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San Marino

1 Boutros Boutros-Ghali 2 NEMINI TENERI 3 Beatus Marinus 4 Consules  1243

Nemini teneri, the idea of freedom                             Previous Next Until 1300 San Marino was a feudal possession of the bishop of Montefeltro, whose diocese, a part of the papal state was centred at San Leo. This is evidenced by a document drawn up Sant’Igne a locality not far from San Leo the Franciscan monastery belonging to the friar’s minor. This document shows San Marino as having equal status with other small localities in the Marecchia river valley. Together they begin a struggle against the bishop to break feudal bonds and stop paying taxes. One big difference does exist however. San Leo, Talamello and Maiolo are ruled over by feudal lords who consider the granting of tax exemptions a privilege, but San Marino on the contrary, the community claims exemption as a right. With the firmness and tenacity and determination such claims deserve. This right was bequeathed by a saint, so the people of San Marino say at a trial held in 1296 at Valley Sant’Anastasio, another convent.  

5 Malatesta Montefeltro Albornoz 6 Respublica 7  Della Rovere 8  Bembo Addison 9  Napoleone 10  Napoleone III Garibaldi 11  UN  (ONU)

They won’t pay because they never have. It was their saint that made them free “Nemini teneri” which means: not dependant on anyone.                   

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San Marino

1

        Freedom comes from Saint Marino                                                   Previous   Next “Nemini teneri”: freedom in the language of the middle ages.  Boutros Boutros-Ghali This Saint is Marinus, a stone cutter from Dalmatia, who crossed the 2 Adriatic together NEMINI with his TENERI coreligionists and fellow workers at the time when Diocletion was emperor perhaps to escape persecution.  3 Here with his own hands he built a stone voited chapel, from the foundations Beatus right up to the sturdy stone tiled roof. A solid Marinus building everlasting like his faith, and nearby he hewed himself a bed out of the rock in the side of 4 Consules  the mountain, an example of faith and work.   1243 He died, so the story goes, on 3rd September 301, bequeathing to the people, the mountain 5 Malatesta and the seed of those convictions later called Montefeltro freedom. Around the votive chapel a community of simple Albornoz poor men and women, believers in God till the 6 stony earth below the mountain soil that gives  Respublica back in return little more than the seed, and then only when broken up, softened 7 and mixed with sweat.  Della Rovere Rivers and roads run faraway. Cut off from the world these people get used to being self reliant. Ignored by 8 others, they begin to get the absurd idea they are free from all obligations  Bembo Addison towards others:“Nemini teneri”.   9  Napoleone Montefeltro is a battlefield for the armies of the Pope and Emperor. The great men of the time can find nothing better to do than fight it out among these 10 mountains.  Napoleone III Garibaldi 11  UN  (ONU)

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San Marino

1 Boutros Boutros-Ghali 2 NEMINI TENERI 3 Beatus Marinus 4 Consules  1243 5 Malatesta Montefeltro Albornoz 6  Respublica 7  Della Rovere 8  Bembo Addison 9  Napoleone 10  Napoleone III Garibaldi 11  UN  (ONU)

         The XIII century: San Marino becomes “commune". In 1243 the first consules                                                                                         Previous Next Along the Marecchia river valley, people who build walls of roughly hewed stones along the mountain tops to protect themselves from the marauding bands of soldiers and criminals. These walls, strengthen the determination to go it alone. Maiolo, Talamello, each for itself each with its own colours.   Almost immediately, these wall are breached by rampant armies, but not the Titanos. Here the quieter fortress holds out, and men take turns in governing the community with the conscienciousness and regularity of a religious undertaking of a compact made in the saint’s chapel.   On the Titano the population grows. The votive chapel becomes a church, the main parish church and the meeting place for local villages. The Guaita fortress offers them all safety and the church religious comfort and at the same time the old ideas freedom handed down by Marinus.   Over the next two centuries these convictions unite and consolidate the entire parish and bind it to the mountain. Besides that of the bishop, a deed dated 1243 also shows the names of the community representatives- Filippo da Sterpeto and Oddone di Scarito. Consuls, today called captains regent. The people have given themselves a set of rules, the statutes, a structure: the commune. But they are still under the feudal authority of the bishop of San Leo.  

