For this month of May Libertas team brings to you a hot plate.
Since the man started the process of self-expression by the means of
speech or arts he also learned how to limit the ones that expressed themselves the most.
But because in mankind history man is in constant need for self-expression
and with that in mind mankind also learned how to establish rules and protect
the right to obtain and publish information or opinions without any kind of
censorship or fear of punishment and after all of this interesting develop this month we explore “Press freedom”.
With this issue Libertas team besides of letting you know about other
situations related to the unrespect of Press freedom in the world we also encourage
you to reflect about this articles written by our contributors from several points in the world, to share your thoughts and to induce further discussion. Margarida Semedo and François Maizières
Libertas n38 - Internet and press freedoom
Jack Shaka writes on issues affecting bottom billion economies.He is the author of ‘Different Pigments’ a foray into race,racism and identity,’The Refugee: An odyssey into the refugee life’ and co-author of ‘Silent No MoreYouth Legislative Theatre Process in Kenya.’ Vladi Wander Bravkova. Journalist and college teacher by occupation. Yoga teacher in her leisure time. Currently travelling New Zealand, heading to Fiji, Indonesia and SE Asia.
Mauro Giordano To him she would unveil her soul’s shy nakedness, to one who was but schooled in the discharging of a formal rite rather than to him, a priest of the eternal
imagination, transmuting the daily bread of experience into the radiant body of everliving life.’ James Joyce in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
Evgenia Kostyanaya. Works as a translator. Loves travelling and discovering new places, meeting new people, speaking foreign languages and taking too many pictures. Is fond of learning wherever it is possible.
François Maizières, interested in everythings, blogger and member of the Libertas’ staff.
Cover • The Price for Press Freedom in Africa • A shot of promotion • A things about press freedoom • A few things • Both sides of the social media
4 8 11 13 15
Partner • How can the UE do better in Balkan Country ?
• The Republic of San Morino
Arrests, Imprisonment, and Death The Price for Press Freedom in Africa
he World Press Freedom Index (WPFI) 2013, released by Reporters Without Borders (RWB), does not have good news for journalists all over the world. In 2013 alone, 15 Journalists and 10 “Netizens” were killed and, as if that is not bad enough, another 179 journalists and 148 Netizens were imprisoned worldwide. Somalia remains the worst place for journalists in the East African region. According to RWB, the World Press Freedom Index is broken down by region and, by means of weighing based on the population of each region, it can be used to produce a score from zero to 100 in which zero represents total respect for media freedom. Africa has a score of 34.3 while North Africa and Middle East have a score
of 48.5.That means Africa is performing better than North Africa in terms of Press Freedom. Many might be wondering why North Africa is classified differently from the rest of Africa. Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is a term that was coined as a result of geopolitics. The worst place for journalists in the continent is North Africa. While the best place for journalists in Africa is Namibia at position 19 followed by Cape Verde and Ghana. These are countries that rarely dominate the news headlines but they have a conducive atmosphere for journalists. Uganda-Position 104 WPFI According to a report titled, ‘No Gains: Press Freedom still Fragile,’ by the
Human Rights Network for Journalists released in 2013, they documented 82 cases of attacks and abuse against journalists as they executed their duties. The report also cites cases of threats made to the media by the executive in Uganda; “In the last four days, I have launched three big projects… the Daily Monitor never published any story about the developments, not one. So, what are you here for? If you don’t want to report [what I do], go elsewhere. Why should we license you? Don’t think it is over; you either report or you will see!” the President of Uganda told the press.’’ The report further states that; “We are also going to deal with you (media) if you continue like that. Why don’t you ask them do you have the proof? Somebody tell lies and you go ahead to publicize we shall close your radio. If you go bankrupt don’t ask me because me I must protect Ugandans. I must defend this constitution,” President Museveni said on 24th December 2012
while addressing the press at State House Nakasero’’ The reports provide data on the number of attacks against journalists since 2009 as follows; Rwanda-Position 161 WPFI Another bad place for journalists is Rwanda. The media in Rwanda played a key role in exacerbating the Genocide in 1994.It is a country haunted by the ghosts of its past. The WPFI cites media outlets such as Radio Télévision Libre des Milles Collines(RTLM) and the newspaper Kangura that were responsible for the genocide that took place.
