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26 March 2015


Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Foreword Terrorism and ISIS in particular is an existential threat not only to Libya but to the global community. The murder of 21 Egyptian Coptic Christians in Sirte, Libya, the burning alive of a Jordanian pilot in Syria, and the recent attacks in France and Copenhagen are only a small portion of the heinous crimes committed by these criminals in the name of Islam. The document you have in your hands lists the atrocities committed on a daily basis in Libya. If these criminals are not dealt with, they will continue to murder, kidnap, extort, and enslave innocent people with ever greater impunity. LIAS will distribute these updates on a regular basis so that these crimes are widely reported and these criminals exposed for what they really are.

Dr. Aref Ali Nayed Chairman, Libyan Institute for Advanced Studies

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Table of Contents Glossary of Actors ........................................................................................................................ 4 Organizations ........................................................................................................................... 4 Individuals................................................................................................................................ 4 Locations .................................................................................................................................. 4 Map of Libya and Provinces ........................................................................................................ 5 Map of Libyan Population Density ............................................................................................. 6 Definition of Categorized Events ................................................................................................ 7 Violence in Libya.......................................................................................................................... 8 Libyan Body Count ...................................................................................................................... 9 Islamic State Events over Time ................................................................................................... 9 ISIS Background, Situation, Expansion, and Strategy in Libya............................................... 10 Overview ................................................................................................................................. 10 Situation ................................................................................................................................. 10 Expansion ................................................................................................................................ 11 Strategy .................................................................................................................................... 12 Conclusions ............................................................................................................................. 13 Terrorist Events in Libya ............................................................................................................ 15 Week of 22 March 2015 .......................................................................................................... 15 Week of 15 March 2015 ...........................................................................................................18 Week of 8 March 2015 ........................................................................................................... 22 Week of 1 March 2015 ............................................................................................................ 25 Week of 22 February 2015 ..................................................................................................... 28 Week of 15 February 2015...................................................................................................... 30 Week of 8 February 2015 ....................................................................................................... 33 Week of 1 February 2015 ....................................................................................................... 37 Week of 25 January 2015 ....................................................................................................... 39 Week of 18 January 2015 ....................................................................................................... 40 Week of 11 January 2015......................................................................................................... 41 Week of 4 January 2015 ......................................................................................................... 42 Week of 28 December 2014 ................................................................................................... 44 Week of 21 December 2014.................................................................................................... 45 Week of 14 December 2014 ................................................................................................... 46 Week of 7 December 2014 ..................................................................................................... 46 2


Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Week of 30 November 2014 .................................................................................................. 46 Week of 23 November 2014 ................................................................................................... 46 Week of 16 November 2014 ................................................................................................... 47 Week of 9 November 2014 ..................................................................................................... 48 Week of 2 November 2014 ...................................................................................................... 51 Week of 19 October 2014 ........................................................................................................ 51 Week of 5 October 2014 .......................................................................................................... 51 Week of 7 September 2014 ..................................................................................................... 51 Week of 17 August 2014 ......................................................................................................... 52 Week of 20 July 2014 ............................................................................................................. 52 Week of 15 June 2014 ............................................................................................................ 53 Week of 16 March 2014.......................................................................................................... 53 Locations of ISIS and Affiliates’ Activites ................................................................................. 54 Photos of ISIS and Affiliates’ Activities .................................................................................... 55 Endnotes .................................................................................................................................... 64

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Glossary of Actors Organizations Libya Dignity – The military operation led by General Khalifa Haftar commanding the Libyan Army to rid Benghazi of Islamist militias, he is allied to the internationally recognized House of Representatives in Tobruk. Libya Dawn – A coalition of militias based in Tripoli and Misrata, currently under the command of the now defunct General National Congress. Libya Sunrise – A faction of Libya Dawn, they are the armed units operating in western Libya, stationed in Bin Jawad. Currently, Operation Sunrise is attempting to seize the As Sidr and Ras Lanuf oil terminals from the Libyan National Army. Ansar al-Sharia in Benghazi (AAS) aka Shura Council of Benghazi Revolutionaries – Islamic Militia Islamic State in Cyrenaica (Barqa) - (MSSI) Majlis Shura Shabab al-Islam – Islamic Militia in Derna, associated with ISIL, largest ISIL affiliate Islamic State in Tripolitania – Islamic Militia, associated with ISIL Islamic State in Fezzan – Islamic Militia, associated with ISIL

Individuals Khalifa Haftar – Head of Operation Libya Dignity, allied to HoR, currently leading the Libyan Army against Islamist militias in Benghazi Wissam bin Humaid – Commander of Shura Council of Benghazi Revolutionaries (AAS) Mohammed al-Zahawi – Former Commander of Ansar al-Sharia in Benghazi, killed in January 2015 Abu Taleb al-Jazrawey – Yemeni Emir of Islamic State in Derna

Locations Tripolitania (aka Tarabulus) – NW province, capital is Tripoli Cyrenaica (aka Barqa) – Eastern Province, capital is Benghazi Fezzan – Southern Province, capital Sebha Derna – Eastern port city, IS headquarters and training center Sirte – Central port city, IS in Tripolitania headquarters (Ouagadougou Conference Center) Bayda – Eastern city, Home to Al-Thinni’s cabinet and Constitutional Drafting Assembly Bin Jawad – Central city, frontline for the As Sidr and Ras Lanuf oil terminal battles Sabratha – City west of Tripoli, stronghold for IS in Tripolitania Sebha – Southwestern city, capital of Fezzan, likely the headquarters for IS in Fezzan 4


Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Map of Libya and Provinces

MAP 1 - M AJOR CITIES AND PROVINCES OF LIBYA

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Map of Libyan Population Density

MAP 2 - LIBYAN POPULATION DENSITY MAP

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Definition of Categorized Events Armed Clashes – Battles or skirmishes between two armed organizations using but not limited to light, medium, and heavy weaponry. Beheading – The act of execution by decapitation. Human Rights Violations – Acts committed by a group or individual that deliberately disregard moral principles or norms outlined in international laws such as the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Kidnapping – The forceful abduction and detention of an individual or group. Murder – The act of intentionally killing another human, this includes targeted killings and assassinations. Propaganda/Recruitment – The production of media to deliberately spread the principles or doctrines of an organization in the attempt to further that organization’s agenda.

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Violence in Libya

MAP 3 - VIOLENT DEATHS BY LOCATION

MAP 4 - IS EVENTS BY LOCATION 8


Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Libyan Body Count Number of Violent Deaths by Month

Total Deaths

500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

Jan Feb Ma Apr Ma Jun Jul Au Sep Oct No De Jan Feb Ma r y g v c r

Murder

20

1

1

7

14

7

2014 14 77

12

Kidnapping

98

81

10

1

Human Rights Violation Car Bomb

10

33

11

73

30

87

13

1

1

7

1

6

1

36 1

Beheading

79

1

Armed Clashes

99

4

91

38

2015 11 14

1 1

1

3

47

2

45 355 381 322 357 214 220 123 139 90

Islamic State Events over Time Islamic State in Libya - Events over Time 35

Number of Events

30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Jul

Sep

Propaganda/Recruitment

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

2014 4

5

1

14

2015 18

2

Murder

3

Kidnapping

1

1

Human Rights Violation

1

Beheading

2

1

2

2

4

1

3

1

Extortion

1

Car Bomb

4 1

2

Armed Clashes

1

9

14

21

1

8

3

3

1

1

5

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

ISIS Background, Situation, Expansion, and Strategy in Libya Overview The launch of Operation Dawn in July 2014 by militias based in Tripoli and Mistrata, provided the catalyst to sufficiently destabilize Libya’s already fragile political and security situation. During this time, elements of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, long present in eastern Libya, seized the opportunity to advance their own agenda. Over the past six months, IS in Libya has grown from a small group of jihadists in Derna, allegedly sent in mid-September 2014 by ISIL leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, to an increasingly dangerous force, with bases of operation within all three of historical provinces in Libya.

