Page 1


目 錄

004

序/余彥良

010

總論/蕭瓊瑞

霍 剛 176

年表

180

霍剛迴盪符號—幾何空間裡的東方詩情/曾長生

188

作品

藝術家

陳庭詩

莊 喆

046

年表

198

年表

050

陳庭詩現代版畫在戰後台灣的定位/蔣伯欣

202

試探莊喆早期結合中西的抽象繪畫/黃海鳴

058

作品

208

作品

楊英風

陳正雄

066

年表

216

年表

070

深耕東方美學的台灣現代景觀藝術先鋒楊英風/廖新田

220

陳正雄/王秀雄

078

作品

228

作品

朱為白

蕭 勤

086

年表

238

年表

090

走向藝術誕生之地:朱為白的藝術實踐/廖仁義

242

從中國的象徵思考看蕭勤的抽象世界/顧世勇

098

作品

248

作品

楚 戈

廖修平

108

年表

254

年表

112

楚戈及其現代水墨改革思想/白適銘

258

創建生活美學次序的台灣現代版畫先驅廖修平/廖新田

120

作品

264

作品

吳 昊

李錫奇

126

年表

276

年表

130

當代華麗容顏—談吳昊的創作/陶文岳

280

136

作品

從「抽象.符碼.東方情」的展題切入談台灣現代 藝術運動及李錫奇/石瑞仁

286

作品

劉國松 年表

146

文化認同與中國水墨畫:劉國松六十年的藝術探索/李君毅

296

年表

152

作品

300

墨染新韻詩迴旋 視讀李重重的現代水墨世界/廖潤珮

310

作品

318

總年表

324

研究文獻

336

圖錄

344

版權

夏 陽

4

李重重

142

158

年表

162

夏陽/賴香伶

170

作品


Contents

004 010

Prologue / YU Yen-Liang Pandect / HSIAO Chong-Ray

CHUANG Che 198 202

The Artists Chronology

/ HUANG Hai-Ming

208

Ar t Works

YANG Yu-Yu 066 070

CHEN Cheng-Hsiung 216 220 228

Chronology CHEN Cheng-Hsiung / WANG Hsiu-Hsiung Ar t Works

Chronology YANG Yu-Yu: Taiwanese Modern Landscape Pioneer Rooted in

HSIAO Chin

Ar t Works

238 242

CHU Wei-Bor

248

Oriental Aesthetics / LIAO Hsin-Tien

078

Ar t Works

CHEN Ting-Shih’s Modern Printmaking in Post-War Taiwan – a Critique / CHIANG Po-Shin

058

When the East Meets the West – A Peek into CHUANG Che’s Early Abstract Paintings

CHEN Ting-Shih 046 050

Chronology

Chronology HSIAO Chin’s Abstract World: Viewed From Chinese Symbolism / KU Shih-Yung

086 090

Walking Towards the Bir thplace of Ar t: CHU Wei-Bor's Ar tistic Practice / LIAO Jen-I

098

Ar t Works

Chronology

Ar t Works

LIAO Shiou-Ping 254 258

Chronology Taiwanese Printmaking Pioneer, LIAO Shiou-Ping, and the Creation of Order in Living Aesthetics / LIAO Hsin-

CHU Ko 108 112

Chronology

Tien

264

Ming

120

Ar t Works

LEE Shi-Chi 276 280

WU Hao 126 130 136

Chronology Cultural Identity and Chinese Ink Painting: LIU Kuo-Sung’s Sixty

Ar t / SHIH Jui-Jen

286

Ar t Works

LEE Chung-Chung 296 300

Years of Ar tistic Exploration / LEE Chun-Yi

152

A Discussion on LEE Shi-Chi and Taiwan’s Modern Oriental – Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern

Visages of Splendor : On the Ar t of WU Hao / TAO Wen-Yueh Ar t Works

Chronology Ar t Movement on the Basis of Abstract / Symbol /

Chronology

LIU Kuo-Sung 142 146

Ar t Works

CHU Ko and His Revolution on Modern Ink Painting / PAI Shih-

Chronology The Poetics and Echoes of New Ink Art A Visual Interpretation of LEE Chung-Chung’s Modern

Ar t Works

Ink Painting / LIAO Jun-Pei

310

Ar t Works

HSIA Yan 158 162 170

Chronology HSIA Yan / LAI Hsiang-Ling Ar t Works

318 324 336 344

Chronology Literature Review Catalog Copyrights

HO Kan 176 180

Chronology HO Kan’s Resonant Symbols: The Eastern-style Poetry in a Space of Geometrics / Pedro TSENG

188

Ar t Works 5


ĺş?

Prologue


PROLOGUE | The Starting Point and Promotion of Arts

藝術起點與推展

余彥良 尊彩藝術中心 董事長 財團法人陳澄波文化基金會 董事

記得二十多年前的一個冬天,那正是我揮霍青春最豪華也最能 做夢的時候,專程到橫濱看梵谷大展,展覽隊伍排得很長很久, 但寒冷卻無法澆熄我對藝術的熱忱與期待,而最終如願所償的 讓我獲得莫大的鼓舞,這也是我人生當中,藝術故事的起點與 開端。

陸陸續續看了很多類型的展覽,在認知上,籌辦一場優秀大型 活動真的很不容易,但一直希望台灣能有很多與藝術相關性的 大型展覽,它是更能貼近群眾的,是能提昇文化水平的,而這 一切都必須用心去為藝術付出,為我們自己的環境爭取更多的 美感。我認為藝術裡的顏色、線條、聲音、舉動,所有的外在 表現,都應該與內心思維和生活有相關連性,客觀的情感傳達, 讓人對藝術沒有距離,也較能引起他人共鳴。在設立畫廊的前 兩年,我認識了台灣前輩藝術家陳澄波與廖繼春兩位大師,他 們的作品裡均有一種令人愉悅的畫面,沒有誇飾的路子,只有 當時的人文生活與環境溫度,它是如此包圍著我的生活四周, 很溫馨,很能令我感受當 時的台灣,很快就融入了他們所闡述 的畫面,作品介紹起來也能得心應手。

很有緣份的認識了陳澄波家族,就在 1997 年我首先籌辦了「陳 澄波與陳碧女」的父女聯展,當時引起社會廣泛的關注,也獲 得藝術界對陳碧女的重新了解與認識。接著從 1998 年至 2005 年期間,梳理了台灣前輩藝術家的脈絡與連結,出版四冊並展 覽名為「藏寶圖」的大型展覽,期間還配合 EMI 唱片古典部, 7


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

為畫作出聲製作成專輯 CD,當時將畫作結合音樂算是一項前

從 1950 年到 1960 年這十年間,正是台灣美術進展的重要歷程,

衛的創舉。而就在籌辦了幾次展覽之後,我漸漸發現展出場地

這段時期台灣先後成立了五月畫會與東方畫會,這又是另一股

的不足與侷限,也從展覽的過程裡,感受團隊分工的必要和重

前衛思潮的現代藝術運動,這群藝術先鋒者,重新詮釋東方的

要性,於是花了很長的時間找尋更適當的環境,用以表現出精

虛無與西方的情愫。我們為了有別於其他展覽,並非僅以年代

緻的台灣美術。「尊彩」於 2010 年搬至內湖瑞光路新館,這

進行劃分所歸納出的群展,而是以學術為根基,以當代藝術觀

裡有似美術館級的挑高與自然採光,也有藝術家最嚮往與耀眼

點,重新梳理台灣現代藝術的發展脈絡。在蕭瓊瑞教授的號召

的展現舞台。喬遷之後的開幕強檔,推出以「璀璨世紀」為名

之下,亦將邀請 14 位台灣知名藝評人,以精闢見解特約撰文

的陳澄波與廖繼春大型雙個展,其中向畫家家族與私人借展的

介紹這 14 位現代藝術巨匠。

作品有一百多幅,參展作品的等級與數量,加上高額的保險金 等,均能媲美美術館級的規模,當時社會大眾為之驚豔譁然,

我們一向對藝術教育的推廣不遺餘力,近幾年來,在積極海外

也奠定了尊彩藝術中心帶領台灣美術邁向更精緻化更具權威性

拓展過程當中,也為佈展形式帶來新思維的概念,例如本次展

的新紀元,這實為私人畫廊少見的辦展模式。2012 年尊彩成立

覽裡特地邀請新世代佈展公司做整體規劃,以新媒體如錄像等

二十週年,籌辦名為「彩筆江河」陳澄波大型回顧展,其中更

媒介,引領觀賞者認識抽象藝術的邏輯,如造型、線條、色彩、

商借了難得一見億萬級的作品「淡水夕照」,如此不計成本為

象徵符號、空間構成等,將 六、七 O 年代豐富多變的現代藝

社會大眾所著想的辦展舉動,也是我們一直 為展覽的難度與精

術抽象世界呈現在觀者面前,希望這場展覽能以深入淺出的方

緻度挑戰的一種熱忱,獲得普羅大眾相當的熱情參與和掌聲。

式,有系統的帶領觀眾理解並感受這段輝煌的美術歷程。「尊 彩」有著對在地文化的深切關懷,成立至今 22 年,在承先啟

獲邀成為陳澄波基金會董事之後,更進一步努力推動讓更多華

後的宗旨下,從 1927 年日治時代的陳澄波、廖繼春、楊三郎、

人甚至全球各地人士認識陳澄波與台灣前輩藝術家,猶如一份

陳德旺,六、七 O 年代的陳庭詩、劉國松、霍剛、蕭勤、陳正

使命感似的,我們將為台灣美術的根源推展更盡心力。2014 年

雄等,有系統梳理前輩們在台灣美術史上的定位,且近幾年來

陳澄波以「百二誕辰東亞巡迴大展」為題,從台南文化中心出

也積極挖掘深具潛力的年輕藝術家們,以新勢力新觀念展現在

發,經由北京、上海、東京,再回到台北故宮,這為期一年多

海內外各地的藝術博覽會上,這些推展的形式都是令人刮目相

的巡迴展出,耗費許多的人力資源和金錢,當然,困難度最高

看的,加上這場令人期待的現代藝術大展,將以全新的視覺面

的還是說服擁有陳澄波畫作的藏家們,無私借出藏品讓大展得

貌揭開台灣美術運動塵封的風華歲月,讓這群歷經半世紀洗煉

以完整呈現,而大陸方面設立多場學術研討會,重新論述陳澄

與積澱的藝術家再現璀璨光芒!而我們更期待能成為台灣一處

波的定位與成就,也為這次大展的巡迴成果更加豐碩輝煌。近

具有前瞻視野與深度歷史、文化關懷的私人畫廊,積極且努力

日基金會也已經和溫哥華市立美術館簽訂 2017 年的展覽合約,

不懈的為台灣藝術推展到廣大遼闊的國際舞台上!

因此,我們推展台灣美術到全世界各地的意志是不會停歇的。

從陳澄波、廖繼春到楊三郎,「尊彩」籌辦的幾次展覽已經奠 定了前輩藝術家的基礎脈絡,接著我們再次投入資金與人力, 策劃一場史無前例的台 灣現代藝術大展,由台灣知名藝術史學 者蕭瓊瑞教授擔任策展人,以「抽象.符碼.東方情-臺灣現 代藝術巨匠大展」為題,集合台灣現代藝術代表人物共襄盛舉。 8


PROLOGUE | The Starting Point and Promotion of Arts

The Starting Point and Promotion of Arts

Written by

YU Yen-Liang President of Liang Gallery Director of Chen Cheng-Po Cultural Foundation

In a winter 20 years ago, when I could still squander the treasure of my youth and dream the impossible dream, I went to the Exhibition of Vincent Van Goh in Yokohama. The line in front of the entrance to the exhibition was long, and it was freezing outside. Yet my fer vent expectation toward ar t could not be cool down. When I finally got in, I was overwhelmingly encouraged. This is also the star t of my ar tistic journey.

Having the pleasure to attend many different types of exhibitions ever y once in a while, I understand that it is never easy to handle a big event 左: 廖修平 右: 余彥良 L: LIAO Shiou-Ping R: YU Yen-Liang

well. Never theless, deep in my hear t, I always hope there could be many exhibitions in Taiwan that are not just related to ar ts but also, more peoplefriendly and able to enhance aesthetic quality of the public. To achieve so, it takes every effor t to add sense of aesthetic to the environment. All the details expressed in any ar t form, e.g., colors, lines, sounds, and movements should be related to inner feelings and of course, life, in the sense that ar t is no longer a distanced object but channel of sympathetic expression.

During the first two years after the galler y was established, I had the pleasure to be acquainted with two master pioneers in Taiwanese ar t circle: Chen Cheng-Po and Liao Chi-Chun, whose works are often built in such pleasant composition without exaggeration but the secular humanism and the hear t-warming atmosphere, which allow the viewers to savor the life contemporar y Taiwan that surrounded me. It did not take me too much effor t to fall into the pictures of their design, or to introduce their works. 9


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

It is more than serendipity that I got the pleasure to know the

Having the honor to be included in the board of Chen Cheng-Po

family of Chen Cheng-Po. In 1997, I curated a joint exhibition of

Cultural Foundation, my mission is to fur ther introduce not only

a father and his daughter : “Chen Cheng-Po and Chen Bih-Neu,”

Chen but more Taiwanese pioneer ar tists to more Chinese people,

which has attracted social attention extensively, and also allowed

even the world. It almost felt like a purpose to be fulfilled, that

the ar tist industry to once again understand Chen Bih-Neu. In the

we will promote Taiwanese ar t with every effor t it takes. In 2014,

period that followed, from 1998 to 2005, I collected and arranged

star ting from Tainan Municipal Ar t Center, we had curated “Chen

historical connections between ar tistic pioneers in Taiwan, and

Cheng-Po's 120th Bir thday Anniversar y Touring Exhibition in East

curated an exhibition ”The Treasure Map,” the related detail was

Asia,” travelling via Beijing, Shanghai, Tokyo, and returning to National

not only published in 4 volumes of albums, but also, with the help

Palace Museum in Taipei. The tour takes more than one year, while

of EMI Classics, had it produced as music CD. During the time,

the amount of personnel, resource and fund were unmeasurable.

to combine paintings with music is something unheard of. After

For sure, the most difficult par t is to convince collectors to lend us

several exhibitions, I star ted to realize the limit and insufficiency

Chen’s mater pieces so that the grand exhibition is completed. As a

of exhibition spaces, and more impor tantly, the necessity of team

magnificent result, Chen’s historical position as well as achievement

work. I had spent a great deal of time looking for spaces that is

is and justified after several conference was held in the ambition

more appreciate to showcase the delicacy of Taiwanese ar t works.

to reexamine his work. Recently the foundation has established

The “Liang Gallery” was moved to Ruiguang Road in Neihu District

an exhibition contract in 2017 with Vancouver Ar t Gallery, as one

in 2010, where the ceiling was lifted as in museum, the lighting was

could see, our ambition to promote Taiwanese ar t to the rest of the

as natural as nature itself, and an exhibition stage that all ar tists

world never stops.

look forward to was also available. The housewarming exhibition is the joint exhibition “Glamorous Centur y: Chen Cheng-Po & Liao

From the exhibition of Chen Cheng-Po, Liao Chi-Chun to Yang

Chi-Chun,” to which more than 100 ar t pieces were generously

San-Lang, ”Liang Gallery” has established a fundamental consistent

lent by the families of the ar tists and collectors. The qualities as

tradition of showcasing the ar t pieces created by pioneering

well as number of pieces in exhibition, and the amount of insured

ar tists. Our next step would involve more resource and personnel,

value were all equivalent to those of exhibition in museums. Such

curated by a well-known scholar in ar t history, Prof. Hsiao Chong-

scale and methods of exhibition was so rarely observed that it was

Ray, establishing a grant exhibition of Taiwanese modern ar t with

amazed by the public, making “Liang Galler y” the bellwether of a

unprecedented scale , under the title of “Abstract / Symbol /

brand new era in which Taiwanese ar t industr y becoming more

Oriental: Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Ar t,” collecting

delicate and authoritative. In 2012, it marks the 20th anniversary of

the works of all the prominent figures in Taiwanese ar t industr y.

“Liang Galler y.” A large retrospective exhibition for Chen Cheng-

The decade between 1950 and 1960 marks an impor tant milestone

Po, “The Origin of Taiwan Ar t,” to which Chen’s billion dollar

of the development of Taiwanese ar t, during when “Fifth Moon

masterpiece, “A Picture of Tamsui at Dusk” was exhibited despite its

Group” and “Ton Fan Group” were established. Both of them

high cost. As the difficulty and sophistication of exhibitions improved,

are par ts of the avant-garde movement in modern ar t, as those

our enthusiasm was thus recognized with their par ticipation and

pioneers attempted to reinterpret the oriental nihilism and Western

applause.

emotions. To differentiate ourselves from other exhibition, this is

10


ESSAY | Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

左: 李錫奇 右: 余彥良 L: LEE Shi-Chi R: YU Yen-Liang

not a joint exhibition according to chronological order, but one with

and the tenet of passing the torch onward, “Liang Galler y” has

academic basis, in the attempt to rearrange the developing process

been systematically mapping pioneers onto Taiwanese ar t histor y

of Taiwanese Modern Ar t. 14 well-known ar t critics have been

for 22 years. These pioneers include Chen Cheng-Po, Liao Chih-

invited by Prof. Hsiao to introduce 14 genius ar tisans of Taiwanese

Chun, Yang San-Lang, and Chen Te-Wang in the Japanese occupation

modern ar t with their incisive critiques respectively.

period from 1927, Chen Ting-Shih, Liu Kuo-Sung, Ho Kan, Hsiao Chin and Chen Cheng-Hsiung in the 60s and 70s. Fur thermore,

We have always been sparing no effor t to promote ar t education.

“Liang Galler y” has been actively seeking young ar tists with great

In recent year s, dur ing the process of developing over sea

potential, showcasing their new concepts and works in ar t expos

oppor tunities, we have learned new concepts for the forms of

locally and oversea alike, the result of which could never be more

exhibition. For instance in this exhibition, curation company of

aspiring. On top of it, this upcoming grant exhibition of modern ar t,

new generation is hired, applying new media such as video clip

would disclose the prime of Taiwanese ar t movement with brand

thus allowing the audience to appreciate the logic of abstract ar t,

new appearance, polishing these great minds of ar t from dust of half

i.e., appearance, lines, colors, symbols, and space formation, in the

a centur y. Moreover, we look forward becoming a private galler y

hope that this exhibition could systematically lead the audience

with not only prescience but also in-depth awareness of history and

to understand and experience this magnificent process of ar t, by

culture, actively striving to promote Taiwanese ar t to the rest of the

concisely presenting the well-diversified modern abstract ar t of

world.

the 60s and 70s. With the profound awareness to the local culture 11


總論

Introduction


INTRODUCTION | Abstract – Symbol – Oriental: Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern Art

抽象.符碼.東方情—臺灣現代藝術巨匠大展

蕭瓊瑞

1950 年代末期發韌、1960 年代達於高峰的「臺灣現代藝術運

1950 年代末期的臺灣,以將近 10 年的時間,脫離西方人口中

動」,是戰後臺灣最重要的一波藝術革命。她一方面改變了臺

「瀕死的政權」的窘境,從全面自中國大陸撤退的潰敗情勢

灣日治時期新美術運動以來的創作氛圍,二方面更顛覆了中國

中,逐漸站穩了腳步;儘管政治上仍然籠罩著戒嚴的緊張氣

自民初以來,以「寫實」為手段,企圖「革新」傳統美術的思惟,

氛,但社會上,一股奮發、圖強的氣勢,已然引發一片「再造

成就了一批深具「抽象.符碼.東方情」特色的傑出藝術家與

五四」、「文藝復興」的強勁呼聲。而在 1960 年代中期,搭

作品,是戰後臺灣眾多奇蹟中最值得矚目、珍貴的一項文化成

配著政府「復興中華文化」的政策,藝術家巧妙地避開了「寫

就。

實主義」可能觸及現實敏感的神經,結合西方突起的抽象思潮, 與東方水墨傳統的表意精神,開展出嶄新的創作風貌,成為戰

這些當年叱吒藝壇、引領風騷的年輕藝術家,歷經半世紀的洗

後臺灣奇蹟中最令人驚艷的文化景觀。

鍊、積澱,如今都已是稱霸一方的巨匠、大師;除已辭世的陳 庭詩、楊英風、楚戈外,每一位的創作活力均仍煥發、勁猛。

1950 年代末期發韌的「臺灣現代藝術運動」,事實上之前也經 歷一段將近 10 年的醞釀期。先是 1947 年自上海來臺在南部軍

此次由知名藝術史學者蕭瓊瑞教授策劃的聯展,第一次將十四

政單位工作的何鐵華 (1910-1982),1949 年起開始撰寫大量藝

位活躍當年的藝術家作品,齊聚一堂,聯合展出,是一次美術

術文章於《公論報》與《新生報》等刊物,倡導「現代藝術」

館級的大展,也為那半世紀前的歷史風雲,再致以最高的敬意。

的鑑賞;並在 1950 年年中,籌組「自由中國美術家協會」。 年底,又將 1938 年創設於香港的「廿世紀社」遷移臺北,發 行《新藝術》雜誌,推動「自由中國的新興藝術運動」;並在 當局支持下,持續舉辦多次「反共抗俄美展」、「自由中國美 展」等直至 1959 年。另又成立「新藝術研究所」(1952) 教導 年輕學子,並陸續出版專書多種,成為當時臺灣現代藝術最具 主流地位的言論;而參與其中的畫家及主要論述者,則包括: 李仲生 (1912-1984)、黃榮燦 (1916-1952)、劉獅 (1913-1997)、 郎靜山 (1892-1995)、莊世和 (1923-)、陳慧坤 (1907-2011)、施 翠峰 (1925-)……等大陸來臺人士和少數本地畫家。 13


