director, received the ALA Outstanding Service award. Also much deserved - Congratulations Peg! Peg is owed a great debt of gratitude for doing much of the heavy lifting since the beginning of ALA, more recently with the help of Kay and Lisa. After many stalled attempts (the board refused to let her go!), Peg will be working her way into retirement over this next year and Joanne Sullivan, our new Executive Director, will be taking the helm. Welcome aboard Joanne!

As I mentioned, the Design Awards Banquet was held Friday, November 12th at Medinah Country Club and was attended by many members and guests. It was an outstanding event held at an unbelievable venue. With over 100 Design entries literally from all over the world, the event showcased the incredible depth of talent and expertise of ALA Members. Please take the time to review the 31 winning designs which are showcased in this issue. The design entries were all exciting and ran the gamut in terms of building types and architectural styles. All of the entries were on display at the Awards Banquet for review during the hosted reception prior to the dinner and program. Our emcee for the evening, WTTW Host and Producer Geoffrey Baer, did an excellent job. His knowledge of history and architecture was both entertaining and informative. Thank you Geoffrey! Start preparing your submittals for next year’s Design Awards Program. It will be here before you know it! Thanks also to the Design Awards Committee, all of the Jurors and to our staff for a job well done. Lastly, on behalf of the entire Board of Directors and staff, I would like to wish all of our Members a happy, healthy and joyous Holiday Season and a safe and prosperous New Year!

Jeffrey Budgell Jeffrey N. Budgell, FALA, LEED AP President

ALA Welcomes New Members - Winter 2010 Professional Members Mr. Alberto Agama, ALA Mr. Phillip Bannos, ALA Mr. Donald Barkley, ALA Mr. Gerald Brown, ALA Mr. Johnny Bueno-Abdala, ALA Mr. Stephen Cavanaugh, ALA Ms. Deborah Gagliardi, ALA Mr. Peter Goldhammer, ALA Mr. Jeffrey Hampton, ALA Mr. Earl Hilchey, ALA Mr. Timothy Hill, ALA Ms. Lisa Jaffe, ALA Mr. Ulysses James, ALA Mr. John Kern, ALA Mr. Steven King, ALA Mr. Thomas Kuhn, ALA Mr. Eric Lechowicz, ALA Mr. Douglas Madel, ALA Mr. Juan Moreno, ALA Mr. Dennis Murphy, ALA Mr. Joseph Navilio, ALA

Yorkville, IL Batavia, IL Crystal Lake, IL Chicago, IL Glenview, IL Chicago, IL Arlington, TX St. Petersburg, FL Ballwin, MO Albuquerque, NM Chicago, IL Chicago, IL Rochester, IL Huntley, IL Des Moines, IA Schererville, IN Yorkville, IL Chicago, IL Chicago, IL Chicago, IL Naperville, IL

Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr.

Jean Reibel, ALA Kenneth Shane, ALA Steven Sharpe, ALA Michael Soto, ALA Jeffrey Spruill, ALA David Swanlund, ALA Cosmin Vrajitoru, ALA Robert Wheat, ALA Yurity Zajac, ALA

Mt. Prospect, IL Park Ridge, IL Waterford, WI Milwaukee, WI Madison, WI Chicago, IL Chicago, IL Monroe, WI Glendale Hts, IL

Honorarium Mr. Scott Veazey, ALA

Evansville, IN

Associate Member Ms. Jennifer Suerth, ALA

Chicago, IL

Affiliate Members Mr. David Bessert Mr. David Felton Mr. Craig Hansen Mr. Daniel Termunde

Tate Access Floors Felton Engineering Collaboration Systems Group BASF Building Systems

LICENSED ARCHITECT • VOL 14 NO. 4 • WINTER 2010

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by Kelly P. Reynolds ALA Code Consultant

CODECORNER

BUILDING CODE MYTHS & FACTS Some of this might seem elementary, but you would be surprised how many calls I receive about these questions. • STUD SPACING - Do all studs have to be spaced at 16" or 18"? No, as long as they hold the load they are designed for. • NON-COM WOOD - There is NO such thing as non-combustible wood. There is FRTW (fire retardant treated wood), but is does not comply with the code definition of non-combustible. • PANIC HARDWARE - Only required to use group A and E with more than 50 persons and all High Hazard use groups. It is not required on all exit doors. • EXITS SIGNS - Only required when two or more exits are required, not over every door. • DELUGE SYSTEMS - A row of fire sprinklers to protect an opening is not a deluge system. A deluge is when ALL fire sprinklers discharge at one time with open heads held back by a detection system (slave) that activates the excessive deluge of water. • GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS - They may not be exempt for building codes, permits fees and inspection. • SPRINKLER INCREASES - Height and area increases apply only when the entire building is protected by fire sprinklers. • SPRINKLERS CREATE WATER DAMAGE - If you think fire

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LICENSED ARCHITECT • VOL 14 NO. 4 • WINTER 2010

sprinkler discharges a lot of water, just wait and see how the fire department attacks a fire in a non-sprinklered property with multiple hoses that discharge 250 g.p.m. each. SINGLE EXIT BUILDINGS - Travel distance is limited to Table 1021.1 (2009 IBC) based on use group so there will always be a dead end corridor. They don’t require Exit signs nor panic hardware due to their limited occupancy permitted in the code. OCCUPANCY LOAD CALCULATIONS - The code bases it on allowable number of persons. Actual number can be used under certain conditions such as a fixed seat movie theater or an automated warehouse with a small staff. A use group that wants to base their occupant load below the sprinkler threshold requirement (i.e., restaurant) by indicating just 99 seating places does not comply with the allowable area if it can accommodate additional persons. ALL WALLS ARE NOT FIRE WALLS - Fire walls must be noncombustible (except Type 5 construction), structurally independent, able to allow collapse on either side and has all doors, windows, ducts, vents protected. The minimum rating is two hours. CONFINE & EXTINGUISH - Those are the basis of the codes. Either contain the hazard or extinguish it. Remember - 80% of the building code is fire and life safety.


LicensedArchitect

Vol. 14, No. 4, Winter 2010

Don Erickson Presidential Award Winner

COVER Metea Valley High School, Aurora, IL

Firm: DLR Group; George Beach, Stephen Cavanaugh, ALA Photography: James Steinkamp, Connor Steinkamp

Metea Valley High School serves one of the nation’s fastest-growing districts; housing 3,000 students and supporting myriad progressive learning concepts. The daylightfilled spaces enhance positive behavior and academic performance while the courtyards allow the students freedom to view, experience, and learn outdoors in a secure environment. The courtyards also enhance wayfinding and humanize the scale of the building.

ARTICLES 7 Use Caution When Certifying Contractor’s Applications for Payment With an increase in the number of lawsuits filed against architects, learn ways to limit your liability exposure. by James K. Zahn, FALA, FAIA, Esq.

12 Forensics and Innovation A great number of Design Professionals are being asked to be more innovative in their design. Read the pros and cons.

16 2010 ALA Design Awards Of the 105 entries see the 31 winning projects.

34 The Architect as Expert Witness: A Survival Guide Architects have developed a rewarding sideline becoming very useful expert witnesses. by Bob Greenstreet, Dean, School of Architecture and Urban Planning, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

by Robert G. Stanton, CPCU, ARM, RPLU

38 Continuing Education: 14 Reaching to the Top! With new compliance standards required as of March 15, 2012, a learning curve for all architects and contractors is also in the future. by Kimberly Paarlberg & Jay Woodward, International Code Council

An Introduction to Thermal Stress in Float Glass Understand what thermal stress is and how it is caused. by Christopher Barry

45 2010 Architecture Conference and Product Show The 2010 Conference . . . an overwhelming success!

Become an ALA Education Provider!

KELLY P. REYNOLDS & ASSOCIATES, INC. BUILDING CODE CONSULTANTS

ALA can offer you: ➣ Affordable provider rates ➣ Targeted market ➣ Increased visibility ➣ Added credibility ➣ Quality assurance

...Plus it’s easy and hassle free! Register now on our website at www.ALAtoday.org or call ALA Headquarters at 847-382-0630

NATIONWIDE PHONE 1-(800) 950-CODE (2633) Fax (866) 814-2633 Email: codexperts@aol.com www.codexperts.net Free hot lines (members only)

Corporate Office 337 Shore Dr. Burr Ridge, IL 60527-5821

16182 W. Magnolia Street Goodyear, AZ 85338-5518

LICENSED ARCHITECT • VOL 14 NO. 4 • WINTER 2010

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PUBLISHER’S INFO

OUR REGULAR FEATURES

PUBLISHER ALA, Inc.

BOARD OF DIRECTORS Steven H. Pate, FALA - President James K. Zahn, Esq., FALA, Vice President Mark Van Spann, FALA - Secretary Patrick C. Harris, FALA - Treasurer Peg McLean, Executive Director

14

ADA Advice

42

ALA Chapters

16

ALA Design Awards Program

45

Architecture Conference and Product Show

DIRECTORS: James J. Belli, FALA Richard Brownlee, ALA Jeff Budgell, ALA Tom Harkins (Affiliate) Doug Gallus, FALA (Chapter Delegate) Rick Gilmore, FALA Jeff Whyte, ALA Horatiu Wolff, FALA (Illinois Delegate)

EDITORS Lisa Brooks Robert Davidson, FALA Patrick C. Harris, FALA Steven H. Pate, FALA

ADVERTISING SALES & PRODUCTION MANAGER Peg McLean

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Code Corner

38

Continuing Education Article

34

Contributed Article

12

Insurance Info

7

Legal Issues

9

Membership

3

New Members

GRAPHIC DESIGN/MAGAZINE Midwest Type and Imaging ALA, Inc. serves the architectural profession. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted, in any form without the express written consent of the publisher. Published in the U.S.A.,© 2010 by ALA, Inc. All rights reserved. Opinions expressed in articles are not necessarily those of ALA, Inc. Any reference to a product or service is not to be construed as an endorsement of same. Advertising published in Licensed Architect does not constitute nor imply an endorsement or recommendation of the advertiser’s products by ALA, Inc., or any of its members. ALA reserves the right to review all advertising for acceptability.