Situation The beheading of 21 Egyptian Coptic Christians in a video released on 15 February shows that the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) has considerable influence outside areas originally declared in their “caliphate.” The video, released by ISIS’s al-Hayat Media Center, shows the execution and beheading of 21 Egyptians by militants belonging

PHOTO 1 – IS LEADER ABU SULEIMAN AL-JAHBATHY THREATENS ROME

to ISIS’s Wilayat al-Tarabulus, or Tripoli Province of the caliphate. Following the beheadings, the leader of the group declares, in clear English, that Wilayat al-Tarbabulus will be the base for ISIS’s planned advance on Rome.

In later videos, ISIS members announce their desire to use Libya as a platform for future expansion and attacks against Europe, notably Italy. An essay written by a prominent ISIS supporter outlines ISIS’s plans for Libya. The author calls Libya a “strategic gateway for the Islamic State.” The essay states that “Libya, by the permission of God, is the key to Tunisia, Sudan, Mali, Algeria, and Niger too. It is the anchor from which can be reached Africa and the Islamic Maghreb. However, for this dream to become a reality we must move quickly.” 10


Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Finally the author states, “(Libya) has a long coastline and looks upon the southern Crusader states, which can be reached with ease by even a rudimentary boat and note that the number of ‘illegal immigration’ trips from this coast is massive, estimated to be as high as 500 people a day, as a low estimate. “According to many [of these immigrants], it is easily possible to pass through Maritime Security Checkpoints and arrive in cities. If this was even partially exploited and developed strategically, pandemonium could be wrought in the southern Europe. It is even possible that there could be a closure of shipping lines because of the targeting of Crusader ships and tankers.”

Expansion After the 2011 revolution, portions of the eastern city of Darnah, a city known for its sympathies for fundamentalist religious groups, had been under the control of Majlis Shura Shabab al-Islam (MSSI). Members of MSSI appear to have been the conduit for ISIS representatives to enter eastern Libya. Reports on social media website began showing members of MSSI implementing hisba (accountability patrols) throughout the city, in a manner mirroring patrols by ISIS members in Mosul and Raqqa. These patrols were first tendrils of ISIS’s presence in Libya. By mid-September 2014 photos posted to social media sites showed several large ISIS parades throughout Darnah. On 3 October 2014, members of MSSI held a large rally in the center of Darnah declaring baya (allegiance) to ISIS and its leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. It was later noted by Atlantic Council research fellow Mohamed Eljarh that a Yemeni named Abu Taleb al-Jazrawey was declared emir of the newly created Wilayat Darnah. This declaration has become the first substantial foothold for ISIS outside of Iraq and Syria. ISIS representatives have used Darnah as a springboard to spread its influence throughout the other provinces of Libya.

The continued political and military chaos in Libya following the ouster of Muammar Gaddafi in 2011 has provided an ideal situation for extremist organizations such as ISIS to expand throughout Libya. In the months following MSSI’s declaration of allegiance to ISIS in October, attacks attributed to other ISIS related groups have occurred across all regions of Libya.

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

During the week of 9 November 2014, three car bombings and four beheadings were carried out by groups affiliated with ISIS in the eastern province of Barqa. In December 2014, IS affiliates of the Tarabulus province took credit for car bombings outside of the Diplomatic Security Headquarters in Tripoli, later detonating a car bomb outside of the Embassy of Algeria. Later that month, ISIS in Sirte kidnapped a

PHOTO 2 - A MAP SHOWING THE THREE PROVINCES TO BE GOVERNED BY ISIS IN EASTERN , WESTERN , AND SOUTHERN LIBYA .

group of Egyptian Coptic Christians. On 3 January, members of ISIS in Fezzan, Libya’s southern promise, attacked a Libyan Army checkpoint in Sokhna, killing 14 soldiers and two cooks while they were sleeping. Since then, ISIS affiliates have increased the diversity and lethality of their attacks. ISIS members in Libya have taken credit for the attack on the Corinthia hotel in Tripoli, the beheading of 21 Egyptian Coptic Christians, and the coordinated car bombing of three locations in Qubbah. ISIS in Libya has repeatedly demonstrated a willingness to target both civilians and government officials.

Strategy Aaron Zelin, Richard Barrow Fellow for the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, recently stated that ISIS in Libya seems to be attempting to follow the same tactics it so effectively employed in Iraq and Syria last June. Unlike its predecessor al-Qaeda, ISIS has effectively used media sharing websites such as JustPasteIt, Manbar, and Twitter to continually update its supporters and potential recruits that it is active in the areas under its control. These press releases not only show the results of attacks by ISIS affiliates throughout Libya, but also show the same organizations distributing dawa (charity) to children and the poor. Like in Iraq and Syria, the considerably well produced media publications have been used a powerful tool to build both community support for the group and attract new recruits.

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

In regards to recruitment, ISIS has recently launched a large campaign to funnel fighters from other extremist groups within Libya. Again, this follows a similar tactic employed by ISIS in Syria, attracting fighters from similar organizations such as Jahbat alNusra and recruiting them to fight for the Islamic State. The Islamic

PHOTO 3 - A PHOTO FROM AN ISIS PUBLICATION URGING A NSAR AL -S HARIA MEMBERS TO PLEDGE BAYA TO ABU B AKR AL -B AGHDADI . T HE MEN ARE SHOWN WEARING THE LOGO OF A NSAR AL -S HARIA IN B ENGHAZI .

State in Libya’s largest target has been Ansar al-Sharia in Benghazi. ISIS has released a series of statements urging the seasoned fighters of Ansar al-Sharia to join ISIS’s ranks. This campaign seems to have started following the announcement of the death of Ansar alSharia’s leader, Mohammed al-Zahawi. A video released on 27 February 2015, shows an ISIS fighter calling for supporters to travel to Libya and fight. Other analysts note that ISIS is using Libya as a regional command center and a launching point for further expansion. Large stockpiles of Gaddafi-era weapons can be found throughout Libya. In addition, porous borders allow ISIS to easily smuggle fighters from neighboring countries. On 25 February, Libya’s Tripoli based government abolished entry visas for Algerian and Moroccan nationals. Over 2,000 Moroccans and Algerians are thought to be currently fighting with ISIS. Finally, ISIS attacks on Libyan oil facilities may suggest their desire to control portions of Libya’s lucrative oil resources. It is estimated that ISIS in Iraq and Syria generated up to $2 million per day from illegal oil exports. A similar strategy in Libya would provide substantial funding

Conclusions As noted in the 5th edition of ISIS’s online magazine Dabiq, its largest foreign base of support is Libya. The drastic increase in bombings, kidnappings, and beheadings throughout Libya by organizations allied to ISIS seems to have proven these claims true. ISIS in Libya has been able to take advantage of the nation’s post-revolutionary political turmoil to establish a base of support, though to a lesser degree, using the same tactics as in Iraq and Syria. Like in Iraq and Syria, ISIS in Libya has been able to recruit foreign fighters to join its ranks, as seen at the Corinthia Hotel. Given heavy military setbacks in Kobane and Mosul, coupled with ISIS’s 13


Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

heavy campaigning for immigration by ISIS officials, ISIS members have turned to Libya as its next area of expansion. Without international cooperation with Libya’s recognized government, ISIS will continue to flourish in Northern Africa.