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

由於當時特殊的政治情勢,《新藝術》雜誌在文字中,始終表

總幹事工作。黃氏當時任教師院藝術系 ( 今國立台灣師大美術

現出強烈擁護自由、支持反共的政治傾向,充滿了慷慨激昂的

系 ),具專業形象,因此也受聘擔任「美術研究班」教務主任,

戰鬥意志,以及救亡圖存的危機意識。而在藝術的理念上,則

負責教學計劃之擬定及推動。黃氏於是邀請師大同仁中較具新

大量介紹西洋較為近代,包括:立體派、野獸派之後的藝術流

派思想之藝術家,如:朱德群 (1920-2014)、林聖揚 (1917-)、

派與思想,相對於當時看來較為保守的「全省美展」和「台陽

趙春翔 (1910-1991) 等人前往授課;同時李仲生因與劉獅同為

美展」的風格表現,對社會青年有著一定的教育與引導的功能。

留日學生的關係,也前往支援,「東方畫會」最早的成員夏陽

尤其在標舉藝術上的「新」與「現代」的訴求上,這群團體的

(1932-)、吳昊 (1931-),就在此時接受李氏的指導。不過這個短

成員是頗為鮮明而顯著的;以《新藝術》創刊號上的文章為例,

命的研究班,在三個月後,即因故停辦。之後,才有李仲生在

就有劉獅的〈新藝術與裸體描寫〉,劉垕譯的〈怎樣欣賞現代

安東街自設畫室培養出「東方畫會」的後續發展,蕭勤 (1935-)、

藝術〉,何鐵華的〈現代藝術的認識〉,以及錫鴻 ( 梁錫鴻 )

霍剛 (1932-) 等北師 ( 今國立臺北教育大學 ) 學生,都是這個時

對〈瑪蒂斯〉的介紹等等;大抵二十世紀前期各類西方現代藝

候加入。

術新潮,包括康丁斯基的抽象作品內在,都有一定程度的觸及 和介紹。此外,李仲生的〈國畫的前途〉、施翠峰的〈民間藝

1951 年,大抵就是以「美術研究班」的幾位師資為成員,在臺

術的本質〉等文,也顯示這群成員,對當時傳統和民間藝術的

北中山堂舉辦了一場「現代畫聯展」;這是臺灣正式以「現代

發展,都有著一定程度的關懷。

畫」為標舉的第一個畫展,展品則以後期印象派之後的作風為 主要面貌;不過這些成員,在不久的時間內,大部分都離開了

在何鐵華創辦《新藝術》的同一年 (1950),同屬大陸來臺版畫

臺灣,移居海外。

家之一的黃榮燦,也在台北市漢口街成立「美術研究班」。 1952 年,何鐵華又創辦「新藝術研究所」於臺北市建國北路, 1950 年年中,戒嚴令已發佈生效,同時由於「韓戰」的爆發,

並辦理函授學校;這是臺灣第一個明白標榜現代藝術理論研習

臺灣進入全面「反共抗俄」的戒嚴時期。鑒於之前在大陸因忽

的教學機構,一直持續到 1959 年何氏赴美為止,影響青年學

略藝文、導致思想全面赤化的慘痛教訓,一些藝文運動也同時

子層面頗廣。

積極展開。先是張道藩主導成立「中華文藝協會」,並擔任主 委;軍中的「戰鬥文藝」政策,就是由這個組織負責推動,他

1953 年,蔣介石發表〈民生主義育樂兩篇補述〉,成為全國加

們提出「文藝到軍中」的口號,倡導「兵演兵、兵唱兵、兵畫兵、

強推動藝文活動的最高指導原則與依據。而 1950 年爆發的韓

兵寫兵」的行動。而當時的國防部總政治作戰部副主任胡克偉,

戰,也在 1953 年結束,美國政府體會到臺灣戰略地位的重要,

是主任蔣經國的得力助手,並身兼政工幹校校長,也擔任「中

進而在 1954 年,和臺灣正式簽訂《「中」美協防條約》,更

國文藝協會美術委員會」理事長,發起「文藝大掃除運動」,

提供了此後數十年,臺灣政經、社會平穩發展的保障;一些日

進行嚴密的思想控制;該委員會在隔年 (1951),即擴大改組為

後知名的詩社及文藝刊物,如:《文藝月刊》( 虞君質主編 )、

「中國美術協會」。

《幼獅文藝》( 瘂弦主編 )、「藍星詩社」、「創世紀」等,都 在這年 (1954) 成立;而紀弦等人的「現代詩社」則在此前一年

「美術研究班」正是隸屬於政工系統下的一個組織,由胡克偉

(1953) 率先成立,顯示一個活潑的藝文力量,正在萌芽、興發,

委派劉獅實際負責;後因劉獅編輯《新生報》「美術版」而與

這些詩人、學者,之後也都成為支持「現代藝術」最重要的助

黃榮燦有所接觸,便推薦黃氏參與美術委員會會務,並擔任

力。不過,1955 年,卻又發生了震撼社會的「孫立人案」,孫

14


INTRODUCTION | Abstract – Symbol – Oriental: Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern Art

La Grand Passione

蕭勤 HSIAO Chin 偉大的熱情

2008

200×600cm

Acr ylic on canvas

立人將軍受到去職、軟禁的命運。同年,並發布「檢肅匪諜給

隔 年 (1958) 5 月, 當 時 學 術 思 想 界 領 袖、 自 由 主 義 學 者 胡 適

獎辦法」,顯示這是一個政治戒嚴與文藝興發混雜發展的奇妙

博士,在「中華文藝協會」成立八周年的紀念大會上,以〈中

時代;人心禁閉卻又奮發、社會戒嚴卻又前衛。

國文藝復興運動〉為題,發表演講,一方面激勵文化人士再造 五四運動的光榮歷史;另一方面,也明白呼籲:文藝發展不能

1956 年 7 月,時年 21 歲的蕭勤,自當時的臺北師範藝術科畢

由政府來指導。顯示一代學者的睿智、敏感及勇氣。

業,在西班牙政府提供的獎學金支助下,前往馬德里留學,成 為年輕現代藝術家中第一位出國的人;並自當年 12 月起,陸

而這一年 (1958),另有兩件事也影響了臺灣現代藝術的發展:

續以報導的方式,在臺灣的《聯合報》撰寫一個名為「歐洲通

一是當年 6 月間,中國旅法抽象畫家趙無極 (1921-2013) 的應

訊」的專欄,專門介紹歐洲知名的現代藝術家與藝術流派,包

邀 訪 美, 途 經 日 本、 香 港, 媒 體 大 幅 報 導, 也 激 勵 了 臺 灣 年

括:當時西歐最重要的前衛藝術「非形象藝術」(Informel,又

輕畫家對現代藝術的追求。其二是當年 8 月間爆發的「823 砲

譯為「不定形藝術」) 和「另藝術」(Other Ar t) 等,成為臺灣

戰」,在美國強力武器支持下,臺灣一舉殲滅、阻擋了共軍進

青年當時吸收歐洲現代藝術資訊最重要的窗口。

犯金、馬,進而威脅臺灣的企圖,奠下此後數十年臺海暫時安 定的局面;也進一步緊密了臺、美之間的關係,文化上也進入

而 1957 年 12 月,由李仲生學生組成的「東方畫會」在臺北新

美國深刻影響的時代。

聞大樓推出首展時,為避免政治上的嫌疑、證明「現代繪畫」 乃是「反共」的產物,特別由蕭勤引進 14 位西班牙現代藝術

1958 年,即有「中美版畫展」在臺北的推出,一種非具象的現

家的作品,同室展出;因為當時的西班牙,正是一個積極反共

代版畫風貌,強烈地撞擊了臺灣年輕一代藝術家的心靈,也激

的國家;這個作法,後來成為歷屆「東方畫展」重要的模式,

發了隔年 (1959)「現代版畫會」的成立。

同時,也促成會員作品赴歐展出的雙向交流。在強調以「非形 象」為主軸的「現代」思維之外,「東方畫會」的名字,也清

「現代版畫會」以前衛的非具象造型,解構了 1950 年代以來,

楚披露他們強調「東方」文化的主體性,而這正是來自他們精

由反共文藝所主導的木刻版畫,嘗試各種新媒材、新技法,與

神導師李仲生的教導。另,同年稍早的 5 月間,由臺灣師院藝

新造形的開發、實驗;陳庭詩 (1916-2002)、楊英風 (1926-1997)、

術系應屆畢業校友劉國松 (1932-) 等人組成的「五月畫會」,

李錫奇 (1938-) 都是創始會員;他們並追溯「中美版畫展」為

也推出首展;顯然這是一個新時代的來臨,由政府基於「反共

「現代版畫會」的第一屆展出。日後,陳庭詩、楊英風先後加

抗戰」等政治訴求所推動的藝文活動,在這批新興的年輕藝術

入了「五月畫會」的展出,李錫奇和日後加入的朱為白 (1929-)

家身上,已然轉化為純粹藝術追求的巨大力量。

則都成為「東方畫會」的主要成員,顯示這三個團體間,成員 的交流與互動。 15


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

Stand Alone on the World

莊喆 CHUANG Che 獨立蒼茫

2008

171.5×346cm

Acr ylic on canvas

1959 年年中,時任聯合國國際文藝中心評議委員兼亞洲代表的

更具影響力,包括:1962 年的〈樸素的五月〉、1963 年的〈無

留美學人顧獻樑 (1914-1979) 自美返臺,應教育部之聘,擔任

鞍騎士頌〉,以及 1964 年的〈從靈視主義出發〉等,從作品

「藝術教育顧問」,巡迴全臺各大專院校,開設講座,對「現

畫面色彩的樸素特質,論到創作的態度,乃至理論的建構等,

代繪畫」表現出極大的熱情與支持,迅速贏得臺灣藝壇的尊重,

是 1960 年代臺灣現代藝術運動最重要的論評文字。

產生號召力;他鼓勵畫家集合團體的力量,組成組織,推動現 代藝術。果然,眾人便在他的支持鼓勵下,推舉楊英風擔任召

而作為當時旗手的劉國松,也在這個時期,形成他極具革命性

集人,發動成立「中國現代藝術中心」。此一行動,在極短時

質的「現代水墨」思想,巧妙地將西方前衛的抽象藝術思維與

間內,便迅速集結了 17 個畫會的 145 位畫家,聯合具名,並

中國傳統的水墨美學加以結合;在 1963 年的一篇文字中,劉

在 1960 年 3 月 25 日美術節下午召開成立大會;未料當天早上,

國松即如此宣示:「中國畫的用筆,從空中直落,墨花飛舞,

卻發生了會員作品被檢舉具有「反蔣」嫌疑的「秦松事件」,

與畫上的虛白,溶成一片,畫境恍如『一片雲,因日成彩,光

而告草草落幕。同年 9 月,即發生震撼臺灣社會的《自由中國》

不在內,亦不在外,既無輪廓,亦無絲理,可以生無窮之情,

雜誌被迫停刊,及主編、臺大教授雷震被捕入獄的事件。

而情了無。』(王船山評王儉「春詩」絕句)中國畫的光是動 蕩著全幅畫面的一種形而上的、非眼可見的宇宙靈氣的流行,

不過,「現代藝術」的風潮已然成型,正待更多有心人士的投

貫徹中邊,往復上下,這是中國畫家畢生所追求的,也是抽象

入與實力展現;而「現代」的定義,也逐漸脫離較廣泛的指涉,

畫家的願望。」

集中到「抽象」的造形思維這個焦點上。 劉國松甚至激情而堅決地宣告:人類的繪畫,由寫實而寫意, 1960 年的第三屆「五月畫會」,是該畫會正式建立其「抽象」

再由寫意而抽象,是一條必然的定律,不應該也不可能再走回

風貌的關鍵一年,也是重要成員莊喆 (1934-) 入會的一年。此

頭路。而擁有這種思想的,事實上也並非僅止劉氏一人,當時

後,劉國松與莊喆兩人在「中國現代畫」與「現代中國畫」理

做為現代藝術導師人物之一的顧獻樑,也在一些演講中,以「傳

念上的激烈論辯,也深化了這個時期臺灣現代藝術發展方向的

神」取代「抽象」一詞,他說:「……這『傳神』( 抽象 ) 藝術

思考;而幾位重要藝評家的支持,如:張隆延、虞君質、顧獻

和我們的思想和我們的哲學相符合,所以我相信:『傳神』( 抽

樑、余光中、楚戈,及稍後的李鑄晉等,更為此一時代,留下

象 ) 藝術一定能和我們的水墨合流。這是一條大路!」

大批珍貴的論述史料;其中尤以余光中幾篇深富詩意的論評, 16


INTRODUCTION | Abstract – Symbol – Oriental: Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern Art

的確,抽象的意境,一方面滿足了這些流亡學生對故國文化的

代藝術最重要的兩個官方平台;而國立歷史博物館長期辦理的

回歸心情,一方面也激發了他們承接傳統的雄心大志。然而,

「巴西聖保羅雙年展」作品甄選工作,更是臺灣年輕現代藝術

更重要的,是這些玄思哲學以及老莊禪學,正可和他們飄泊靈

家和國際藝壇接軌最重要的管道。

魂的內在情思兩相契合;而「計白守墨」、「以虛當實」的美 學思考,也正是這個「神龍見首不見尾」的「大陸文化」脫離

1961 年, 蕭 勤 參 與 組 成 的「Punto( 龐 圖 ) 國 際 藝 術 運 動 」 成

了那塊立足的土地後,最忠實而貼切的表現。這樣的思想和作

立 於 義 大 利, 隔 年 (1962), 也 巡 迴 來 到 臺 灣 展 出; 同 此 一 年

為,又恰恰地顛覆了中國美術現代化潮流自民初以來落入「寫

(1962),第六屆「五月畫展」,也以「現代繪畫赴美展覽預展」

實」、「寫生」等主張的窠臼,而進行了一次徹底的形象解放

的名義,在國立歷史博物館盛大展出,其中甚至有幾位師輩畫

與思想解凍。甚至當時的部份現代繪畫運動者,更將運動的方

家,包括:廖繼春 (1902-1976)、孫多慈 (1913-1975)、虞君質

向,簡化成「抽象即現代、水墨即中國」的思維模式。

(1912-1975)、張隆延 (1909-2009) 的贊助參與。現代藝術運動 至此,逐漸取得藝壇主流地位。1963 年,Punto 二度來臺展出,

不過,臺灣現代藝術的推展,也不是那麼一帆風順,除了 1960

而這一年 (1963),楊英風代表輔仁大學校友赴羅馬,晉見教宗,

年 3 月間「中國現代藝術中心」籌組受挫事件外,1961 年 8 月

感謝協助該校在臺復校;並因此遊學義大利近四年時間,也成

間,東海大學教授徐復觀發表〈現代藝術的歸趨〉一文,也引

為引介臺灣現代藝術赴歐展出的推手。1965 年在羅馬舉行的

發了激烈的「現代藝術論戰」。尤其在徐氏從現代藝術起源的

「中華民國現代派藝展」,在駐義大使支持下,計有 24 位臺

超現實主義者普遍具有反現實、反社會的左翼思想,直指:「現

灣藝術家的作品參與展出。

代藝術的歸趨無他,只在為共產主義開路」之後,更引發「扣 紅帽子」的政治緊張;此時劉國松大膽地出面辯駁,並提出「為

1965 年,也是臺灣現代藝術開始轉型的關鍵年。這一年,國立

什麼把現代藝術劃給敵人?」的回應後,得到虞君質、張隆延

藝專 ( 今國立臺灣藝術大學 ) 美術科第一屆畢業生正式走出校

等大老的支援,論戰才告落幕,也為劉國松贏得了「現代藝術

門;這是一批更年輕的藝術工作者,他們深受西方達達主義、

代言人」的地位。

普普風潮的影響,一種強調物體、複合、裝置、行動的藝術展 演形式開始抬頭,也是臺灣現代藝術運動另一階段的成型,屬

1961 年,位在臺北南海路的國立歷史博物館的「國家畫廊」開

於另一脈絡論述的課題。

幕,和緊臨的「國立藝術館」( 後改國立藝術教育館 ),成為現 17


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

回到原有的系統脈絡,1965 年前後,也有幾件重要的事件,對

「 在 我 們 尚 未 了 解 抽 象 藝 術 之 前, 首 先 要 明 白 一 點, 與 其

臺灣現代藝術運動發展具有指標性的意義。首先是 1964 年,有

說 抽 象 藝 術 的 特 質 是 描 寫 的 (Descriptive), 不 如 說 是 召 喚 的

一場「十畫會聯誼會」的展出於臺北的省立博物館 ( 今國立臺灣

(Evocative)。它就如同音樂一樣,旨在激發內在情感,而非述

博物館 ),參展的畫會計有:五月畫會、東方畫會、現代版畫會、

說故事。它係藝術家內在經驗 ( 例如情緒、心情或情感等 ) 的

長風畫會、今日畫會、南聯畫會、年代畫會、心象畫會、自由

一種強烈表徵,是一種視覺的隱喻 (Visual Metaphor) 而非視覺

美協,及集集畫會等,顯示臺灣現代藝術運動以畫會為主軸的

的敘述 (Visual Narrative)。

時代特徵,在此達於一個高峰;也反映了現代藝術運動的發展, 已擴大為相當普遍的社會層面。而同在 1964 年年初,劉國松倡

藝術作品係激發人們內在經驗的一種工具,這是了解抽象藝術

組「中國現代水墨畫會」,並在 10 月底正式推出「現代水墨畫

所必須具備的基本概念。就心理學來說,這種概念係由共同聯

展」;這是「現代水墨」一詞,首次從「現代藝術」或「現代繪畫」

想(Common Association)與移情作用 (Empathy) 兩者所發生

的範疇脫離出來,成為一個獨立的畫種與風格型式,並蔚成風

的。『共同聯想』係指由於自然形象或事物與色彩、形狀、線

潮;七〇年代之後影響香港,八〇年代之後影響中國大陸。

條之間的關係共同連結而產生了一種特別感覺及概念的過程。 舉例來說,紅色似乎往往意指著炙熱或者興奮;黃色表示太陽

「現代水墨」在六〇年代後期臺灣,得以形成氣候,除了創作

與愉快;藍與黑則代表冷靜與憂鬱;生物形則表示生命,幾何

者展現的活力與實力外,特殊的政治背景,也是值得一提。那

形則反映理智的構成;地平線則表靜息,對角線則表示行動;

便是 1966 年中共 政權在中國大陸發動的「文化大革命」,臺

而直角則表示穩定。

灣為了與之抗衡,由蔣中正出面倡導「中華文化復興運動」; 在「中華文化」的大標題下,水墨 ( 國畫 ) 自然成為重要的類項;

『移情作用』則指人類的想像與外界物體或生物密切聯結的能

1968 年,便有「中國水墨學會」的成立。楚戈 (1931-2011)、

力而言。就藝術而言,它係指感受梵谷筆下的熱情、馬蒂斯輪

李重重 (1942-),都是這個脈絡下出現的傑出創作者。

廓的優美、蒙德里安或布蘭布斯作品的嚴謹,或者感受羅斯科 (Rothko) 色彩的寧靜能力而言。

1965 年,也是臺灣現代藝術運動在理論上深化、在創作上大幅 開展的關鍵年代。作為現代藝術運動重要文字平台之一的《文

在一件含有許多繪畫要素與綜合關係的藝術作品裡,其表現的

星》雜誌,在這年 (1965) 年底,正式停刊,計前後發行 98 期;

情感是異常豐富而神妙不可思議的。但這並非所有藝術家均能

就在停刊前的這年年中,陳正雄 (1935-) 開始發表大批有關現

利用他們的才智去作有意識的安排,以組成這種複雜的關係來

代藝術,尤其是抽象繪畫的理論文字。

傳達一種特有的情緒或心情。其發生的過程往往是不知不覺而 且是潛在意識的。大多數的現代藝術家只覺得需要傳達他們自

不可否認,1960 年代初期,臺灣現代藝術運動啟蒙出發的時

己內在的情感而根本無意於記錄他們的視覺。真正偉大的藝術

刻,許多對現代主義,尤其是抽象繪畫的介紹,都流於片面甚

家,對於某種經驗特具敏感,並且能把他的經驗綜合起來,強

至誤解的轉手資訊;中、英文能力均擅的陳正雄,便以他來自

烈地表現在他的藝術作品中。舉例來說,大多數的人祇能看見

原典研讀的知識,在 1965 年年中,假《文星》(92 期 ) 發表〈談

法國南部鄉村的膚淺外表,但塞尚則能看出自然中的邏輯組織

抽象藝術〉一文,從歷史發展脈絡與藝術理論的角度,為「抽

與統一;雷諾瓦則發現愉快的美感;梵谷則顯示掙扎與狂熱。

象藝術」的本質提出深具學術性的詮釋與介紹。這篇在臺灣抽

故每一位藝術家的獨有特質與內在經驗的強烈,能給予他的藝

象藝術發展史上具有典範性意義的介紹文字中,他如此寫道:

術真正的意義。」

18


INTRODUCTION | Abstract – Symbol – Oriental: Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern Art