- Advertisers Thank you to our Advertisers - they make this magazine possible A & E Group of Willis HRH . . . . . . . . . . .13 Berg Engineering Consultants, Ltd. . . . . .34 CertainTeed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Chicago Plastering Institute . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Chicagoland Roofing Council . . . . . . . . .37 Coleman, Hull & van Vliet, PLLP . . . . . . .42 Crivello, Carlson, S.C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Hill Mechanical Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11

For advertising, or membership information, call or write Peg McLean at: ALA, 22159 N. Pepper Road, Suite 2N, Barrington, IL 60010 Phone: (847) 382-0630; Fax: (847) 382-8380; E-mail: ALA@ALAtoday.org

Moving? Please let us know if you have an address correction, wish to submit news items, press releases, or an article, write to:

Web Site: www.ALAtoday.org

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Kelly P. Reynolds & Associates, Inc. . . . . . .5 Marvin Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 Master Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Northfield-Bend Company . . Back Cover SABO & ZAHN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Spancrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Tee Jay Service Company . . . . . . . . . . . .15

LICENSED ARCHITECT • VOL 14 NO. 4 • WINTER 2010

Joanne Sullivan at ALA 22159 N. Pepper Road, Suite 2N, Barrington, IL 60010 Phone: (847) 382-0630 • Fax: (847) 382-8380 E-mail: ALA@licensedarchitect.org


LEGALISSUES

Use Caution When Certifying Contractor’s Applications for Payment By James K. Zahn, FALA, FAIA, Esq.

have noticed an alarming increase in the number of lawsuits filed against Architects that include fraud counts. Owners are getting more aggressive in holding their Architects responsible for allegedly improperly certifying Contractor’s Applications for Payments that oftentimes includes payment(s) for what the Owner later discovers to be defective work. After a payment has been made, some Owners may argue that the Architect’s Certification for Payment constituted a fraudulent misrepresentation that the Contractor was entitled to the certified amount, and that the Owner, in reliance on the certification, made the payment for the defective work to his detriment. The Owner is now seeking to recover the overpayment for the defective work from the Architect. It is important to note that the American Institute of Architects ("AIA") and the Association of Licensed Architects ("ALA") agreement forms each qualify the Architect’s approval of the Contractor’s Application(s) for Payment, to be made "to the best of the Architect’s knowledge, information and belief." None of the AIA or ALA documents guarantee perfection or that the completed construction will contain no latent defects. AIA, and ALA, Owner / Architect Agreements each specifically define the role of the Architect relating to the approval or rejection of a Contractor’s Application for Payment. AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS DOCUMENTS: The following excerpts are taken from the American Institute of Architects, "Standard Form of Agreement Between Owner and Architect, AIA Document B101-2007: § 3.6.2 EVALUATIONS OF THE WORK § 3.6.2.1 The Architect shall visit the site at intervals appropriate to the stage of construction … to become generally familiar with the progress and quality of the portion of the Work completed, and to determine, in general, if the Work observed is being performed in a manner indicating that the Work, when fully completed, will be in accordance with the Contract Documents. However, the Architect shall not be required to make exhaustive or continuous on-site inspections to check the quality or quantity of the Work. On the basis of the site visits, the Architect shall keep the Owner reasonably informed about the progress and quality of the portion of the Work completed, and report to the Owner (1) known deviations from the Contract Documents and from the most recent construction schedule submitted by the Contractor, and (2) defects and deficiencies observed in the Work.... § 3.6.3 CERTIFICATES FOR PAYMENT TO CONTRACTOR § 3.6.3.1 The Architect shall review and certify the amounts due the Contractor and shall issue certificates in such amounts. The Architect’s certification for payment shall constitute a representation to the Owner, based on the Architect’s evaluation of the Work as provided in Section 3.6.2 and on the data comprising the Contractor’s Application for Payment, that, to the best of the

Architect’s knowledge, information and belief, the Work has progressed to the point indicated and that the quality of the Work is in accordance with the Contract Documents.... § 3.6.3.2 The issuance of a Certificate for Payment shall not be a representation that the Architect has (1) made exhaustive or continuous on-site inspections to check the quality or quantity of the Work, (2) reviewed construction means, methods, techniques, sequences or procedures, (3) reviewed copies of requisitions received from Subcontractors and material suppliers and other data requested by the Owner to substantiate the Contractor’s right to payment, or (4) ascertained how or for what purpose the Contractor has used money previously paid on account of the Contract Sum. ASSOCIATION OF LICENSED ARCHITECTS DOCUMENTS: The following excerpts are taken from the Association of Licensed Architects, "Short Form Owner / Architect Agreement For Architectural Services, ALA Document OA4-2010: 3.4.1 SITE OBSERVATION. The Architect shall visit the site to observe if the construction is generally in accordance with the construction documents.... 3.4.4 REVIEW OF CONTRACTOR’S REQUESTS FOR PAYMENT. The Architect shall evaluate the Contractor’s requests for payment, including supporting data, and certify the amounts due the Contractor for work, products, and materials installed in the project. The Architect’s Certification for Payment represents to the Owner, that based upon the Architect’s evaluation of work installed and data presented for payment, to the best of the Architect’s knowledge, information and belief, the Contractor is entitled to payment. Recently, some Owners have determined that certain latent defects existed at the time the Contractor’s Application for Payment was processed and certified by the Architect. They now claim the Architect certified the Contractor’s Application for Payment to their detriment, ignoring the wording that the certification was made to the best of the Architect’s knowledge, information and belief. Such certification, the Owner now claims, constitutes a fraudulent misrepresentation of the facts that induced the Owner to make the payment to the Owner’s detriment. Fraudulent misrepresentation is also known as common-law fraud. (Continued on page 8)

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LEGALISSUES (Continued from page 7)

COMMON-LAW FRAUD In order to state a cause of action for common-law fraud, each element must be pleaded with specificity. Those elements are (1) a false statement of material fact was made; (2) the party making the statement knew or believed it to be untrue; (3) the party to whom the statement was made had a right to rely on the statement; (4) the party to whom the statement was made did rely on the statement; (5) the statement was made for the purpose of inducing the other party to act; and (6) the reliance by the person to whom the statement was made led to that person’s injury. In order for a cause of action for common-law fraud to survive, the Plaintiff must prove each of the following six elements of common-law fraud: (1) That the Architect made a false statement of material fact. An Architect states that "to the best of its knowledge, information and belief, the construction is in accordance with the contract documents and the Contractor is entitled to the requested payment." After this statement is made, it is later discovered that defective construction exists which should not have been paid for. The Owner now claims that the above is a false statement of material fact. (2) That when making its statement, the Architect knew or believed that its statement was untrue. The Plaintiff must be able to prove that the Architect did not believe, or actually lied, when making the statement. This is a very difficult thing to prove. What would the Architect gain from doing this? (3) The party to whom the statement was made had a right to rely on the statement. The very reason the Architect certifies the Contractor’s Application for Payment is to provide his professional certification to an Owner that the work either conforms or does not conform to the Contract Documents and that the Contractor is entitled or not entitled to payment for same. (4) The party to whom the statement was made did rely on the statement. It is expected that the Owner will rely on the professional certification of the Architect. (5) The statement was made for the purpose of inducing the other party to act. The purpose of the certification is to induce the Owner to take the advice of the Architect and pay the certified amount, or in some cases, pay nothing at all on this specific Application for Payment. (6) The reliance by the person to whom the statement was made led to that person’s injury. The Plaintiff will argue that his reliance on the Architect’s certification induced him to pay the Contractor for the work now determined to be defective construction. The cost to remove and replace the work correctly is the amount of damage that the Owner is claiming. The Owner is placing the risks of construction latent defects upon the Architect, and not upon the Contractor, who is responsible for them. If any of the above elements cannot be proven, the entire cause of action for common-law fraud will fail. WAYS TO LIMIT YOUR LIABILITY EXPOSURE One way to limit your potential liability exposure as an Architect is to avoid reviewing and certifying Contractor Applications for Payment. In

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Design/Build situations, the Architect is engaged by a Design/Build entity which is responsible for the costs of construction of the project. In such situations, the Architect usually does not review and certify Contractor Applications for Payment. By not certifying Applications for Payment, the Architect’s potential liability exposure is greatly reduced. In projects where a Construction Manager is engaged by the Owner, the Construction Manager will review the Contractor’s Applications for Payment, even when the Architect is also reviewing them. If at all possible, attempt to negotiate out of reviewing and certifying the Contractor’s Applications for Payment. You can argue that the Construction Manager is more knowledgeable of current construction costs and in a better position to protect the Owner from overpayments. Why have two entities doing the same work and have the Owner pay twice? If you cannot convince the Owner to delete certifications from your contract, your liability exposure is still reduced due to the Construction Manager also reviewing and certifying the Applications for Payment. In a traditional design, bid, build project, the Architect will most likely still review and certify the Contractor’s Applications for Payment. It is imperative that the Architect strictly adhere to the specific contractual requirements of its contract with the Owner when performing such reviews and certifications. Failure to do so may result in a lawsuit by the Owner attempting to recover any overpayments made as a result of certifications by the Architect for completed work, that later is discovered to be defective work requiring replacement. An Architect should always qualify that the certification of a Contractor’s Application for Payment is made to the best of the Architect’s knowledge, information and belief. It is not an assurance of perfection, or a guaranty that no latent construction defects were incorporated into the actual construction of the project. Another way to limit potential liability exposure, as a result of your involvement in certifying Contractor’s Applications for Payment, is to urge the Owner to engage a title company to handle all of the construction payouts. By using a title company to process the construction payouts, both the Owner and the Architect will benefit by having an experienced third party review the Contractor’s Applications for Payment, The Contractor’s Sworn Statements, and all supporting paperwork, including partial and final waivers of lien from the various contractors, subcontractors and material suppliers, prior to making any actual payouts. The use of a title company for processing construction payouts is a relatively low cost process that provides great benefits to the Owner.

James K. Zahn, FALA, FAIA, Esq. SABO & ZAHN, LLC 401 North Michigan Ave., Suite 2050, Chicago, Illinois 60611 (312) 655-8620 • Fax: (312) 655-8622 Website: www.sabozahn.com Email: jzahn@sabozahn.com Note: The preceding article is not legal advice and should not be relied upon. It is merely the author’s opinion. It is highly recommended that you consult with your own attorney regarding legal issues concerning an Architect’s certifications of Contractor’s Applications for Payment.


MEMBERSHIP

Association of Licensed Architects

Join now and become a member of a dynamic growing organization of architects ALA (The Association of Licensed Architects) is an organization open to all architects and professions related to architecture. It represents architects registered or licensed in any state, territory or possession of the United States, and foreign countries. ALA is committed to expanding its membership and professional services. ALA was founded in the fall of 1999 by a group of architects who formerly served as Board Members of other Architects’ Associations. In November of 1999, ALA was joined by ISA (Illinois Society of Architects), the oldest independent state organization in the country, which brought valued expertise and historic significance to the Association. Over the past few years, ALA has experienced rapid growth, record attendance at its dynamic programs and great progress under the leadership of the President, the Executive Board, and stewardship of the Executive Director. It continues to charge affordable dues, offer and expand its real services, and publishes a professional magazine with a superior reputation for content, technical information and featured architects. ALA’s mission is to advance the Architectural Profession through education and by supporting and improving the profession’s role in the built environment. ALA’s vision is to positively impact the Architectural Profession through the power of organization. Its purpose is to unite, educate, promote, and advance the Architectural Profession and address critical issues confronting it. ALA will support the efforts of other Associations, when combined efforts will produce benefits for all. ALA will work and speak for members of the Architectural Profession and improve communication with the community through programs offering information, education and cooperation. It proposes to advance and contribute to the general health, safety and welfare of the general public and believes in stimulating and encouraging continuing education plus the advancement of the art and science of architecture. ALA’s motto is "Architects united to advance the Profession of Architecture."