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San Marino

      The XIV century: San Marino, between Guefs and Guibellines, frees itself from its feudal bonds                                                                             Previous    Next   All around the rest of the world is at war of Guelfs against the Ghibellines. Rimini Boutros is in the hands of Guelfs allies of the Pope Boutros-Ghali and led by the house of Malatesta. At Urbino the Montefeltro had the Ghibellines, allies of 2 the emperor. San Marino is in the middle. NEMINI Though a commune it sides with Montefeltro TENERI to be rid of the bishop. A goal achieved only a century later, when the popes go to 3 Avignon. Beatus First of all the bishop’s residence inside the Marinus walls is confiscated, subsequently the community refuses to acknowledge him as 4 Consules  judge, finally his right to collect taxes is disputed. 1243 Finally in 1351 Bishop Peruzzi defeated by the Ghibellines loses San Leo too. He has no place to go. The people of San Marino 5 offer him a home as long as he signs a Malatesta document freeing them all from their feudal Montefeltro bonds. Albornoz Cardinals Albornoz and Anglico try to bring 6 the situation back under control of the  Respublica church. San Marino is left to its own devices, 7 a small pawn  Della Rovere in a complicated 8 game being  Bembo played out Addison between the 9  Napoleone great families of Malatesta and Montefeltro. From stronghold to stronghold the Montefeltros 10 descend the valleys with their banners flying. The  Napoleone III Malatesta do the same thing but in the opposite Garibaldi direction. 11 San Leo, Maiolo, Talamello, … change hands  UN  (ONU) again and again. Not San Marino.      1

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History of Republic of San Marino From the video Nemini teneri, which means Do not depend on anyone © Copyright by V.E. Pizzulin & M. Cecchetti

San Marino

1

Boutros Boutros-Ghali

2 NEMINI TENERI

3 Beatus Marinus

4 Consules 1243

5 Malatesta Montefeltro Albornoz

6 Respublica 7  Della Rovere

8 Bembo Addison

9 Napoleone

10 Napoleone III Garibaldi

 The XV century: San Marino forms an alliance with Pope Pio II and doubles its territory                                                                                            Previous Next San Marino remains a free commune when senioris and principalities are all the rage in other parts. Sigismondo da Rimini and Federico da Urbino reorganized their territories into small states with splendid courts where art flourishes and wealth abounds. San Marino resists against the one and the other. In fact it underscores its diversity by calling itself a republic. Republic like democracy is almost a challenge. To defend this decision another incent is raised. Then eyes open and weapons always polished and sharp the mountain men are ready to take up position of the first ring of the Guaita bell. Of weapons in San Marino there are plenty. At the end of his 6 month term in office each regent has to present the community with a new crossbow. The Sanmarineses are good at handling weapons, they have learnt well as mercenaries during lean years when the pangs of hunger are more frequent. A set of snarling white teeth are clearly shown and such are those teeth that San Marino even depicts them on its seal, the visiting card of the times. And does it growl when it feels itself observed and does it move quickly when there is something to be had.   In 1463 the Malatesta are in difficulty alongside the Pope and Montefeltro. San Marino attacks doubling its territory all in one go.           Then the fighting stops, the opposite side puts down their arms, the Malatesta first. The cardinals arrive in Rimini.    

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San Marino

  The XVI century: attempts by Fabiano da Monte and Lionello Pio                                                                                                  Previous   Next But San Marino is not out of danger yet. Now the threat comes from Romagna Boutros where the nephews and relations of the cardinals raise armies to attack. In 1543 Boutros-Ghali from Rimini and Santarcangelo, in 1549 from Verucchio. Faced with these new perils San Marino strengthens its walls and then asks Urbino for help. This time it demands a written commitment made publicly so that 2 all will know. NEMINI For 4 centuries San TENERI Marino has been protected by Urbino. Some even consider it a part of that duchy. 3 Beatus In the early 17th century the duchy of Urbino is near its end. The Duke is old and Marinus without an heir, which means his possessions will pass to the church. San Marino too, looks done for. 1

4 Consules 1243

The painter Mingucci of Pesaro shares this opinion and he depicts the country for the Pope in a watercolour drawing showing all the major features and much detail. He lists it among the possessions of the duchy.