Orange Waltz

陳正雄 CHEN Cheng-Hsiung 橘色圓舞曲

2012

41×27cm

Acr ylic on canvas

到了 1980 年代,前提的現代藝術運動推動者,幾乎都已移居 海外,陳正雄在臺北推動成立「中華民國現代畫學會」,並膺 任創會理事長,領導臺灣現代藝術的持續發展。

作為 1960 年代出發的現代藝術運動參與者,廖修平 (1936-) 也 是在 1965 年之後逐漸產生影響的一位重要藝術家。

在稍後的時間裡,陳正雄又先後撰就的相關文字,另有:1965

1959 年自臺灣師大美術系畢業的他,曾在 1960 年參與「今日

年的〈風靡美國的歐普藝術〉(1965.5.23《徵信新聞》),1967

畫會」,標舉「反絕對書法化抽象主義」的主張。1965 年他自

年的〈戰後國際藝壇動向〉(1967.6.3《中央日報》)、〈漫談抽

日本東京轉往巴黎留學,進入海特 (Hayter) 教授的版畫工作室

象藝術〉(1967.7.24《臺灣新生報》)、〈抽象藝術是什麼?〉

學習,開始以他深具東方和諧、左右對稱的「門」系列版畫,

(1968.7《雄獅月刊》),以及 1968 年為知名《東方雜誌》撰寫

在國際畫壇引發注意。1973 年之後,臺灣正逢外交困境,被國

的〈抒情抽象與幾何抽象〉( 復刊第 1 卷第 9 期 )、〈抽象藝術

際社會孤立的當口,他毅然選擇回到臺灣,從事現代版畫的推

之先驅──立體派與未來派〉( 復刊第 2 卷第 6 期 )、〈談紐約

展,成為 1960 年代以來這波現代藝術運動最完美的延續。

畫派〉( 復刊第 3 卷第 12 期 ) 等文。這些文章,一反之前臺灣 現代藝術運動「中國式的理解」,喜由「水墨」、「寫意」、「無

從運動的角度觀,這波從 1950 年代末期發韌、在 1960 年代達

象畫」、「傳神畫」等傳統觀念切入的詮釋方式,回到西方原

於高峰,持續到 1970 年代的臺灣現代藝術運動,或許在 70 年

典的探討,為之後臺灣抽象繪畫的健全發展,奠下較具學術性

代中期的鄉土運動中一度消沈,尤其在 1971 年退出聯合國後,

的基礎與推展的動力。

中斷了所有國際藝壇活動的參與,包括「巴西聖保羅雙年展」; 而在 1980 年代的美術館時代來臨後,又被另一波的「新潮」

1968 年,陳正雄率先推動「中日現代美術交流展」於東京都美

所取代。但從藝術家的創作生命觀,這一波在戰後臺灣扮演第

術館;同時,也應日本藝評家朝日晃之邀,與楊英風舉行雙個

一批藝術革命的「現代藝術家」,歷經半世紀的洗練、積澱,

展於東京保羅畫廊。隔年 (1969),再應邀參展「國際青年美術

創作生命持續發展,都已成為雄霸一方的巨匠、大師,也都將

家雙年展」於東京都國立西洋近代美術館。

在臺灣的美術歷史中,留下重要的印記。 19


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

從年齡的角度檢視,陳庭詩 (1916-2002) 和楊英風 (1926-1997) 是這批藝術家中年紀最長的兩位,也同時是「現代版畫會」的

CHEN Ting-Shih

考量,一度匆匆離臺;隔年 (1948),因有朋友介紹臺灣省立圖

Waking Dreams

家之一,筆名「耳氏」。1947 年「228 事件」爆發後,因安全

陳庭詩 驚夢

1998

Iron

1916 年出生的陳庭詩,自幼失聰,是 1945 年隨軍來臺的版畫

86×53×152cm

創始成員。

書館 ( 今國立臺灣圖書館 ) 工作,再度來臺。 年輕陳庭詩整整十歲的楊英風,也是屬於多才多藝的藝術家, 1959 年參與「現代版畫會」成立,開始進入現代版畫的風格

舉凡:版畫、繪畫、佛雕、傳統寫實雕塑、景觀雕塑,乃至漫畫、

探討。經歷一段以中國民間道教儀式為主題的抽象造型後,在

設計、雷射、攝影……等,均有觸及,也開創多項第一。

1963 年至 1964 年間,正式形成他那批以宇宙、晝夜、星體、 大塊為題材的巨幅版畫作品。這個時期的陳庭詩,開始放棄以

作為「現代版畫會」的創始會員,楊英風當時的版畫,主要是

往木刻版畫的雕刀,改採撕、剪、折、切的多元技法,將臺灣

以紙版版畫及複合版畫為主要,乃至到了 1980 年,還有雷射

特殊的蔗板,當作直接的媒材語彙,以拼紙般的手法,在另一

構成的網版版畫;但在大多數人的印象中,楊英風仍以「景觀

個大型襯板上排列、構成,成為版模,再行印刷成畫。在黑、

雕塑」知名,也被視為自黃土水以來戰後臺灣最重要的雕塑家

白為主的畫面中,偶爾加上金、銀、紅、青的色彩。斑駁的印痕、

之一。

古拙又古典的色彩,加上巨幅的尺寸,讓人充滿視覺強力的震 撼,又給人一種大塊推移、亙古孤寂、大音無聲的深沈感受。

楊英風的雕塑,除了早期的寫實風格之外,自 1961 年開始, 便進入所謂「書法系列」時期,也就是藉由書法性的線條,形

陳庭詩的現代版畫,不只是形式的簡潔、趣味,也是對中國傳

成一種「虛空間」的造型,或可稱為「意念」式的雕塑。

統哲學思維的映現,包括:對宇宙的想像、對自然的態度,在 虛實對應間、在有限對無限間,傳承了中國古老哲學宇宙生生

俟 1967 年自義大利返臺,震懾於太魯閣山水鬼斧神工的驚人

不息、大氣流動不已的訊息。那大塊實體中呈顯的裂紋,猶如

氣勢,又形成「太魯閣山水系列」的感性雕塑。這是人類文明

春雷乍響下甦醒的生命,蠢蠢欲動地活化了起來;在大塊推移、

史上少有的一種山水立體雕塑,從較具地質歷史的〈造山運

拉扯中,中國山水的靈氣昇華為宇宙循環的永恆奧秘。

動〉,到達以物喻人、以景喻意的〈正氣〉、〈豐年〉等作, 乃是一種蘊含人文精神的「意象」式雕塑。

陳庭詩是一位多才多藝的藝術家,除現代版畫外,1975 年,他 也參與楊英風等人發起的「五行雕塑小集」;1976 年更赴美近

最後一個系列,則是不鏽鋼雕塑。出身東京美術學校建築科背

兩年,為科羅拉多州政府議會大廈設計紀念華工移民開拓的大

景的楊英風,這些不鏽鋼雕塑,其實蘊含著搭架、封板、研磨、

幅鑲嵌玻璃畫;此外,也有大批書法、墨彩作品。1980 年中期

打光的「建築」操作模式;從最早為 1970 年日本大阪萬國博

後,以高雄拆船廠的廢鐵零件,創作出大批鐵雕作品,更成為

覽會中華民國館創作的巨型雕塑〈鳳凰來儀〉,到 1997 年辭

他在現代版畫之外,最受推崇的現代藝術創作,充滿形式的張

世前為故鄉宜蘭縣政府廣場創作的〈協力擎天〉,在在呈顯楊

力與內涵的幽默,受到藝壇高度的肯定。

英風強調雕塑與環境充分結合「景觀」精神。楊英風後期之特

20


INTRODUCTION | Abstract – Symbol – Oriental: Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern Art

The Elegance of Han

李錫奇 LEE Shi-chi 漢 采 本 位 2014-12

Dynasty Oriental 2014-12

2014

120×120cm

YANG Yu-Yu

Lacquer, mixed media

楊英風 夢之塔

Tower of Dreams

1972

Bronze

182×25×47cm

別鍾情於不鏽鋼雕塑創作,一方面固然是看重此一媒材明亮、

與蕭勤、霍剛同為「北師」校友的李錫奇,乃金門人,有著「金

簡潔的現代感;二方面則是著意於不鏽鋼鏡面的映像效果,能

門高梁」烈酒般豪爽、明朗的性格。早期以建築物為題材的版

將周遭的景觀吸納進去,將別人視為禁忌的難題,變成「景觀

畫,帶著高度的音樂性與濃郁的文學性;之後轉為拓印的單張

雕塑」概念的最佳實踐。

版畫。1964 年更獲選代表臺灣參加在日本舉辦的「國際版畫 展」,開闊了視野。

他自創「景觀」一詞,說: 「英文的 Landscape 只限於一部份可見的風景或外觀,我用的

同時,在 1960 年代中期的新一波現代藝術裝置行動中,他也

『景觀』卻意味著廣義的環境,即人類生活的空間,包括感官

以一些現成物 ( 如:賭具等 ) 的創作,扮演重要角色。在 60 年

與思想可及的空間。

代行將結束的 1969 年,更同時獲得日本「國際青年美術家」 的「評論家獎」、菲律賓第二屆國際版畫展的第二大獎,以及

如果一個人欣賞景觀或雕塑,只注意到外在 ( 形下 ) 的一面,

中華民國畫學會頒給的版畫「金爵獎」等,成為畫壇矚目的焦

事實上他只看到『景』而已,這樣還不夠,還不合乎中國的智

點。俟 70 年代,展開一系列「月之祭」、「時光行」、「生

慧。他必須再進一步地把握內在於形象的精神面形上,用他的

命動感」、「向懷素致敬」等書法系列版畫,為他贏得了「現

內心 ( 本具的良知良能 ) 與此精神相溝通,如此才是『觀』。

代版畫代言人」的地位,但他也逐漸由版畫轉為噴畫的創作。

所以簡單的說:『景』是外景,是形下的;『觀』是內觀,是 形上的。任何事物都具有形上形下的兩面,只有擦亮形上的心

接著的 10 年間,他投入現代畫廊的經營,為這些戰後臺灣第

眼才能握、欣賞另一層豐富的意義世界──用這個觀點來欣

一波現代藝術運動健將的創作成果,進行持續性的推介、延續,

賞,則無物無非景觀,所以古人說:『萬物靜觀皆自得』,誠

直到 80 年代美術館時代的來臨。

斯言之不虛也!」 結束畫廊工作後的李錫奇,重回創作,蹦發強力而生猛的能量, 楊英風豐富的創作成果,由國立交通大學與財團法人楊英風藝

「漆畫」成為他最新形式的媒材。這個古老的媒材,也在他的

術教育基金會出版的 30 卷《楊英風全集》,得以窺見一斑。

手上,散發出既古典、又現代,既巨觀、又細緻,既明亮、又 深沈的魅力。

同為「現代版畫會」創始會員,之後成為「東方畫會」中堅份 子的李錫奇,自來有「畫壇變調鳥」的雅稱,即在稱美其風格

李錫奇在 1963 年又加入「東方畫會」,成為畫會中後期的核

與媒材的多變。

心成員。 21


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

CHU Wei-Bor

On the Move

朱為白 行

1991

91.5×168cm

Cotton, linen

也從事木刻版畫的朱為白,1929 年生於南京,1949 年來臺。

早期一般人都以為吳昊是以版畫為主要創作手法,甚至以「版

1965 年加入「現代版畫會」之前,他已在 1958 年的第二屆「東

畫家」的身份來認識他;事實上,從首屆「東方畫展」展出,

方畫展」,成為「東方畫會」成員。

吳昊便是以油畫作為創作媒材。因此,1980 年代之後他由版畫 轉回油畫創作,乃是極自然的事。重要的是,不論採取什麼樣

朱為白早期的作品,至少在 1960 年之前,都是以油彩和墨水

的媒材,吳昊始終能保持一貫的風格、統一的思維與關懷,形

的混合使用,進行一種純粹抽象的造型;到了 1961 年,則首

成個人獨特而鮮明的面貌。

次出現以刀割畫面的手法,形成一種空洞和突起的效果。這個 被他稱為「挖貼藝術」的手法,明顯有來自義大利畫家、空間

吳昊的創作,結合民間藝術,尤其童玩的趣味與超現實的思維

派創始者封答那 (Lucio Fontana,1899-1968) 的影響;而封答那

流動,展現一種永恆的歡愉與繁複的裝飾;線條和色彩是吸納

正是 1960 年第四屆「東方畫展」配合展出的「地中海美展」

自中國民間藝術最珍貴的資產。1970 年代,臺灣鄉土運動抬

中的重要參展畫家之一。

頭,吳昊以一系列違章建築的版畫,成為「鄉土」的代言人, 但他始終能超越地域的限制,成為具有歷史記憶的時代見證。

朱為白從事「挖貼藝術」的同時,也有一批以木刻手法表現中

他說:「……我那時住在南機場,那邊有大批違章建築。我對

國民間生活的版畫作品;但顯然他的「挖貼藝術」,才是建構

它們發生興趣,是那些違章建築從前在臺灣是沒有的,它們都

他代表性風貌的創作。尤其 1980 年代之後,那些畫布、織品,

是由大陸逃來的老百姓所建,是歷史生命的一個轉捩點,是時

乃至棉花棒等現成物,在他的巧手組織下,散發或是緊繃、或

代特有的產物。」

是舒緩、或是優雅、或是衝突的豐富表情與內涵,這或許與朱 氏家族三代均為出色裁縫匠師的背景有關。

1980 年代之後,由於生活條件的改善,創作媒材重新拾回油 彩。那些以獨特的油彩暈染技巧作成的多彩背景,加上以中國

朱為白以木刻版畫描繪民間生活的作品,有一段時間,和吳昊

紅豆筆仔細描繪的纖細造形輪廓線,構成深具動態的人物、動

的木刻版畫相互輝映;但朱為白的木刻版畫多為黑白單色,吳

物,尤其是騎馬的幼童,那是一種對童年生活、吉慶喜樂的回

昊則是多彩的。吳昊 (1931-) 原名吳世祿,是李仲生畫室最早

憶與再現;至於大量的花與小丑系列,則是對母親深沈的感恩

的學生之一,也是「東方畫會」的創會成員之一。1961 年再加

與祝福。

入「現代版畫會」的展出。 吳昊的藝術,在同時代的現代藝術創作中,獨樹一幟;沒有說 教、沒有玄理,只有無限的歡愉、回憶,與祝願。 22


INTRODUCTION | Abstract – Symbol – Oriental: Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern Art

Butterfly and Girl

吳昊 WU Hao 蝴蝶與女孩

1995

Oil on linen

62×62cm

與吳昊同為李仲生最早學生之一的夏陽 (1932-),兩人都是南

種動態、一種運動感,也就是一種美感;在這裹,藝術不再是

京人,1949 年一起隨空軍部隊來到臺灣,情誼深厚;而在藝術

一種孤立的東西,而是必須與很多方面發生連繫。因此,作品

上,一樣是從民間藝術的「線條」出發,吳昊走的是一種歡愉、

不再只是表達一己個人的感覺,而是整個時代普遍的感覺。他

穩定的路線,夏陽走的卻是一條荒蕪、晃動不穩定的路子。

不否認紐約時期作品中透露的「冷酷」感覺,因為以照相寫實 這種機械式的方法作畫,本身就是比較偏向於「冷酷」,事實

自 1963 年前往巴黎形成「毛毛人」系列,到 1968 年轉往紐約,

上這也正是一個高度發達的工業社會,所必然存在的共同感。

以超寫實手法,捕捉陽光下晃動的人群,「異鄉人」始終是夏

他說:「我們在藝術上,必須要先看整個的情況,才能捉住那

陽藝術中關懷的主題。夏陽對「異鄉人」主題的呈顯,不來自

個時候的實在,而藝術是不斷地在追求這個實在。」

題材的選擇、不來自場景的營造,也不重在人物表情的凝塑, 而是來自「線條」本身的示意。不論是巴黎時期那些運動、生

夏陽自承:在紐約時期以前,如何融合中西文化的衝突,是他和

活、工作 ( 爬電桿 ) 的人,或紐約時期的街頭眾生,乃至後來

許多中國現代畫家,始終努力思索、探求的課題。他認為這是中

返臺時期的門神系列,都是一般生活的場景、人物,乃至傳統

國現代畫家的一項宿命,幾乎每一個現代的中國畫家,在甫一接

民俗的故事題材;但透過「線條」的表現,平常的題材展現了

觸創作的問題,一種「被動」的、「不自然」的感覺,便會產生;

生命永恆的主題:疏離、異鄉、荒涼…..。

他總要不停地關懷自己背後的那個中國的偉大傳統,又要隨時注 意國外最新的發展。因此,任何一種藝術手法的嘗試,都是抱著

夏陽曾說:「中國的線能夠直接地讓本身就有很多的變化,而

一種研究性的態度,在創作上都不是那麼樣的自然。

西洋的線的功能,只是在畫面上產生分割的作用。中國的線是 在運動中的線,它同時也表現出一種精神的凝聚力來,……」

夏陽指出:對中西藝術的融合,在民國初年的「第一代」畫家, 如徐悲鴻等人,便已經開始嘗試了。當時的畫家認為:中國畫

夏陽是一位藝術思緒頗為深邃、創作動機相當自覺的藝術家,

的缺失在於不知道「寫生」,而西洋藝術的好處就是在於「寫

他曾自我分析巴黎、紐約兩個時期創作的差異,說:巴黎時期

生」;因此,他們努力於要把「寫生」的技法引進中國,放到

的線性人形,是延續國內時期的努力,嘗試著將中國的線條運

中國繪畫裹頭去,以為這樣一來,中國畫便可以達到完整的境

用到現代生活題材上,以一種線的組織,表現人的一種精神的

地。但夏陽認為:事實上,中國畫本身原已是一個完整的存在。

存在,人和物體是相對立的;在創作的態度上,是傾向於個人

甚至可以說,這個存在,在宋代就已發展到達了極點。這種完

主義的,對繪畫也是抱持純藝術的態度;但是到了紐約以後,

整,也不需要什麼「改良」;一「改良」,反而會把中國繪畫中,

經過初期黑白作品的過渡期,在畫中反映的,則是社會上的一

以造型為最重要的基礎破壞了。再怎麼寫生,也不能像西洋人 23


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

Sword in Lion's Mouth No.10

夏陽 HSIA Yang 獅 子 啣 劍 No.10

1992

170×170cm

Acr ylic on canvas

的繪畫,把物體實存於空間的感覺表達出來。結果兩邊都不對,

作為「東方畫會」早期最具領導地位的蕭勤 (1935-),是臺灣

這種「改良」註定是要失敗的。

這一波現代藝術運動中,具有深刻影響的人物之一。從早期的 文 字 報 導、 思 潮 引 介、 引 進 歐 洲 現 代 藝 術 家 作 品, 乃 至 創 立

夏陽自認他們這一代的畫家,則是企圖從西洋美術的結構──

Punto 藝術運動,到日後返臺任教於國立臺南藝術學院,以迄

色、形等繪畫元素的構成方面去著手,然後將中國藝術的某些

退休;這位 21 歲就離臺的藝術家,始終不曾中斷他和臺灣這

形式套進去;比如夏陽個人早期的水墨線條便是。但這種藝術

塊土地密切的連繫。

式樣,如果真能包含了怎樣的中國藝術,也都只是表面的,因 為就中國的線條而言,在沒有具體形象的約束時,自然就變得

在個人的創作上,自 1958 年告別早期那些國劇人物造形之後,

鬆散,線的精妙處也完全失去了造型的意義;結果便落為一種

蕭勤便一路走入充滿個人禪思與宇宙玄想的創作長途。從最初

技巧的遊戲,純粹追求形色均衡的一般性美感,近乎生理的活

的一批書法符號,到 1961 年之後的低限墨水,乃至 1963 年至

動,終至遠離創作的本旨。因此,夏陽承認,他此前試圖努力

66 年間的「太陽」系列,再到 1967 年前往紐約的「硬邊」系列,

融合中西藝術的嘗試,也是失敗了。

加入金屬烤漆的立體作品,蕭勤始終走在時代的前端。

即使在從事超寫實繪畫的夏陽心中,仍時時不忘自己身為中國

1978 年,首次回臺參加「國家建設座談會」( 簡稱「國建會」)

人的事實。他也認為:以中國這樣一個在世界文化中佔有重要

時,他已是一位「海外傑出的藝術家」,大型的回顧展也在臺

地位的國家而論,與西方文化的交流,還遠未達到應有的質、

北國立歷史博物館舉行。同時,也在這個時期,創作生命重新

量。但他也認為:「共存」事實上遠較「融合」更有意義。「共

出發,重回「東方」的墨水世界。此後,經歷 1976 年之後的

存」是一種豐富,對人類文化而言,是一件美事;如果談融合,

「禪與氣」、1983 年之後的「宇宙風景」、1989 年之後的「中

總是必須放棄某一部分,不是中國,就是西方,要不然就是根

國之再生」、「往永久的花園」、「度大限」、「新世界的誕

本融合不上,這種事情只有時間能夠解決。

生」……等,蕭勤的生命,在一連串的不幸、挫折,與困頓中, 不斷地超越、再生。他說:

近年來,夏陽獨居在上海近郊的一棟公寓頂樓。自從夫人過世 後,他的生活更為孤寂,以一種疏離、孤絕的心情,畫著一些

「對我來說,作畫這件事的第一重要性,並非『作畫』;而是

長軸式的風景畫,一種文人式的風景,有雲、有石、有荷、有

透過作畫來對自己的人生始源的探討、人生經歷的記錄及感

青蛙…...,一樣的荒涼,多了一份自嘲與諷世。熱心、冷眼,

受,和人生展望的發揮。」

獨對喧嘩的藝壇與世情。 蕭勤的生命持續開展,他的藝術也持續開展。 24


INTRODUCTION | Abstract – Symbol – Oriental: Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern Art

HO Kan

1

Continuity 1

霍剛 承合

2012

200×122cm

Oil on canvas

霍剛 (1932-) 是 1964 年前往義大利和蕭勤會合的「東方」成員。 霍剛的藝術,早期帶著超現實主義的神秘色彩,是一種對潛意 識的探討與流動,但 1964 年前往義大利之後,便轉向一種帶 有硬邊特性的畫面構成。