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Professional Designation Project Referral Legislative Monitoring Continuing Education and CEU credits Health and Insurance Programs Short Contracts: Owner/Architects Quarterly Magazine “Legal” and “Code” Hot Lines Membership Certificate Media Platform to Publish Work Professional Design Awards Program Student Merit and Design Awards Intern Development Assistance Program Internet and E-mail Capability Networking & Interaction with Industry-Related Professionals Membership Directory Annual Trade Show Seminars/Programs at Reduced Rates Professional Information Personal Involvement Voting Privileges Special Purchasing Rates

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Involvement is an Investment in your Future! Share Experiences, Write an Article, Publish Design Work, Serve on a Task Force

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LICENSED ARCHITECT • VOL 14 NO. 4 • WINTER 2010


INSURANCEINFO

Forensics and Innovation by Robert G. Stanton, CPCU, ARM, RPLU

n this age of Green/Sustainable design, design professionals are being asked to be more innovative in design work. The push for innovation is coming in the midst of a huge market downturn in which there are a great number of design professionals who are not working. Many design professionals are looking to earn income by offering to perform forensic work given the lack of other types of projects. This scenario begs two questions: 1) Is the forensic expert being retained to review the design qualified to provide expert testimony as to the adequacy of the design? 2) How will any form of litigation affect the status of the design as "innovative?" The first question addresses whether an effective defense can be mounted against claims asserted against innovative designs. The second question is more of an "indirect" cost of claims related to innovation claims. Before delving into answering the questions, the historic approach to defending a claim frequently entailed the design professional citing other projects in which the designs or components were used without problems. With innovation, this may not be possible. The performance projections of an innovative design will be based on theoretical or empirical research and not field application. This may be more difficult for a jury to understand. There will be a greater emphasis of the "battle of experts" that will determine whether the standard of care has been met. Recently, there was a claim in which a designer had conceived and designed an air handling system that was considered to be innovative. Due to a series of misunderstandings where the contractor and owner/client (owner) began to second guess the design, the owner opted to retain an expert to review the design. Unfortunately, the owner selected expert was a direct competitor of the designer, and found all types of problems with the designer’s work. The fact that the

owner’s expert was a competitor of the designer was a problem in and of itself. The real issue was the problems seemed to stem from the owner’s expert not truly understanding the design itself. A claim ensued. To attempt to address the concerns the owner had relative to the design, our intrepid designer retained his own expert to review the work and render an opinion. The designer indicated there were probably a handful of experts in the country who would truly be able to understand what he was trying to accomplish with his design. One was selected from the handful the designer named. Unfortunately, the designer’s expert stated that, "I really don’t truly understand all the intricacies and nuances of the design, but the calculations and physics of the work appear correct." Obviously, this was not as definitive an opinion as was the owner’s expert, and did not really go far to assist in the defense of the claim. If a design or component of a design is truly innovative, there may be a concern that there may not be qualified experts to address the design concerns, and that there are no field applications that can be used to demonstrate the adequacy of the design. A scenario may be created in which there will be greater hurdles to overcome to determine if the design has met the standard of care. The science behind the design will be of paramount importance to the determination of whether the design has met the standard of care. This may also result in a shifting of the standard of care as there is really a small group of "reasonable" designers who can do this type of work. Who will probably profit from this type of scenario…who else, the attorneys. Taking the above scenario, we have a situation where there is our designer, the owner’s expert and the designer’s expert having extensive access to an innovative design. With such expansive access not only to the design, but to the science behind the design, the designer has a realistic concern about losing its competitive advantage over the market because of its innovation. In this case, it becomes even more

“The push for innovation is coming in the midst of a huge market downturn in which there are a great number of design professionals who are not working. Many design professionals are looking to earn income by offering to perform forensic work given the lack of other types of projects.”

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disconcerting a situation. The designer’s competitor now has access to the design and the science behind the design. Even if the competitor cannot recreate the innovation with adequate variations to ensure no violation of the patents, the inside knowledge gained will allow the competitor to formulate strategies to attack the innovations in competitive situations. In a world where most people fear change, any concern relative to anything new can create substantial problems for the innovator in gaining the acceptance of the change with the general public. To combat this, there are some steps the designer can take to attempt to protect itself from attacks on its innovative design. First, the designer must get the owner to be committed to the innovation, and that commitment must be with knowledge of both the benefits and risks associated with truly innovative design. This commitment should be incorporated into the contract if possible. If this cannot be accomplished, the discussions relative to the benefits and risks should be memorialized and communicated to all the parties involved in the project. This commitment should also be agreed to by the contractors as well as the owner. As HVAC contractors frequently have design responsibilities on projects, the buy-on by these contractors is even more vital. Second, the science behind the innovation will be essential. Therefore, extra care should be given to ensure the calculations used for determinations of loads or other operating criteria are workable and verifiable. This is a quality control issue that needs to be handled by the design firm.

Third, a designer should have a short list of experts they believe can properly offer expert opinions as to the standard of care in the creation of the innovative design. Also, the designer should share this list with the owner so that the list can be vetted and there can be a buy-on to this group by the owner before a problem arises. If possible, there should be a fairly extensive confidentiality agreement to be executed by any expert relative to the information gathered in the investigation into the adequacy of the innovative design. The confidentiality agreement should have specified damages for any violation of the agreement. Of course, this clause would be more effective if a proper copyright or patent is in place. With the enhanced demand for innovation in conjunction with the new delivery systems such as BIM and integrated design, preplanning for issues that may arise is becoming more essential to the design professional than ever. Two major issues related to innovation are the client buy-on to the benefits and risks associated with innovation, and the chance of problems associated with the retention of experts. These recommendations may prevent the potential of loss on innovative designs as well as reduce the chance of leakage of your innovative designs to other parties.

Bob Stanton, CPCU, ARM, RPLU is Vice-President at Willis specializing in Risk Management and Claim Advocacy. He has over thirty years experience in claims, with fifteen years focused on handling claims for design professionals. More risk management materials are available on-line at WillisAE.com.

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ADAADVICE

Reaching to the Top! by Kimberly Paarlberg, RA, and Jay Woodward, RA, ICC Senior Staff Architects

ompliance with the new federal standards for accessibility will be required as of March 15, 2012. The 2009 edition of the ICC A117.1, Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities will be referenced in the 2012 International Building Code. So there will be a learning curve for all architects and contractors with some of the new requirements. Knowing the history or reasons behind revisions will help when determining what is important when dealing with alternatives. History I (Kim) recently spent some time in the archives at the University of Illinois. What motivated my research is that the A117.1 standard will be 50 years old in 2011. The first A117.1 came out in 1961 and was reaffirmed in 1971. I looked through the files of the original development committee and the personal files of Dr. Tim Nugent. Nugent served as the first secretariat and then chair of the committee for a number of years. The research that he did with students at the U of I was one of the primary resources for the ‘building blocks’ used for accessible design. Physical therapists, mechanical engineers and students with disabilities worked together to gather ergonomic research to develop criteria for clear floor space, turning space, reach ranges, ramps, etc. I found it interesting that what the students could actually achieve was greater than the suggested minimum requirements. For example, the side reach range measured was 54 inches to 78 inches, with an average of 60 inches (1961 A117.1 Section 3.3.1). The 54 inches that ended up in ADAAG and later editions of the A117.1 as the high end of side reach was what was ‘comfortable’ for all tested subjects. Nugent was the founder of the Division of Disability Resources and Educational Services for the U of I. His responsibilities included looking for ways to make the entire campus accessible so students could participate in all activities offered by the University. Given the school had over 200 buildings on over 1000 acres, and has some of the oldest college buildings in the state, this was quite a job assignment. In March the University named a newly constructed residence hall in honor of Nugent, another example of how the work Nugent nurtured continues to grow and expand. Reasons for the Revisions The International Code Council (ICC) and the U.S. Access Board continue to work together on coordination and clarifications. Below are the sections dealing with side reach for the 2010 Standard for Accessible Design and the 2009 ICC A117.1.

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2010 Standard for Accessible Design The Department of Justice (DOJ) officially published the 2010 Standard for Accessible Design in the Federal Register on Sept. 15, 2010. While a designer can choose to use the new requirements now, compliance will be required by March 15, 2012. The link to the 2010 standard and guidance document is: http://www.ada.gov/2010ADAstandards_index.htm. This federal standard will match the 1998 and 2003 ICC A117.1 revisions that limit the side reach from 15 inches to 48 inches. This is different from the 1991 ADAAG, which allowed for a side reach of 9 inches to 54 inches. Both documents revised the side reach based on statistical data provided by an organization called Little People of America. Their concern was for persons with limited reach having access to controls, ATMs and fuel pumps. 308.3 Side Reach. 308.3.1 Unobstructed. Where a clear floor or ground space allows a parallel approach to an element and the side reach is unobstructed, the high side reach shall be 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum and the low side reach shall be 15 inches (380 mm) minimum above the finish floor or ground. EXCEPTIONS: 1. An obstruction shall be permitted between the clear floor or ground space and the element where the depth of the obstruction is 10 inches (255 mm) maximum. 2. Operable parts of fuel dispensers shall be permitted to be 54 inches (1370 mm) maximum measured from the surface of the vehicular way where fuel dispensers are installed on existing curbs. 308.3.2 Obstructed High Reach. Where a clear floor or ground space allows a parallel approach to an element and the high side reach is over an obstruction, the height of the obstruction shall be 34 inches (865 mm) maximum and the depth of the obstruction shall be 24 inches (610 mm) maximum. The high side reach shall be 48 inches (1220 mm)


maximum for a reach depth of 10 inches (255 mm) maximum. Where the reach depth exceeds 10 inches (255 mm), the high side reach shall be 46 inches (1170 mm) maximum for a reach depth of 24 inches (610 mm) maximum. EXCEPTIONS: 1. The top of washing machines and clothes dryers shall be permitted to be 36 inches (915 mm) maximum above the finish floor. 2. Operable parts of fuel dispensers shall be permitted to be 54 inches (1370 mm) maximum measured from the surface of the vehicular way where fuel dispensers are installed on existing curbs. 2009 ICC A117.1 The A117.1 development committee strives to clarify requirements as well as address coordination items. Jay wrote about the revisions for side reach in the Significant Changes to the A117.1 Accessibility Standard. Below are some excerpts on side reach. Revisions to the A117.1 text are shown in legislative (i.e., strike out/underline) format. 308.3 Side Reach. 308.3.1 Unobstructed. Where a clear floor space complying with Section 305 allows a parallel approach to an element and the side reach is unobstructed, edge of the clear floor space is 10 inches (255 mm) maximum from the element, the high side reach shall be 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum and the low side reach shall be 15 inches (380 mm) minimum above the floor. Exception: Existing elements that are not altered shall be permitted at 54 inches (1370 mm) maximum above the floor. In Section 308.3.1, the intent is to provide clarification as to where the clear floor space must be located to be considered an unobstructed reach to an element or control. For an "unobstructed" reach, the clear floor space must be located within 10 inches horizontally, and any obstruction within that space must be 34 inches or less in height. This revision was not intended to create any technical changes but was considered more as a clarification of Figures 308.3.1 and 308.3.2. Adding into the exception the text "that are not altered" helps limit the application. Earlier editions of the A117.1 standard and the original ADAAG permitted a 54-inch high side reach. Because of this earlier allowance, numerous elements in existing buildings may be located above the maximum height that is required in new construction. If an existing control is relocated, than it must meet new construction limits. 308.3.2 Obstructed High Reach. Where a clear floor space complying with Section 305 allows a parallel approach to an object element and the high side reach is over an obstruction, the height of the obstruction shall be 34 inches (865 mm) maximum above the floor and the depth of the obstruction shall be 24 inches (610 mm) maximum. The high side reach shall be 48 inches (1220 mm) maximum above the floor for a reach