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Terrorist Events in Libya Week of 22 March 2015 Benghazi – On 25 March 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica released a photo showing the dismembered remains of Bashir Mustafa Agha, a retired member of the military.i The photo was most likely taken in the Laithi district of Benghazi – an Ansar al-Sharia and IS stronghold.

PHOTO 4 - IS DISMEMBERS EX-MILITARY MEMBER

Unspecified – On 25 March 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica released photos showing their most recent hisba activities somewhere in eastern Libya. The set of photos shows IS militants collecting and burning items they believe to be associated with magic. The photos are most likely from Derna.ii

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

PHOTO 5 - IS COLLECTS AND BURNS PROHIBITED ITEMS

Sirte – On 25 March 2015, the Islamic State in Tripolitania carried out a VBIED attack on an Operation Sunrise checkpoint near the steam power station in Sirte. The attack left five dead.iii

Benghazi – On 24 March 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica claimed responsibility for one of the two VBIED attacks carried out in Benghazi. According to the Associated Press, 12 people were killed in the attack.iv Photos from social media show that the Islamic State used a drone equipped with a camera to capture the aftermath of their attack – a first for the group.v The attack was carried out by a Tunisian man named Abu Yaqeen al-Tunisi.

Reports from social media and the Libya Herald claim that the Shura Council of Benghazi Revolutionaries (SCBR) carried out a separate attack in the Masakel neighborhood. Twitter accounts tied to both the SCBR and the Islamic State claim that the attacks were carried out as revenge for the death of SCBR commander Mohammed Oraibi.

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

PHOTO 6 - IS EMPLOYS DRONE FOR PROPAGANDA

Misrata – On 22 March 2015, the Islamic State in Tripolitania carried out a remote VBIED attack in the Zarouk area of Misrata. According to reports from social media, the Islamic State targeted the barracks of a Misratan militia.vi

PHOTO 7 - IS VBIED ATTACK IN MISRATA

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Week of 15 March 2015 Benghazi – On 19 March 2015, Ansar al-Sharia in Benghazi released a set of photos showing a graduating class from one of its training camps. According to the Long War Journal, the photographs are captioned thus: “This is the latest class of the protectors of the Shariah and the opposers of injustice graduating from the mujahideen training camps to join their brothers in the battlefronts in order to complete the journey of jihad.”vii

PHOTO 8 - ANSAR AL -SHARIA GRADUATES

Unspecified - On 18 March 2015, the Islamic State in Tripolitania released video and text that threatened Misratan politicians, Misratan militias, and the current UNSMIL dialogues taking place in Morocco.viii According to Al Wasat, an Islamic State leader by the name of Abu Mohammed Ferjani threatened to turn Misrata into a city like Mosul or Fallujah.ix

PHOTO 9 - THE ISLAMIC STATE THREATENS UNSMIL 18


Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

An Nawfaliyah – On 18 March 2015, the Islamic State in Tripolitania carried out a surprise attack on members of Battalion 166. According to reports from social media, the Islamic State first distracted sleeping soldiers, then murdered them with suppressed weapons.x The Associated Press reports that 10 members of the 166 Brigade were killed.xi

Sirte – On 17 March 2015, the Islamic State in Tripolitania released 20 foreign medical workers they had kidnapped one day prior in Sirte. According to Reuters, IS militants told the medical staff that they would remain safe as long as they treated any wounded fighters.xii

Derna – On 16 March 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica released photos showing their most recent hisba activities in Derna.xiii IS militants were photographed collecting and destroying water pipes.

PHOTO 10 - IS MILITANTS DESTROY WATER PIPES IN DERNA

Sirte – On 16 March 2015, the Islamic State in Tripolitania released a video showing the destruction of Sufi tombs in Sirte.xiv According to reports from social media, the man who appears in the first half of the video is named Hussein Al-Karamy.xv Prior to his appearances in Sirte, Al-Karamy was photographed in Derna.xvi

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

PHOTO 11 - IS MILITANTS DESTROY S UFI TOMBS

Sirte – On 16 March 2015, the Islamic State in Tripolitania released images armed vehicles that were destroyed in the armed clashes against Battalion 166 in and around Sirte.xvii

PHOTO 12 - BATTALION 166 VEHICLE DESTROYED BY THE IS

Sirte – On 15 March 2015, the Islamic State in Tripolitania released photos showing its troops patrolling the streets of Sirte.xviii

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

PHOTO 13 - IS CHECKPOINT IN SIRTE

Sirte/Harawa – On 15 March 2015, the Islamic State in Tripolitania eulogized the recently deceased Ahmed Al-Rwaisy.xix Known also as Abu Zakaria al-Tunisi, Al-Rwaisy was killed during clashes between the Islamic State and Battalion 166. According to the New York Times, Al-Rwaisy was the mastermind behind the assassination of Tunisian politicians Chokri Belaid and Mohamed Brahmi.xx Prior to joining the Islamic State, Al-Rwaisy helped lead Ansar al-Sharia in Tunisia.

PHOTO 14 - ABU ZAKARIA AL-TUNISI MEMORIALIZED BY IS 21


Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Misrata – On 15 March 2015, the Islamic State in Tripolitania carried out VBIED attacks on the barracks of Battalion 166 and an unknown target in the Qasr Ahmed neighborhood of Misrata.xxi According to reports from social media, the VBIED attack on Battalion 166’s barracks was carried out remotely.xxii

Tripoli – On 15 March 2015, the Islamic State in Tripolitania carried out a VBIED attack on a security headquarters in the Janzour district of Tripoli. According to Reuters, five policemen were injured and another was killed.xxiii

PHOTO 15 - IS VBIED IN TRIPOLI CRITICALLY INJURES POLICEMEN

Week of 8 March 2015 Sirte/Harawa – On 14 March 2015, the Islamic State in Tripolitania engaged in armed clashes with pro-GNC Battalion 166 – a contributor to Operation Sunrise. Battles took place outside of Sirte in the western area known as Daheera and the eastern city of Harawa. According to Reuters, 17 Islamic State fighters were killed, while others were taken back to Misrata for questioning.xxiv

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Ras Al-Hilal – On 14 March 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica posted photos of militants operating in the vicinity of Ras Al-Hilal, Libya.xxv In the past, extremist militias like Ansar alSharia used Ras Al-Hilal as a staging ground for their GRAD missile attacks against Labraq International Airport.

PHOTO 16 - IS MILITANTS OPERATING IN RAS AL-HILAL

Derna – On 12 March 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica released a set of photos titled, "Missionary Tour in Derna." The photos show citizens of Derna carrying out every-day activities under the protection of the Islamic State.xxvi

PHOTO 17 - IS ACTIVITIES IN D ERNA 23


Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Unspecified – On 12 March 2015, the Islamic State in Tripolitania released a video in which a man speaking Tebu calls for more Toubou tribesmen to join.xxvii This was the first time the Islamic State in Libya released a video in the Tebu language.