霍剛正是在「Punto 運動」鼎盛時期到達義大利。「Punto 運動」 極為重要的一點,正和中國或說東方的「靜觀精神」相吻合; 這樣的基調,也正是李仲生教導下所強調的「東方主義」的精 神。

其次,色彩並不能單獨存在,他必須和「形式」共同考量。霍 剛的形式,也始終是在一種最單純的幾何造型如點、線、面中,

在霍剛長達近一甲子的創作中,他建構了一種殊異、如詩般的

進行各種均衡/不均衡、對稱/不對稱、幾何形/非幾何形、

神秘色彩特質。這些色彩,都不是陽光底下所能見到的物象原

直線/非直線的對話與組構。

色,甚至在一般的色票當中,也不易尋得。霍剛畫面中的色彩, 往往是在畫室中經過多次調和後所得到的一種特殊色。而這樣

色的組構加上形的組構,霍剛的繪畫就營造出一種看似設計,

的調和,不只是在調色盤上進行,更重要地,是在畫布或畫紙

其實充滿人文性與精神性的藝術創作。色彩營構氛圍、形式提

上進行;因此,往往在一個色彩表層下,還隱隱透露出另一底

供情節;尤其在形式當中,線條的方向、圓的大小或三角形的

層的色彩,形成一種若有若無、盪漾晃動的謎樣感受。

排列,都具有高度示意性的功能。霍剛的作品於是充滿了一種 似乎有事正在發生、或顯然有話想要述說的謎樣特質,這種特

而在色彩的搭配上,霍剛也充分發揮了類比色與對比色的配色

質正是音樂性的、也是詩的特質。

原理。大體上,他經常將一組類比色尤其是屬於寒色調的類比 色,作為畫面構成的主要架構;而這些較大面積的類比色中,

霍剛的作品,或許和朋友形容他的個性一樣,充滿對立的特質,

經常可以看見相鄰的兩色,其中一色有著另外一色的存在,這

卻又和諧的並存:熱情卻不張揚、理性卻不呆板。他的作品也

便是色彩多次疊刷所得到的效果。在這樣的類比色架構中,藝

是色彩豐富卻又含蓄凝鍊、形式單純卻又變化多樣,技巧細膩

術家再置入一種對比色或黑白無彩色的小型元素,或是圓形、

卻不匠氣低俗;他的繪畫,給人一種中國古老絹布繪畫的溫暖

或是三角形、或是細線,於是這些對比色就讓整個畫面,產生

感受,但形式又是如此地當代而前衛。在紛亂的現實世界中,

一種突顯、跳躍、提振的視覺感受。小型元素的對比色,往往

霍剛的作品提供了人們一個可供休憩、思維、想像,又多少帶

成為視覺的焦點;但大的類比色,則形成了畫面整體的氛圍。

著一絲寂寞卻非落寞的詩情空間。 25


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

( )

White All Over When Sunset II

劉國松 LIU Kuo-Sung 日落紅湖白 二

1969

55×86cm

Ink on paper

霍剛和「五月畫會」創始人的劉國松 (1932-),同是「國軍遺

「劉國松的生命是流動的,因為它周行不殆,生生不息,無始

族子弟學校」的同學。來臺後,霍剛入了北師藝師科,劉國松

無終,無涯無際。畫面是有限的,可是予人的感覺是無限的,

則在讀完師大附中後,進入臺灣師院藝術系,並在畢業那年的

因為那是水的感覺、雲的感覺、風的感覺,有限對無限的嚮往,

1957 年,成立了「五月畫會」。

剎那對永恆的追求。畫黑留白,不畫如畫,黑固甚美,白尤多 姿,黑呼白應,如魄附身,充份把握住了東方玄學的機運和二

在推動 1960 年代的臺灣現代藝術運動中,劉國松無疑是扮演

元性。….. 劉國松努力追求的這種風格,至此已經成熟。在構

重要的角色;但他更大的貢獻,則是在「現代水墨」繪畫方面

圖的變化上,他已臻於千彙萬狀無所不宜的境地,淡淡附著的

的成就。

暗色、矯若遊龍的黑色、波詭雲譎的灰色、縱橫成趣的白色, 構成畫面整體的美感,而令人進入無我的渾茫。……」

1961 年年底,劉國松受到建築學界論辯材料與形式之間關係的 影響,認為:以甲材料模擬乙材料,並不是一種誠實的手法;

而劉國松這樣的創作,也因余光中的推介,得識余氏在美國留

因此,決定放棄以石膏、油彩在畫布上模擬中國古代經典名作

學時的藝術史老師、知名的藝術史學者李鑄晉教授,將劉國松

的作法,重回紙筆水墨的世界。

的作品介紹到美國,使他踏入了西方世界的藝壇。

首先,他從中國五代畫家石恪的〈二祖調心圖〉中,學到狂草

七〇年代之後,劉國松移居香港,任教中文大學,創辦藝術系,

的側鋒筆法,形成「大筆觸」系列的作品;之後,又加入「國

將現代水墨帶到了香港。八〇年代之後,則因中國畫研究院的

松紙」抽筋拔毛皴的媒材特色,逐漸形成「抽象式山水」的現

邀請,回到水墨原鄉的中國大陸,並巡迴全國各地展出,其「革

代水墨風格。最後則因太空人登陸月球的刺激,進入他那「太

中鋒的命」、「革筆的命」的主張,也對那個講究基本功的傳

空畫」系列的創作,將上千年的山水傳統,帶入了宇宙風景的

統畫壇,產生了巨大的衝擊;幸而得到吳冠中 (1919-2010)「形

層次。

式美」的理論支持,而得以持續發展。

從「大筆觸」的時代開始,余光中便是劉國松創作的最佳詮釋

從臺灣現代藝術運動的角度,「現代水墨」是這一波運動中一

者,他以如詩的筆法,為劉國松的繪畫提供了深入且寬闊的欣

個美麗的誤解,卻也是一次因誤解而產生自我生機的豐美成

賞視角。他如此寫到:

就。

26


INTRODUCTION | Abstract – Symbol – Oriental: Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern Art

In the way I Follow

楚戈 CHU Ko 吾道一以貫之

1997

144×187cm

Acr ylic and ink on canvas

「現代水墨」在戰後臺灣的發展,波瀾壯闊,人才輩出。原本

機靈與敏銳,現在成了空間浩瀚、線于無限的巨大場景。

以論評、新詩為主軸的楚戈 (1931-2011),也在七〇年代末期、 80 年代初期,正式投入「現代水墨」的創作;而且以他對中國

誠如著名詩人楊牧的形容:

上古文化的理解,形成了極為精采、吾道一以貫之的美學思想 與表現。

「這些年楚戈以水墨創造柔軟的曲線,獨特的畫具揮灑於棉紙 或帆布之上,捕捉長久於瞬息、磅礡於細緻,其結果是浮沉變

楚戈的線條,尤其是早期的插畫,有來自西方藝術家保羅.克

化的空間,是雲山雨氣谷壑山泉,是女媧、背向的佛陀之類,

利(Paul Klee,1879-1940)的啟發及影響;但隨著時間的推移,

令人驚異不置的題目,悉以繩結一般的結構貫穿而維繫之,稱

特別是進入故宮工作之後,楚戈的線條,連綿不絕,且曲折反

『觀想結構』。觀與想是容易參詳的預備工夫,感官與神智對

覆、游走自由的性質,明顯地,已和克利那種帶著幾何、機械,

外對內的追求、尋覓,只涵蓋到藝術創造的一部份活動。結構

和直線構成的風格,遠遠地區隔開來。如果說克利的線條是西

乃是實際從事的運作,通過大幅度全面的規劃、比例、平衡、

方建築和音樂的映現,楚戈的線條,則是中國結繩而治、萬物

對抗,繼之以 榘 矱檢驗其方圜,以陰陽明暗互補、映照,深入

起於一而終於一的美學流露;從中國上古的結繩美學出發,楚

黼黻奧祕,乃見繩墨曲折流麗,中規而中矩,此之所謂藝術的

戈的繪畫,不以視覺的自然為模仿,而是以人文觀念作為造型

編結構成,所謂章法、紀律。

的根源。 楚戈說繩子因為柔軟能致曲線、變形,而臻於抽象的境界,所 從八〇年代的詩畫合一表現,到九〇年代「線于無限」時期,楚

以它除了是具象的媒介外,也是抽象的啟示。」

戈的結繩美學水墨創作達於高峰。尤其在一次歐遊展覽的旅程 中,發現一種多筆並列的排筆,一筆下去,可以同時出現多達

2003 年之後,楚戈年輕時因鼻咽癌化療的後症逐漸顯露,體能

十條以上的線條。這種原理,正像繩子之以多條細線構成一般,

明顯衰退,但仍以報紙創作了大量稱為「報緣」系列的作品;

筆的轉折,就產生了空間前後的錯覺,如此一來,線條的流動,

甚至以繩子進行裝置、雕塑,乃至嘗試油彩的創作,展現強勁

也就成為一種複音式的合音,流動、旋轉、穿透、迴流……,

的 生 命 力 與 旺 盛 的 創 作 力。 臨 終 前, 更 以 畢 生 研 究, 出 版 被

一幅幅無限變化的線條組曲,也成為楚戈百玩不厭、百變無窮

瑞典漢學家馬悅然教授稱為「中國通儒最後一部鉅著」的《龍

的魔幻空間。那些早年只是以一支硬筆,表現在小小插圖上的

史》,成為戰後畫壇的一則傳奇。 27


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

LEE Chung-Chung

Family Photo

李重重 全家福

2013

54×60cm

Ink and color on paper

在現代水墨當年盛大的風潮中,李重重 (1942-) 是少數的女性

李重重的作品,在完全拋棄傳統形式語彙的過程中,卻傳承了

水墨藝術家,且表現突出。出身書香人家的李重重,誕生於安

中國傳統水墨中最動人的墨韻和精神。因此,她的作品不僅擁

徽省屯溪縣,父親也是一位學習藝術的近代知識份子,早年畢

有現代的形式,也呈現深刻、動人的傳統文人內涵。她的創作,

業於北平美術學院,專習傳統水墨。1947 年,李重重 4 歲,跟

從佈局入手,自墨韻收尾;因此,她的繪畫,不僅有縱橫蒼潤

隨父母來到臺灣;父親任職台鹽七股鹽場,李重重便在臺南鄉

的筆觸線條,也有塊面渲染的空間意境,但更重要的,是她在

下,安靜而幸福地度過了她的童年。

層層營造的墨韻層次中,創造了作品蒼潤婉約的動人氣質,與 深厚渾成的紮實質感。為了達成這種效果,李重重作畫的過程,

1965 年,李重重自復興崗政戰學校藝術系畢業;1968 年,便

表面上看,似乎恣意揮灑、逸筆草草,實際上則是舉重若輕,

加入了「中國水墨畫學會」,開始現代水墨畫的實驗與開拓。

墨色堆疊往往幾達數十次,進行得相當緩慢。李重重說:我希 望作品要有大象重重跺腳時那樣的震動。

從家學淵源的傳統水墨,到學院教育的油畫訓練,同時也透過 國內外豐富的參展經歷,李重重接受並投身現代水墨的洗禮與

2000 年以後的作品,李重重運用焦墨與淡墨的對比、細線與色

歷練,是源自一種創作實驗的內在思維與反省。她對水墨媒材

塊的對映,傳達出中國傳統哲學中,亦動亦靜、動靜相參、物

所潛藏的無限可能性,以及傳統表現手法的狹隘拘限,具有深

我合一的種種聯想與共鳴。有時是一種墨彩相容、連綿不絕的

刻的自覺與反省。

滾動造型,有時則如某一斷面中突然湧現的色彩精靈,給人一 種斷、續,存、滅的衝擊與並置的感受。而物情、物象、物緣

初期,她從技巧的更新和媒材的實驗著手,嘗試了許多以拓墨

的層層敷衍,引人進入一種生命思索的深沈境域。

和自動技法為主體的創作。之後,她逐漸從自己既有的傳統筆 墨中去發掘新意,用筆用墨重新成為畫面的主體,但造形已

李重重在臺灣現代水墨發展史上,最為突顯且重要的成就與貢

經是一種全新的語彙;各種技法退位成只是從旁輔助的工具,

獻,是她在現代的水墨形式中,掌握及呈顯了中國傳統獨特的

不再是主體。正是這種被文學研究者兼藝評家的尉天聰稱美為

空靈、氣韻與意境,正是所謂「筆墨相濡、意超象外」的筆勢

「有根的現代」的風格,使李重重成為臺灣現代抽象水墨在 70

與墨韻,蒼勁與婉約並存,物性與人性輝映,是這個時代最值

年代之後,倍受矚目與肯定的一位重要藝術家。

得珍惜的一種水墨姿態與聲音。

28


INTRODUCTION | Abstract – Symbol – Oriental: Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern Art

與 劉 國 松 同 為 1960 年 代「 五 月 畫 會 」 最 重 要 成 員 的 莊 喆

也有深刻的解析。他說:

結合傳統詩詞、乃至現代詩句,形成頗具特色的「現代水墨」

如 果 說, 中 國 藝 術 的 精 神 是 什 麼, 我 想 對 自 然 的 尊 重 是 根

作品。然而,1973 年辭去東海大學建築系的教職、毅然赴美定

本。……對石頭的記憶,由讚美而至再現『自然』的動機、到

居後,便逐漸脫離「現代中國畫」的思考,呈顯其「中國現代

畫的產生,二者之間有一微妙的空間存在。去畫也不是去證實

畫」的關懷與努力。簡言之,「現代中國畫」是以中國畫為主

記憶;眼的觀察所得到,不過是素材。就我來說,如果是好的畫,

軸,嘗試建立一種屬於現代形式的「中國畫」新貌,「現代水

它可以透過圖面的種種,收集成一整體的形象;這形象能傳達

墨」正是這種意圖下的一種堅持與表現;而「中國現代畫」則

出我對自然的觀察與讚美中那一幕幕的景象來,不是幻影──

是以「現代畫」為主題,追求一種具中國特色的現代繪畫表現;

那種超現實主義的手法或攝影寫實的手法;也不是畢卡索所說

因此媒介上的表現,便成為兩者最主要的差異關鍵,也是促使

的騙局、假象。在立體派的觀念裏,最後被拼割的零碎圖像,

莊喆脫逸「現代水墨」創作路徑的主因。莊喆是一位對自我創

必須完整的交待出實際的真實感來,像他的大作〈格爾尼卡〉

作意識極具自覺性的藝術家。他說:

那樣,把戰爭的恐怖、受難者的肢體、火光、驚恐的馬、婦人

(1934-),曾經在 1960 年代中期,以一些布上裱紙的水墨作品,

這些一齊還原到畫面上。我要求的是非人為的、非人世的,是 「……因為我使用水性的壓克力與油性的油彩,二者幾乎是在

沒有被人碰觸過的自然,像海水衝洗的沙岸,不能有一個人的

同一時間內使用,其中的差異、互斥與互溶的極限都很大;可

腳印。回到洪荒,回到原初,回到那使人對外界震懾的第一眼,

是出現的局面往往在不同的時間裏達到不同的效果。細微之處

回到繪畫的起點。如果能做到,那就是我要傳達的『真實』!」

如油彩的分子在水膠性的濕度裏會凝結成大小形狀不同的顆粒。 小的如同噴霧,大的如同裂渠,真是變化無窮。我想我得謹慎

莊喆就是在上述的理念下,從事漫長而沈緩的探索,在他自稱

勿墜入玩弄效果的陷阱。大致說來,從大構圖的開始,國畫申

的「第三條路」上,寂寞前行;當一片「水墨至上」的論調甚

構圖上經常用「開合」來形容。在視覺上,用西方的術語就是

囂塵上之際,莊喆仍堅持「非水墨」的創作。

比例、節奏、彩色、秩序這些。‥‥也就是國畫常說的『骨』。」 在「五月」諸成員中,莊喆是少數始終深入探索「抽象」真實 這種在「媒介上的表現」的探索、滿足,卻不是唯物的,它同

涵義的藝術家,但他並不在名詞上刻意鑽研,因為他深知:從

時也免不得包含了作者個人日常生活中的種種感受與記憶。莊

現在世界上已發生過的藝術形式來看,抽象與非抽象之間的固

舉例說 :

定含義少之又少。他說:「……拿我的畫來說,也許可以說成 『多象』,因為我從未放棄對自然的觀察、感受。」

「比方我看見一塊有綠苔的石頭,其細微的色彩變化使我讚 歎。我記得在那由細節到石頭邊緣所形成的輪廓。這記憶往往

和莊喆一樣以西方媒材創作、且堅持抽象的畫家,另有陳正雄

會在一瞬間從大筆在畫面上的輪廓、再由潑灑的油彩、從松節

(1935-)。

油的變化、乾濕、沈澱等物理作用而呈現出類似那石頭上苔蘚 的效果來。這就成了並行。後者並沒有直接抄襲自然的痕跡,

由於父親商界廣闊的交遊人脈,陳正雄早在高中時期,便認識

可是由於石頭的感動而用了類似再記憶的手法。」

了許多臺灣第一代畫家,包括:郭雪湖 (1908-2012)、李石樵 (1908-1995)、陳德旺 (1910-1984)、金潤作 (1922-1983) 等人,

而對長久以來追求的中國藝術精神,如何在作品中體現?莊喆

從他們身上獲得藝術方面的知識與見解。 29


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

而當 1960 年代初期抽象風潮橫掃臺灣畫壇時,幾乎不分老少、

為莫逆。山姆.法蘭西斯從陳正雄處,知覺到畫面虛實空間的

不分省籍,所有的創作者都以嘗試以抽象創作,作為更新自我

運用,以及東方式哲學思想的精髓;而山姆.法蘭西斯給予陳

藝術生命的渡河之筏;這當中甚至包括了老一輩的臺籍油畫家,

正雄的啓發,則是一種活潑開放的色彩運用和技法的開拓。至

如:廖繼春、李石樵等人。

遲從 1984 年開始,陳正雄已從油彩的使用完全轉為壓克力顏 料的使用;更為多樣活潑的媒材特性,也提供了陳正雄更為多

然而,這種以高度美學與玄學為基礎的文化風格,顯然並不適

樣活潑的色彩表現和風貌。為了徹底習得這種新興媒材的材料

合於一向樸實苦幹、開荒拓墾的臺灣傳統社會。祖國大山大河

特性與機能,陳正雄甚至不惜花費巨資,在美國向專業的化學

的壯麗景象,既不曾實際經驗,談玄論虛的文化傳統,也不是

專家學習請益。

在地社會的思維型式;在一段或長或短的探索、嘗試之後,形 象的解脫,逐漸喪失思維的涵養,而淪為一種純粹的形式遊戲,

1980 年代中期之後的陳正雄,創作力達於高峰,佳作湧現。在

終致遭到捨棄、擱置。

濃稠與透明之間、在揮灑與流瀉之間、在甩點與刻劃之間,陳 正雄像一個拿了仙人棒的色彩魔術師,幻化出時而隆重、時而

幾乎是不約而同的發展,省籍出身的青年,尤其以「全省美展」

輕靈、時而高亢、時而深沈的曲調;但基本上永恆的歡愉,始

( 即「臺灣全省美術展覽會」之簡稱 ),及「台陽美展」( 即「台

終不曾讓悲愁有一絲出線的機會,即使表現冬天的嚴寒,青藍

陽美術協會展覽會」之簡稱 ) 為中心,逐漸發展出一種由「物

的色彩間,始終透露著一股隨時蹦發的生機氣韵。陳正雄的作

象」出發變形的風格走向,將畫面分割、物象重組,甚至結合

品,洋溢著色彩、充滿了旋律,有著貝多芬「命運交響曲」般

野獸派的色彩,而形成「類立體主義」的風格;而陳正雄卻是

雄渾的壯闊之氣,也有著韋瓦第「四季」中流轉蕩漾的無限生

省籍畫家中的一個特例,他在 1960 年代初期已然走入抽象風

機;然而靈魂底層,始終來自臺灣高山叢林,綠蔭與陽光交迭

格的創作,而在 70 年代後期已趨成熟。

的精靈氣息。

陳正雄作品的邁入成熟,且建立個人風貌,固然是藝術生命本

1990 年代以後,陳正雄已是少數長期受邀參展巴黎「五月沙

身不斷自我巔覆超越的結果,但其關鍵,則主要還是來自兩方

龍」的華人藝術家之一,與趙無極、朱德群的「抒情抽象」合

面的滋養和挹注:一是歸功於他對臺灣原住民藝術的深入接觸

稱「華人三家」;而 1990 年代中期展開的「窗系列」和「數

與研究;二是他對新興媒材壓克力顏料的靈活運用。

位間系列」,更讓他獲得義大利 1999 年羅佛倫斯國際當代藝 術雙年展頒給最高榮譽的「終生藝術成就獎」,和 2001 年的

陳正雄對臺灣原住民藝術的吸納,既非取徑各種圖騰、象徵的

二度獲頒相同獎項外加「偉大的羅倫佐國際藝術獎章」,既是

表像借用,也非山林野地景致的暗示或變形,而是對那些原始

亞洲第一人,也是全世界少數連續獲得此一重要獎項的傑出藝

又大膽的色彩之敏銳領略及運用,再加上對那蘊育這些藝術的

術家。

熱帶叢林,光影交映、水氣流暢、生機勃發的自然特質的深刻 體驗與掌握。

近年來,陳正雄受邀深入中國內地,除舉辦個展外,更以傳道 者般的熱情,為許許多多的專業美術學院,包括:北京清華大

從臺灣原住民藝術吸納養份的同時,陳正雄也因和西方抽象大

學、中央美院、北京大學、中國藝術研究院、……等數十所名

師的交往,而獲得益處;尤其和美國抽象繪畫大師山姆.法蘭

校,講解、介紹抽象藝術思潮與作品;同時,他也是 1994 年

西斯的相識,兩人惺惺相惜,互為欣賞,日後並交往密切,結

上海美術館「上海美術雙年展」諮詢委員及主要策劃人,可以

30


INTRODUCTION | Abstract – Symbol – Oriental: Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern Art