depth of 10 inches (255 mm) maximum. Where the reach depth exceeds 10 inches (255 mm), the high side reach shall be 46 inches (1170 mm) maximum above the floor for a reach depth of 24 inches (610 mm) maximum. Exception: At washing machines and clothes dryers, the height of the obstruction shall be permitted to be 36 inches (915 mm) maximum above the floor. The addition of the exception is the primary change within this section. The exception is included to conform to the 2010 Standard, which allow washers and dryers to exceed the maximum height for an obstruction. With the popularity of frontloading machines with front controls there are more options available. Additional revisions were made in Section 611 to address the front-loading laundry equipment. Since the allowances for reach over an obstruction did not change, an exception similar to Section 308.3.1 is not needed. Conclusion: The 2010 Standard and the A117.1 sometimes differ because of style, approach and methods of enforcement. For example, 2010 Standard, Section 308.3, Exception 1 is dealt with within the text in ICC A117.1, Section 308.3.1. If anyone is interested in providing a code change proposal for fuel dispensers to match the second exceptions in the 2010 Standard for Sections 308.3.1 and 308.3.2, I would suggest a possible code change proposal to 2012 IBC Section 1109.14, Fuel-dispensing systems. Code change forms can be found on the ICC website at http://www.iccsafe.org/cs/codes/ Pages/2012-13_Cycle.aspx. Deadline for submissions is January 3, 2012. ICC code development staff is always available to assist you through the process if you are interested!

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2010 Design Award Program On September 17th, our panel of five well respected judges studied every entry and selected the winning projects for the 2010 ALA Design Award Program. Out of 105 entries, 12 projects were awarded an Award of Merit, 12 projects were awarded a Silver Medal, and 7 projects received a Gold Medal with one top honor being the Presidential Award. Projects were entered in eight categories: Residential I, Residential II, Commercial/Industrial, Interior Architecture, Institutional, Religious, Renovation and Unbuilt Design. Each entry was judged on its own merit based on: Program Solution, Site and Space Planning, Overall Design Solution, and Construction System and Details. LeRoy B. Herbst III, FALA of L.B. Herbst & Associates served as jury chairperson, Rich Barnes, ALA of Barnes Architects, Ltd. was assistant chairperson and Kay Rennels, McLean Associates was the program coordinator. ALA wishes to thank the following judges for their hours of volunteer time and their dedication to the program and profession.

August Battaglia, FAIA August Battaglia is the Design Director for FGM Architects. Since joining FGM in 1998, Augie’s designs have been recognized locally and nationally by award competitions, publications, and exhibitions. He organizes solids and voids and uses color to create outstanding designs within conservative budgets celebrating the uniqueness of each client’s project. Augie was taught by outstanding architects and now has become an outstanding mentor. He is a graduate of the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign where he received the 1988 UIUC Francis J. Plym Traveling Fellowship and was named the 1991 AIA Chicago Young Architect of the Year.

Lynn Bichler, ALA Lynn Bichler, ALA, is the principal of Lynn Bichler Architects located in Mequon, Wisconsin. Lynn founded her firm in 1983 shortly after graduating from the University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee with a Master of Architecture degree. Her firm specializes in private sector commercial and residential projects which include new homes and renovations, commercial high end automotive facilities, retail stores, manufacturing facilities, offices, and historic restoration projects The firm is currently working on several sustainable projects including an energy generating custom home. Lynn enjoys projects in which the design concept follows through seamlessly from the site to the building design, interior design, and graphic design.

Garret Michael Eakin, Architect After earning degrees from Oklahoma State University (B Arch) and the University of Illinois (M Arch), Mr. Eakin worked for Skidmore Owings and Merrill and Perkins & Will in Chicago. He founded his private practice in 1980 where he concentrated on residential, hospitality and institutional work. 150+ of his completed projects have been widely published and received twenty-two design and preservation awards. His drawings have been included in numerous shows and exhibitions and included in the collection of The Art Institute of Chicago. Mr. Eakin is an Adjunct Professor in the AIADO Department at the School of the Art Institute. His ground breaking book on Interior Architecture, coauthored with John Kurtich, was published in 1993 and has influenced a generation of architects and designers interested in integrating the two disciplines and used as reference in numerous design schools. Mr. Eakin currently is a Preservation Commissioner and has a practice in Oak Park.

Howard M. Hirsch, ALA, AIA, LEED AP Howard M. Hirsch founded Hirsch Associates, LLC in 1994 to offer architectural and planning services to a wide range of clients on a variety of project types and is ultimately responsible for all aspects of the firm’s operations and output. Howard is a "hands on" principal, taking personal responsibility and providing an active role in all projects, whether large or small. He has 23 years of experience as an Architect, Designer, Project Manager and Land Planner and his past experience includes work on residential, commercial, industrial and institutional projects. He has designed numerous award winning and RFP selected projects and views the practice of architecture as a continuing education and learning process. Howard earned a Bachelor degree in architecture from the University of Illinois, Urbana/Champaign and a Master of Architecture Degree from the University of Illinois, Chicago.

Matt Kramer, ALA Matt Kramer, ALA founded MKA Design Studio in 1995 with the primary purpose of focusing on places of worship while also continuing to offer quality professional services in other areas - specifically commercial buildings, single family residential homes, town homes and lofts. He is a graduate of he School of the Art Institute of Chicago Architecture, Painting, and Illustration; has a degree from Illinois Benedictine College Engineering program; and is a Distinguished Graduate of the United States Army Corp of Engineers School in Fort Belvoir, VA. Matt has provided design services and on-site construction skills for Habitat for Humanity, was a member in the renovation of a Franciscan Shelter for the Homeless in Chicago as well as other community projects in Iowa, Washington and Chicago.

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Photo: James Steinkamp, Connor Steinkamp

Don Erickson Presidential Award Metea Valley High School, Aurora, IL Category: Institutional Firm: DLR Group; George Beach, Stephen Cavanaugh, ALA Contractor: Turner Construction Metea Valley High School serves one of the nation’s fastest-growing districts; housing 3,000 students and supporting myriad progressive learning concepts. The daylight-filled spaces enhance positive behavior and academic performance while the courtyards allow the students freedom to view, experience, and learn outdoors in a secure environment. The courtyards also enhance wayfinding and humanize the scale of the building.

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Photo: Linda Oyama Bryan

Gold Award Cortland Residence, Chicago, Illinois Category: Residential 1 Firm: Nicholas Clark Architects, Ltd.; Peter Nicholas Contractor: Fricano Construction Company The Cortland Residence is a three level home located in a dense urban neighborhood for working parents and their three children. The house was designed to provide privacy and solitude for the owners by creating a strong connection between interior and visually protected exterior spaces. Two courtyards act as organizing elements and the focus for the interior. Privacy is achieved by the arrangement of building forms which block vision from the street.

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Photo: Charlie Mayer

Gold Award First United Methodist Church at The Chicago Temple, Chicago, Illinois Category: Religious Firm: Bailey Edward Architecture; Robin Whitehurst Contractor: Bulley and Andrews To address modern service needs within this historic Chicago gem, and to accommodate universal access, a central aisle was designed with ramps up onto the chancel that retains the original pews and a new gathering space was created in the back of the nave.

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Photo: Tony Soluri Photography

Gold Award Gabriel Residence, Highland Park, IL Category: Residential 1 Firm: Myefski Architects, Inc.; John Myefski, ALA, AIA Contractor: S.J. Bacik Construction The program involved multiple additions and an extensive rehabilitation to a 1950’s Mid-Century Modern Residence originally designed in the 1950’s by famed Chicago architect Edward Dart. The home’s original character was maintained with complementary extensions and contrasting elevated volumes, increasing energy efficiency and sustainability while creating dynamic interior and exterior spaces in harmony with its natural surroundings.

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Photo: Rick Carr

Gold Award Lakeside Think Tank, Lakeside, MI Category: Renovation Firm: Carr Warner Architects, Inc.; Richard Carr, William Warner, ALA Contractor: Alex Boyce An abandoned artist studio overlooking Lake Michigan was transformed into a guest house/corporate retreat. The objective was to express the simplicity of the existing structure and the purity of the materials. The original post and beam structure, wood floors and fireplace wall were integrated with sustainable building materials and methods for this “green” renovation.

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Photo: Design Organization, Inc.

Gold Award Portage Lakefront and Riverwalk Pavilion, Portage, IN Category: Institutional Firm: Design Organization, Inc.; Spero Valavanis, ALA, AIA, LEED AP Contractor: The Skillman Corporation As the first project in the Marquette Plan, this USGBC LEED Gold Project represents change and transformation of the Lakefront "from rust to sustainable recreation". The simply expressed building form is a series of metaphors; undulating roof as the dunes and waves, curved soffit as a boat hull, and chimney as a symbol of hearth and home.

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Photo: Cameron Campbell, Integrated Studio

Gold Award Stacey's Prom, Bridal and Lingerie, Urbandale, IA Category: Commercial Firm: INVISION Architecture; Mark Nevenhoven, Steve King, ALA Contractor: Ball Construction Services, LLC Located in a depression, surrounded by suburban context, shoppers view the store’s products through elevated light monitors doubling as display elements. During the day, glazed forms provide natural light into the sales floor, at night they act as a landmark. The main level consists of bridal, prom, and lingerie areas, while the mezzanine is dedicated to events.

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Silver Award Aurora River Edge Music Pavilion, Aurora, Illinois Category: Unbuilt Firm: Muller+Muller, Ltd.; David Steele, AIA Designed with unique architecture employing warm, inviting materials and a high-quality directional outdoor surround sound system, the Aurora River Edge Music Pavilion establishes a cohesive environment that embraces and connects the venue to the neighborhoods flanking the Fox River.