PHOTO 18 - IS MILITANT CALLS FOR MORE TOUBOU TO JOIN

Tripoli – On 12 March 2015, the Islamic State in Tripolitania carried out a VBIED attack on the Dahmani Police Station in the Zawiyat Dahmani neighborhood.xxviii

PHOTO 19 - IS CARRIES OUT VBIED ATTACK IN TRIPOLI

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Benghazi – On 11 March 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica released a set of photos promoting their military activities throughout Benghazi. IS militants are photographed using 81mm mortars, 120mm mortars, and a 155mm howitzer. xxix

PHOTO 20 - IS MILITANTS U SE 155MM HOWITZERS

Week of 1 March 2015 Ghani Oilfield – On 6 March 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica carried out an attack on the Ghani Oilfield in central Libya, killing 11 guards and kidnapping at least 10 foreigners. Reports suggest that seven guards were beheadedxxx, while another three foreign workers remain unaccounted for.xxxi

Derna – On 5 March 2015, The Islamic State in Cyrenaica released a video a member of the Shahhat Security Directorate and a Colonel in the Al Jaweifi Brigade were executed at pointblank.xxxii While the video does feature the Islamic State’s black standard and a “nasheed”, it does not contain extensive post-production work like many other IS videos.

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

PHOTO 21 - IS EXECUTES TWO LIBYAN A RMY MEMBERS

Benghazi – On 5 March 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica released a video showing their recent activity in Benghazi. The video begins with an Egyptian man calling for youth around the world to join the jihad in Libya. The video ends with Islamic State militants carrying out drive-by shootings on civilians whom they call “sahawat”, or supporters of the Libyan Army.xxxiii

PHOTO 22 - IS CARRIES OUT DRIVE-BY SHOOTING IN BENGHAZI

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Derna – On 3 March 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica released a set of photos showing residents of Derna pledging allegiance to the Islamic State. The outdoor event appears to have gathered hundreds of attendants.xxxiv

PHOTO 23 - IS EVENT IN DERNA GATHERS HUNDREDS OF ATTENDANTS

Mabruk Oilfield – On 2 March 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica carried out coordinated attacks on the Mabruk, Bahi, and Dahra oilfields in central Libya.xxxv Islamic State militants shelled the oilfields, engaged in armed clashes, and subsequently captured at least two of the three oilfields.xxxvi The Islamic State also carried out an attack on the Mabruk Oilfield on in early February 2015, which left at least 12 dead.

Benghazi – On 2 March 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica released a video showing a VBIED attack carried out in Benghazi.xxxvii The attack was carried out by a foreign fighter – most likely a man from Tunisia.

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

PHOTO 24 - TUNISIAN FOREIGN FIGHTER CARRIES OUT SUICIDE BOMBING IN BENGHAZI

Week of 22 February 2015 Benghazi – On 28 February 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica released a video calling for foreign fighters to come to Libya.xxxviii The video was recorded in the Leithi neighborhood of Benghazi – an Ansar al-Sharia stronghold. The promotional video concludes with a drive-by assassination. According to reports from social media, the man assassinated is Saiqa Special Forces member Ibrahim Mitri.xxxix

PHOTO 25 - IS MILITANTS CALL FOR FOREIGN F IGHTERS IN BENGHAZI 28


Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Unspecified – On 27 February 2015, the Islamic State in Tripolitania released a video named, “A Message to the Brothers in Tawheed.” In the video, a non-Libyan man calls for foreign fighters to come to Libya and fight against General Khalifa Haftar.xl

PHOTO 26 - IS MILITANT CALLS FOR FOREIGN FIGHTERS IN TRIPOLITANIA

Unspecified – On 24 February 2015, the Islamic State in Tripolitania released a promotional video of the two foreigners involved in the attack on the Corinthia Hotel in Tripoli.xli According to SITE Intel Group, the video is titled, “Convoys of the MartyrdomSeekers” and is the first of more to come.xlii

PHOTO 27 - IS FOREIGN FIGHTER DELIVERS SPEECH PRIOR TO CORINTHIA ATTACK 29


Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Benghazi – On 23 February 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica released a set of photos displaying their recent military action throughout Benghazi.xliii

PHOTO 28 - A MEMBER OF THE ISLAMIC STATE ENGAGES IN BATTLE

Tripoli – On 22 February 2015, the Islamic State in Tripolitania claimed responsibility for the double-IED attack on the Iranian Embassy in the Ben Ashour neighborhood of Tripoli.xliv

Week of 15 February 2015 Unspecified – On 21 February 2015, the Islamic State in Libya released a video message that threatened politicians and businessmen from Misrata.

PHOTO 29 - IS THREATENS MISRATAN POLITICIANS

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Al-Qubbah – On 20 February 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica carried out at least two simultaneous VBIED attacks in the eastern city of Al-Qubbah. In their official statement, the Islamc State called the VBIED attacks revenge for the recent Egyptian airstrikes carried out in the eastern city of Derna.xlv The attacks targeted the local Security Directorate building, the house of Speaker of the House Agila Saleh Issa, and a nearby fuel station. At least 45 people were killed as a result. According to The National, the attacks were carried out Bitar Al Libi and Abu Abdullah Al Jazrawi.xlvi

PHOTO 30 - BITAR AL LIBI AND ABU ABDULLAH AL JAZRAWI PRIOR TO THE VBIED ATTACKS

Unspecified – On 19 February 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica released a set of photos showing the distribution of medical aide somewhere in eastern Libya.xlvii

Derna – On 18 February 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica carried out Hisba (accountability) activities by burning instruments in Derna.xlviii

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

PHOTO 31 - IS CARRYING OUT BURNING INSTRUMENTS IN DERNA

Sirte – On 18 February 2015, the Islamic State in Tripolitania released a set of photos showing off a parade they held in the city of Sirte.xlix A video later appeared on YouTube in which at least 25 IS trucks can be seen.l

Unspecified – On 17 February 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica released photos of their recent activities in eastern Libya. This most recent release shows boxes of cigarettes being destroyed by men wearing black masks and driving what appear to be newly acquired police vehicles.li

Sirte – On 15 February 2015, the Islamic State in Tripolitania released a video confirming the beheadings of 21 Egyptian Coptic Christians.lii The video was released by the Islamic State’s Al-Hayat media division.liii According to the Washington Post: “In the video, Islamic State fighters marched the Egyptians onto a stretch of coastline before forcing them to kneel and severing their heads. The brutal murders were portrayed as retaliation against what a masked fighter described as “the hostile Egyptian church.”liv Later reporting indicates that a large portion of ISIS members in Sirte are from Misrata.lv

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

PHOTO 32 - IS IN TRIPOLITANIA BEHEADS EGYPTIANS

Week of 8 February 2015 Sarir Oilfield – On 14 February 2015, El Sarir oilfield in southern Libya was attacked by unnamed perpetrators. The Sarir oilfield provides crude oil to the Hariga port in Tobruk, Libya.lvi Although unconfirmed, a Twitter account linked to IS in Libya posted pictures of a vehicle approaching an oilfield in Libya.lvii

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Benghazi – On 13 February 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica released a set of photos that appear to confirm their involvement in the VBIED attack on 6 February 2015.lviii

PHOTO 33 - COLLAGE GLORIFYING AN IS SUICIDE BOMBER IN BENGHAZI

Derna – On 13 February 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica released photos of their most recent floggings carried out in Derna. In this instance, at least seven youths were publically flogged for consuming alcohol.lix

PHOTO 34 - YOUTH P UBLICALLY FLOGGED IN DERNA

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Sirte – On 13 February 2015, the Islamic State in Tripolitania released a set of photos in which they claim to have received the repentance of 42 employees of the Ministry of Interior in Sirte.lx