Life (2)

廖修平 LIAO Shiou-Ping 生活 二 ) (

1974

122×122cm

Acr ylic and gold leaf on wood

說是中國大陸畫壇接觸抽象藝術最重要的理論指導者之一。

節〉、〈陰陽〉……等作,一直到 2000 年的「生活系列」, 畫面極具現代感的各式符號,其實就是取材自民間祭祀時燃燒

另一位同樣是在國際上擁有一定知名度,且對臺灣、大陸均

的「經衣錢」( 或稱「紙馬錢」) 上的造型,有扇子、梳子、衣

產生相當影響、被稱為「版畫師傅」的廖修平 (1936-),是在

服、剪刀、雨傘……等等生活用具。

1965 年間,逐漸形成他獨特「東方風格」的版畫創作;並在 1973 年返回臺灣,推動「現代版畫」。如果說:1958 年的「現

廖修平的藝術,擅於取材文化的符號,以別具新意的構成,加

代版畫會」是一次土法煉鋼式的版畫革命,則 1973 年廖修平

上特殊的色彩印製乃至凹凸處理,給人一種極精緻典雅的視覺

帶回來的貢獻,則是將現代版畫的技術、觀念,予以學術化、

感受,並引發深沈的哲思與聯想。廖修平的創作,有設計的意

科學化,為現代版畫的發展紮下更堅實的基礎。

味,卻擺脫設計的平面化與說明性;他的作品呈顯豐富的質感 與文化的厚度,看似純淨的構成,卻又處處映現生活的痕跡,

在其個人的創作上,從早期的「廟宇系列」(1962-)、「門系列」

予人親切的感受。

(1968-)、「四季與田園系列」(1979-)、「木頭人系列」(1984-)、 「窗與牆系列」(1988-)、「園中雅聚系列」(1991-)、「結與默

廖修平的創作,巧妙地在「出塵」與「入世」之間悠遊,在「俗

象系列」(1999-)、「生活符號系列」(2000-),以迄 2004 年以

世」與「聖境」之間穿梭,在「真實」與「虛擬」之間穿越。

後的「夢境系列」(2004-) 等,廖修平始終秉持著強烈的文化本

廖修平的藝術,穿越虛實,不只是題材、內涵上的虛實、出入

位原則,吸納多元的養分與現代的技法,表現出一種高度簡潔

陰陽,神遊虛冥與人間;也是形式、構成上的虛實,從平面,

的秩序。在他的畫面中,我們窺見了一個民族,尤其是東方民

到半浮雕,乃至立體、裝置。廖修平的創作,在現代主義的形

族生活的尊嚴與品味,而這也是藝術家自我生長經驗的凝煉與

式外表下,其實蘊含著一顆溫馨、人道、內斂、平和的傳統心

映現。

靈;穿越虛實,典麗素樸。

廖修平的藝術,擅於取材文化的符號,以別具新意的構成,加

總之,這些出發於 1950 年末期,成長、茁壯於 1960 年代以迄

上特殊的色彩印製乃至凹凸處理,給人一種極精緻典雅的視覺

70 年代的藝術家,是臺灣「現代藝術運動」最重要的一批推手,

感受,並引發深沈的哲思與聯想。廖修平的創作,有設計的意

他們以積極、果敢的行動,為時代的推進,做出了具體的貢獻;

味,卻擺脫設計的平面化與說明性;他的作品呈顯豐富的質感

也以深具「抽象.符碼.東方情」的作品,為時代留下了最為

與文化的厚度,看似純淨的構成,卻又處處映現生活的痕跡,

豐美、珍貴的文化成果,值得後人給予高度的肯定與敬意,並

予人親切的感受。如 1969 年就開始發展的〈歷史〉、〈太陽

為那個風起雲湧的時代喝采。 31


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

Abstract – Symbol – Oriental: Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern Art Written by

HSIAO Chong-Ray

By the late 50s, Taiwan had spent nearly ten years ridding itself of an

magazine New Art, setting the China liber ty rising ar t movement into

awkward situation, having earned the Western moniker of “a regime

motion. Later, he organized several “Anti Communism and Soviet

on the verge of death”. The countr y had gradually stabilized itself

Union Ar t Exhibitions”, and the “China Liber ty Ar t Exhibition” up

following the relocation of its government from Mainland China to

until 1959. In 1952, he established the “New Ar t Research Institute”,

Taiwan. Even though there was still political tension and curfew, the

taught young students and continually published various types of

society was full of strong voices and expressions, looking to recreate

books. This became the most cornerstone of Taiwan’s modern ar t

a May Four th Movement and cultural renaissance. During the mid-

at the time. Ar tists and critics par ticipating in these events included

60s, with the government policy being – “Revive Chinese Culture”,

Lee Chun-Shan (1912-1984), Huang Rong-Can (1916-1952), Liu

ar tists had cleverly avoided the sensitive areas that realism might

Shih (1913-1997), Lang Ching-Shan (1892-1995), Chuang Shih-He

have touched, and developed a whole new creative appearance,

(1923-), Chen Hui-Kun (1917-2011), Shih Tsui-Feng (1925-), along

combining Western abstract ar t together with traditional Eastern

with some personages from Mainland China and a few local ar tists.

ink wash. This became one of the most fascinating cultural miracles of postwar Taiwan.

Due to the unusual political circumstances at that time, there could be found throughout the publications of the magazine New Art a

There was a ten-year simmering period before Taiwan’s modern ar t

deep sense of liber ty, anti-communism, the impassioned will and

movement became fully established. It first began with He Tie-Hua

the crisis of consciousness that arises from wanting to save one's

(1910-1982), who came from Shanghai in 1947 and worked for the

countr y. On the ar tistic side, various occidental ar tistic styles and

military government in the southern par t of the country. Since 1949,

ideas were introduced in the magazine, including Cubism, Fauvism

he star ted to publish a number of ar tistic ar ticles in the Taiwan

and so on. This, when compared to the conser vative style of the

Tribune, Taiwan Shin Sheng Daily News and other publications. He

“Provincial Exhibition”, or the “Tai Yang Ar t Exhibition”, was more

proposed the examination and appreciation of modern ar t. In the

suited to guiding young people in their quest for knowledge.

mid-1950s, he established the “China Liber ty Ar tists Association”. At

Especially regarding the “new” and “modern” angles, the authors did

the end of that year, he then moved “20th Century Publisher”, which

outstanding work. For example, in the first issue of New Art, there

was founded in 1938 in Hong Kong, to Taipei and launched the

were ar ticles such as: The Portrayal of New Art and Nudity from Liu

32


INTRODUCTION | Abstract – Symbol – Oriental: Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern Art

Shih, How to Admire Modern Art from Liu Hou-Yi, Understanding

College’s system. Hu Ke-Wei assigned it to Liu Shih. Liu had made

Modern Art from He Tie-Hua, and Liang Xi-Hong's introduction to

contact with Huang Rong-Can when he was editing the ar t page of

Henri Matisse. Various new waves of pre-20th centur y Western

the Taiwan Shin Sheng Daily News. Later, Liu recommended Huang

modern ar t, including famous Russian ar tist Kandinsky’s abstract

par ticipate in the association’s committee and be in charge of the

works, were introduced in the magazine. In addition, with Lee Chun-

committee's work. At the time, Huang was a professor at the Ar t

Shan’s The Future of Traditional Chinese Painting and Shih Tsui-Feng’s

Depar tment of Taiwan Provincial College of Education (today known

The Essence of Civil Art, it becomes clear that the members were

as Fine Ar t Depar tment of National Taiwan Normal University), and

paying close attention to the development of the traditional and

had a professional image. Therefore, he was promoted to the dean’s

civil ar t of the time.

office as Director of the “Ar t Research Group”. His responsibility was to draft and launch a pedagogical plan. Huang then invited

During the same year that He Tie-Hua established the New Art, one

several ar tists amongst his colleagues at Taiwan Provincial College

of the painters – Huang Rong-Can – moved from Mainland China

of Education, to give classes at the college, including: Chu Teh-Chun

to Taiwan and set up “Ar t Research Group” located on Hankou

(1920-2014), Lin Sheng-Yang (1917-), Chao Chung-Hsiang (1910-

street, Taipei City.

1991) and others who possessed a more modern mind. In the meantime, Lee Chun-Shan, who studied overseas in Japan as Liu

By the mid-1950s, curfew had taken effect. Meanwhile, due to the

Shih did, was there to suppor t them too. Two of the first members

Korean War, Taiwan had fully entered its “Anti-Communism and Soviet

in the “Ton Fan Group” – Hsia Yan (1932-) and Wu Hao (1931-)

Union” period. Having learned from the tragedy whereby the whole

were students of Lee at the time. Unfor tunately, this Institute halted

of Mainland China had been brain washed into communism, to the

its launch three months later. Lee then set up a painting studio on

detriment of its literature and ar t, Taiwan now saw simultaneous

Andong street and star ted the follow-up development of the Ton

cultural and artistic movements. First, under Chang Tao-Fan’s guidance,

Fan Group. Hsiao Chin (1935-), Ho Kan (1932-) and students from

the “Chinese Writer's & Artist's Association” was established with him

Provincial Taipei Normal College (now known as National Taipei

as its leader. The association launched the “battle of literature and art”

University of Education) joined the studio during that time.

policy within the military. They proposed “bringing literature and art to the military”, and preached “acting, singing, painting, and writing in the

In 1951, mostly through the effor ts of the “Ar t Research Group's”

military” activities. The Vice Director of the General Political Warfare

teaching staff members, a “Modern Painting Group Exhibition” was

Bureau, Hu Ke-Wei, was the right-hand of Director Chiang Ching-Kuo.

held at Taipei Zhongshan Hall. This was the first modern painting-

He was the President of Fu Hsing Kang College, and also the President

centric exhibition of its kind held in Taiwan. Most of the works

of the Art Committee of the “Chinese Writer’s & Artist’s Association”.

presented a façade of post-impressionism. Soon after the exhibition,

He originated the literature and ar t clean-up movement, creating

the members involved left Taiwan to live overseas.

strict censorship. The committee then expanded and renamed itself the Chinese Art Association later the next year of 1951.

A year later, in 1952, He Tie-Hua opened the “Graduate Institute of New Ar t” on Jianguo East Road in Taipei, and taught by

“Ar t Research Group” was actually a group under Fu Hsing Kang

correspondence. This is the first teaching institution in Taiwan that 33


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

clearly labeled itself as specializing in modern ar t theory. Until He’s

well-known European modern ar t, ar tists and genres, including

depar ture for the United States in 1959, the effects of his influence

Western Europe’s most impor tant avant-garde ar t, Ar t Informel

on the youth at the time were quite broad.

(which has been translated as ar t without form), and Other Ar t. The series became the most impor tant source of information about

In 1953, former President Chiang Kai-Shek, published the Principle

European modern ar t for young Taiwanese of that period.

of People’s Livelihood – Education and Recreation, and it became the cornerstone for the nation’s catalyzing effor t to promote ar t

In December of 1957, when Lee Chun-Shan and his classmates’ “Ton

activities. The Korean War, which star ted in 1950, ended in 1953,

Fan Group” held their first exhibition at the former Taipei News

and taught the United States government the strategic value of

Building, and they avoided political doubt by proving modern ar t

Taiwan, which in turn led to the official signing of the “Sino-American

to be the product of anti-communism through Hsiao’s introduction

Mutual Defense Treaty” that brought decades of steady political,

of 14 pieces of ar tworks from Spanish modern ar tists. At the time,

economic, and society-wide progress. A number of popular poetry

Spain was a countr y that was ver y active in the coalition against

clubs and ar t publications, such as Literar y Monthly, headed by Yu

communism. Their method became the foundation of the club’s

Jun-Zhi, Youth Literar y, headed by Ya Hsien, “Bluestar Poetry Society”,

future exhibitions, and it also brought about bi-lateral exchanges of

“Genesis Poetry Society”, amongst others, were all founded in 1954.

ar twork with Europe. Other than highlighting Informel as Modern,

On the other hand, the “Modern Poetry Society” star ted by Ji Xian

the name “Ton Fan” also clearly expressed the group’s deep roots

and others was formed a year earlier in 1953. It demonstrated the

in Eastern culture, which came from the teaching of their spiritual

energetic nature of their ar tistic strength, which was growing at the

mentor Lee. Moreover, earlier that year in May, the “Fifth Moon

time. All of these poets and academics later became the biggest

Group” star ted by Taiwan Provincial University of Education faculty

suppor ters of Modern Ar t. However, in 1955, the shocking case of

graduate Liu Kuo-Sung (1932-) et. al., also had its first exhibition. This

Sun Li-Ren took place and General Sun was stripped of his title and

was clearly the dawn of a new age for art activities, born out of the

put under house arrest. That year also saw the official introduction

government’s anti-communist political agenda, and it turned out to

of an award for repor ting on spies, which highlights the complicated

be a great moment for artistic pursuit in its purest form.

mar tial law society entwined with a booming ar t culture. The hear ts of the people were closed, yet seeking oppor tunities for expression,

In May of the following year, 1958, the academic thinker and

while the society was under mar tial law, yet also avant-garde.

freedom fighter of the time, Dr. Hu Shih, gave a speech on The Chinese Renaissance at Chinese Writer's & Artist's Association’s 8th

In July of 1956, Hsiao Chin, 21, gr aduated from Bachelor of

anniversary. His speech encouraged artists to recreate the glory of the

Ar ts at Taiwan Provincial University of Education (now National

May Fourth Movement and made it clear that the development of art

Taiwan Normal University) and left for Madrid with the Spanish

cannot solely rely on the direction of governments. He demonstrated

government’s scholarship, and became the first young modern

the intelligence, sensitivity, and courage of the academics of his time.

ar tist of his time to receive a foreign education. From December of that year, he authored a series of repor ts, was named European

In the same year, two other events influenced Taiwan’s development

Communiqué for United Daily News, which focused on introducing

of modern art. The first occurred in June, when Chao Wu-Chi (1921-

34


INTRODUCTION | Abstract – Symbol – Oriental: Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern Art

2013), the French educated abstract ar tist, visited Japan and Hong

institutions throughout the country, and held seminars. He showed

Kong on his way to United States. His visits were widely covered

great passion and suppor t for contemporar y painting. Garnering

by the press, and it encouraged young Taiwanese ar tists to pursue

the respect of Taiwan’s ar t establishments, he became the voice

modern ar t. The second was the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, which

that brought people together. He also encouraged ar tists to form

occurred in August, under the cover of American military prowess,

organizations to propel contemporary ar t fur ther. Eventually, under

where Taiwan successfully annihilated the communist invaders at

his active suppor t, he nominated Yang Yu-Yu as the convener and

Kinmen and Matsu, and set the foundation for decades of peace

created the “Chinese Contemporary Ar t Center”. This single action

across the Taiwan Strait. The event also solidified the relationship

brought together 17 ar tist organizations, of which 145 members

between Taiwan and the United States. Culturally, Taiwan had also

signed their names to the char ter, and the inaugural meeting was

entered a period of deep influence from American culture.

held on 25 March 1960, the Day of Ar t. However, to the surprise of its members, some member’s works of ar t were repor ted as having

“Sino-American Print Ar t Exhibitions”, a form of non-figurative

been embellished with the message of “anti-Chiang”. This event was

modern print ar t, star ted in Taipei in 1958, struck the hear ts and

later named the Qin Song event, and it brought an abrupt end to

minds of Taiwan’s newest generation of ar tists, and it brought about

the inaugural meeting. In September of the same year, in an event

the creation of the “Modern Graphic Ar t Association” in 1959.

that shocked an entire generation of Taiwanese, the Free China magazine was brought to an end, and a prison sentence issued to its

This association made use of avant-garde non-figurative styling to

editor in chief, National Taiwan University Professor Lei Chen.

deconstruct the wood engraving genre led by the anti-communism movement. They made use of new media, new techniques, and new

However, by that time, the contemporary ar t movement was already

stylings to create and experiment. Chen Ting-Shih (1916-2002), Yang

taking shape, just waiting for an infusion of passionate people who

Yu-Yu (1926-1997), Lee Shi-Chi (1938-), were all founding members.

could bring all their effor ts and strengths to bear. Fur thermore, the

They even recall the society’s exhibition as the first modern print

commonplace definition of “contemporary” star ted to move away

ar t exhibition of its kind. Chen and Yang both par ticipated in the

from its origin and found new focus in abstractionism’s model of

“Fifth Moon Group’s” exhibitions, and Lee Shi-Chi and Chu Wei-

thought.

Bor (1929-), who joined at a later date, both became the “Ton Fan Group’s” main members. The interconnectedness between the

1960 brought with it the 3rd “Fifth Moon Group”. It was a key year

members stood as a testament to the high level of exchange and

in which the group officially established its abstract style, and it

interaction between the members of the three groups.

was also the year when key member, Chuang Che (1934-) joined the group. From then, Liu Kuo-Sung and Chuang Che star ted a

By mid 1959, Ku Hsian-Liang (1914-1979), educated in the

series of heated debates on the topic of Sino-Contemporar y

United States and was both a council member of United Nation’s

painting vs. Contempor ar y-Sino painting, and deepened this

International Ar t Center and its Asia representative, had returned

period’s developmental direction in ar t. Moreover, the suppor t

to Taiwan. Invited by the Ministr y of Education, Ku took on the

from prominent ar t commentators such as Chang Long-Yien, Yu

role of Ar t Education Advisor, toured major higher education

Jun-Zhi, Ku Hsien-Liang, Yu Kwang-Chung, Chu Ko, Lee Zhu-Jin and 35


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

others, brought to this era, a wealth of historical discourse material.

wide open road.”

Especially notewor thy were Yu Kwang-Chung’s poetic discourses, which were ver y influential, including 1962’s Plain May, 1963’s

Indeed, the vision provided by abstract thoughts, on the one hand

Bareback Knight Eulogy, 1964’s Visionary Romanticism Perspectives, and

provided students in exile with the hope of returning to the culture

others. These discourses covered a wide spectrum of subject matters,

of their home, and on the other hand was also a catalyst helping

from the austere quality of a painting’s color choice, to attitudes of

them rekindle their eagerness for continuing cultural traditions.

creation, and even the construction of theory. This represents some

More impor tantly, these meditation and Zen Taoist philosophies

of the most important literature of its kind in the 60s’ movement of

formed a perfect harbor for their wandering spirits. The aesthetics

Taiwan’s contemporary art scene.

ideologies of “obser vation through obscurity” and “empty space” were also fitting expressions for those in exile, the truths of ar tists

As the foremost practitioner of the time, Liu Kuo-Sung, began

who never dare reveal their Mainland culture. This form of thinking

formulating his revolutionar y thinking regarding contemporar y ink

and action, incidentally undermined Sino contemporary ar t’s trends

painting, which ingeniously brought together Western avant-garde

towards realism, freehand, and other beliefs well-founded since the

abstract ar t and the aesthetics of Chinese traditional ink painting.

star t of the republic. This was a completely new star t, a release

In a passage from 1963, Liu was quoted as saying, “the brushstrokes

of expression and thinking. Contemporar y painters at the time

of Chinese painting, falling straight from the sky, form flowers and

summarized the direction their thinking was taking by simply stating

flowing dance steps that meld perfectly with the empty white

that “abstract equals contemporary, and ink ar t equals Chinese”.

spaces. Its depiction akin to a piece of cloud, color born from the existence of sunlight, the light is neither inside nor outside, and

However, the development of Taiwan’s contemporar y ar t was

has neither shape nor form. It can give rise to countless emotions,

not always smooth either. After the March 1960 setbacks of

but also to none” (from Wang Chuan-Shan’s commentary on Poet

the Chinese Contemporar y Ar t Center, in Aug 1961, Tunghai

Wang Jian’s Jue Ju). The light of Chinese painting holds the whole

University’s Professor Hsu Fu-Kuan released his ar ticle on Trends

composition together in a way that seeks to find the invisible

in Contemporar y Art, which also brought ferocious debate on the

form of the universe’s spirit. This elusive inner truth, this balancing

subject of contemporar y ar t. Especially poignant was Professor

of extremes, represents the Holy Grail for Chinese painters and

Hsu's argument, shaking contemporar y ar t to its roots, which

abstract painters alike.

suggested that advocates of surrealism typically have left wing ideals of anti-reality and anti-society, and therefore, “contemporar y ar t’s

Liu went on, “man's painting moves from realistic to freehand, and

direction lies in opening the way to communism.” His comments

from realistic to abstract. This is an absolute rule; we should not,

helped bring about so-called “red hat” political tension. At this

and cannot go backwards.” This view was not held only by him.

time, after Liu Kuo-Sung bravely came to the fore and defended

The teacher of contemporar y ar t, Ku Hsien-Liang, in a number of

contemporary ar t saying, “why hand over contemporary ar t to the

speeches, advocated replacing the concept of “abstract” with that

enemy?”, other honorable members of the field such as Lu Jun-Zhi

of “vivid” saying that, “vivid (abstract) ar t, matches our thinking and

and Chang Long-Yien came to his suppor t and brought the debate

philosophy so, I believe, vivid ar t complements our ink ar t, and is a

to an end, which also helped Liu garner the title of “spokesperson

36


INTRODUCTION | Abstract – Symbol – Oriental: Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern Art

for contemporary ar t”.