“In 2013 alone, 15 Journalists and 10 “Netizens” were killed” Rwanda is not a safe place for journalists with critics of the government being ‘dealt with‘ by the security forces. The WPFI writes that;
‘The authorities use laws against “genocide ideology” and “sectarianism” to punish freedom of expression, which leads to self-censorship.’ Three journalists were imprisoned since the beginning of 2013 by the government of Rwanda but since 2012 several journalists have received lengthy jail sentences as the crack down on the media continues in Rwanda. The year 2010 will remain the worst year for the media in Rwanda as cited in the WPFI 2013; ‘The country’s two main newspapers at the time (both antigovernment),Umuseso and Umuvugizi, were shut down for six months by the regimecontrolled Media High Council. Several journalists were given prison sentences while others fled the country. Respected journalist JeanLéonard Rugambage, deputy editor of Umuvugizi, was shot dead in front of his home in Kigali on 24 June, 2010.’ Somalia-Position 175 WPFI
This is the worst place for journalists in Africa at the moment based on the tumultuous years that journalists have had in the area. The year 2013 has one journalist dead so far. It is impossible to
tell how many more will fall by the end of the year. In over two years, 11 journalists have been killed in Somalia in a trend that has to stop. Somali journalists have gone into exile in Kenya and other countries to escape death threats or pressure put on their families. Others have since given up or are filing their stories about Somalia in Kenya at the border point with Somalia. As Al-Shabaab militia threatens their lives, they are constantly on the run. Kidnapping has become a huge business since there are huge ransoms being paid in order for the kidnapped victims to be released. Kenya-Position 71 WPFI Kenya has made significant steps towards making itself a better place for journalists. In March 2013 during the election period, the government of Kenya threatened to shut down social media because ‘it was fueling hate speech.’ There was a huge response from the social media users about this. The worst time to be a journalist in Kenya was in 2009 right after the preceding year of ethnic war. Former President Mwai Kibaki signed into law a bill that curtailed press freedom. The law gave the government power on grounds of national security to raid media outlets; control broadcast
content and even tap phones. This was a stark reminder of the dark days of 2006 when The Standard Media Group was raided by security forces dressed in balaclava helmets. In 2005, Kenya saw one of its media outlets attacked by the former First Lady Lucy Kibaki. She stormed the Nation Media Group and held it hostage till dawn. While
there she slapped cameraman Clifford Derrick who was taking photos of her. Jack Shaka
a shot of promotion branches of photography like macro and night photography, which I really enjoy to experiment with.
Rilind Hoxha is an amater photographer who, by sharing his passion on internet, get more and more welknow on the web.
Libertas : How did the internet help you with photography?
Libertas : First of all, can you present you ?
Riki : Well, all I learned came from the internet; Iâ€™m a self-taught photographer. I spent a lot of time reading and watching tutorials, speaking with other photographer on some forums, blogs, social networks, or other websites (Karl Taylor, Art Wolfe, Adorama, etc.). I did not follow any course specifically about photography, I only followed my inner self. The ideas that I had I always tried to translate them fast into projects. The internet also offers me connections all around the world (with Flicker, 500pxâ€Ś),
Riki : I was born on the 23rd of August, 1990. I graduated with finance and accounting as a major. My first contact with photography was in May, 2010, when I received a camera as a gift. Since then, taking pictures is not only my hobby, it has become my obsession. Personally I mostly shoot daytime long-exposure, landscape, and architecture, but I never run away from any photographic opportunity and always challenge myself with different
and in this way new inspiration.
Libertas : Do you have some results?