PHOTO 35 - IS FORCES MAN TO OFFICIALLY REPENT

Sirte – On 13 February 2015, in addition to capturing a number of radio stations, the Islamic State in Tripolitania seized the Ibn Sina Hospital in Sirte. According to the Libya Herald, “A military convoy carrying IS flags reportedly surrounded the hospital this morning and ordered Misrata-based Central Libya Shield which has been providing security there to leave.”lxi

Sirte – On 13 February 2015, gunmen claiming to be members of the Islamic State jihadist group have seized control of a state-run radio station in Libya's coastal city of Sirte, residents said on Friday.lxii

Jihadist websites also posted pictures showing armed men sitting in front of microphones in a broadcasting studio and brandishing Kalashnikov assault rifles.lxiii

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

PHOTO 36 - IS TAKES OVER RADIO STATION IN SIRTE

Unspecified – On 12 February 2015, ISIS released the newest edition of its Dabiq magazine. The following is a passage taken from the magazine in which the recently kidnapped Egyptians in Libya are referenced: “This month, the soldiers of the Khilāfah in Wilāyat Tarābulus captured 21 Coptic crusaders, almost five years after the blessed operation against the Baghdad church executed in revenge for Kamilia Shehata, Wafa Constantine, and other sisters who were tortured and murdered by the Coptic Church of Egypt. The operation was planned by Hudhayfah al-Battāwī (rahimahullāh), wālī of Wilāyat Baghdad at the time, alongside the senior military commander, Abū Ibrāhīm azZaydī (rahimahullāh), both of whom played a crucial role – through their passion and zealousness – in preserving the morale of the Islamic State mujāhidīn after the martyrdom of Abū ‘Umar al-Baghdādī and Abū Hamzah alMuhājir (rahimahumallāh).”lxiv

Benghazi – On 11 February 2015, the hospital of Benghazi received, “40 human heads with no bodies” after a training camp in the Buatni Neighborhood was recaptured by the Libyan National Army. The training camp was previously occupied by the Shura Council of Benghazi Revolutionaries.lxv

Unspecified – On 10 February 2015, the Islamic State released a statement calling for Operation Libya Dawn fighters to repent to God.lxvi 36


Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

An Nawfaliyah – On 9 February 2015, the Islamic State was photographed arriving in An Nawfaliyah, a city located southwest of Bin Jawad.lxvii Initials reports suggest that there were clashes between Libya Dawn forces and ISIS forces.lxviii

Week of 1 February 2015 Benghazi – On 7 February 2015, a Palestinian man was reported to have died fighting for the Islamic State in Libya.lxix According to SkyNews Arabia, the man entered Libya via a tunnel somewhere along the Egyptian border.lxx

Benghazi – On 6 February 2015, two people were killed and 20 were injured after a car bomb exploded in the Al Leithi Neighborhood of Benghazi.lxxi lxxii

Mabruk Oilfield – On 4 February 2015, reports emerged stating that “extremists” attacked the Mabruk Oilfield, approximately 170km south of Sirte.lxxiii The Mabruk Oilfield is operated by Total Oil and produces roughly 70,000 bbl/d.lxxiv

Initial reports suggested that three foreigners were kidnapped, one of whom was French. France denied that any French citizens were kidnapped, while the Philippines confirmed that three of their oversea foreign workers went missing.lxxv Twelve people will killed overall.

Ain Marah - On 4 February 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica released a set of photos showings its recent troop activity in Ain Marah. The photos were released just days after clashes occurred between Islamic State forces and Libyan National Army Forces.lxxvi

Unspecified - On 4 February 2015, the Islamic State in Tripolitania released a set of photos showing their recent promotional activities somewhere in their self-declared state.

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Many of the photos in this release show attendants enjoying themselves at IS-led events.lxxvii

Unspecified - On 4 February 2015, a Twitter account associated with the Islamic State in Libya tweeted: [W]e the #Mujahideen of #IslamicState in #Libya ask #Muslims in #Tunisia, #Algeria #Morroco what are u waiting for Join #Ummah #Muhammad!lxxviii

Tripoli – On 3 February 2015, the Information Office of the Islamic State in Tripolitania released photos claiming an attack on a checkpoint in Tripoli’s Souq al-Jumaa.lxxix According to the Libya Herald, the bomb detonated near a building used by the Tripoli Revolutionaries’ Brigade.lxxx Although unconfirmed, the Herald and Al Wasat suggest that the attack was revenge for the Brigade’s involvement during the attack on the Corinthia Hotel.lxxxi

PHOTO 37 - PHOTOS OF AN IS VBIED ATTACK ON THE TRIPOLI SECURITY DIRECTORATE Sirte – According to reports from social media, the Islamic State in Tripolitania turned Qadhafi's Ouagadougou Conference Center in Sirte into a “command center.”lxxxii

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Week of 25 January 2015 Benghazi - On 29 January 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica released a set of updated photos of its recent troop activity throughout Benghazi.lxxxiii Benghazi - On 28 January 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica released a set of updated photos of its recent activity throughout Benghazi. This set of photos does not show any fighters, but instead displays the effects of the fighting in the city. Many of the photographed buildings are riddled with bullet holes and are overall dilapidated.lxxxiv Sirte - On 28 January 2015, the Information Office of the Islamic State in Tripolitania released photos showing new members in Sirte swearing allegiance to the Islamic State. According to the Islamic State, the men shown in the photographs are recent Christian converts.lxxxv

PHOTO 38 - CONVERTS OF THE ISLAMIC STATE Tripoli – On 27 January at approximately 0953 (UDT +2) a VBIED detonated outside of Tripoli’s Corinthia Hotel. No casualties were reported as a result of the explosion. Immediately following the blast five gunmen entered the hotel and engaged in a shootout with local security, leaving at least three guards dead. Witnesses claim that three other hotel staff members were injured. The Associated Press reported that the gunmen had taken three to five hostages on the hotel’s twentieth floor.lxxxvi

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

According to the BBC’s Rana Jawad, security officials of the Corinthia Hotel have been aware of possible threats for several days.lxxxvii A tweet posted by an account linked to the Islamic State in Tripolitania claims that the attack was revenge for the death of Abu Anas alLibi.lxxxviii The user claims that the attack was directed at the Corinthia Hotel because of its popularity among foreigners. However, hotel staff have stated that the hotel was “approximately 90% empty.” A security guard told the Associated Press that Omar al-Hassi usually stays at the hotel with security guards, but that they were not present at the time of the bombing and subsequent attack. Twitter users began posting images that allegedly show some of the gunmen who participated in the attack on the hotel.lxxxix The attack on the Corinthia Hotel left at least nine dead. Benghazi - On 26 January 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica released a set of photos of its recent troop activity in the Buhidima Neighborhood of Benghazi. IS troops can be seen climbing houses, viewing videos, and firing upon their opponents.xc

Week of 18 January 2015 Benghazi - On 20 January 2015, IS in Cyrenaica released photos of the distribution of aid in what they allege to be Benghazi.xci

PHOTO 39 - IS PASSES OUT SWEETS TO CHILDREN 40


Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Unspecified - On 20 January 2015, the Islamic State in Libya released an open letter to Sheikh Abdullah and Sheikh Mamoon.xcii Unspecified - On 20 January 2015, IS in Cyrenaica released a statement showing their most recent Hisba activities in eastern Libya.xciii Benghazi – On 18 January 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica released photos showing their most recent military activity in Benghazi.xciv Unspecified - On 18 January 2015, The Islamic State in Libya released a statement dividing Libya into three distinct regions. The statement also calls for foreign members of the Islamic State to travel to Libya.xcv