He is wrong. San Marino has been quick to act. As early as 1603 it has sent a petition 5 directly to the Pope asking him for his Malatesta immediate protection, to be agreed in writing in place of that of Urbino, if and Montefeltro when the duchy disappears. Albornoz   6  Respublica 7  Della Rovere 8  Bembo Addison 9  Napoleone 10  Napoleone III Garibaldi 11  UN  (ONU)

30 years later in 1631 the duke dies. Rome keeps its promise: Urbino and the rest of the duchy goes to the church, but not San Marino. Of the many, remains flying.          

only

its

flag

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History of Republic of San Marino From the video Nemini teneri, which means Do not depend on anyone © Copyright by V.E. Pizzulin & M. Cecchetti

San Marino

1 Boutros Boutros-Ghali

2 NEMINI TENERI

3 Beatus Marinus

4 Consules 1243

5 Malatesta Montefeltro Albornoz 6 Respublica 7  Della Rovere

    The XVII century: San Marino is idealized as a haven of democracy     Previous    Next     Meanwhile the people of San Marino have identified the bones of the saint. They have adorned the remains with the royal crown, symbol of sovereignty and they have clearly written that their freedom was donated by him and that he is the founder of their liberty. No cardinal or Pope in an age of counter reformation can take away the crown of a saint. Willing to suffice, now San Marino is at the mercy of Rome. It is just a small village like the many others that still nestle among the mountains that they have since the middle ages. It is little more than a municipality within the Papal State, a tiny enclave without defences, without protection. In Italy, in Europe, everywhere dukes and grand dukes, princes, marcheses, barons, kings and emperors. Oppression and absolutism are rife. In Holland the situation is somewhat less dim. In Venice a feint ray of light is beginning to shine through. The word reaches Venice that on an appenine peak inside the Papal State, “there is a community of mountain men, who govern a republic and belong to noone”. The writers and journalists of the time get hold of the news and anxious to strike a blow against absolutism, colour it with accounts of freedom and democracy, to the point of creating a legend of a happy land. The news comes as a shock to the world of potentates. It crosses the alps and reaches France and Holland. From Holland it spreads to the rest of Europe together with an outlook full of realism which helps to foster interest and boost credibility. Some even decide to come over and check the story for themselves. Among them is Addison, the early 18 th century English writer who really does discover the spark of ancient liberty high up on the mountain among the people, mixed with a strong religious faith. The saint he notes is at the centre of the main alter, whosoever offends the saint is punished as if he had blasphemed God.

8 Bembo Addison

Words are spoken and written about San Marino. San Marino takes a permanent place in people’s hearts and minds. The goal is achieved. From now on it is defended by Europe and the world. This becomes clear shortly afterwards when Rome tries to suppress the community.

9 Napoleone

Cardinal Alberoni at the head of the papal army uses wily strategens and religious pressures to bring the land under the heel of the church. Paris, Madrid and Vienna intervene. San Marino regains its independence.

10 th Napoleone III It is the 5 February 1740, the day of Saint Agatha. Since then the joint patron saint of the Republic. Garibaldi 11  UN  (ONU)