Libertas : How did you start to promote your work on the internet?
Riki : Yeah, the internet brought me some notoriety and due to that, my job was promoted everywhere in the world and a lot of opportunities came to me. First, I had the opportunity to organize an exhibition of my works. The Culture Info Centre saw my works and contacted me to offer me the exhibition. Some other jobs include: photographer for Skopje fashion week, international jobs like in Kosovo, and for some jewellery stores.
Riki : I start with my Facebook fan page [Rilind H |Photography|]one year ago. I was posting content on a daily basis, such as some of my pictures or some content I found which could be interesting for other amateur photographers. Continuity brings people and now more and more people have started to follow my work and also interact with my page. Once I was sure that things were going better I started to create my own content by making tutorials about different photography techniques and also I created some Photoshop tutorials
This is always an on-going process and it is still in the beginning but I am already satisfied. Now people see me differently, I start to have a little bit of notoriety. Some people can recognize my work, even without a watermark. The internet
is definitely a great place to promote my work, share it, and meet new people. Libertas : Did you have some trouble? Riki : I can’t really say I had some trouble with using the internet. The biggest problem I have is when some official page, institution, or administration shares my pictures without asking or at least giving recognition for the photographer. I don’t really care about who uses my picture and for which goal, but I would like to know when someone wants to use it and to see my name next to my work; that is why I started to use watermark. Also, in the Balkans, people are not yet used to buying online, so most of my customers do not actually come from the Balkans, I don’t personally know them but there are official online photography stores where they print and ship any kind of photos. When some people from my region want to buy some pictures, they directly contact me and I do everything for them: print the picture, frame it, bring it. I like this way because I can make sure the quality will be optimal. After al, photography is my hobby and I take pleasure in doing it. I would not like to be a professional photographer because then there is no pleasure anymore when you do something because you have to and not because you want to. Libertas : Do you have some tips? Riki : For your online promotion, just show the best of your work that will give you more impact. For instance, after my
trip to Paris, I had 1500 pictures and I just shared 50 out of them. Never give up, put up content everyday; continuity bring people. After all, for photography, you should keep going and working. Do not hate Photoshop; use it in a clever way. Try different styles, use the internet to learn more techniques and tips. Never forget that talent is always beaten by hard work. Interview made by François Maizières with Rilind Hoxha
a things about press freedoom “The public have an insatiable curiosity
to know everything. Except what is worth knowing. Journalism, conscious of this, and having tradesman-like habits, supplies their demands.“ /Oscar Wilde/ Where is the limit?
his is just a short reflection on freedom of the press, especially the tabloid journalism which sometimes pretends to be the serious one. Please keep in mind that I’m not an expert on ethics nor lawyer. Thank you.
I’m very proud and grateful that in my part of the world we do have a freedom of the speech, expression and press. In such a young democracy as my country is, journalists have played a crucial role in development of the society. What upsets me is any media which has turned from a serious jouralism to tabloid-like. Currently something horrible happened in my home region: a 15 years old girl was murdered by a couple of young men. A terrible event shook people in this rural area which is well known for its low crime rate. All national and regional media were very helpful when