Silver Award Boomerang House, Edina, MN Category: Residential I Firm: Conway & Schulte Architects; William Conway, ALA Contractor: Boyer Building Corporation In stark contrast to the rash of “McMansions” that populate the shores of Minnesota’s lakes, the Boomerang House explores the intersection of lakeshore setback requirements and building form to craft a powerful modern alternative.

Photo: George Heinrich, Heinrich Photography

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Silver Award Building 13 Renovations, Naval Station Great Lakes Category: Renovation Firm: Johnson Lasky Architects; Walker C. Johnson, FAIA Contractor: Friedler Construction The US Navy was aware that its historically significant Building 13 was in need of repair and upgrade in order to facilitate the current tenant and employed the design-build team to restore the building to its former self; incorporate a new, forced-air mechanical system; and renovate offices, bait shop and concessions.

Photo: Johnson Lasky

Silver Award Circle 118 Townhomes, Cleveland, OH Category: Residential II Firm: RDL Architects; Ron Lloyd Contractor: WXZ Construction As urban infill, Townhomes by their character and location celebrate sustainable building practice. A saw toothed southern profile shades the afternoon sun. Pervious paving and green roofs reduce storm water runoff and heat island effect. Wood framing maximizes the use of structural composites to minimize waste: Simple, Economical, Beautiful.

Photo: Jan Shergalis

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Silver Award Holy Name Cathedral Accessibility Projects, Chicago, IL Category: Religious Firm: Jaeger, Nickola & Associates, Ltd., Architects; Robert Nickola, ALA Contractor: Ward Contracting + Building Restoration Holy Name Cathedral has served as the icon for the Catholic Church in Chicago since 1874. To achieve accessibility, a street level entrance and elevator addition was created utilizing the gothic style and materials of the original structure. A lower level access path was carved through the foundations of the 210 foot bell tower. The project also included accessible bathrooms, flooring, ramp to create accessibility to the Sanctuary and new entry doors.

Photo: James Steincamp

Silver Award Langston Hughes Elementary School, Chicago, Illinois Category: Institutional Firm: SMNG-A Architects, Ltd.; Ken Schroeder, ALA, Todd Niemiec, Molly Kinsella Contractor: Solitt-Oakley Joint Venture The new one story Langston Hughes Elementary School, a replacement school for 900 students including those with developmental disabilities and special health needs, is the first CPS school designed based on the principles of universal design. The building surrounds an exterior discovery garden that is specifically designed to encourage interaction with adjacent special needs classrooms. Two story volumes, containing library, gym, administration, and music functions, form the building’s four outside corners and provide sheltered entries for the students.

Photo: John Faier, James Steinkamp

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Silver Award Oconomowoc Arts Center, Oconomowoc, WI Category: Institutional Firm: Plunkett Raysich Architects; Michael Sobczak, ALA, Scott Davis, AIA Contractor: J.P. Cullen & Sons, Inc. The Oconomowoc Arts Center, a facility built to celebrate the arts, was created for the students of the Oconomowoc Area School District and the communities of greater Oconomowoc. This facility offers the community a state of the art performance venue showcasing a full range of both student and professional performances.

Photo: Tricia Shay, Scott Davis

Silver Award Private Guest/Pool House, Manakin Sabot, VA Category: Residential I Firm: Fraerman Associates Architecture, Inc.; James Fraerman, ALA Contractor: Bob Pyle Contractors The owners of a Virginia farm desired a swimming pool and guesthouse adjacent to their farmhouse residence. The resulting contemporary “barn” marries the simplicity of rural structures with the material palette of the existing house. A trellis running the length of the west-facing façade provides afternoon shade by the pool while contributing to overall energy-efficiency by shading the house itself.

Photo: Fraerman Associates Architecture, Inc.

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Silver Award Sawyer Pool House, Sawyer, MI Category: Residential 1 Firm: Nicholas Clark Architects, Ltd.; Peter Nicholas Contractor: Andre Priede The Sawyer Pool House provides a complementary auxiliary building to the previously built vacation house owned by a Chicago based client of the firm. Along with the existing house, the pool house helps to define exterior space centered on a new pool. The pool house presents a stylistic counterpoint to the traditional main house, but uses a similar material palette. The pool house contains a living area and kitchenette, a bedroom suite, and art studio and a large bunk room.

Photo: Linda Oyama Bryan

Silver Award Sullivan Brothers Iowa Veterans Museum Waterloo, IA Category: Commercial Firm: INVISION Architecture; Eric Ritland, Roland Ganter Contractor: Cardinal Construction Honoring Iowa veterans, this facility celebrates soldiers during the war and peace time. Visitors enter through a two-story glass volume housing a replica fighter plane. The interior is intended to serve as a background emphasizing the museum’s exhibits. The addition is a successful interpretation of the owner’s goals that consciously conveys modem, sustainable design.

Photo: Wayne Johnson, Main Street Studio

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Silver Award University of Illinois at Chicago Daley Library Oasis, Chicago, Illinois Category: Interior Architecture Firm: Bailey Edward Architecture; Ellen Bailey Dickson, ALA Contractor: University of Illinois at Chicago The intent was to create an ‘oasis’ for students and visitors to interact, study and gather. This informal space was designed and renovated with an emphasis on improving lighting, acoustics and ergonomics in a style that complemented the existing modernist aesthetic.

Photo: Charlie Mayer

Silver Award Whiteline Lofts, Des Moines, IA Category: Residential II Firm: INVISION Architecture; Mark Nevenhoven, Tom Feldmann Contractor: Ryan Companies Featuring 58 flexible units, this renovation transforms a historical warehouse into modern loft housing, while blending into a culturally significant neighborhood. The first level, of the nine story high-rise, features walk-up garden units, while upper units feature large balconies. The design converts a dilapidated building into a significant landmark on the city’s skyline.

Photo: Dale Photographics, Jake Boyd Photography

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Merit Award 737 West Willow Street, Chicago, IL Category: Renovation Firm: Sullivan Goulette & Wilson; Jeff Goulette Contractor: Crescent Rock, Inc. An 1880’s Chicago school was converted into a home for a family with five musician children. Walls, ceilings, flooring, and built-ins were crafted from old-growth wood salvaged from the building. Among many green features are geothermal heating/cooling and solar thermal hot water systems, custom bamboo-plywood cabinets, and a central solar chimney.

Photo: Erich Schrempp, SGW Architects

Merit Award Gilmour Academy-Athletic Complex, Gates Mills, OH Category: Institutional Firm: Holzheimer Bolek+Meehan Architects; Peter J. Bolek, AIA Contractor: Panzica Construction Company 78,000 sf of pure ENERGY! Inspired by the motion of athletic competition the new Athletic Complex replaces an outmoded facility and transforms the campus core. Building configuration, sweeping lines and materality of brick and white trim respect the nearby chapel, science and classroom buildings. The complex boasts an arenastyle basketball court, natatorium, field house and a full array support area. With activities in all three venues, this athletic center provides an experience that is a truly dynamic event for both the spectator and athlete.

Photo: Peter Bolek, Kevin Reeves

Merit Award Hoffman Estates Fire Station #24, Hoffman Estates, IL Category: Institutional Firm: SRBL Architects; Louise Kowalczyk, ALA Contractor: MTI Construction Services

Photo: Howard Kaplan

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The 21,700 SF station’s functional floor plan decreases emergency response time while increasing connectivity amongst staff. Abundant natural light spills into living areas and the striking non-traditional design capitalizes on the benefits of a circular building component. With many sustainable features, the station is seeking a minimum of LEED Silver Certification.


Merit Award Hoffman Estates Police Station, Hoffman Estates, IL Category: Institutional Firm: SRBL Architects; Brian Wright, Ben Telian, Ryan Ven Huizen Contractor: MTI Construction Services The 79,200 SF station addressed policing changes such as evidence retention and cyber crime. Officer and public safety were paramount to the design while not compromising a welcoming civic presence. A green roof and energy saving systems are just two sustainable components that may lead to LEED Gold certification. Photo: Kassi Schumaker

Merit Award Hong Kong Boundary Crossing Facility, Hong Kong, China Category: Unbuilt Firm: Myefski Architects, Inc.; John Myefski, ALA, AIA This unbuilt competition entry involved the design a group of structures and site circulation for a new border crossing facility in the harbor just north of the Hong Kong International Airport. The resulting grand hall, interconnected and elevated walkways, and ancillary support buildings achieves the program’s guiding principles of innovation and creativity, Iconic Identity, Sustainability, Functionality, Buildability, and Harmony with neighboring elements.

Merit Award Metternich Lodge and Visiting Artist Studio; Saugatuck, MI Category: Residential II Firm: SMNG-A Architects, Ltd., Jack Murchie, Marta Gazda-Auskainis Contractor: Vander Meulen Builders, Inc. The Metternich Lodge is a one-story residence for visiting artists and a two-story residence for the executive director of Ox-Bow, connected by a screen porch. The kitchen and living areas are located on the second floor to take advantage of the spectacular views of the lagoon and sand dunes, best seen from within the glass walled sun-room.

Photo: John Faier

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Merit Award Prince of Peace Missionary Baptist Church, Kansas City, MO Category: Religious Firm: Williams Spurgeon Kuhl & Freshnock Architects; John Freshnock, AIA, LEED AP Contractor: Vanum Construction This 15,000 square foot project was accomplished by maximizing every system in the building and stretching them to the limit. The process of choosing materials and systems was weighted equally between function, durability, cost, and aesthetics. The church was to be modern and forward looking with timeless forms and clean lines that culminated in a place of worship that would inspire and proclaim God’s glory.

Photo: Mike Sinclair

Merit Award Rock River Water Reclamation District, Rockford, IL Category: Commercial Firm: Larson & Darby Group; Dan J. Roszkowski, AIA, LEED AP Christopher W. Anderson, LEED AP Contractor: Scandroli Construction Company The Rock River Water Reclamation District administration facility is sited on land adjacent to the district’s water treatment plant. Nestled amongst rain gardens and natural landscaping, the design takes advantage of the site’s slope and daylighting. Through interactive exhibits, the facility is also an educational tool, promoting public understanding of the district’s operations.

Photo: Gedeon Trias

Merit Award Sonoma Valley Ranch; Santa Rosa, CA Category: Residential 1 Firm: Tigerman McCurry Architects; Margaret McCurry, ALA, FAIA Nestled in among redwoods and oaks that crown a hill on 400-acres in the Sonoma Valley, this 6,000 square foot house is designed for a family of four. Environmental concerns informed the material selection and features of zinc cladding, solar panels and photovoltaic cells. The interior cladding from the radiant flooring to the walls and ceilings is farmed birch. All of these sustainable elements make this home completely self-sufficient on its remote hilltop.

Photo: Erhard Pfeiffer, Heidi Richardson, Margaret McCurry

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Merit Award Tepper House, Champaign, Illinois Category: Renovation Firm: Scott Murray Architect; Scott Murray, ALA Contractor: Mark Hovde This project includes a renovation and addition that transforms a small existing laundry room into a light, airy multi-purpose space that reconnects the interior of the house to its site. Boundaries between inside and outside are blurred by creating a series of spaces that transition from fully enclosed with expansive views of the outside (the multi-purpose room) to a space that is semi-enclosed (a screened deck) to an exterior deck providing direct access to a redesigned garden.