PHOTO 40 - IS DIVISION OF LIBYA – TARABULUS , FEZZAN , AND BARQA

Week of 11 January 2015 Tripoli – On 17 January a VBIED exploded Saturday in front of the Embassy of Algeria in Tripoli, injuring two security personnel. According to a Libyan security source, the two injured workers, whose condition is not alarming, were quickly transported to the hospital of the capital.xcvi

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Sabratha - On 17 January 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica released photos showing members distributing clothing and financial aid.xcvii Sirte - On 12 January 2015, the Islamic State in Tripolitania claimed responsibility for the kidnapping of 21 Christians.xcviii According to The Telegraph: “On January 3rd, Christian activists in Egypt had reported thirteen of their countrymen kidnapped in the Libyan town of Sirte, and that seven others had been kidnapped a week earlier.”xcix

PHOTO 41 - PHOTOS OF THE KIDNAPPED EGYPTIANS Sabratha - On 11 January 2015, the Islamic State in Tripolitania released photos allegedly showing their Hisba activities somewhere in western Libya. The photos were most likely taken in Sabratha.c

Week of 4 January 2015 Unspecified - On 8 January 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica released photos allegedly showing the execution of two Tunisian journalists.ci

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

PHOTO 42 - TUNISIANS ALLEGEDLY EXECUTED BY IS IN LIBYA Benghazi – On 7 January 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica released photos of recent troop activity throughout Benghazi.cii Unspecified – On 4 January 2015, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica released photos showing the execution of a man they labeled as an apostate.ciii

PHOTO 43 - "APOSTATE " EXECUTED BY THE IS

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Week of 28 December 2014 Benghazi – On 3 January 2014, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica posted photos of their recent destruction to civilian homes throughout Benghazi. This set of photos contains a photograph showing a civilian who died as a result of the bulldozing.civ Sokhna – On 3 January 2014, the Islamic State in Fezzan claimed responsibilitycv for an attack on a Sokhna checkpoint in southern Libya.cvi According to the Libya Herald, nineteen people were killed in the attack.cvii

PHOTO 44 - IS IN FEZZAN ATTACKS SOKHNA Tobruk – On 30 December at approximately 1315 (UDT +2) an explosion occurred outside the headquarters of the House of Representatives.cviii At the time the House of Representatives met in the Dar Al Salam hotel. According to the spokesman for the General Chief of Staff, Ahmed Al-Mismari, the vehicle exploded in the hotel car park and was not a suicide attack as initially suggested.cix The most current reports state that a total of 19 people were injured as a result of the explosion.cx 44


Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Week of 21 December 2014 Tripoli – According to multiple sources, a VBIED detonated outside of the Diplomatic Security Headquarters in Tripoli on the morning of 27 December. cxiThe Diplomatic Security Headquarters is located in the Sidi al-Masry district of Tripoli.cxii The jihadist Islamic State (IS) organisation said it carried out the bombing, according to the US-based monitoring group SITE Intelligence. "The provincial division of the Islamic State (IS) for Tripoli, Libya, claimed a car bombing at the diplomatic security building in the capital, and provided a photo of the blast," SITE said.cxiii Ajdabiya – On 26 December 2014, a perfume company was damaged by a VBIED early Friday morning in Ajdabiya. There were no reported casualties.cxiv

Benghazi – On 25 December 2015, an Al Wasat article reported that IS in Cyrenaica published a video in which an "apostate" is burned alive. The video supposedly takes place in the Al Leithi Neighborhood of Benghazi. The group claiming responsibility is led by Mohammed Nus Idrissi. Idrissi was recently released by Jordanian authorities in exchange for captured Jordanian diplomats.cxv

PHOTO 45 - A LIBYAN ARMY MEMBER B URNED BY ISIS 45


Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Week of 14 December 2014 Tripoli - At approximately 1200 (UDT +2) on 16 December 2014 social media users began circulating a photo alleging to show a car bomb that exploded near the Security Directorate Headquarters in Tripoli. According to accounts from social media no casualties were reported.cxvi On 17 December 2014, the original source claimed that ISIS claimed responsibility for the car bomb via a Twitter page.cxvii Ajdabiya - On 15 December 2014, a military police building near the eastern gate entrance to Ajdabiya was targeted and subsequently damaged by an explosive device. Witnesses said that an explosive device was placed under one of the building’s windows and caused damage to the building while injuring no one.cxviii

Week of 7 December 2014 Benghazi – On 8 December 2014, the Islamic State in Cyrenaica posed photos allegedly showing their military progress throughout Benghazi.cxix

Week of 30 November 2014 Ajdabiya - At approximately 1125 (UDT +2) on 1 December 2014, a car bomb exploded outside the Ajdabiya Security Directorate.cxx The security directorate is located near the Ajdabiya city center on al-Modoryia Road.cxxi Initial reports suggest that three to seven people were wounded.cxxii Eyewitnesses reported that the vehicle that exploded was a white Hyundai.cxxiii

Week of 23 November 2014 Unspecified - The Islamic State (IS) released the fifth issue of its English magazine “Dabiq,” focusing on the coordinated pledges from jihadi groups in Algeria, Libya, Sinai, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen, and featuring a message attributed to British captive John Cantile discussing the recent attacks in Australia, Canada, and the U.S., as well as musing what he would do as American President.

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

In the newest edition, ISIS claims Libya has its strongest presence outside of Iraq and Syria. It continues to state that “an abundance of arms and the condition of mayhem after Gaddafi was ideal for jihad.”cxxiv Derna – On 23 November 2014, The Islamic Army, a militia in Derna, released photos of its recent publicity campaign in Derna. Photos show groups of children meeting with Islamic Army members. In addition, Islamic Army members passed out pamphlets to young men in Derna’s vegetable market. The photos are similar to those released by ISIS members conducting “charity” campaigns in Iraq and Syria. The Islamic Army is one of the strongest militias present in Derna. Last week they were among many foreign groups from across the Middle East to pledge allegiance to ISIS and Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. The ISIS magazine Dabiq claims its strongest foreign following is in Derna.cxxv

Week of 16 November 2014 Yemen – On 22 November 2014, a statement was released by spokesmen for Al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula has acknowledged Libyan extremists in Derna pledge to ISIS and its leader Abu Bakr al Baghdadi. The statement also called for all Libyan “Mujahideen” such as Ansar al-Sharia in Benghazi to pledge their support for ISIS and Abu Bakr al Baghdadi.cxxvi Benghazi – On 16 November 2014, the Islamic State in Libya has released photos of nine suicide bombers who died in Benghazi. According to the photos, five were Tunisian, two were Egyptian, and two were Libyans.cxxvii The Islamic State in Cyrenaica also released a statement taking credit for the series of VBIED attacks on 12 November 2014cxxviii, men pledging allegiance to the IScxxix, and photos of a convoy in Derna.cxxx

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

PHOTO 46 - IS CONVOY NEAR D ERNA Tripoli - A group in Tripoli claimed responsibility for the bombings of the UAE and Egyptian embassies.cxxxi The group also posted photos declaring their allegiance to the Islamic State.cxxxii cxxxiii