National Academy of Ar ts) founding year of students graduated. They were a group of even younger ar tists, who were deeply

In 1961, the National Ar t Galler y situated at Taipei’s National

influenced by Western Dadaism, and Pop Ar t Style. Thus, a form

Historical Museum opened. Together, along with the neighboring

of ar tistic display with highlights on physical form, recombination,

National Ar t Center (later renamed the National Taiwan Ar ts

installation, and mobility began to take shape. This event also

Education Center), these became the two most prominent official

pointed to the transition of Taiwan’s contemporary ar t into its next

government platforms for contemporar y ar t. Moreover, Brazil's

stage, and will be the topic of another discussion.

long-running Sao Paulo Ar t Biennial selection program was the most impor tant conduit for young Taiwanese contemporary ar tists aiming

Moving back to the original stream of development, there were also

to connect with the international field of ar t.

a number of key events at the beginning and at the end of 1965 that had profound implications for the development of Taiwan’s

In 1961, Hsiao Chin took par t in the Punto International Ar t

contemporar y ar t movement. First of all, in 1964, there was an

Movement, which was founded in Italy. The following year it toured

exhibition by the Fellowship of Ten Painting Associations at the

Taiwan for the first time, and during the same year, the 6th Exhibition

Taiwan Provincial Museum (now National Taiwan Museum), by ten

of Fifth Moon Group opened with a much larger list of exhibits at

ar tist groups, namely, Fifth Moon Group, Ton Fan Group, Modern

the National History Museum, along with its new function of being

Graphic Ar t Association, Chang Feng, Today, Nan Lian, Era, Xin Xiang,

the Pre-American tour exhibition for the contemporar y ar t of

Free Ar t, the Ji Ji Society, amongst others. The event highlighted

Taiwanese ar tists. The sponsoring ar tists on display even included a

that period’s characteristics as revolving around ar tist groups, and

number of masters, such as, Liao Chi-Chun (1902-1976), Sun Duo-Ci

peaked in activity at this time. It also reflected the development of

(1912-1975), Lu Yun-Zhi (1912-1975), and Chang Long-Yien (1909-

contemporary ar t as being very prevalent throughout mainstream

2009). Since the inception of the contemporary ar t movement, it has

society. Early in the year when Liu Kuo-Sung formed the “Sino-

gradually garnered mainstream status in the field of art. 1963 saw the

Contemporar y Ink Painting Group” and subsequently held its

second exhibit in Taiwan by Punto and, in the same year, Yang Yu-Yu

“Contemporary Ink Painting Exhibition” in October, it was the first

represented Fu Jen University to pay homage to the Pope in Rome,

time the term “contemporar y ink painting” had been separated

thanking His Grace for the suppor t with reopening the institution

from the stables of contemporary ar t and contemporar y painting,

in Taiwan. Meanwhile, he took the oppor tunity to study in Italy for

becoming an independent genre of painting and style in its own

nearly four years, and became the main driving force behind Taiwan’s

right, and growing in popularity: it influenced Hong Kong in the 70s,

contemporary ar t taking part in European exhibitions. In 1965, with

and Mainland China in the 80s.

suppor t from the ambassador to Italy at the time, the “Republic of China Contemporary Art Exhibition” opened and put on a display of

Regarding contemporary ink painting, the reason for it taking hold in

ar twork from 24 Taiwanese artists.

Taiwan in the late 60s, owes as much to the drive and strength of its creators as to the special political background of the time. 1966 was

1965 was the year Taiwan’s contemporar y ar t scene began to

the year of the Communist Par ty's Cultural Revolution in Mainland

transform. In this year, National Taiwan University of Ar ts’ (formerly

China and, in order to fight against it, former President Chiang Kai37


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

Shek actively promoted the Chinese Culture Restoration Movement.

is the understanding a basic conception of abstract art must have. In

Under the banner of Chinese Culture, ink painting (aka. National

psychology, this concept arises from common association and empathy.

Ar t) naturally became the most impor tant categor y. By 1968, the

“Common association” means that for a natural image or color, semiotic

Chinese Ink Painting Research Group was formed, and both Chu

relationships are created, common links that create shared feelings

Ko (1931-2011) and Lee Chung-Chung (1942-) became successful

and concepts. For example, red often seems intended to suggest heat or

practitioners of this form of ar t.

excitement, yellow represents the sun and happiness, blue and black represent calm and melancholy, bio-shapes indicate life, geometric

1965 was a critical time for Taiwan's modern ar t movement which

compositions reflect the intellect, horizons express rest, diagonals action,

was deepening its pedagogy and developing substantially in terms of

and right angles stability.

creation. Apollo Magazine, one of the most impor tant text platforms of the modern ar t movement, formally ceased publication at the

“Empathy” refers to the ability of the human imagination to create

end of the same year after its 98th issue. In the same midyear

close relationships with external objects or organisms. When related to

before the magazine ceased publication, Chen Cheng-Hsiung (1935-)

art, it refers to the “enthusiasm” in Van Gogh’s pen, Matisse's “graceful”

began to publish a large number of theoretical texts about relevant

contours, Mondrian or Brian Booth’s “rigorous” work, or Rothko’s

contemporary ar t, especially abstract painting.

“peaceful” use of color.

Admittedly, for Taiwan's modern ar t movement in the early 1960s, at

In a work of art involving comprehensive relationship between many

the dawn of the enlightenment, with the introduction of modernism,

elements, the emotional performance is unusually rich and marvelously

par ticularly abstract painting, information was scarce, often one-

magical. But not all artists are able to use their talents to make a

sided, and there were often misunderstandings. In mid-1965, Chen

conscious arrangement, to control the composition of this complex

Cheng-Hsiung, proficient in both Chinese and English, proposed a

relationship to convey a specific emotion or mood, and its occurrence

deeper scholarly interpretation in the ar ticle Discussions of Abstract

is often unconsciously generated. Most modern artists just feel the need

Art, taking the perspective of the historical development of ar t

to convey their inner feelings and have no intention of recording their

theory to reach the true essence of “abstract ar t”, an introductory

inspirations. Truly great artists, have a special sensitivity to experience,

text of paradigmatic significance in the history of the development

and can transform and meld these experiences together in their art

of abstract ar t in Taiwan. He wrote:

work. For example, most people only see the superficial appearance of the countryside in southern France, but Cezanne is able to see the nature of

Before we understand abstract art, we must first understand that abstract

its logical organization and unity; Renoir found pleasure in aesthetics;

art is not so much described, as it is evoked. It is like music, intended

Van Gogh displayed his struggles with fanaticism. Therefore, it is the

to stimulate inner feelings, rather than tell a story. It is the artist’s inner

quality of each artist’s unique and inner experience that gives real

experience (emotions, moods or feelings), a strong characterization, a

meaning to their art.

visual metaphor rather than a visual narrative. At a later time, Chen Cheng-Hsiung also wrote essays on other Works of art are tools to stimulate people's inner experience, and this 38

relevant texts: 1965's The Wave of Pop Art of the United States


INTRODUCTION | Abstract – Symbol – Oriental: Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern Art

(1965.5.23 China Times), 1967 Post-war International Art Trends

University of Education in 1959, and participated in the 1960 “Today’s

(1967.6.3 Central Daily), Talks on Abstract Art (1967.7.24 Taiwan Shin

Paintings Society”, advocating being "anti-absolute calligraphic

Sheng Daily News), What is Abstract Art? (1968.7 Lion Art Monthly),

abstractionism". After 1965 he transferred to Tokyo, Japan and then

and 1968 for the famous Eastern magazine where he wrote Lyrical

to Paris to study in Professor Hayter’s print shop, beginning with his

and Geometric Abstraction (republication of the first volume 9),

oriental symmetrical "door" series of prints. After 1973, coinciding

Abstract Art Pioneer – Cubist and Futurist (republication of the

with Taiwan's diplomatic dilemma in which it became isolated by the

second volume 6), About the New York School (republication of the

international community, he decided to choose to return to Taiwan,

third volume 12) and others. These ar ticles over threw "Chinese-

engaging in the promotion of modern printmaking. This wave of the

style understanding" in the modern ar t movement of Taiwan, ideas

modern ar t movement has continued smoothly since the 1960s.

such as "ink", "impressionistic", "non-impressionistic painting", "vivid pictures" which were all interpretations of traditional concepts. He

This wave lasted from the late 1950s, and peaked in the 1960s,

went back to investigating the original code of the West, giving him

evolving into the Taiwan modern ar t movement of the 1970s.

more power to lay the foundation for and promote academia after

The mid-1970s oppressed local movements, especially after the

the development of abstract painting in Taiwan.

1971 depar ture from the United Nations, which also discontinued par ticipation in all international ar t scenes, including the “São Paulo

Chen Cheng-Hsiung led the field in promoting a “Chinese-Japanese

Ar t Biennial”. After the 1980s, the museum era supplanted the

Modern Ar t Exhibition” at the Tokyo Metropolitan Ar t Museum

modern movement with a new trend. Creation came out of an

in 1968. At the same time, Japanese ar t critic, Asahi Akira invited

ar tist's view of life, and this wave of post-war Taiwanese "modern

Yang Yu-Yu to have a joint exhibition held in the Tokyo Paul Gallery.

ar tists" played a major role in the first ar tistic revolution. After half

The following year (1969), he was then invited to the exhibition

a centur y of distillation, accumulation, and development, they had

“International Biennial of Young Ar tists” at the Modern Ar t Museum,

become masters, an indelible imprint on the history of ar t in Taiwan.

Western Tokyo National Museum.

By the 1980s, under the premise of being a modern ar t movement promoter, and having moved over seas, Chen Cheng-Hsiung promoted the establishment of the “Republic of China Society of Modern Painting” in Taipei and, as the chairman, led the sustainable development of Taiwan's modern ar t.

With the 1960s depar ture of modern ar t movement par ticipants, Liao Shiou-Ping (1936) became an impor tant ar tist, gradually having more and more impact from 1965 onwards.

He graduated from the Depar tment of Fine Ar ts, Taiwan Provincial 39


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

藝評 簡介

蕭瓊瑞 蕭瓊瑞,1955 年生於台灣台南。現任成功大學歷史系教授,並 於 2006 年至 2011 年擔任成功大學藝術中心主任,是國內知名 藝術史學者,專研台灣美術史及中國近代美術史,出版許多台 灣美術史專著,包括《台灣美術史綱》、《圖說台灣美術史》、 《五月與東方-中國美術現代化運動在戰後台灣之發展 (19451970)》、《島民.風俗.畫》,此外更寫了不下百篇的研究論 文;其論述備嚴謹的歷史考證、分析,深受國內外藝壇、學界 敬重。蕭教授除了學術研究的傑出成就,他也是位行政經歷豐 富的學者。曾任台南市政府文化局首任局長,為台南市近年的 藝文發展奠定良好基礎;同時也擔任過國內各大美術館的典藏、 諮詢委員、行政院文建會國寶及重要古物審議委員會委員。

40


CURATOR | HSIAO Chong-R ay

著作目錄

1990

《台灣美術史研究論集》,伯亞出版社,台中,台灣

1991

《五月與東方─中國美術現代化運動在戰後台灣之發 展(1945-1970)》,東大圖書公司,台北,台灣

1992

萬傳的生命與藝術〉,藝術家出版社,台北,台灣 2007

《1991 台灣藝評選》,炎黃藝術文教基金會,高雄, 台灣

1995

《台灣美術家全集 25》,〈飄浪靈魂的典麗映現─張

《李仲生文集》,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣

潤作的藝術〉,藝術家出版社,台北,台灣 2009

《台灣美術史綱》,藝術家出版社

2011

《台灣術家全集 28》,〈陽光.海洋.記憶─林天瑞

《觀看與思維─台灣美術史研究論集》,台灣省立美

的生命與藝術〉,藝術家出版社,台北,台灣

術館,台中,台灣

《楊英風全集》(總主編)30 卷,藝術家出版社,台北,

《台南市藝術人才暨團體基本史料彙編》,台南市文化 基金會,台南,台灣 1996

《劉國松研究》,國立歷史博物館,台北,台灣

台灣 2012

《陳澄波全集》(總編輯),藝術家出版社,台北,台灣

2013

《戰後台灣美術史》,藝術家出版社,2013.3,台北,台灣

《府城民間傳統畫師專輯》,台南市政府,台南,台灣 1997

《島嶼色彩─台灣美術史論》,東大書局,台北,台灣

1998

《島民.風俗.畫─ 18 世紀台灣原住民生活圖錄》, 東大書局,台北,台灣

2003

《圖說台灣美術史Ⅰ:山海傳奇》,藝術家出版社

2004

《激盪.迴游─台灣近現代藝術十一家》,藝術家出版社,

《台灣術家全集 26》,〈從悲憫到詩情─畫壇才子金

《台灣美術全集 30:楊英風》,藝術家出版社,台北, 台灣 2014

「抽象.符碼.東方情—臺灣現代藝術巨匠大展」,尊彩 藝術中心,台北,台灣

台北,台灣 《畫壇傳奇─高一峯》,藝術家出版社,台北,台灣 《島嶼測量─台灣美術定向》,三民書局,台北,台灣 《台灣現代美術大系:抽象抒情水墨》,行政院文建會 策劃,藝術家出版社,台北,台灣 2005

《圖說台灣美術史Ⅱ:渡台讚歌》,藝術家出版社 《盡頭的起點─藝術中的人與自然》,東大圖書公司, 台北,台灣

2006

《自在與飛揚─藝術中的人與物》,東大圖書公司,台北, 台灣 《懷鄉與認同─台灣方志八景圖研究》,典藏,台北, 台灣

41


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

Biography

HSIAO Chong-Ray Hsiao Chong-Ray was born in 1955, in Tainan, Taiwan. He is currently a Professor at the Depar tment of History in National Cheng Kung University (NCKU). From 2006 to 2011 he was the chief of the Ar t Center in NCKU. He is a well-known ar t historian, who specializes in Taiwanese ar t history as well as Chinese modern ar t histor y. His publications include “A Histor y of Fine Ar ts in Taiwan”, “An Illustrated History of Taiwan Ar t”, “Fifth Moon and Ton Fan - The Chinese Ar t Modernization Movement in Post-war Taiwan (19451970)”, and “Islanders, Customs, Paintings”. He has written no less than one hundred research papers, which were respected by the academia and ar t field internationally and domestically because of their rigorous historical research and analysis. In addition to his outstanding achievements in academic research, Prof. Hsiao is also an experienced scholar in administrative affairs. He was the first General Director of Cultural Affairs Bureau of Tainan City Government, and facilitated in establishing a good foundation for the development of culture and ar ts in Tainan City. He has also served as an Advisory Committee for several national ar ts museums as well as an Evaluation Committee for Central Commission for the Preservation of Antiquities in Council for Cultural Affairs, Executive Yuan.

42


CURATOR | HSIAO Chong-R ay

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1990

Taiwan Art History: Research Monograph, Bo-Ya Publishing Co.,

planned by Council for Cultural Affairs of Executive Yuan,

Taichung, Taiwan 1991

1992

Fifth Moon and Ton Fan - The Chinese Art Modernization

Taipei, Taiwan

Publishing Co., Taipei, Taiwan

The Beginning in the End - People and Nature in Arts, Dong-

A Collection of Taiwan Art Reviews in 1991, Yan-Huang Cultural

Da Publishing Co., Taipei, Taiwan 2006

Publishing Co., Taipei, Taiwan

Taiwan

Homesickness and Identification: Research of Eight Views in

Insights and Thoughts - Research Monograph of Taiwan Art

Taiwan’s Local Recording Books, Ar tco Books Co., Taipei,

A Collection of Tainan Artistic Talents and Groups Historical

Taiwan 2007

Co., Taipei, Taiwan

A Research on Liu Kuo-Sung, National Museum of History,

Taiwan Fine Arts Series 26: Chin Jun-Tso, Artist Publishing Co.,

Tainan Traditional Painters, Tainan City Government, Tainan,

Taipei, Taiwan 2009

Taiwan

1998

The Colors of Island, A Histor y of Taiwan Ar t, Dong-Da

Taiwan Fine Arts Series 28: Lin Tien-Jui, Artist Publishing Co.,

Publishing Co., Taipei, Taiwan

Taipei, Taiwan

Islanders, Customs, Paintings - an illustrated histor y of 18th

Yang Yu-Yu Corpus, chief editor, 30 volumes, Artist Publishing

Taipei, Taiwan

Co., Taipei, Taiwan 2012

An Illustrated Histor y of Taiwan Art I, Ar tist Publishing Co., Taipei, Taiwan

2004

A History of Fine Arts in Taiwan, Artist Publishing Co., Taipei, Taiwan

2011

century Taiwanese aboriginals’ lives, Dong-Da Publishing Co., 2003

Taiwan Fine Arts Series 25: Chang Wan-Chuan, Artist Publishing

Data, Tainan City Cultural Foundation, Tainan, Taiwan Taipei, Taiwan

1997

Carefree and Light - People and Objects in Arts, Dong-Da

Collection of Lee Chung-Sheng, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei,

History, Taiwan Provincials Arts Museum, Taichung, Taiwan

1996

An Illustrated History of Taiwan Art II, Ar tist Publishing Co.,

Movement in Post-war Taiwan (1945-1970), Dong-Da

and Educational Foundation, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 1995

Artist Publishing Co., Taipei, Taiwan 2005

Chen Cheng-Po Corpus, chief editor, Ar tist Publishing Co., Taipei, Taiwan

2013

History of Fine Art in Postwar Taiwan, Ar tist Publishing Co.,

Agitation & Migration - Taiwan Eleven Modern Artists, Ar tist

2013.3, Taipei, Taiwan

Publishing Co., Taipei, Taiwan

Taiwan Fine Arts Series 30: Yuyu Yang, Ar tist Publishing Co.,

Legend of Art - Kao Yi-Fong, Artist Publishing Co., Taipei, Taiwan Measurement of the Island - the Direction of Taiwan Art, Sanmin Book Publishing Co., Taipei, Taiwan

Taipei, Taiwan 2014

“Abstract / Symbol / Oriental - Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern Art", Liang Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