the girl has disappeared. The important information and a description of her appearance has swooped into all corners of the country. Unfortunately the search was not successful, the girl had not been seen alive. Later on the search was ended by police announcement when there were pieces of a human body found... And here we are, in that very moment every single journalist stands on the imaginary boundary and has to decide. The citizens have the right to know what happened. But... What is a useful fact and what is just an unnecessary add of salt into an open wound? A hunt for a sensational information has ended up with incredible details about the girl’s death and what happened to her body after the murder. From the media we learn very detailed information on funeral planning, we hear a cry of the mourning family. That’s business, strong emotions = good sales. Shortly after the murder the identities of the alleged perpetrators are published. A further problem arises: even under the influence of strong emotions and public opinion, a journalist must not forget there is the presumption of innocence secured by law. Everybody asks how the victim’s family members feel. But no one think about the terrible
situation of the alleged attackers‘ families. And then the question comes, a journalist asking a relative of the murdered girl: “Will you miss her?“ or another one: “ What would you like to say to the killer?“ What follows is an uncritical statement full of emotion and threats. Of course. We all do understand the profound sadness... But... this interview with an upset relative who tells to the camera that he will kill the murderer, should this be published really? Is it appropriate? Is it neccessary to reveal the identity of entire families and show their residence on TV? Whom does it help? Where is the limit? Vladi Wander Bravkova
A Few Thoughts on Digital Data C
omputers have existed for quite a long time now, but the internet and ubiquitous access to this global network are a more recent treat. By the turn of the 20th century, internet population was estimated in 361 million users, whereas by 2012 it has exponentially grown to 2.4 billion . Nowadays connectivity is found not only on desktop computers, but also on diverse mobile devices and many home appliances. Traditional storage when using computers meant that we had a physical hard drive or removable storage device which we, as users, were in charge of. All of the data we produced was confined to live within the regions of our own storage capacity, hence the amount of data we could produce was bounded by our available free space. This doesn’t necessarily hold true any more:
the shift to ‘cloud computing’, that is the availability of numerous media platforms and social networks that allow us to store, upload, and backup data online, beyond our physical devices and even past our continent, has freed us from that constraint. In fact, most of our digital experience creates and stores data online whenever we tweet, blog, share, take pictures, post, record, etc. So, where does it all go and where’s the limit to what we can produce? Ultimately, every bit is saved on a physical storage device managed by different data centers. These are huge (and very technological) buildings equipped with hundreds if not thousands of hard drives. Some of the biggest internet companies have their private ones (i.e. http://www. google.com/about/datacenters/ ), while
others lease a certain amount of space. Yet, the result is the same: someone else is taking good care of our information. The same limitation mentioned before surfaces again: datacenters can hold as much as their capacity allows them to. The only difference is that we don’t care and we seldom think about it. It’s not our problem, so we produce more and more data without any concern. It’s unlikely that companies will run out of space: they’ll keep expanding and adding more storage capacity as demand for it grows. On one hand, this poses environmental problems that mainly have to do with power consumption and hardware disposal. Even though storage technology has been evolving and perfecting throughout the last few years and becoming more efficient in terms of space, energy and size, it is estimated that in 2020 datacenters’ electricity demand will be around 1400 terawatthours, seven times more than in 2005 .
Nonetheless, this is a complex problem and its present day solutions need a lot of refinement and improvement. As long as we keep adding information, how easy will it be for us to find what we set out to look for on the Internet? Mauro Giordano
On the other hand, the short-term obstacle could reside in the virtual size of the Big Data cloud. Many readers may already feel overwhelmed by the vast quantity of information that circulates daily on the internet. Classification and prioritization of information are two tasks that take up a lot of the users’ time and energy but are pivotal in a meaningful internet experience. Hence, most platforms make use of different artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques in order to customize and organize information according to the individuals’ needs and tastes.