Photo: Scott Murray

Merit Award Trainor Glass Design Center, Chicago, IL Category: Interior Architecture Firm: Linden Group, Inc.; William Matthys, ALA Contractor: Trainor Glass Company Trainor Glass's new Retail Design Center on Lake Street promotes the use of glass to all surfaces in the home and office featuring hands on displays of glass types, colors, textures, and systems. New office space houses Trainor's regional Commercial Interiors Group and acts as an extension of the show room, demonstrating glass in the work place. Photo: Art Hansen

Merit Award Weas Development Office, Milwaukee, WI Category: Renovation Firm: Plunkett Raysich Architects; Michael Sobczak, ALA, Scott Davis, AIA Contractor: Nuwerx Studio The design of Weas Development’s new corporate office is an extension of their corporate culture. Demonstrating quality development and a nontraditional forward thinking approach, the design of their office clearly speaks to their philosophy as a company.

Photo: Tricia Shay, Scott Davis

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CONTRIBUTEDARTICLE

The Architect as Expert Witness: A Survival Guide by Bob Greenstreet Dean, School of Architecture and Urban Planning, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee rchitects can turn their hands to a number of professionally related fields, which is a useful attribute when times are hard. We possess a broad perspective of the entire design and construction process, an ability to problem solve and think creatively on our feet and an innate knack of being able to talk intelligently about such subjective issues as space and design. For these reasons, architects can become very useful expert witnesses, and a number of our colleagues have developed rewarding sidelines by providing reports and testimony for either the plaintiffs or defendants in construction related disputes, of which there are regrettably no shortage. However, as attractive as the field might seem, it must always be remembered that, when we enter the realm of law, we are out of our natural environment. We are in the combative world of attorneys whose task it will be to question and, if possible, undermine and call into question the reliability of our evidence. Attorneys were trained to do this, they do it every day and they

are usually very good at it. Consequently, a few safeguards might be advisable before you venture into their world to ensure that your role as an expert witness remains a credible one and that your opinions remain as defensible and as valuable to your clients as possible. Polish Your Credentials Being selected as an expert witness will depend to a great extent on the architect’s credentials, which must be extensive enough to impress a judge, jury or arbitrator and signify that his/her opinion is one worthy of consideration. Degrees and diplomas from reputable academic institutions provide a solid foundation of credibility, which should be backed up with details of sufficient practical experience relevant to each case in question. Details of special training courses and ongoing continuing education are also helpful. If you’ve undertaken any teaching, have written any papers or articles or have given lectures within your field of expertise, all the better. Make sure that you are scrupulously accurate in outlining your professional profile – if opposing counsel finds any exaggerations or inconsistencies in your claims, your credibility is diminished before you even get to your testimony or report – and make sure your resume is professionally balanced. If you appear to do little else beyond expert witness work, you are vulnerable to claims that you are nothing more than a ‘hired gun’ who will say whatever is required for compensation, regardless of your real opinion. An architect who is primarily involved in architectural practice and who does the occasional expert report can arguably demonstrate a greater degree of professional detachment and less financial dependency and can therefore be more convincing as an expert witness. Expert witnesses can be selected based upon prior reputation, by a simple web search that will locate any earlier writings or websites, or through agencies that specialize in expert witness placement. In any event, you as a potential expert witness are likely to be interviewed before selection to determine if you are appropriately qualified for the case in question, if you possess the right characteristics of a convincing expert witness and if your opinions on the case in question are helpful to the lawyer and his/her client. If you have reports rendered in previous cases or articles written on similar construction issues, you might want to share them with the attorney, both to demonstrate your writing ability and your general approach to construction disputes. If you have expressed an opinion in your previous work that conflicts with the required direction indicated in the current case, your attorney will want to know in case it is discovered by opposing counsel and used to undermine your latest opinion.

(Continued on page 36)

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CONTRIBUTEDARTICLE (Continued from page 34)

Writing the Report Similarly, your appearance at a hearing may be necessary if the Expert witnesses are usually required to commit their findings to case is held before an arbitrator. paper, so it is vital to develop a clear, concise and unambiguous writing Expert witnesses differ from regular witnesses. The latter are only style – remember, the report will be asked to comment on what they read by people outside your have seen or what they know to “Expert witnesses are usually required to profession, so avoid jargon or commit their findings to paper, so it is vital be factually correct, while you are technical terms that may be unfamiliar being asked for your opinion. This to develop a clear, concise and or even confusing to the layperson. is a more subjective task, which unambiguous writing style – remember, Similarly, avoid using legal terms – you must be undertaken convincingly, the report will be read by people outside are not a legal expert, and straying into clearly and professionally for it to your profession, so avoid jargon or this territory by using the language of be effective. The judge (or law makes you vulnerable to attack if arbitrator) will be a professional technical terms that may be unfamiliar or you don’t use it absolutely correctly. too, although not necessarily one even confusing to the layperson.” Keep your report as precise and that is familiar with your field, so it factual as possible. Avoid exaggeration, colorful adjectives, fanciful is important to communicate as clearly and comprehensibly as metaphors and sweeping statements ( for example; if you state that possible. This becomes even more important with a jury comprised ‘all the gutters are improperly installed’ – only one gutter needs to be of persons from multiple backgrounds. The same points made in shown to be correctly placed, and your statement is effectively the previous report writing section of this article apply – use no invalidated, casting doubt upon the remainder of your opinions). jargon, no obscure abbreviations or acronyms, no complex, technical terminology and provide simple, objective explanations wherever possible. Grace Under Fire Part 1: The Deposition Appearance is obviously important, but demeanor is critical. In some instances, an expert will prepare a report and will be The effective expert witness appears reasonable and balanced, required to do no more – the vast majority of cases are settled long almost a detached observer who presents his/her opinions in a before a court date has been set, after all. However, if the case precise, measured and even seemingly objective manner. You continues, you may be required to defend your work in the form of a should be helpful during testimony and calm under cross deposition by opposing counsel. You will be questioned, sometimes at examination. The pointers previously suggested for behavior length, by an attorney (or attorneys) who will probe your findings and during deposition still apply too. ‘I don’t know’ is an acceptable ask many far ranging questions. answer. Always ask for clarification of a question if it is not fully Remember, this is what he/she does for a living, so be careful. Do clear to you and, where possible, don’t allow yourself to be not attempt to outsmart the lawyer – you will lose – and answer every rushed. Above all, always think before you speak. question carefully and precisely, pausing to think about your answer before you speak. You are in no hurry. Prepare well before the deposition so you are familiar with your report and the related materials Summary but don’t hesitate to ask if you can refer to them during the meeting. Despite the challenges of deposition and courtroom Again, take your time. If you don’t fully understand a question, ask for pressures, expert witness work is both professionally it to be repeated (this also buys you more contemplative time). If you interesting and financially rewarding, and many architects excel don’t know the answer or the question is beyond your field of in the field. Being an expert does take you into the field of law, expertise, don’t worry about stating ‘I don’t know’. It is better that you however, so it is advisable to sharpen up your skills of appear less universally knowledgeable than to give an incorrect or communication and presentation and thereby enhance your inaccurate answer that can be later thrown back at you. credibility and ultimate success. When you’ve answered the question, stop talking. Don’t volunteer supplementary information. If there is an uncomfortable silence, enjoy the break – it is not your responsibility to keep the Association of conversation going, and by talking further, trying to be helpful or Why Choose ALA? Licensed Architects knowledgeable, you may not be helping your client. If you are getting flustered, confused or annoyed, ask for a break, but always be It’s Your Best Value. polite, professional and measured in everything you say. Remember, ➣ Affordable dues ➣ Industry Information every word is being recorded by the stenographer (if one is present) and can be retrieved at a later date, so avoid humorous asides, ➣ Continuing education➣ Professional recognition defensive outbursts or anything that, upon later reading, may for license renewal ➣ Public referral service diminish your professional demeanor. Grace Under Fire Part 2: The Courtroom In the event that the case actually goes to court, you will be required to make a personal appearance to defend your opinions and convince a judge and possibly a jury of the credibility of your evidence.

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➣ Short form contracts ➣ Free Consultant Hot Lines ➣ ...plus many more benefits Give us a call at 847.382.0630 or visit www.alatoday.org


LICENSED ARCHITECT • VOL 14 NO. 4 • WINTER 2010

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An Introduction to Thermal Stress in Float Glass by Christopher Barry, Director of Technical Services, Pilkington Building Product North America

Learning Objectives: 1. Understand what thermal stress is and how it is caused. 2. Learn how poor edge strength of glass can lead to breakage. 3. Describe how shadows impact glass stress. 4. Define heat traps and how to avoid them. 5. How HVAC vents can cause glass breakage. 6. Appreciate the unique thermal conditions of spandrel glazing. 7. Understand solar absorption and how it affects glass temperature and stress. 8. Specifying glass and assigning responsibility for design and stress analysis. SUMMARY Window glass is heated and cooled by visible and invisible (infra red) radiation from the sun and other heat sources; by natural and forced convection from wind; by air from HVAC vents, etc.; and by conduction from contact with framing and other materials. The small differential expansions and contractions of the hot and cold areas create stresses which, if they are excessive, can cause breakage of ordinary annealed glass. STRESS The expansion of ordinary window glass with heat is small but can be of considerable consequence. For example, a piece of glass 50" x 100", when heated from 0 to 100°F, will only increase in size to 50.025" x 100.049". See: ATS #129 for thermal expansion coefficient, and Pilkington North America, Inc. "Good Glazing Techniques" brochure for proper glazing clearances, etc., to accommodate this expansion. When the glazed edge of a window light is shielded from sunlight by a frame, this covered edge will be cooler than the central area which is exposed, particularly on calm days when there is no cooling breeze. The expansion of the central warm area will be resisted by the cool edge. Typically, the hotter exposed area is much larger than the cooler edge area and so the edges are stretched into a state of tensile stress of about 50 psi (pounds per square inch) for every degree F difference between the center and the edge. On a calm day, sunlit heat-absorbing glass can easily reach 40°F above the ambient air temperature. The covered glass edge temperature will be somewhere between

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that of the ambient air and the exposed glass. The frame detail determines how much heat reaches the edges; e.g., a deep concrete frame insulates the edges, while structural silicone glazing allows edge heating almost equal to that at the exposed area. In the example above with 40°F temperature difference, a stress of 40°F x 50 psi / °F or 2000 psi will be developed if the edge is fully insulated from direct solar heating. This stress value is approaching the strength limit for clean-cut, undamaged, annealed glass edges. EDGE STRENGTH When the tensile stress in a glass edge exceeds 2,000 to 3,000 psi, the probability of breakage becomes significant. The actual edge strength depends on the cut edge quality. The edges must be ‘clean cut’ (with minimum serration, hackle, etc.), fabricated (into insulating glass units, etc.) without damage from sealant nozzles, tools, hard surfaces, etc., and then handled and installed without being damaged to minimize the breakage probability. SHADOWS Shadows from vertical mullions and horizontal frame overhangs cause temperature differences in heat-absorbing glass. If a vertical mullion is less than 20" deep, then its shadow can be considered "mobile" as it sweeps across the glass because it does not remain still long enough to develop major temperature differences. Vertical mullions greater than 20" deep develop "static" shadows which develop higher glass stress. Overhangs greater than 3" deep develop static shadows. Mobile shadows typically develop 11% more stress than the "no shadow" situation. Static shadows develop about 35% more stress than the "no shadow" condition. Unusual shadow patterns, e.g. "V" or "L" shaped shadows, cause higher stresses than the simple cold edge case detailed above. It has been shown theoretically (Boley, 1964), and measured in practice, that the resulting stresses are not more than 30% greater than that for the basic condition of a hot central area with cold edges. HEAT TRAPS Heat Trap conditions caused by insulating blinds, drop ceilings below the level of the top of the glass, heat-absorbing labels or decorations on the glass, etc., can cause larger temperature differences than are allowable for annealed glass and may cause breakage.