A School of Taiwan Modern Art: Abstract Water-Ink Paintings,

43


藝術家

Artists


陳庭詩 CHEN Ting-Shih


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

陳庭詩 1913-2002

1938

出生於中國福建

以筆名「耳氏」發表首幅木刻版於《抗敵漫畫》旬刊,福 建,中國

1939

與宋秉恆共同主編《大眾畫刊》,中國

1940

兼任「正氣中華出版社」編輯,中國

1946

擔任《和平日報》美編,主編〈每週畫刊〉,擔任楊逵所

「中國當代藝術」,羅馬,義大利 1966

「第九屆現代版畫展」,國立台灣藝術館(今國立台灣藝 術教育館),台北,台灣 1968

辦的《文化交流》美編,台中,台灣 1947 1948

1957 1958

於魯茲畫廊舉行個展,馬尼拉,菲律賓 於格羅斯里畫廊舉行個展,墨爾本,澳洲

因二二八事件離開台灣,受聘為《星閩日報》編輯,福州,中國 「第一屆全國木刻展」,上海、南京,中國

台大國際華語研習所,台北,台灣

「第六屆國際版畫展」,東京、京都,日本 1969

「鐵雕巡迴展」,台北耕莘文教院、台中美國新聞處、東

任職台灣省立台北圖書館(今國立台灣圖書館),台北,台灣

海大學藝術中心、高雄台灣新聞畫廊,台北、台中、高

應邀為台灣博覽會繪製 《劉銘傳建築台灣鐵路圖》,台北,台灣

雄,台灣

擔任《中華日報》副刊〈新世紀〉與《公論報》副刊〈藝

「第七屆國際版畫展」,東京、京都,日本

術〉美編,台北,台灣

「第二屆亞洲版畫展」,馬尼拉,菲律賓

「第四屆全國美展」,台北,台灣

「國際造型藝術展」、「國際視聽藝術協會展」,日本、

參與創立「現代版畫會」,台北,台灣

歐亞巡迴展出

「第一屆現代版畫展」,台北,台灣

「亞洲版畫展」,普拉特學院,紐約,美國

1959

「第五屆巴西聖保羅雙年展」,聖保羅,巴西

1969-87

「第二屆現代版畫展」,台北新聞大樓,台北,台灣

1970

1960

「香港國際繪畫沙龍展」,香港

「中華民國藝術展」,馬德里,西班牙

「第三屆現代版畫展」,國立台灣藝術館(今國立台灣藝

「第二屆國際畫展」,加涅海濱市,法國

術教育館),台北,台灣 1961

「第十四屆五月畫會展」,國立歷史博物館,台北,台灣 1971

術教育館),台北,台灣 1962

獲中國畫協頒發「金爵獎」,台灣 獲韓國東亞日報「第一屆國際版畫雙年展」首獎,漢城,韓國

「第五屆現代版畫展與東方畫會聯合展」,國立台灣藝術館

「第十一屆巴西聖保羅雙年展」,聖保羅,巴西

(今國立台灣藝術教育館),台北,台灣

「第一屆全國雕塑展」,台灣省立博物館(今國立台灣博物

「第七屆巴西聖保羅雙年展」,聖保羅,巴西

館),台北,台灣

「第六屆現代版畫展與第七屆東方畫展聯展」,國立台灣 藝術館(今國立台灣藝術教育館),台北,台灣 1965

48

「五月畫會展」,夏威夷藝術學院、辛辛那提塔特夫美術館, 夏威夷,美國

「五月畫展」,凌雲畫廊,台北,台灣 「香港國際繪畫沙龍展」,香港,中國

1963

「第一屆韓國國際版畫雙年展」,漢城,韓國

「國際版畫展」,利馬,祕魯

「第六屆巴西聖保羅雙年展」,聖保羅,巴西 「第四屆現代版畫展」,國立台灣藝術館(今國立台灣藝

於藝術家畫廊舉行個展,台北,台灣

加入「五月畫會」,台北,台灣

「陳庭詩水墨畫初展」,凌雲畫廊,台北,台灣 1972

「陳庭詩版畫水墨雕塑個展」,藝術家畫廊,台北,台灣 「陳庭詩版畫展」,春秋藝廊,台北,台灣

「第八屆巴西聖保羅雙年展」,聖保羅,巴西

「第三屆國際版畫雙年展」,倫敦,英國

「亞洲前衛畫家作品展」, 於亞洲十大城市巡迴展出

「義大利國際版畫展」,米蘭,義大利

「中國當代畫廊」,於非洲十四國巡迴展出

「第二屆韓國國際版畫雙年展」,漢城,韓國


CHRONOLOGY | CHEN Ting-Shih

1973

「陳庭詩、邱忠均畫展」,石濤畫廊,高雄,台灣

於中華文化中心舉行個展,紐約,美國

「現代眼 ’88 展」,台中市立文化中心,台中,台灣

「國際造型藝術展」,國際視聽藝術協會展,日本、歐亞 巡迴展出

1990

高雄,台灣

「五月畫會展」,丹佛藝術館、費城布克戈貝格畫廊、伊利

「陳庭詩書畫雕塑展」,台中縣立文化中心,台中,台灣

諾洛克福特大學,洛克福特,美國 1974

「陳庭詩彩墨、書法、雕塑展」,高雄市立中正文化中心,

「中國藝術家現代版畫展」,香港博物館,香港,中國

「中華民國現代美術巡迴展」,俄勒岡等地,美國

「陳庭詩版畫水墨畫展」,鴻霖藝廊,台北,台灣

「現代眼 ’90 展」, 台中市立文化中心,台中,台灣

「第四屆國際版畫雙年展」,倫敦,英國

1991

「東方.五月畫會 35 週年展」,時代畫廊,台北,台灣

「今日亞洲」,米蘭,義大利

1992

「陳庭詩的現代雕塑展」,新生態藝術環境,台南,台灣

1993

「陳庭詩八十回顧展」,台灣省立美術館(今國立台灣美術

「詩人的迴響-陳庭詩個展」, 雄獅畫廊,台北,台灣

「泛太平洋現代中國藝術家畫展」, 夏威夷中國文化復 興協會,夏威夷,美國

館),台中,台灣

1975

「陳庭詩版畫水墨畫個展」,藝術家藝廊,台北,台灣

1976

「當代中國藝術展」,亞洲基金會,舊金山,美國

1994

「陳庭詩 1994 個展」,首都藝術中心,台中,台灣

「陳庭詩、莊喆、馬浩三人展」,群丘藝術中心,丹佛,美國

1995

「大現無形、大聲無書鐵雕展」,帝門藝術中心,高雄,台灣

1977

「陳庭詩、郭振昌畫展」,美國新聞處,台北,台灣

1978

「當代中國藝術展」,奧克蘭,美國

1979

「中美版畫交換展」, 聖塔非,美國

1980

「中華民國第一屆現代水墨畫展」,國立台灣藝術教育館, 台北,台灣 1996

「現代畫家聯展」, 藝術家畫廊,台北,台灣

立美術館,台北,台灣

「第一響:十家聯展」,南畫廊,台北,台灣

於台中市太平區成立美術作品陳列室及工作室,台中,台灣

「陳庭詩、吳崇棋國畫書法雙人展」, 台中市立文化中心,

1997

1982 1983

「陳庭詩版畫水墨畫個展」,名門畫廊,台中,台灣

1998

「年代美展」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣

1998-99 「二十世紀金屬雕塑展」,西班牙、法國

「第一屆中華民國國際版畫雙年展」,台北市立美術館,

1999

台北,台灣 「陳庭詩廢鐵雕塑展」,首都藝術中心,台中,台灣

「現代眼’83 展」,台北美國文化中心、台中文化中心、 高雄市立中正文化中心,台北、台中、高雄,台灣

2000 2001

「台灣畫家六人作品展」,北京、上海,中國

「10 + 10 = 21 台中-台北」,國立台灣美術館,台中,台灣 「動力空間」,台中文化中心,台中,台灣

「陳庭詩鐵雕特展」, 帝門藝術中心,高雄,台灣 「中國現代畫聯展」,德國 「中華民國水墨抽象展」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣 1987

「版畫四君子」,福華沙龍,台北,台灣

「陳庭詩版畫展」,高雄市立中正文化中心,高雄,台灣 2002

「大律希音陳庭詩紀念展」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣 4 月 15 日病逝於台中,享壽 89 歲

1985-86 「中國現代展」,倫敦,英國 1986

「陳庭詩、鐘俊雄鐵雕展」,新月梧桐,台中,台灣 「開放 2001」,威尼斯麗都島,義大利

「陳庭詩、吳季如國畫書法雙人展」,台中市立文化中心, 台中,台灣

「陳庭詩小型鐵雕展」,楓林小鎮,台中,台灣 「全方位藝術家-陳庭詩」,郭木生文教基金會美術中心,

台北,台灣

1985

「陳庭詩鐵雕與現代詩對話」,郭木生文教基金會美術中 心,台北,台灣

參與成立「現代眼畫會」,台中,台灣

「陳庭詩、陳明善畫展」,金爵藝術中心,台中,台灣

1984

「陳庭詩繪畫、書法、版畫、鐵雕展」,台中市立文化中 心,台中,台灣

台中,台灣 1981

「1996 雙年展 ˙ 台灣藝術主體性:視覺與思維」,台北市

2014

「抽象.符碼.東方情-臺灣現代藝術巨匠大展」,尊彩 藝術中心,台北,台灣

「陳庭詩美術回顧展」,高雄市立中正文化中心,高雄,台灣 「現代眼’86 展」, 台北市立美術館、台中市立文化中心, 台北、台中,台灣 「第二屆亞洲美展」,國立歷史博物館,台北,台灣

1988

「陳庭詩水墨展」,御書房藝房,高雄,台灣 「陳庭詩彩墨展」,台中市立文化中心,台中,台灣

49


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

CHEN Ting-Shih 1913-2002

1938 1939 1940 1946 1947 1948

1957 1958 1959 1960

1961

1962

1963

1965

1966

1968 50

Born in Fujian, China

The first edition of woodcuts appeared in the “Enemy Comic”, Fujian, China Co-editor with Song Bing-Heng of the “People’s Pictorial”, China Editor at the “Righteous China Press”, China Art editor of the “Peace Daily”, chief editor of the “Weekly Pictorial”, art editor of the “Cultural Exchange” founded by Yang Kui, Taichung, Taiwan Editor of the “Star Min Daily”, Fujian, China “The 1st National Wooden Engraving Exhibition”, Shanghai, Nanjing, China Worked at the Provincial Taiwan Librar y (now National Taiwan Library), Taipei, Taiwan Produced the work titled “Liu Ming-Chuan Building Taiwan’s Railway” for Taiwan Exposition, Taipei, Taiwan Art editor at the “China Daily” and “Public Opinion”, Taipei, Taiwan “The 4th National Art Exhibition”, Taipei, Taiwan Co-founded the “Modern Graphic Art Association”, Taipei, Taiwan “The 1st Modern Graphic Art Exhibition”, Taipei, Taiwan “The 5th Biennial de São Paulo”, São Paulo, Brazil “The 2nd Modern Graphic Art Exhibition”, Taipei News Building, Taipei, Taiwan “Hong Kong International Salon of Printing”, Hong Kong, China “The 3rd Modern Graphic Ar t Exhibition”, National Taiwan Ar ts Education Center, Taipei, Taiwan “The 6th Biennial de São Paulo”, São Paulo, Brazil “The 4th Modern Graphic Ar t Exhibition”, National Taiwan Ar ts Education Center, Taipei, Taiwan “Fifth Moon Group Exhibition”, Le Land Art House, Taipei, Taiwan “Hong Kong International Salon of Printing”, Hong Kong, China “The 5th Modern Graphic Ar t Exhibition”, National Taiwan Ar ts Education Center, Taipei, Taiwan “The 7th Biennial de São Paulo”, São Paulo, Brazil “The 6th Modern Graphic Art Exhibition and the 7th Ton Fan Group Exhibition”, National Taiwan Arts Education Center, Taipei, Taiwan Joined the “Fifth Moon Group”, Taipei, Taiwan “The 8th Biennial de São Paulo”, São Paulo, Brazil “Paintings by Asia’s Leading Artists”, touring 10 cities in Asia “Exhibition of Modern Chinese Paintings”, touring 14 countries in Asia “Modern Chinese Art”, Rome, Italy Studied International Chinese Language Program, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan “The 9th Modern Graphic Ar t Exhibition”, National Taiwan Ar ts Education Center, Taipei, Taiwan Solo exhibition, Luz Gallery, Manila, Philippines

Solo exhibition, Melbourne, Australia “The 6th International Exhibition of Printed Art, Tokyo, Kyoto, Japan 1969 “Touring Exhibition of Iron Sculptures”, Tien Educational Center, Galeria of American Information Center, Tunghai University Ar t Gallery, Taiwan News Gallery, Taipei, Taichung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan “The 7th International Exhibition of Printed Art”, Tokyo, Kyoto, Japan “The 2nd Asia Graphics Exhibition, Manila, Philippines “International Plastic Arts Exhibition”, “Exhibition of the International Association of Audiovisual Art”, Japan, Asia, Europe “Asian Prints Exhibition”, Pratt Graphic Center, New York, USA 1969-87 Solo exhibition, Artists’ Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan 1970 “The 1st International Biennial Exhibition of Prints”, Seoul, Korea “The Art Exhibition from the ROC”, Madrid, Spain “The 2nd International Exhibition of Paintings”, Cagnes-Sur-Mer, France “International Exhibition of Printed Art, Lima, Peru “The 14th Fifth Moon Group Exhibition”, National Museum of History, Taipei, Taiwan 1971 “Fifth Moon Group Exhibition”, Honolulu Museum of Ar t, Taft Museum of Art, Hawaii, Cincinnati, USA Chinese Painting Association, Golden Goblet Award, Taiwan “The 1st International Biennial Exhibition of Prints”, First Prize, Korea “The 11th Biennial de São Paulo”, São Paulo, Brazil “The 1st National Sculpture Exhibition”, Taiwan Provincial Museum (now National Taiwan Museum), Taipei, Taiwan “Chen Ting-Shih Ink Painting Exhibition”, Ling Yun Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan 1972 “Chen Ting-Shih Ink Painting, Print and Sculpture Exhibition”, Artist’s Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan “Chen Ting-Shih Print Exhibition”, Spring Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan “The 3rd International Prints Biennial Exhibition”, London, UK “International Prints Exhibition”, Milan, Italy “The 2nd International Biennial Exhibition of Prints”, Seoul, Korea 1973 Solo exhibition, Chinese Cultural Center, New York, USA “International Society of Plastic and Audio-Visual Ar t Exhibition”, Asia and Europe “Fifth Moon Group Exhibition”, Brooks Goldberger Gallery, Rockford College, Rockford, USA “Contemporary Prints by Chinese Artists”, Hong Kong Museum of Art, Hong Kong, China 1974 “Chen Ting-Shih Print, Ink and Oil Painting Exhibition”, Morrison Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan “The 4th International Prints Biennial Exhibition”, London, UK


CHRONOLOGY | CHEN Ting-Shih

“Asia Today”, Milan, Italy “Pan Pacific Contemporary Chinese Artists Show”, Hawaii Chinese Culture Renaissance Society, Hawaii, USA 1975 “Chen Ting-Shih Ink Painting and Print Exhibition”, Ar tists’ Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan 1976 “Contemporar y Chinese Ar t Exhibition”, Asia Foundation, San Francisco, USA “Chen Ting-Shih, Chuang Che, Ma Hao – Three Artists Exhibition”, Foothills Art Center, Denver, USA 1977 “Chen Ting-Shih and Kuo Jen-Chang Exhibition”, USIS Lincoln Center, Taipei, Taiwan 1978 “Contemporary Chinese Art Exhibition”, Oakland, California, USA 1979 “Exchange Exhibition of Chinese and American Painting”, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA “Group Exhibition of Modern Artists”, Artists’ Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan “The First Sound: Ten Artists Group Exhibition”, Nan Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan 1980 “Chen Ting-Shih and Wu Chong-Chih’s Painting and Calligraphy Exhibition”, Taichung City Culture Center, Taichung, Taiwan “Chen Ting-Shih Print and Painting Solo Exhibition”, Mingmen Gallery, 1981 Taichung, Taiwan Co-founded the ”Modern Eyes Group”, Taichung, Taiwan 1982 “Exhibition of Periodic Works”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan The 1st International Biennial Print Exhibition”, Taipei Fine Ar ts 1983 Museum, Taipei, Taiwan “Chen Ting-Shih and Chen Ming-Shen’s Painting Exhibition”, Jin Jay Art Center, Taichung, Taiwan “Modern Eyes Group Exhibition 83’”, American Institute in Taiwan, Taichung Cultural Center, Kaohsiung Cultural Center, Taipei, Taichung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan “Chen Ting-Shih and Wu Ji-Ru’s Chinese Calligraphy Painting 1984 Exhibition”, Taichung Cultural Center, Taichung, Taiwan “Six Artists from Taiwan”, Beijing, Shanghai, China “Chen Ting-Shih Print Exhibition”, Kaohsiung Cultural Center, 1985 Kaohsiung, Taiwan “Chen Ting-Shih Iron Sculpture Exhibition”, Dimensions Art Center, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 1985-86 “Modern Chinese Painting Exhibition”, London, UK “Chinese Contemporary Painting”, Germany 1986 “Chinese Modern Abstract Painting Exhibition”, Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan “Chen Ting-Shih Retrospective Exhibition”, Kaohsiung Cultural 1987 Center, Kaohsiung, Taiwan “Modern Eyes Group Exhibition 86’ ”, Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum, Taichung Cultural Center, Taipei, Taichung, Taiwan “The 2nd Asia Art Exhibition”, National Museum of History, Taipei, Taiwan “Chen Ting-Shih Ink Painting Exhibition”, Imperial Study Galler y, 1988 Kaohsiung, Taiwan “Chen Ting-Shih Color Painting Exhibition”, Taichung Cultural Center, Taichung, Taiwan “Chen Ting-Shih and Chu Jong-Ju’s Painting Exhibition”, Shi Tao Gallery, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

“Modern Eyes Group Exhibition 88’ ”, Taichung Cultural Center, Taichung, Taiwan 1990 “Chen Ting-Shih Color Painting, Calligraphy and Sculpture Exhibition”, Kaohsiung Cultural Center, Kaohsiung, Taiwan “Chen Ting-Shih Poetry, Painting and Sculpture Exhibition”, Taichung County Cultural Center, Taichung, Taiwan “Contemporary Chinese Art Touring Exhibition”, Oregon and other cities, USA “Modern Eyes Group Exhibition 90’ ”, Taichung Cultural Center, Taichung, Taiwan 1991 “The 35th Anniversar y of Ton Fan and Fifth Moon Ar t Group Exhibition”, Taipei Times Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan 1992 “Chen Ting-Shih Modern Sculpture Exhibition”, New Phase Ar t Space, Tainan, Taiwan “Echo of a Poet – Chen Ting-Shih Solo Exhibition”, Hsiung Hsih Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan “A Retrospective – Chen Ting-Shih at the Age of Eighty”, Taiwan 1993 Provincial Museum of Fine Arts (now National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts), Taichung, Taiwan “Chen Ting-Shih 1994 Solo Exhibition”, Capital Art Center, Taichung, Taiwan 1994 “Chen Ting-Shih Iron Sculpture Exhibition”, Dimensions Art Center, 1995 Kaohsiung, Taiwan “The 1st Modern Painting Exhibition of the Republic of China”, National Taiwan Arts Education Center, Taipei, Taiwan “1996 Taipei Biennial”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan 1996 Opened an art gallery and studio in Taiping district, Taichung, Taiwan “Chen Ting-Shih Painting, Calligraphy, Print and Iron Sculpture 1997 Exhibition”, Taichung Cultural Center, Taichung, Taiwan “Dialogue Between the Iron Sculpture of Chen Ting-Shih and the 1998 Modern Poetry”, Kuo Mu Sheng Foundation Art Center, Taipei, Taiwan 1998-99 “Exhibition of Metal Sculpture of Twenty Century”, Spain, France “Chen Ting-Shih Iron Sculpture Exhibition”, Little Town of Maple, 1999 Taichung, Taiwan “Comprehensive Ar tist: Chen Ting-Shih”, Museum of the Kuo Mu Sheng Foundation, Taipei, Taiwan “Chen Ting-Shih Iron Sculpture Exhibition”, Capital Ar t Center, Taichung, Taiwan “Chen Ting-Shih and Jong Jong-Shyong’s Iron Sculpture Exhibition”, 2000 1924 Shanghai Restaurant, Taichung, Taiwan “Open 2001”, Lido, Venice, Italy “Prints of Four Gentlemen”, Howard Salon, Taipei, Taiwan 2001 “10 + 10 = 21 Taichung-Taipei”, National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts, Taichung, Taiwan “Moving Space”, Taichung Cultural Center, Taichung, Taiwan “Sound of Rarity: Chen Ting-Shih”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan 2002 Passed away on April 15th, Taichung, Taiwan “Abstract / Symbol / Oriental – Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of 2014 Modern Art", Liang Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

51


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

陳庭詩現代版畫在戰後台灣的定位

蔣伯欣

有關陳庭詩的現代版畫,多朝兩個方面論評。首先,陳庭詩因幼 年失聰而呈現了一位失聰者對於視覺語彙的掌握與創造,因此反 而吸引觀者凝視畫面的空無與不可見的寂靜。再者,陳庭詩深受 傳統文藝的薰陶,也令人容易將其版畫形式與金石碑帖的趣味聯 繫起來,以遙想故國的藝術傳統。在凝視與想像之間,陳庭詩 1964 年之後製作的現代版畫作品,已被認為是其獨特的代表風 格。

既自以心為形役  

1951 年黃榮燦的失蹤,均使他不得不停止創作而埋首公務。

寓形宇內復幾時 1957 年,陳庭詩終於決定辭去圖書館的職務,重回創作之路。 「形」是陳庭詩重提刻刀的思想轉捩點,不僅意味著視覺的形象, 也隱喻自我的形體肉身。1959 年,陳庭詩與楊英風、秦松等人發 起了「現代版畫會」,也以《陣雨(驟雨)》首度獲選代表台灣 參加巴西的聖保羅雙年展。這些作品中陳庭詩已開始嘗試以畫面 分割的方式將形體簡化,追求形色之間的裝飾趣味,並嘗試以具 象形式來表達個人的內心意識。 52

CHEN Ting-Shih

政的漫畫。然而,1949 年國民黨政府遷台後的白色恐怖,以及

Deeping

描繪風景人物,以及歌頌田園之樂的具象作品,早期也有批判時

陳庭詩 窺

與黃榮燦在《路工月刊》共同發表素描與刻作。此時的創作多為

1968

作。這段期間,他曾與中部的左翼文化人如楊逵等往來,也一度

90×184cm

畫刊》的編輯,戰後來台,於 1948 年進入了省立台北圖書館工

Woodblock print on paper

抗戰期間投身軍旅的陳庭詩,自學木刻版畫的技法,擔任《大眾


ESSAY | CHEN Ting-Shih’s Modern Printmaking in Post-War Taiwan – a Critique

1961 至 1962 年間,陳庭詩從具象轉而直接由抽象形體的變化, 以視覺來思考,畫家已脫離寫實木刻的技法層次,並開始試著賦 予它美學的形象思維。1962 至 1963 年,陳庭詩仍繼續實驗著以 網、點、線等木刻視覺元素構成的作品,但已開始加入不規則形 體來表現個人的心靈狀態,如 1963 年獲選參加巴西聖保羅雙年 展的《金色的年代》。從形式上來看,此系列長條形色塊作品為 追求的「東方性」初步思考;從畫題上來看,大量以單字命名, 也顯現出陳庭詩先前對人生記憶的歌詠,已轉向神靈尋求厄運災 禍的超越與「昇華」,亦以狹長的畫幅,加上空靈的方形色塊, 象徵溝通天地的祭儀性。

字畫同源:文字圖像與傳統書風的挪用 1963 至 1964 年是陳庭詩創作風格變遷的關鍵時期,1964 年 2 月, 陳庭詩發表了唯一一篇正式的創作自述:〈版畫與我〉,認為木 刻的優點在於「能保持刀與木的原始藝術的情調」,可製造出「濃 淡有緻的墨韻」、「金石拓片的古趣」等純粹東方的趣味,文末 則以近三分之一的篇幅,來談論始自甲骨文字的書法傳統與抽象 畫之間的關聯性,亦可印證畫家同時正嘗試從甲骨借取文字圖像 Hibernating#11

陳庭詩 CHEN Ting-Shih 蟄 #11

1969

120×180cm

Woodblock print on paper

的作品。陳庭詩習用的刀痕紋理,至此已被內縮至色面中逐漸褪 去,色彩也更趨簡鍊,捨棄了先前較不穩定的裝飾作風,畫幅的 放大與黑色的使用,是畫家此時最主要的轉變。

意在形外:歷史碎形的遙綴 1965 年起,陳庭詩開始了一系列氣勢磅礡的版畫作品。他先用刀 在蔗板上刻成凸凹版,留下如同鑽鑿於甲骨的刻痕,然後上油墨, 放上棉紙,用沒有稜角的鎮紙厚玻璃戳印。此類以天文、時令命 名的系列作品,先借用了金石碑帖的佈局趣味,以及甲骨卜辭的 文字圖像,作為初步的實驗手法,隨後便跨入了「宇宙圖式」的 創作階段。陳庭詩曾以「大律希音」一詞來形容自己的作品,意 即很大(深度)的樂律不易聽到,而「卜」在聲音、裂紋、祭儀 等方面的同一性,以及占卜燒灼甲骨所具有的祭儀性,恰似畫家 自述所企求的意境。在陳庭詩稍後作品中習用的「圓形」尚未出 現之前,明顯呈現出甲骨碎形的拼綴作圖式,符合了偏安時期人 們編排歷史、發明傳統的文化想像。 53