Every month, find an article published in the previous edition ••• Libertas N29 / February 2012 - MediaBy aneta dimoska ••
both sides of social media
he last 20 years of human history have caused dramatical changes to people’s lives. Besides political and economic changes, the globalization process has penetrated so deep- ly in each pore of life, causing new changes in the social and cultural sphere of our exist- ence. Now with only one click we are able to get in touch with our friends from abroad, to search any place on the Earth we want, learn what happened in other countries, pass ex- ams, buy books, movies... simply do everything we want. It is amazing and astonishing that the human mind can go that far. Some people would say it destroys life as we know it, for others it is a part they can’t live without.. but our ancestors for sure would call it...magic. There is no
doubt that media is becoming the most important thing nowadays. Beginning with the newspapers, radio, television, and now with the Internet, media impacts our lives in a way we don’t even notice. They do it so gently, smoothly, making us believe that we really have the need to do that. To prove that this is working in reality we can start with the social networks. How many of us have Facebook or Twitter accounts? How much time do we spend staring in our computers? Or how many exams we have failed thanks to our virtual profiles? :). If we add the fact that most of the media are owned by the biggest corporations, which means less objectivity, then it seems clear why more and more analysts are alluding about the
negative influence of social networks, and media in general. And maybe they are right. I remember that 10 years ago, when I was a child, the streets in winter in my town were full of children playing and laughing in the snow, and now they are empty like never before. Kids are still playing snow games, but in their rooms with an imagionary co-players – ‘friends’. Maybe it sounds weird but social networks can be the reason for divorces, end of friendshipz, robberies, sexual abuses. No matter how scary these things can be, they really happen. But I am an optimist and I’m more concerned about the positive impacts of social media and how they improve our lives. For
instance, now I don’t need to watch TV news to find out what is happening in the world; insteadI can do that through my facebook profile, which is a very good alternative. I am also able to revive some forgotten friendships, read some good articles, help somebody, find out about trainings or scholarships or even a job vacancy. And there is no need to blame media for our wasted time or bad selforganisation. If we use them correctly and properly, media can really be useful and help us succeed in life. Aneta Dimoska
viEUpoint is a project that offers an opportunity to young people from five Balkan countries to write a case-study with a clear focus on assessing the EU performance and provide constructive criticism in one of those countries or in the Balkans as a whole. This project is a follow up project from the 7th Leadership Development Programme, a programme designed for young people from the SEE region, as well as from the rest of Europe, who aspire to play an active role in the future of their countries.
or centuries Europe became so foreign to Balkan peninsula, as it seemed as there was a tectonic rift. Indeed, Balkans were not moved anywhere, much less Europe made the relocation. But mental inner distance led to the creation of a paradox “to be part of Europe and not called such”. Recently these people seem to say: call us southeast European, Euro-Mediterranean, only Balkan not. It’s known that Balkan is a problematic peninsula in the continent. All should agree that “if Balkan is the problem of
Europe, Europe is the solution for Balkan” Part of this peninsula is also Albania. In XX century, Albanian communism created a new departure. Europe for Albanians became doubly distant, multiple hostile, prohibited. We were divided from Europe, we were surrounded by barbed .Today we talk about a return of Albanians in Europe. The integration theme is the most passionate theme of all Albanians. For us, Europe more than a luxury, an escalation towards progress is a necessity. As the loneliest country
of the continent, a folk without a family, finding our lost family creates access to a completely new phase of existence. For the first time in these last 600 years, Albania is getting ready to be truly part of the continent’s largest union, where she can be free, serious and moral. It should be noted that it is the first time in Albania’s history that a century after independence case, another goal brings together as by magic, politics and society, public opinion and religious beliefs, elite and ordinary people. This is the European goal. It is not an exaggeration when I say that Europe for Albanians is everything. Except common values, except standards, the pace of progress, European pact teaches us something that, in other circumstances, it would be the hardest thing to be acquired; harmony with itself. Today, more than ever, to be part of the EU is a national objective. The goal itself is not sticking to a chosen elite level. It’s embracing the underlying values of EU, and that could make our society more democratic, prosperous and free: ie would make people live better. Europe is doing all she can to help us be part of her union, but I think there is more work to do. In my case study I will treat two sectors of economy in which I think that EU should pay more attention in my country. As a former communist country, Albania has emerged from its old system very damaged. 50 years are lost, 50 years away
from the present. Since 1991 we have had to work with gigantic steps to recover ourselves so we could be closer to the level of the other countries. Transition to a modern and open economy has been difficult for a small country like Albania. Firstly, I want to concentrate my attention on the first sector of Albanian’s economy, agriculture as an important sector with large prospect in the country. Extending along the Adriatic and Ionian seas, Albanian’s coastal areas are the most favorable areas for agricultural production. Most of the vegetable country production is concentrated in these areas as mild and relatively short winters provide an ideal climate to produce a wide range of vegetables ,including off –seasons for export. Altogether the small-scale production structures favor vegetable production, where also greenhouses and irrigation are common to improve production conditions. The coastal area is also interesting for fruit and wine production. While the production of fresh olives and olive oil has a long tradition in Albania is rather stagnating in terms of surface and production volume, fruit and wine production is growing fast. Overall, the number of fruit production has increased by more than 80% since 2000 and production has more than doubled as yields have improved.