Spandrel glazing represents the extreme heat trap condition where insulation, and restricted air flow on the room side, prevents the solar heat which has passed through the glass from entering the building. The only way for this heat, which is absorbed on the outer facing surface of the spandrel pan insulation, to leave the spandrel is by raising the glass temperature sufficiently for external convection and radiation from the outer glass surface to balance the heat input. Obviously such a condition can develop major temperature differences in the glass. Heat-strengthened (twice as strong as annealed glass) or tempered glass (four times stronger than annealed) is typically used in spandrels to prevent breakage from thermal stress, except in unusual conditions where the heat gain is ventilated to the exterior or there are no shadows or edge cover to develop large temperature differences. HVAC Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning vents which blow hot or cold air directly against glass will also cause excessive tensile edge stress for annealed glass, resulting in possible glass breakage. SPANDRELS Spandrel glazing is often used to cover the edge of a floor slab. Typically there is insulation between the glass and the floor edge. This effectively turns the spandrel into a solar collector with no exit for the solar heat gain other than back out through the front surface. Adding to the thermal load is the recommended use of double glazing in the spandrel to better visually match the appearance of the adjacent vision glass. In still air insulated glass, spandrel temperatures will easily exceed 100 ÂşC. To resist the resulting stresses fully tempered glass may be needed rather than heat strengthened glass. It can be noted that single glazed spandrels with polished edges have reportedly been used successfully in the past but it is suggested that those installations may not have had adequate insulation behind them, and the edge shadows from framing may have been minimal or non-existent.

The image above shows high stress fracture lines originating at the right hand side. In this spandrel glazing, the insulation behind annealed heat absorbing glass and shadows from an overhang and deep mullion caused excessive stress on a clean cut edge.

UNIQUE CONDITIONS Unique installations can cause potentially damaging temperature differences to occur. Some examples are given below: 1. Large horizontal sills in front of vertical or sloped heat absorbing glass where snow can accumulate. When the exposed portion of the glass absorbs sunlight a large temperature difference can easily develop between the exposed area and the portion of the glass shaded and cooled by the snow. 2. When sloped glazing meets a vertical wall a heat trap condition is easily generated at the interior by the rising hot air caused by sunlight, which has passed through the glass, when it is absorbed on the wall surface and then heats the air. Such a space needs to have a ventilation system to prevent the hot air from accumulating.

3. Inside corner reflections (where two curtain wall sections meet at a 90 degree angle, measured on the exterior, in plan view) cause increased temperature differences in glass when the heat from the glazing solar reflection of an adjacent glazing is added to the direct solar radiation.

(Continued on page 40)

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(Continued from page 39)

SOLAR ABSORPTION The temperature reached by the exposed glass depends on its Solar Absorption. The absorption value is available from: brochures, LBNL Window 5 program, or the glass manufacturer. It can often be calculated from the relation: Solar Transmission (%) + Solar Reflection (%) + Solar Absorption (%) = 100 (%) Double glazing changes the amount of heat absorbed by each light depending on the inter-reflections between the two glasses. The effective absorption of the outer glass is typically increased over its nominal single glazed absorption value, while the effective absorption of the inner light is reduced from its single glazed value. These effective absorption values can be computed in the ‘Optical Data’ section of the LBNL Window 5 program. This slightly complex program is available at no charge from: http://windows.lbl.gov/software . The program does allow center of glass temperatures to be computed for any custom specified weather condition. The worst-case thermal stress typically occurs when the sun is shining directly onto the glass and the air is still. Unfortunately the program cannot estimate glass edge temperatures within the frame. It is the magnitude of this center-to-edge temperature difference that is the main factor in causing thermally induced stress and sometimes, breakage. The use of low emissivity coatings reduces radiant heat flow from the coated side. This increases the resulting glass temperature and stress. Triple glazed units have a unique condition where the absorbed heat in the middle light of glass faces insulating layers of still air on each side. The center light temperature can then rise significantly, depending on its absorption value. If a low emissivity coating is on the center light it both adds to the absorbed solar radiation and further inhibits the loss of heat from it. In general, a clear glass as the middle light of a sealed triple unit, with a low emissivity coating on either surface #3 or #4 (of the 6 possible surfaces), will need to be heat treated to prevent breakage from thermal stress. STRESS CALCULATION There are too many variables to give a simple table of when heat treatment may be needed to resist thermal stress for a particular installation. Steady state heat flow calculations can be made to approximate worst case situations, and some programs have been written using this process. A full analysis, with dynamically changing heat flow, using computational fluid dynamics for the air flow at the glass surfaces, plus a finite element analysis for glass stress, has not yet been written.

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CONCLUSION Where glass temperature differences and the resulting thermal stresses are too great for ordinary (annealed) glass, then heatstrengthened or fully tempered glass can be used. High stresses caused by deep shadows, heat traps, insulating blinds, etc. can be accommodated by either heat strengthening or fully tempering the glass. Both products are generally strong enough to prevent breakage from typical thermal stresses encountered in buildings. Heat strengthening is generally preferred, where safety codes permit, because of the reduced risk of the spontaneous breakage which can occasionally be seen with tempered glass. Heat strengthened glass is also often preferable because it may have slightly less visible distortion than fully tempered glass. Full polishing of the cut edges reduces the weakening from cutting and handling damage. Polishing slightly raises annealed glass average strength, but not as much as heat strengthening. Annealed polished edges are occasionally used in marginal thermal stress situations. When specifying glass to resist applied loads and to meet solar, optical and thermal requirements, clear responsibility must be placed on who needs to show the design criteria have been met. The energy section of Building Codes typically specify solar and thermal criteria, and the glass type to meet the Code required applied load resistance can be determined with relevant ASTM standards such as E 1300 for "…Load Resistance of Glass…". But too often the suitability for a glass type in a particular installation is left as the responsibility of the glazing contractor bidding on a project. It need hardly be stated that thermal stress analysis is not typically the main skill of a glazing contractor. The person responsible for the glass design must accept or delegate the thermal stress analysis for their project. ASTM Standards group has developed a standard practice for determining thermal stress in single glazing (ASTM E 2431). It will be some time before their work is completed for thermal stress in double glazed units. Some major glass manufacturers have proprietary computer programs for thermal stress analysis for their registered customers, using their particular products. Pilkington Glass NA Inc. has a thermal stress analysis program, available to all, at no charge, on their website. As with all such programs, the user must take full responsibility that the program and its results are applicable to their particular project and its unique details.

The information contained in this bulletin is offered for assistance in the application of Pilkington North America, Inc. flat glass products, but IT DOES NOT CONSTITUTE A WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Actual performance may vary in particular applications.


ALA Continuing Education Questionnaire An Introduction to Thermal Stress in Float Glass Learning Objectives: After taking this course, the reader will be able to:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Understand what thermal stress is and how it is caused. Learn how poor edge strength of glass can lead to breakage. Describe how shadows impact glass stress. Define heat traps and how to avoid them. How HVAC vents can cause glass breakage.

Program Title: An Introduction to Thermal Stress in Float Glass ALA/CEP Credit:This article qualifies for 1.0 HSW LU of State Required Learning Units and may qualify for other LU requirements. (Valid through January 2013.) Instructions: • Read the article using the learning objectives provided. • Answer the questions. • Fill in your contact information. • Check whether logging of ALA/CEP credit (ALA members with logging privileges only) or certificate of completion is desired. • Sign the certification. • Submit questions with answers, contact information and payment to ALA by mail or fax to receive credit. • Article and tests are also available online: www.ALAtoday.org QUIZ QUESTIONS 1. The article describes the different causes of thermal stress breakage. Which of the following is not a factor? a. Visible and infra red radiation from the sun b. HVAC metal components c. Framing and other materials d. Wind speed 2. The glazed edge of a window is protected by the frame from sunlight. The covered edge will be cooler than the central area which is exposed and the expansion of the central warm area will be resisted by the hot edge. a. True b. False

6. Appreciate the unique thermal conditions of spandrel glazing. 7. Understand solar absorption and how it affects glass temperature and stress. 8. Specifying glass and assigning responsibility for design and stress analysis.

3. With increased tensile stress in a glass edge the risk of breakage increases. Which of the following factors does not determine edge strength? a. Installed without damage to the glass b. Clean cut edges c. Fabricated into insulated glass units d. Glass thickness 4. The article discusses how shadows impact thermal stress. Which of the following is correct? a. Mobile shadows typically develop more stress than the no shadow situation. b. Horizontal mullions greater than 20" deep develop "static" shadows which develop higher glass stress. c. Overhangs less than 3" deep develop static shadows. d. Letter shaped shadows cause less stress than simple shadows. 5. Insulating binds, drop ceilings, heat absorbing labels and decorations on glass can cause heat traps. a. True b. False 6. Which of the following is one of the ways for heat to escape, where insulation prevents the solar heat from entering the building? a. The glass temperature decreases sufficiently for external convection and radiation from the outer glass surface to balance the heat input. b. The glass temperature rises sufficiently for external convection and radiation from the outer glass surface to balance the heat input. c. The glass temperature rising sufficiently for internal convection and radiation from the inner glass surface to balance the heat input. d. None of the above.