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San Marino

1

The XVIII century: Napoleon protects San Marino and turns it into a State

                                                                                            Previous   Next  The world is ripe for revolt and the Republic of San Marino appears to have Boutros already set the fashion. Boutros-Ghali Napoleon shares the same opinion. When his armies sweep through Italy like an earthquake in 1797, he stops before San Marino to praise it as 2 a model of republican liberty. He even makes NEMINI offers of territorial expansion- a corridor to the TENERI sea. San Marino cautiously declines. Napoleon overwhelms Europe. Everywhere taking 3 what he fancies. Beatus He changes and Marinus subverts the political geography of the time. 4 All the ancient republics, Lucca, Genova, Venice Consules  are suppressed but not San Marino. San Marino is 1243 the exception. San Marino remains and it remains as a republic. Even when contrary to the ideals of 5 the revolution, Napoleon decides to place a crown Malatesta on his own head. Montefeltro For San Marino, Napoleon is the gentle giant. He Albornoz protects the 6 country, he  Respublica spoils it with dispro7 portionate  Della Rovere offers of 8 gifts. He lets  Bembo it grow until Addison it becomes a state in every sense of the word. 9  Napoleone The state that takes its place among the other nations of the world, exchanges ambassadors and signs treaties. For the very first time “Nemini teneri” enjoys the 10 recognition of peoples and nations.  Napoleone III Garibaldi 11  UN  (ONU)

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History of Republic of San Marino From the video Nemini teneri, which means Do not depend on anyone © Copyright by V.E. Pizzulin & M. Cecchetti

San Marino

1

Boutros Boutros-Ghali

2 NEMINI TENERI

3 Beatus Marinus

4 Consules 1243

5 Malatesta Montefeltro Albornoz

6 Respublica 7  Della Rovere 8  Bembo Addison 9  Napoleone

10 Napoleone III Garibaldi

    The XIX century: Napoleon the III imposes on Cavour not to suppress San Marino Previous    Next  Napoleon is vanquished. The Congress of Vienna redraws the map of Italy. San Marino is not part of the debate, there is no reason why it should be. San Marino is again surrounded by the Papal State, part of a patchwork peninsula, but by now unity is close at hand. A united Italy is the goal of the liberals too, and a part of them dream of setting up a democratic republic. San Marino’s popularity amongst those liberals soars in 1849, when Garibaldi their hero, with the Austrians hot on his heel, enters San Marino with a 1,000 survivors of the Roman republic and he is immediately surrounded. There is no escape. Either unconditional surrender or a fight to the bitter end. The San Marino authorities act as mediators. They prolong negotiations and during the night allow Garibaldi, his wife Anita and the most implicated officers to slip away. Providing medical aid, food, money and safe conducts for the others. The gratitude of Garibaldi and the democratic liberals will prove decisive for San Marino along with the protection of France now ruled over by another Napoleon. In fact Cavour needs Napoleon III, Garibaldi and the liberals in order to unite the country. He can not afford to displease them. In passing by San Marino in 1860, at the head of his Piemontese troops, Cavour leaves the country alone. On the Titano people breathe again. The request is immediately sent to the Italian authorities that a treaty be drawn up for a recognition of sovereignty. That treaty is finally signed in 1862, after the death of Cavour, by prime minister Rattazzi, who once more needs the help of Garibaldi and Napoleon.  

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History of Republic of San Marino From the video Nemini teneri, which means Do not depend on anyone © Copyright by V.E. Pizzulin & M. Cecchetti

San Marino

1 Boutros Boutros-Ghali

2 NEMINI TENERI 3 Beatus Marinus 4 Consules 1243

5 Malatesta Montefeltro Albornoz 6 Respublica 7  Della Rovere 8  Bembo Addison 9  Napoleone 10  Napoleone III Garibaldi 11  UN  (ONU)

   The XX century: international recognitions and admission to the UN      Previous    San Marino is now an accepted and recognized political entity. Having obtained the first seal it seeks others beyond the alps. Every treaty (the subject is irrelevant) represents a recognition of sovereignty. After 40 years of efforts criminal extradition treaties are signed. First of all with Great Britain, then with Holland, Belgium and the U.S.A. In 1908 another step forward. Membership is granted of the International Institute of agriculture. For the first time San Marino belongs to an international organization. In 1971 the country nominates ambassadors, it also joins The Council of Europe. It already has a place at the C.S.C.E., becomes a member of the United Nations, organization the highest assembly of all the worlds nations.   It is stated that all member nations have equal rights irrespective of their size and geographic location. This is the most elevated example of “NEMINI TENERI” the concept of liberty conceived on the Titano by a small group of mountain folk in silent isolation, next to the chapel of a saint during the first centuries of the Christian middle ages. And then defended with every means against all, before finally obtaining the recognition of everyone.

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