Week of 9 November 2014 Tripoli - At approximately 06:45 (UDT +2) on 13 November 2014, two car bombs exploded near the Egyptian and UAE embassies in the Al-Seyaheyya and Zawiyat Al-Dahmani neighborhoods of Tripoli.cxxxiv No casualties have been reported, though photoscxxxv show significant damage to vehicles and buildings near the embassies. Both embassies have been vacant since the inception of Operation Libya Dawn.cxxxvi Marj - On 13 November 2014, two Libyan National Army (LNA) soldiers and one other were slightly injured as a result of a bomb attack on a checkpoint in Marj.cxxxvii Mohamed Hejazi, a spokesman for Operation Dignity, told the Libya Herald that a gelatina bomb had been thrown at the checkpoint at the Saha Al-Karima roundabout, close to the town’s main Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq mosque.cxxxviii The car from which the bomb was thrown then drove away at speed.cxxxix 48


Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Ajdabiya – On 12 November 2014, a car bomb was discovered in Ajdabiya and subsequently dismantled by the Libyan National Army.cxl

Al Bayda - At approximately 11:57 (UDT +2) on 12 November 2014, a vehicle carrying explosives detonated at the military checkpoint outside Labraq International Airport.cxli Eyewitnesses report that after stopping to be searched by security officials, the driver of the vehicle detonated explosives. Current reports state that four members of the military have been confirmed killed.cxlii Benghazi - At approximately 12:07 (UDT +2) on 12 November 2014, Twitter users reported the detonation of a car bomb outside of the Al Shalal cafe, located in the Al Majuri neighborhood in central Benghazi. Eye witnesses report that a vehicle loaded with explosives was parked on the street outside the café. Reports indicate that there PHOTO 47 - VBIED IN BENGHAZI

were no casualties as a result of the bombing,

however the café and surrounding shops were destroyed. No indication if the café was the intended target, neighborhoods in central Benghazi have been mostly abandoned due to continued fighting.cxliii At approximately 17:01 (UDT +2) another car bomb was discovered in the Ras Obeida neighborhood of Benghazi.cxliv Tobruk - At approximately 11:00 (UDT +2) on 12 November 2014, a large car bomb exploded at a crowded intersection, near the Intelligence Headquarters, in Tobruk. Eye witnesses report the driver of the vehicle refused to stop at a military checkpoint, continuing on to a crowded intersection.cxlv At approximately, 11:40 (UDT +2) vehicles damaged by the initial blast exploded at the site of the car bombing. Initial reports suggested a second vehicle was involved in the attack, however later reports proved that there was not a second vehicle involved.cxlvi

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Final reports confirm two people have been killed and at least an additional 20 had been taken for medical treatment.cxlvii Derna – On 11 November 2014, three young activists were found beheaded in Derna, eastern Libya. The three, who had relayed information about the city through social media, had been kidnapped earlier in the month. The activists have been named as Siraj Ghatish, Mohamed Battu and Mohamed al-Mesmari.cxlviii Two of the three activists in Derna had been kidnapped three months earlier.cxlix Benghazi – On 11 November 2014, a Libyan Army soldier stationed at Benina Airport was captured, forced to appear on videocl, and then beheaded.cli According to Al Wasat, the group responsible calls itself the “Father of Injustice Battalion”.clii

PHOTO 48 - SOLDIER BEHEADED IN BENGHAZI Shahat – On 9 November 2014, unidentified persons set off three car bombs in the city of Shahat in eastern Libya near the building where the Libyan Prime Minister Abdullah alThinni held talks with special UN envoy to Libya Bernardino Leon. cliii Eye witnesses claimed the perpetrators parked vehicle packed with explosives and detonated them remotely. Though there was significant material damage, no deaths or injuries were reported. The intended target was the Security Directorate Building.cliv Days later two suspects from Derna were arrested in connection to the car bombings.clv

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Week of 2 November 2014 Sirte – On 4 November 2014, the Islamic State in Tripolitania released photos of lectures given by Turki al-Bin’ali.clvi The original release also contains links to Turki al-Bin’ali’s lectures on YouTube.clvii

Week of 19 October 2014 Derna - After pledging allegiance to ISIS, Darnah's Islamic Youth Shura Council (MSSI)clviii launched an 'Islamic Court'.clix The group announced that its leader is a Yemeni named Abu Taleb al-Jazrawey.clx According to Al Wasat, Al-Jazrawey moved to Derna in mid-September with a number of senior ISIS members.clxi

PHOTO 49 - MSSI LAUNCHES ISLAMIC COURT IN DERNA

Week of 5 October 2014 Benghazi – On 10 October 2014, a car bomb exploded near the Tibesti Hotel, killing one and injuring two others.clxii

Week of 7 September 2014

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Benghazi – On 12 September 2014, Tareq Ramadan Misrati was killed by an IED in the Al Majori Neighborhood of Benghazi. Tareq Misrati was the brother of former intelligence officer Colonel Juma Misrati who was assassinated in June 2013.clxiii

Week of 17 August 2014 Derna – Released on 20 August 2014, a video shows an execution-style killing by an armed group at a football stadium in eastern Libya. clxivAn amateur video published on social media sites shows the purported execution of an Egyptian man apparently organized by an armed group called the Shura Council of Islamic Youth in the eastern city of Derna.clxv

PHOTO 50 - PUBLIC E XECUTION IN DERNA

Week of 20 July 2014 Benghazi – On 21 July 2014, a militia in Benghazi beheaded a Filipino construction worker, allegedly for being a non-Muslim. The beheading marks the first Filipino death in Libya since the 2011 revolution, according to the Philippine Department of Foreign Affairs. It is also the first reported beheading in the country since 2011. The construction worker was kidnapped July 15 at a checkpoint in the Gwarsha district of Benghazi. A department spokesperson told media that the kidnappers demanded a ransom of $160,000. clxvi

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Week of 15 June 2014 Benghazi – On 19 June 2014, a bodyguard for former National Transitional chairman Mustafa Abdul-Jalil was killed by an IED.clxvii

Week of 16 March 2014 Benghazi – On 17 March 2014, a car bomb targeting a military academy in Benghazi killed eight soldiers and wounded another 12.clxviii

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Locations of ISIS and Affiliates’ Activites

MAP 5 - LOCATIONS OF MAJOR IS ACTIVITIES FROM WEST TO E AST : SABRATHA , TRIPOLI , SUKNAH , SIRTE, AN NAWFALIYAH , BENGHAZI , DERNA .

54


Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Photos of ISIS and Affiliates’ Activities

PHOTO 51 - THE BEHEADING OF A LIBYAN ARMY SOLDIER BY IS

PHOTO 52 - THE CORPSE OF A LIBYAN ARMY SOLDIER BURNED BY IS 55


Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

PHOTO 53 - PHOTOS RELEASED BY IS AFTER A VBIED EXPLOSION OUTSIDE THE TRIPOLI SECURITY DIRECTORATE

PHOTO 54 - THE DESTRUCTION OF TOMBS BY IS

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

PHOTO 55 - THE DESTRUCTION OF A STATUE IN DERNA BY IS

PHOTO 56 - COMMANDERS OF IS AFFILIATES IN BENGHAZI. FROM RIGHT TO LEFT - MOHAMMED AL-ZAHAWI (ANSAR AL-SHARIA), WISSAM BIN HUMAID (LIBYA SHIELD ONE), AND JALAL MAKHZOUM (RAFALLAH ALSAHATI BRIGADE)