Contact Information:

7. The article sites three unique installations that can cause potentially damaging temperature differences to occur. Which of the following was one of them? a. Where the glass is exposed to direct sunlight. b. Where two curtain wall sections meet at a 90 degree angle, known as inside corner reflections. c. Where a heating vent is installed near the glass. d. Where a buildings room temperatures exceed 90 degrees. 8. The article discusses solar absorption and how it is calculated. Which of the following formulas is correct? a. Solar Transmission (%) + Solar Radiation (%) + Solar Absorption (%) = 100% b. Solar Radiation (%) + Solar Absorption (%) + Solar Transmission (%) = 100% c. Solar Absorption (%) + Solar Reflection (%) + Solar Transmission (%) = 100% d. Solar Transmission (%) + Solar Reflection (%) + Solar Radiation (%) = 100% 9. In general, a clear glass as the middle light of a sealed triple unit, with a low emissivity coating on either surface #3 or #4, will need to be heat treated to prevent breakage from thermal stress. a. True b. False 10. Heat-strengthened or fully tempered glass cannot be used where glass temperature differences and the resulting thermal stresses are too great for ordinary annealed glass. a. True b. False

PAYMENT: ALA/CEP Credit or Certificate of Completion: Cost: $15 (ALA Members) $20 (non-members) ■ Check or ■ Credit Card

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■ Please send me a certificate of completion (required by certain states & organizations) that I may submit. Your test will be scored. Those scoring 80% or higher will receive 1 LU HSW Credit.

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Fax: 847-382-8380 Address: Association of Licensed Architects, 22159 N. Pepper Road, Ste. 2N, Barrington, IL 60010 Attn: ALA/CEP Credit

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Date: LICENSED ARCHITECT • VOL 14 NO. 4 • WINTER 2010

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Legal Services for Architects (Referred by ALA Chapter Boards)

Illinois

Minnesota

Helping design professionals find creative, common sense solutions to their legal problems.

ALACHAPTERS ALAILLINOIS 2010 Chicago Architecture + Design College Day: Over 250 students and 35 colleges and universities attended The Chicago Architecture + Design College Day held on Saturday, October 5 on the IIT campus. This free event, sponsored by the Consortium of Design and Construction Careers, was open to high school and college students interested in learning more about careers in architecture, interior design, construction (L to R) Michelle Davidson, student member of ALA, management and volunteering with Dominika Waszynska,CSI. landscape architecture. ALA Illinois is a member of The Consortium for Design and Construction Careers, a non-profit group consisting of associations, universities and individuals. Lisa Brooks, Executive Director of ALA Illinois was the Program Chair for the event. Michelle Davidson, a student member of ALA in her junior year at IIT, volunteered for the day helping with registration and logistics. More information including presentation slides can be found on the Consortium website at www.chicagocareerday.org.

Save these Dates for Upcoming Illinois Programs: Tuesday, January 18: "The Essentials of Letters of Agreement" with Jim Zahn, FALA, FAIA and Werner Sabo, FALA of Sabo and Zahn, Attorneys at Law. Meridian Banquets in Rolling Meadows, 5:30-8:30 PM.

Tuesday, February 22:

Wisconsin

“Building Enclosure: Three Case Studies from Top to Bottom.” This popular joint ALA/CSI Event will be offering a panel of experts in their fields: Kenneth Lies, Principal, Raths, Raths & Johnson; Kami Farahmonpour, Founder/Principal Building Technology Consultants; and Larry Meyers, Principal, Wiss Janney Elstner. A morning presentation will be held at Maggiano’s in Chicago and an evening program at Meridian Banquets in Rolling Meadows. For registration and further information on these programs, visit the ALA website at www.ALAtoday.org or call the ALA office at 847-382-0630. (Continued on page 44)

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ALACHAPTERS ALAILLINOIS (Continued from page 42)

ALA Illinois Meetings: September Program: Norah Prombo and Jacob Mathews of Dow Chemical presented on "Energy Efficient Steel Stud Walls" to ALA members.

Over 40 ALA members donned hard hats to tour the Dow Styrofoam insulation plant.

November Meeting: Rob Huette and Steve Menconi of Illinois Brick Company join presenter Scott Conwell of IMI (center) after the program "Masonry for Sustainability".

ALAMISSOURI 2011 Program Schedule - "No Architect Left Behind Series" All programs are held from 12:00 – 2:00 at the Masonry Institute of St. Louis (except for May 10). Attendees earn 2.0 LU’s. Cost per seminar is $35 members/$45 non-members. Discounted rates are available when registering for 3 or 6 seminars. For more information or registration, please contact David Dial at 636-230-0400.

-

January 11: "Roofing It" March 8: "Exterior Wall Systems" May 10: "St. Louis Cathedral Basilica Tour" July 12: "2009 IBC – Deal with it!" September 13: "How Architects can stay out of Trouble" November 8: "Dry by Design"

ALAMINNESOTA The Minnesota Chapter held their annual meeting on Thursday, December 2 at Station 19 Architects in Minneapolis. A pizza lunch was served and members discussed the past, present and future goals of the chapter.

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On Thursday, February 10, 2011, the Minnesota Chapter will be holding their Election of Officers at Station 19 Architects. If you are interested in joining a dynamic organization or becoming active on the Board, please contact Darrel LeBarron at 612.623.1800 for more information.


2010 Architecture Conference and Product Show Over 550 design professionals attended the 12th Annual Chicago Architecture Conference and Product Show on Tuesday, October 5

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his all-day event, hosted by ALA and CSI-Chicago Chapter, was kicked off with the Keynote Address by Mr. Bil Becker, CEO and founder of Aerotecture International, discussing "Integrating Renewable Energy Technologies into Architecture". Mr. Becker reviewed the history and evolution of a variety of technologies including wind, solar, and energy efficiency and then focused on how these modalities can be integrated into existing and new architecture. Presenters from recognized national and regional firms offered seminars on topics covering legal, code, green standards, technical and building envelope issues. Attendees earned six hours of continuing education through fifteen diverse seminars offered during the day. Eighty-eight exhibitors and manufacturers were (L to R) Steve Pate, ALA President on-hand to show the welcomes Keynote presenter Bil Becker latest in architectural of Aerotecture International products and services

and answer questions in a relaxed and educational environment. As attendees visited the booths, they collected signatures from company representatives to qualify for the popular raffle drawing held at the end of the day. New this year was a cocktail reception hosted by Andersen Windows where everyone was invited Six hours of continuing education were provided to unwind from 16 different seminars with fellow members and friends after the conclusion of the programs. We want to thank all of our sponsors for their support and contributions to making the conference such a success. We are starting to plan for next year’s conference which will be held on Tuesday, October 18 at Drury Lane Conference Center in Oakbrook Terrace. Be sure to save the date and join us for another successful day of education and fellowship.

Congratulations to our Raffle Winners and Thank You to the Donating Companies Winner

Raffle Item

Donated by:

Michael Berns, Michael Berns Architect Greg Norris, Gregory A. Norris Architect Christopher Goode, Architecture & Conservation PC John Breidenbach, Tremco Inc. Robert McDonald, McDonald/Cagon, Inc. Sam Salahi, APS, Ltd. Krishan Aghi, GSA Peter Holt, PNH Creations Howard Holtzman, Howard Holtzman & Assoc. Deborah Kent, Hutter Architects Luis Fletes, JMA Architects Doug Gallus, Gallus Architects Elias Saltz, Eckenhoff Saunders Architects Walter Matusik, Walter H. Mutusik, Architect George Baker, Middough Marc Segel, Marc Kalman Segel - Architect

Two Bears Tickets vs. New York Jets Barnes & Noble Nook 1 Year Subscription to "spec near here"

J.N. Lucas and Associates ASSA ABLOY-Door Security Solutions spec near here and Kathryn Quinn Architects

1 Year Subscription to "spec near here" $100 Weber Furniture Gift Card $100 VISA Gift Card One Year ALA Membership Two CSI Chicago Chapter Dinner Programs $50 Borders Gift Card

spec near here and Kathryn Quinn Architects Weber Furniture Service Tate Access Floors, Inc. ALA CSI Chicago Chapter MAPEI

$50 AMEX Gift Card $50 Home Depot Gift Card $50 VISA Gift Card Solar Power Wall Clock Bottle of wine Tapco Duffle bag Major Industries Duffle Bag

IMAGINiT Technologies Atlas EPS M. G. Welbel & Associates Marvin Windows and Doors USG Architectural Services The Tapco Group Major Industries

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Save the Date for next year’s Conference:

Tuesday, October 18, 2011 at Drury Lane Conference Center Oakbrook Terrace, IL

Attendees enjoyed visiting the product show and meeting with exhibitors.

Thank You to our 2010 Exhibitors Access Elevator Advanced Building Products Airfloor Inc Alcotex Amerimix Ameristar Fence Products Andersen Windows, Inc. Arch Wood Protection ASSA ABLOY-Door Security Solutions Association of Licensed Architects Atlas EPS Baird's Drapery Services, Inc. BASF Wall Systems BASF/Sonneborn Bitumar BMI Products of Northern Illinois, Inc. Burnham Nationwide Inc. Calstar Products, Inc. CertainTeed CETCO Chicago Chapter - Construction Specifications Institute Chicagoland Roofing Council Collaboration Systems Group Cook County Lumber Cornell Communications County Materials CPI Daylighting, Inc.

Demilec USA LLC Dow Building Solutions EDSS FDC Digital Imaging Solutions Fiberweb/Typar HouseWrap Hafele America Co. Hamill-Mullan Group Holzkraft Custom Wood Doors Illinois Brick Company Illinois Products Corp IMAGINiT Technologies Ingersoll Rand Security Technologies InPro Corporation J.N. Lucas & Associates, Inc. M.G. Welbel & Associates Major Industries, Inc. MAPEI Corp. Marvin Design Gallery by Estates Windows Marvin Windows and Doors Master Graphics Mats Inc. Metropolitan Architectural Brick, Inc. Morin Corporation National Gypsum Northfield-Bend Océ North America, Inc. Packaged Concrete, Inc. Pella Windows and Doors

PerMar Ltd. Pilkington North America Pittsburgh Corning-Foamglas Building Polyglass USA, Inc. PPG Industries, Inc. Rauch Clay Sales Corporation Scranton Products Sherwin-Williams Company Sika Sarnafil Sobotec Ltd. spec near here/Kathryn Quinn Architects Stanley Black and Decker Tate Access Floors TEC Temple Inland Terrazzo & Marble Supply Companies Tesko Enterprises The IDM Group The Tapco Group To The Top Home Elevators Unilock Chicago, Inc. United Plastics Corp. USG Water Furnace International Weber Furniture Service Weyerhaeuser/I-LEVEL Willis HRH WoodWorks

Thank You to our 2010 Conference Sponsors: Keynote Address:

Tote Sponsor:

Lunch Sponsor:

Chicagoland Roofing Council

Hamill – Mullan Group, Inc.

Maxxon

Break Sponsor:

Lanyard Sponsor:

Reception Sponsor:

Willis HRH

M. G. Welbel & Associates

Andersen Windows and Doors

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LICENSED ARCHITECT • VOL 14 NO. 4 • WINTER 2010


LICENSED ARCHITECT • VOL 14 NO. 4 • WINTER 2010

47


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Profile for Lisa Brooks

Winter 2010  

LiCensed Architect

Winter 2010  

LiCensed Architect

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