High productivity increases are also reported for citrus fruit trees. Other fruits crops with steadily growing production include figs, cherries and kaki. The fruit production sector benefits from the fairly low production costs in Albania. So as we se Albania is a country that can offer a lot in agriculture. The total agricultural surface is 697000 ha including forest, arable lands, orchards, olive groves, vine yards, pastures. Employment in agriculture is 58%, more than half but GDP share of agriculture is 21%. Annual growth of agricultural production is > 3%. This sector is limited primarily to small family operations and subsistence farming because of lack of modern equipment, unclear property rights, and the prevalence of small, inefficient plots of land.
“ The United States of Europe, as the most powerful political and economical organization on Earth” So I say that EU should pay attention to the agricultural sector of Albania’s economy, as much as it pays to transport, justice and home affairs or environment.
A comprehensive project of EUR 10 million is financed with IPA 2011 in order to increase awareness and capacity of actors involved in rural development and facilitate the development of the agrofood sector and quality farming through implementing IPARD-like measures. But EU can do more like : • Improving the access of the farmers to credits for investments, • Involving Albania in EU policies for agriculture • Setting strict rules and strict control on products that come from European countries here. Ugly phenomena happen here like the change of expiry date or different other forgeries. Albanian agriculture needs more investment for a wider industrialization of the economy. Albanian economy isn’t able to provide the Albanian farmer the market he deserves. The relationship consummatorproducer doesn’t works properly here. What we ask from EU is more attention and help to rise little by little, even in the sector of agriculture. Secondly, another very promising sector for Albania economy is tourism. Albania’s tourism sector has great development potential. I will mention the most important: the coast facing the Adriatic and Ionian seas various forms
of relief which offer wonderful views, suitable climate, water resources, rich in animal and plant world, archaeological sites, medieval castles etc. No Wonder in 2011 Albania has been placed by the Lonely Planet guide ‘Best in Travel’ among the top 10 destinations to be visited. These touristic potentials are not put in good use in the past but today they represent a very good opportunity for development. Nowadays, it is our next best chance and challenge. The tourism sector is one of the fast growing industries in the country. It has been strongly benefited from the EU integration. They are making Albania, so far one of the main destinations to be discovered. “Tourism is playing a vital role for the Albanian economy. Accounting for around 11% of the nation’s GDP, tourism brought in 1.2 billion euros in profit in 2011 and with tourist numbers rising to more than 4 million last year it is important that Albania produces a long-term plan to capitalize off the back of its growing popularity,” is expressed Ravin Maharajah, the Partner of Lalzit Bay Resort & Spa in Albania. However, tourism in Albania is facing many problems .The main
problem is the lack of a clear strategy. This problem comes from the fact that tourism is not seen as the main economic industry of the country. Some problematic issues include unregulated waste disposal, unclear land ownership, spatial planning such as illegal construction, illegal logging and hunting, poor road and public utilities infrastructure. If we see the education aspect, there is a lack of qualified
hospitality sector personnel and accommodation classification system. Bodies are becoming aware and starting to tackle them despite the setbacks, local, national and international. But to solve these problems we need European aid. We want Europe to assist in the creation of conditions for better investment climate in the state, conditions for attracting foreign tourists, in the creation specific tourist products, new forms of tourism development in areas where it can be done, in the improvement of the levels of security in the country and last, but not least in the organization of very intensive p r o m o t i o n a l campaigns. This work may be done through financial assistance and better use of financial aid, investment growth, promotion of Albania as a reliable and safe place, offering information campaigns for citizens, better information and protection for tourists, training courses for managers and staff, the orientation of the government in taking action for different problems, facilitating tourism in the Albanians Communities, improving the geographical and seasonal distribution of tourism, improvement of working conditions, improved knowledge of the tourism sector; increasing co-operation