57


Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

PHOTO 57 - IS AFFILIATES FIGHTING THE LIBYAN NATIONAL ARMY IN AIN MARAH

PHOTO 58 - IS FIGHTERS IN BENGHAZI

58


Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

PHOTO 59 - IS FIGHTERS IN AIN MARAH

PHOTO 60 - AN IS FIGHTER PLANTING A FLAG OVER IS CONTROLLED TERRITORY IN BENGHAZI

59


Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

PHOTO 61 - A BANNER IN BENGHAZI DECLARING IS'S OBJECTIVE TO ESTABLISH SHARIA LAW ACROSS LIBYA

PHOTO 62 - A CONVOY OF NEW IS HISBA (MORALITY POLICE) VEHICLES IN BENGHAZI 60


Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

PHOTO 63 - A CONVOY OF IS FIGHTERS AND VEHICLES IN DERNA

PHOTO 64 - A RALLY AMONG FIGHTERS AND RESIDENTS IN DERNA

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

PHOTO 65 - AN AFRICAN CHRISTIAN CONVERTING TO ISLAM AND PLEDGING ALLEGIANCE TO IS IN SIRTE

PHOTO 66 - A RALLY OF YOUNG MEN PLEDGING ALLEGIANCE TO IS IN SIRTE

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

PHOTO 67 - AN IS FIGHTER GIVING DAWA (CHARITY) TO A CHILD IN DERNA

PHOTO 68 - A CHILD IN DERNA SHOWING SUPPORT FOR IS

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

Endnotes Pbs.twimg.com,. 2015. Accessed March 26 2015. https://pbs.twimg.com/media/CA9UZuSXEAAYtda.jpg:large. i

Nasher.me,. 2015. '‫'إتالف أسحار وجدت في بيت ساحرة كانت تؤذي المسلمين بسحر العطف والصرف | ناشر‬. Accessed March 26 2015. http://nasher.me/ashar/. ii

"Suicide Bomber Kills 5 Operation Sunrise Members in Sirte Power Station Attack: Report." Libya Herald. March 25, 2015. Accessed March 26, 2015. http://www.libyaherald.com/2015/03/25/suicidebomber-kills-5-operation-sunrise-members-in-sirte-power-station-attack-report/. iii

Hosted.ap.org,. 2015. 'News From The Associated Press'. Accessed March 26 2015. http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/stories/M/ML_LIBYA?SITE=AP. iv

Twitter,. 2015. 'Libya Al Hurra On Twitter'. Accessed March 25 2015. https://twitter.com/LibyaAlHurraTV/status/580525588928159745. v

Twitter,. 2015. 'James Wheeler On Twitter'. Accessed March 25 2015. https://twitter.com/wheelertweets/status/580422699396165632. vi

Roggio, Bill. 2015. 'Ansar Al Sharia In Libya Releases Photos Of Graduates From Its ‘Mujahideen Training Camps’ | The Long War Journal'. Longwarjournal.Org. Accessed March 19 2015. http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2015/03/ansar-al-sharia-in-libya-releases-photos-ofgraduates-from-its-mujahideen-training-camps.php. vii

Nasher.me,. 2015. ' ‫ بجنود الدوله اإلسالمية في سرت – والية‬166 ‫ عن غدر مرتدي كتيبة‬, ‫كلمة للشيخ المجاهد أبومحمد الفرجاني‬ ‫'طرابلس | ناشر‬. Accessed March 19 2015. http://nasher.me/kalema1/. viii

‫ 'العثور على رأس سائق في منطقة الفتائح جنوب شرق درنة‬.2015 .,‫'بوابة الوسط‬. Accessed March 19 2015. http://www.alwasat.ly/ar/news/libya/66437/. ix

Twitter,. 2015. 'James Wheeler On Twitter'. Accessed March 19 2015. https://twitter.com/wheelertweets/status/578364699798081536. x

News, ABC. 2015. 'IS In Libya Kills 12 Fighters Loyal To Tripoli Government'. ABC News. Accessed March 19 2015. http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/libya-clash-islamic-state-militantskills-10-troops-29719012. xi

Greg Botelho and Ayman Kekly, CNN. 2015. 'Official: ISIS Attacks Libyan Hospital, Kidnaps -- Then Frees -- 20 Foreigners - CNN.Com'. CNN. Accessed March 19 2015. http://www.cnn.com/2015/03/17/world/isis-libya-kidnapped-medical-workers/index.html. xii

Nasher.me,. 2015. '‫'ضمن نشاطات رجال الحسبة “إتالف ممنوعات ُمصادرة من المقاهي” | ناشر‬. Accessed March 17 2015. http://nasher.me/hisba8/. xiii

Facebook.com,. 2015. 'Facebook'. Accessed March 17 2015. https://www.facebook.com/video.php?v=913349838716944&set=vb.894756380576290&type=2&the ater. xiv

Twitter,. 2015. 'Themaghrebinote On Twitter'. Accessed March 17 2015. https://twitter.com/MaghrebiNote/status/577596591462309889. xv

Twitter,. 2015. 'Themaghrebinote On Twitter'. Accessed March 17 2015. https://twitter.com/MaghrebiNote/status/577596790272311296. xvi

Twitter,. 2015. 'Matog Saleh On Twitter'. Accessed March 16 2015. https://twitter.com/MatogSaleh/status/577373796815917056. xvii

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Twitter,. 2015. '3 Thinker On Twitter'. Accessed March 16 2015. https://twitter.com/GLA_____/status/577349563461214209. xviii

Twitter,. 2015. 'James Wheeler On Twitter'. Accessed March 16 2015. https://twitter.com/wheelertweets/status/577325795154198528. xix

Press, The. 2015. 'Islamic State Group Reports Tunisian Leader Killed In Libya'. Nytimes.Com. Accessed March 19 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/2015/03/17/world/middleeast/ap-mllibya-islamic-state.html. xx

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Reuters,. 2015. 'UPDATE 1-Islamic State Fighters And Force Allied With Tripoli Clash In Central Libya'. Accessed March 16 2015. http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/03/14/libya-securityidUSL6N0WG0QP20150314 xxiv

Nasher.me,. 2015. '‫'صور من خط الرباط “الرباط في الجهة الغربية من مدينة درنة – منطقة رأس الهالل” | ناشر‬. Accessed March 16 2015. http://nasher.me/raashelal/. xxv

Nasher.me,. 2015. '‫'ضمن نشاطات المكتب الدعوي “جولة دعوية في مدينة درنة” | ناشر‬. Accessed March 16 2015. http://nasher.me/jawla-darna/. xxvi

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Nasher.me,. 2015. ' ‫ضمن مالحم الخالفة في بنغازي [دك معاقل الصحوات وجند الطاغوت في منطقة المساكن بقنابر الهاون‬ ‫'والهاوزر] | ناشر‬. Accessed March 12 2015. http://nasher.me/haw-zer/. xxix

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

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xxxviii

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Nasher.me,. 2015. '‫ اإلغارة على تمركز لجند الطاغوت قرب مديرية المساكن | ناشر‬.. ‫'ضمن مالحم بنغازي‬. Accessed February 23 2015. http://nasher.me/egara1/. xliii

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

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Beheadings, Car Bombings, and the Islamic State’s Expansion in Libya

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Times of Malta,. 2015. 'New Video, Pictures - At Least Nine Killed In Corinthia Tripoli Hotel Attack, Assailants Killed By Grenade - PM To Make 68Statement In Parliament '. Accessed February 11 lxxxvi


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Profile for Libya Institute for Advanced Studies

Terrorism in Libya - 26 March 2015  

LIAS Report on Terrorism in Libya 26 March 2015

Terrorism in Libya - 26 March 2015  

LIAS Report on Terrorism in Libya 26 March 2015

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