among member countries etc . In fact it is created an â€œaction plan in favor of tourismâ€? (European Commission, 1997) was created and the goals for this area were already defined in 1986, some of which are mentioned above. In fact, one of the other findings of this action plan is that should invest on cost savings to Albanian firms and in the medium term the creation of additional jobs as real economic growth. Such plans should be created to work intensively now more than ever because it is a great need. Albania is a new place in the Europe tourism trade, which means that needs a lot to be understand and done by Albanians with the help given to us by the United Europe. Here there are some conclusions : â€˘ Tourism authorities in national and local level within the country must pay equal attention in the future to: the nature and quality of the destination and the destinations brand and the values that it conveys to customers. In Albania, the process of tourism development, management and marketing or even the promotion should be managed within an integrated structure, which
arises the need of foreign aid. To resume, Albania, as Balkan state, is far from the development of the EU countries but this country and all its citizens are very enthusiastic about the idea of being a part of this union and very enthusiastic to work on this issue. It’s often said that people solve their own problems. Sounds accurate but it is not always true. In this case much less. We need you. We need your help since last century but didn’t become possible. Today we, Albanians, inhabitants and a living entity of this continent, need European Union to do something more for us. After a research on what can EU do more in Albania, I stand at the conclusion that there should be a bigger attention on agriculture and tourism, more investment, more projects and more work. Only this way Albania can become decent to take part in the EU and in a more distant future she could be able to help her “family” to reach the common goal : “ The United States of Europe”, as the most powerful political and economical organization on Earth.
References:  General information from Albania’s History  Etore Sequi and Ismail Cadare opinions  Organic Agricultural in Albania ,sector study 2011 Thomas Benet, Iris Kazazi  Albanian websites on European integration  Wikipedia  Alb invest Albania  World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency.  . “Working together for the future of European tourism” (2001), The commission of the European Communities  European Integration in the Era of the European Union’s Enlargement and the Development of Tourism  “Basic orientations for the sustainability of European tourism”(2003). The commission of the European Communities, COM 716, Brussels.  Cardoso, C., and Ferreira, L. 2000. The effects of European economic integration on tourism: challenges and opportunities for Portuguese tourism development
: s m r A f o t a o C a n o s o a n t i r r e a b i L M n a S f o c i l the Repub
am used to the concept of a country with a territory which has a more or less substantial size â€“ not surprising for a person coming from Russia, with a territory of more than 17 mln km2. Maybe that is why I have always been fascinated by microstates and to their history pertaining to how such tiny pieces of land managed to remain independent in the surrounding of much more powerful states. So that is why it happened â€“ my trip to San Marino from Rimini, Italy. It takes about 50 minutes to get there and the bus goes from a bus stop close to the central railway station of Rimini. The warm morning promised to turn into a good sunny day, hot weather settled in the region, though maybe it was more unexpected for me after long months of
snow and warm coats in Moscow. All the way to San Marino I was looking for some kind of a sign saying that we were about to enter an independent state, apparently I missed it. The bus climbed several streets up the mountain, Titano, before the final stop, suggesting that there are some more steep tiny streets to climb in order to reach the famous fortresses of the Republic. So here I was, in the third smallest country in Europe (after Vatican City and Monaco). San Marino has a territory of about 61 km2 and population of about 30,000 people; it also claims to be the oldest republic in the world. In the year 257 AD the emperor, Diocletian, called for the reconstruction of the walls of Rimini. Many stone cutters came from all over Europe and among them were two from
Dalmatia, the Island of Rab (now Croatia). Their names were Marino and Leo. They were sent to Mount Titano to extract some stones and remained there for 3 years. Leo remained on Mount Feliciano and built a small oratory in honor of God with his companions. This place later got the name of San Leo. Marino returned to Rimini for over 12 years and then he came back to Mount Titano and founded a community of Christians; this is how the Republic owns its name. The Republic has always supported those who fought for liberty and independence; the motto of the coat of arms is Libertas (freedom in Latin), which allegedly comes from the last words of Marino: “Relinquo vos liberos ab utroque homine” (Lat. “I leave you free from both
men”). It is not clear, however, whether this phrase was real or not. Assumptions are that the two men Marino referred to were the Emperor and the Pope, that is the State and the Church in the broader meaning. Those were the roots of the amazing independence of this territory that it has maintained throughout its history. Of course it was not easy for such a tiny republic to maintain its independence and liberty, it had to learn to balance between different political players in order to stay afloat. Such strength was respected and admired by many people. Napoleon Bonaparte during his Italian Campaign noticed the cliff of San Marino. After he had been told the history of the tiny Republic he allegedly said that “it
was necessary to keep San Marino as an example of libertyâ€?. He kept his promise: an ambassador was sent with the document confirming the independence of San Marino. Moreover Bonaparte promised military support should someone threaten its independence. In 1849 San Marino granted asylum to Giuseppe Garibaldi and his warriors. Austrian forces were trying to capture the stronghold on Mount Titano, but failed to capture Garibaldi. He managed to escape with 150 of his most loyal people and headed towards Venice. Such behavior annoyed the Papal State and Austria and there were even plans for a military invasion, but thanks to France and Napoleon III it didnâ€™t happen. During almost the whole period of World War II, the Republic was a shelter for people from the surrounding war. More than 100,000 people found refuge there, many of them Jews who were saved from being sent to concentration camps. The population of San Marino itself at that time totaled only 15,000. The reminders of the rich history of this freedom-loving country are the three fortresses dominating over the fascinating landscape. You can visit two of them, Guaita and Cesta; the third one, Montale, was not finished and now you can see only one tower that you cannot enter. The fortresses are, without any doubt, worth visiting. The panoramic view from both of them is breathtaking. One can only imagine how life here looked like when these walls really meant defense
from enemies. Beside the historic part, San Marino now is a place full of shops and restaurants, with lots of tourists invading the city every day - just that it is a peaceful invasion that determines the flourishing economy of this microstate. I stayed in San Marino for about 7 hours and managed to see all three fortresses, curving streets, and enjoyed amazing food (gnocchi this time). I believe that most of the tourists visit San Marino as a day trip; though I also deem that it would be nice to stay there for a night to enjoy the night views. Whatever you choose the place is definitely worth paying a visit. Evgenia Kostyanaya
About us :
Youth Magazine Libertas was founded in September 2009 as a project of Youth Association creACTive. Youth Magazine Libertas aims to be a place where young people from all over the world can share their thoughts and views on topics that matter for them, in this way starting discussions and working as a means of change for the future. Every month, Libertas is published on the 5th, featuring articles about a different main topic and other kinds of articles such as movie, book and music reviews, travel destination, interview and brainstorm.
Illustration : Libertas Team • Front cover : By Francois Maizieres Editor : Youth Association Kreaktiv • Page 8-9-10 : Pictures from Rilind H Photography Executive Editors : François Maizieres, Margarida • Page 11 : Picture from Chelovek s Semedo kinoapparatom, by Dziga Vertov Managing Editors : Margarida Semedo, François • Page 22 : Map from http://www. Maizieres exoticplants.ch/medias/images/albaniaContent Director : Patrick Burke landuse.jpg Designer : François Maizieres • Page 25-26-27 : Pictures from Contributors : Jack Shaka, Evgenia Kostyanaya; Evgenia Kostyanaya Vladi Wander Bravkova, Mauro Giordano
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