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

貫通天地:以視覺思維構造宇宙的動態秩序 陳庭詩作品對於形體的逐漸解放實出於內心需求,方由具象木刻,轉 為抽象蔗版;由人世田園的批判與歌頌,提昇至宇宙太空的抒懷與寄 情。由美學家安海姆(Rudolf Arnheim, 1904-2007)的觀點來看,陳庭 詩在宇宙圖式作品中安排的大量碎形,可說是出於對「完形」(Gestalt) 的內在需求,加以畫家此時偏好的黑色墨韻亦為宇宙原色,即使圖式 中各個構成成分均改變,其追求的完形仍會存在,以供觀者對宇宙自 然的無限想像。抽象的獲取,係來自對某類事物最重要性質的整體把 握,而這種把握,則取決於構造出它的動態形式。以漢文化對於宇宙 自然最簡單的認知來說,便是「空間」與「時間」構成的秩序系統─「上 下四方謂之宇,往古來今為之宙」(《說文解字註》七篇下)。陳庭 詩的宇宙圖式,在時間向度上以碎形遙綴歷史的起源,空間向度上則 以感知對象的簡化、分離、結合,來安排碎形之間的運行、推擠、牽引、 碰撞等動態。陳庭詩先運用漢磚構 圖、文字圖像等傳統,以形體的變 形與構成,達成其溝通天人、袪惡除禍等祭儀性的內在需求,接著從 甲骨拓本的碎片拼綴,尋得其造型的動態基礎。

結語 1970 至 1980 年代,陳庭詩繼續以此種圖式,加入更多色彩與構圖的 動態變化,製作了為數頗豐的系列作品,由於畫家此時也將精力擴及 鐵雕與水墨創作。陳庭詩的宇宙圖式,除了簡潔單純、廣闊雄渾的形 態變化外,以黑、白、紅、金(黃)、青為作品的五種主要構成顏色, 也具備了五行象徵系統中符號化的條件;色塊之間的留白與空隙本身 亦是視覺抽象物,彷彿一場激烈活動後凝結成的永恆寂靜,提供觀者 無盡的想像空間。

陳庭詩的宇宙圖式,掌握了偏安時期流離失所的人們,對宇宙完形與 秩序系統的視覺需求,在時間向度上以碎形遙綴歷史系譜的起源;在 空間向度上,則以碎形裂隙之間的方、圓操作其動態秩序,召喚諸如 天圓地方、亞形中心象徵等古代的宇宙模型。陳庭詩宇宙圖式所蘊含 的豐富意涵,使這批寓形宇內的版畫作品,成為 戰後台灣美術史的重 要遺產。 (本文改寫自作者的〈寓形宇內復幾時:陳庭詩現代版畫的宇宙圖式與文化意涵〉 《大律希音:陳庭詩紀念展》。台北:台北市立美術館,2002,頁 53-62〉) 54


ESSAY | Chen Ting-Shih’s Modern Printmaking in Post-War Taiwan – a Critique

CHEN Ting-Shih’s Modern Printmaking in Post-War Taiwan – a Critique Written by

CHIANG Po-Shin

Critiques on Chen Ting-Shih’s printmaking predominantly draw upon two perspectives. Firstly, Chen lost his hearing at a young age and therefore developed a unique and original visual vocabular y, which captivates the viewer’s gaze with the void and the imperceptible silence in his imagery. Secondly, Chen was much inspired by historical Chinese ar t and culture. It is easy to imagine a connection between his works and ancient bronze and stone inscriptions, a homage to the motherland's ar tistic tradition. Between the gaze and imagination, Chen's works from 1964 onwards became recognized as his signature style.

The soul is subjugated to the body

CHEN Ting-Shih

#11

Day & Night #11

陳庭詩 晝與夜

1972

93×93cm

Woodblock print on paper

During the Sino-Japanese War, Chen Ting-Shih joined the army. Teaching himself the techniques of woodblock printing, Chen also worked as editor of the monthly Dazhong Huakan (People's Pictorial). After the war, Chen moved to Taiwan and, in 1948, took up a post in the Taiwan Provincial Librar y in Taipei. During this time, Chen was acquainted with the leftist intelligentsia, based in Taiwan's central region, such as Yang Ku. Meanwhile, together with Huang Rong-Can, published drawings and prints in the Lugong Yuekan (Rail Workers' Monthly). His ar t from this period, following ear lier satirical caricatures of current affair s, was mostly figurative, depicting landscapes and people and celebrating the contentment of rural life. However, the White Terror subsequent to Kuomintang's retreat to Taiwan in 1949, as well as Huang Rong-Can's disappearance in 1951, forced Chen to give up ar t and bury himself in work. 55


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

Time is limited for the mortal being In 1957, Chen Ting-Shih eventually decided to resign from the librar y and return to his creative path. "Form" was a crucial point in the rethinking of his familiar medium of woodblock printing. The form was not only a visual representation, but also a metaphor of the mor tal self. In 1959, Chen, together with Yang Yu-Yu and Qin Song, founded the "Modern Graphic Ar t Association"; he was selected for the first time, with the work Downpour, to represent Taiwan in the São Paulo Biennial, Brazil. In a series of works, Chen began experimenting with abstraction by means of fragmentation and playful expression with shapes and colours, whilst seeking to represent his inner thoughts in visual forms.

Between 1961 and 1962, Chen’s ar t was transformed from figurative representation to abstract visual conception. The ar tist broke away from realism, injecting in his woodcuts a new aesthetic dimension. From 1962 to 1963, continuing to experiment with composition, he employed webbing patterns, points and lines, with fur ther addition of irregular shapes as an expression of the state of the mind; for example, the work

A common origin for the script and the picture: words, imagery and the appropriation of historical inscription The time between 1963 and 1964 was a key phase of Chen Ting-Shih’s ar tistic metamorphosis. In Febr uar y 1964, Chen published his only creative manifesto, Printmaking and I. He believed the strength of woodblock printing lay in "conserving an authenticity of primitive ar t made with knives and wood", in producing a pure, oriental appeal with the "poetics in the shades of ink" and "charm of ancient inscriptions", etc. The final third of the manifesto was a discussion on the association between the oracle bone script and abstract painting. It was the evident that the ar tist intended to 56

CHEN Ting-Shih

communication with Heaven and the Ear th.

Waking Dreams

and adversities. The long narrow prints with ethereal colour blocks allude to rituals of

陳庭詩 驚夢

memories to invocations to the deity, seeking to overcome and "sublimate" hardships

1998

the mostly single-worded titles marked a transition from celebration of ear thly life

Iron

of works, with long bands of colours, was an early concept of "oriental-ness", whereas

86×53×152cm

Golden Epoch of 1963, which was selected for the São Paulo Biennial. Visually, the series


ESSAY | Chen Ting-Shih’s Modern Printmaking in Post-War Taiwan – a Critique

appropriate the script for his imager y. Chen Ting-Shih’s typical knife marks gradually immersed and faded into the colour blocks, whilst the colours became simpler, moving away from the volatile decorative style of previous works. Other major changes included the increased dimensions of prints and the use of black.

Meaning beyond the form: conjoining distant fragments of history From 1965, Chen Ting-Shih began a series of prints of extraordinar y grandeur. The ar tist first carved on cane fibreboards with relief resembling the oracle bone script. He then applied the ink and cotton paper, rubbing them with a smooth glass paperweight. This series of works, named with references to celestial and seasonal order, borrowed from the composition of bronze and stone inscriptions and the oracle bone script as the foundation of his experimental techniques. The next step was the creation of ‘cosmic diagram’. Chen Ting-Shih once described his works as Dalüxiyin, meaning that profound musical order cannot be easily perceived. Moreover, the word Bu (divination) embodies the concept the ar tist pursued, in that it unifies the sound, cracks and the rite, together with the ceremonial flaming of bones. Before the frequent use of circular shapes in his Eat Drink Man Woman

陳庭詩 CHEN Ting-Shih 飲食男女

1979

Iron

67×51×174cm

later works, this recognisable diagram of conjoined bone fragments reflected a cultural imagination of a rump state, choreographing history and reinventing tradition.

From Heaven to the Earth: a dynamic cosmic order reconstructed with visual discourse Stemming from a personal quest, Chen Ting-Shih’s works were transformed from tangible subjects on woodblocks to abstract representation on cane fibreboards, gradually liberated from figurative forms. The subject matter was elevated from criticism and celebration of ear thly and rural life and, instead, projecting his sentiments into the cosmic space. From the perspective of theorist Rudolf Arnheim (1904-1994), the large amount of fragmented forms in Chen’s cosmic diagram may have been rooted in his pursuit of the Gestalt. Fur thermore, the favoured black ink represents the primary colour of the universe; even if every par t in a diagram changes, the desired whole, the Gestalt, endures, which offers an infinite space for the viewer’s imagination of the universe and Nature. Abstraction is achieved by understanding the essential whole of the subject, which is determined by its fundamental mechanism. In the Han 57


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

Chinese culture, the simplest interpretation of Yüzho (the cosmos) suggests an order constructed with "space" and "time" – "space to all directions is Yü; time from the past to the present is Zho (Shuowen Jiezi Zhu, the latter half of seventh chapter)". In the temporal dimension, Chen’s cosmic diagram reconnects historical lineages with fragmented forms. In the spatial dimension, it arranges the fragments in motion – pushing, pulling and colliding, etc. – by ways of reduction, separation and amalgamation of subject matters. Chen fulfilled his personal quest, with a symbolic rite of divination and exorcism, by reshaping the historical imagery such as the Han decorative bricks and pictorial scripts, etc. He then based its compositional motif on the conjoining of oracle bone pieces.

Conclusion In the 1970s and 80s, Chen Ting-Shih continued his prolific series of works based on the cosmic diagram, albeit with fur ther development in colour and compositional dynamics, thanks to the ar tist’s branching out into iron sculpture and ink painting. In addition to its formal simplicity, purity, scope and exuberance, Chen’s cosmic diagram is composed of five essential colours – black, white, red, gold (yellow) and blue – symbolising Wu Xing (the five elements). The void between colour blocks is also a visual abstraction; an eternal silence condensed after violent commotion, offering the viewer a boundless space for imagination.

Chen Ting-Shih’s cosmic diagram is a visual representation of a rump state’s longing for the Gestalt and order. In the temporal dimension, it reconnects historical lineages with fragmented forms. In the spatial dimension, it constructs a dynamic order with rectangular and circular projections in between the fissures and fragments, evoking ancient cosmic paradigms such as the round firmament over the square ear th, or the central icon of the ‘Ya’ shape. The rich connotations of Chen’s cosmic diagram are the very reason this series of works established itself as a significant legacy in Taiwan’s postwar history of ar t.

This essay has been adapted from the author’s ‘Yu xing yu nei fu ji shi: the cultural implication and cosmic diagram in Chen Ting-Shih’s modern print works’, in Sound of Rarity: Chen Ting-Shih (19152002). Taipei: Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum, 2002, pp. 53-62.

58


About the Critic | CHIANG Po-Shin

藝評 簡介

蔣伯欣 CHIANG Po-Shin 蔣 伯 欣, 天 主 教 輔 仁 大 學 比 較 文 學 博 士(2004), 現 為 國 立 臺南藝術大學藝術史系暨藝術史與藝術評論研究所助理教授 (2006-),並擔任《藝術觀點 ACT》主編(2010-)。專長為 台灣美術史、當代藝術評論。1998 年起開始撰述發表藝評,著 有多篇論文與專書發表,部分論文曾被譯為英文、韓文出版於 國內外學術期刊與專書,包括《中外文學》、《Yishu: Journal of Contemporar y Chinese Ar t》、《한국근대미술사학》、《美 術史論壇》等。近來關注的議題包括 1920 年代以來東亞左翼 運動與視覺檔案、當代藝術策展與生命政治,現正關注台灣當 代藝術史。

Chiang Po-Shin is an Assistant Professor of the Graduate Institute of Ar t History and Ar t Criticism at the Tainan National University of the Ar ts, where he teaches Taiwan ar t history, visual culture, and ar t criticism. He received his PhD degree in comparative literature from Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei. He is currently the Chief Editor of the Art Critique of Taiwan. His research interests include the history of vision in colonial Taiwan; curatorship in contemporar y Chinese and Taiwanese ar t; cross-cultural comparative ar t between China and Taiwan; issues of visuality and subjectivity in ar t practice. He has published widely on modern Chinese ar t histor y, visual culture in 1920s, and contemporar y Taiwanese ar t in recent years including a book Taiwan Art Criticism: Liu Kuo-Sung (1999) and Curatorial Apparatus and Bio-politics (2010). He is currently working on a project entitled in contemporar y visual ar ts and activism in East Asia. 59


陳庭詩 CHEN Ting Shih

驚夢 Waking Dreams 1998 Iron 86×53×152cm

60


陳庭詩 CHEN Ting Shih

飲食男女 Eat Drink Man Woman 1979 Iron 67×51×174cm

61


陳庭詩 CHEN Ting Shih

Work No.473 1999 Iron 58×16×74cm

62


陳庭詩 CHEN Ting Shih

晝與夜 #11 Day & Night #11 1972 Woodblock print on paper 93×93cm

63


陳庭詩 CHEN Ting Shih

窺 Deeping 1968 Woodblock print on paper 90×184cm

64


陳庭詩 CHEN Ting Shih

蟄 #11 Hibernating #11 1969 Woodblock print on paper 120×180cm

65


楊英風 YANG Yu-Yu


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

楊英風 1926-1997 年出生於台灣宜蘭

攝/ 高媛

1943

考入東京美術學校建築系,東京,日本

於保羅畫廊舉辦「石雕系列作品展」,東京,日本

1946

考入輔仁大學美術系,新北市,台灣

1969

設計花蓮航空站的整體景觀造型,花蓮,台灣

1947

擔任宜蘭蘭陽女中的美術教員,宜蘭,台灣

1970

設計黎巴嫩貝魯特國際公園庭園景觀,貝魯特,黎巴嫩

1948

就讀台灣省立師範學院(今國立台灣師範大學)美術系,

1971

《心鏡》參加「第二屆現代國際雕塑展」,雕刻之森美術

台北,台灣 1951 1953 1956 1957

擔任「豐年雜誌社」美術編輯,台北,台灣 《斜坐》參展「第七屆全省美展」,台北,台灣

館,箱根,日本 1976

負責規劃沙烏地阿拉伯國家公園整體景觀,沙烏地阿拉伯

1977

擔任加州法界大學藝術學院院長,加州,美國

《仰之彌高》參展「巴西聖保羅雙年展」,聖保羅,巴西

召開「雷射推廣協會」,將雷射藝術及科技引進台灣,台

《仰之彌高》獲國立台灣歷史博物館典藏,台北,台灣

北,台灣

受聘為教育部美育委員會委員、國立歷史博物館推廣委

1978

員、巴西國際藝術博物館參展作品評審委員,台灣、巴西 1958

1959

會」,並受邀為日本雷射普及委員會委員,台北,台灣

應聘為國立藝專(今國立台灣藝術大學)副教授、任文化

1979

成立「大漢雷射科藝研究所」,台北,台灣

大學藝術學院、銘傳學院(今銘傳大學)商業美術科、淡

1980

擔任中華民國空間藝術協會常務理事,台北,台灣

江文理學院(今淡江大學)等校教授,台北,台灣

「從景觀雕塑到雷射景觀展」,華明藝廊,台北,台灣

召集「中國現代藝術中心」第一次籌備會議,台北,台灣

《瑞鳥》(生命之火)參加「第四屆國際雷射外科學會會

《哲人》參加「第一屆法國巴黎國際青年藝展」,巴黎,

議展」,日本

法國 1960 1961

1962 1963 1964

《春滿大地》雷射雕塑獲嚴家淦先生收藏,台北,台灣

為日月潭教師會館作大型浮雕《自強不息》、《怡然自

負責規劃台南安平古堡公園庭園景觀及雕像,台南,台灣

得》、《日月光華》及於會館前的水池製作石雕《鳳凰噴

1981

泉》景觀雕塑,南投,台灣

1982

於《台灣建築徵信》發表〈建築與景觀〉,台灣

參加國家畫廊舉辦的年度展,國立歷史博物館,台北,台灣

1984

於《台灣手工業》發表〈智慧.雷射.工藝〉,台灣

設計「金馬獎」獎盃,台北,台灣

1985

發表〈區域特性的發展透視藝術的未來〉及〈中西雕塑觀

獲得香港國際藝術沙龍展銀章獎,香港,中國

「第一屆中華民國國際雷射景觀雕塑大展」,台北,台灣 於《台灣手工藝》發表〈探討我國雕塑應有方向〉,台灣

「中國現代美展」,羅馬現代美術館,羅馬,義大利

念的差異〉,台灣

《渴望》獲天主教教宗保祿六世收收藏,梵諦岡

於台灣師範大學《校友學術論文集》發表〈藝術、生活與

《靜觀其反覆》獲羅馬現代美術館典藏,羅馬,義大利

教育〉,台灣

1966

獲得義大利繪畫金牌獎及雕塑銀章獎,義大利 受聘為花蓮大理石工廠顧問,創作「太魯閣山水系列」, 花蓮,台灣 受邀成為國際造型藝術家協會中華民國代表,巴黎,法國 受邀成為日本建築美術工業協會會員,東京,日本

68

獲得中華民國第一屆優秀建築金鼎獎,台灣

「楊英風雕塑版畫展」,國立歷史博物館,台北,台灣

1967 1968

與陳奇祿、毛高文發起成立「中華民國雷射科藝推廣協

《銀河之旅》參加「當代中國雕塑家作品展」,香港,中國 1986

「楊英風雷射景觀雕塑展」,香港藝術中心、漢雅軒,香 港,中國 《回到太初》參加國立故宮博物院「當代藝術嘗試展」, 台北,台灣


CHRONOLOGY | YANG Yu-Yu

「國際現代美術博覽會」,香港,中國

「Ar t-Units 巡回展」,東京、名古屋,日本 1987

「第三屆奄治石鄉雕塑國際會展」,日本

「中國古代音樂文物雕塑大展」,台北國家音樂廳,台北,

「亞洲國際雕塑展」,福山美術館,日本

台灣 設計台北國家音樂廳「中國古代音樂文物雕塑大展」,台

1995

「第四屆國際現代美術展 (NICAF)」,橫濱,日本

設計第一屆聯合文學小說新人獎「喜悅與期盼」獎座,台

獲頒為英國皇家雕刻協會第一位國際會員,英國

北,台灣 1988

於台灣省立美術館館刊發表〈立足傳統,邁向未來〉,台灣

1989

設計「國家品質獎」獎章,台北,台灣

獲聘為國家文化藝術基金會董事,台北,台灣 「呦呦.楊英風.豐實的’95 個展」,新光三越百貨,台 北,台灣

《小鳳翔》獲台北市立美術館典藏,台北,台灣 1990

為亞洲奧運創作《鳳凌霄漢》,北京,中國

1996

風.景觀雕塑個展」,倫敦,英國

生運動的精神象徵,台北,台灣

為國立交通大學建校一百週年紀念規劃設計大型景觀雕塑

國生態美學的未來性〉,北京,中國

「緣慧潤生」,新竹,台灣 1997

「楊英風’92 個展」,新光三越百貨,台北,台灣 成立楊英風美術館,台北,台灣

「楊英風大乘景觀雕塑展」,雕刻之森美術館,箱根,日本 「台灣四大師聯展」,精藝軒畫廊,溫哥華,加拿大

「楊英風’91 個展」,新加坡國家博物院畫廊,新加坡

10 月 21 日逝世於新竹,享壽 72 歲

獲得第二屆世界和平文化藝術大獎,台灣 1992

應英國皇家雕塑協會邀請,於查爾西港舉行「呦呦.楊英

受全國學生聯盟委託製作「野百合花」大型雕塑,作為學 於北京大學舉辦的「中國東方文化國際研討會」發表〈中 1991

於柏克萊大學美術館舉行個展,加州,美國 於雕塑大地美術館舉行個展,紐澤西,美國

北,台灣

2014

「抽象.符碼.東方情-臺灣現代藝術巨匠大展」,尊彩 藝術中心,台北,台灣

「亞洲藝術博覽會」,香港,中國 1993

「楊英風一甲子工作記錄展」,台灣省立美術館(今國立 台灣美術館),台中,台灣 「楊英風’93 個展」,新光三越百貨,台北,台灣 「第二屆國際現代美術展 (NICAF)」,橫濱,日本 「巴黎國際現代藝術展 (FIAC)」,巴黎,法國 獲頒國家行政院文化獎章,台灣 成立楊英風藝術教育基金會,台北,台灣

1994

創作國際上首件鈦合金藝術作品「玄通太虛」,台北,台灣 「楊英風’94 個展」,第特利畫廊,紐約,美國 「楊英風’94 個展」,光華藝廊,香港,中國 「第三屆國際現代美術展 (NICAF)」,橫濱,日本 「國際現代美術博覽會」,邁阿密、紐約,美國 資料來源:楊英風藝術教育基金會

69


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

YANG Yu-Yu 1926-1997

Photography /

1943

Born in Yilan, Taiwan

KAO Yuan

Entered the Department of Architecture at Tokyo Academy of Arts,

“Changes Preemployed in Silence”, National Modern Fine Ar ts

Tokyo, Japan 1946

Museum, Rome, Italy

Entered the Department of Fine Arts at Fu Jen Catholic University,

1966

Gold medal for oil painting and silver medal for sculpture , Italy

Taipei, Taiwan

1967

Advisor at the Hualien Marble Factory, created “Taroko Landscape

1947

Art teacher at Lan-Yang Girls’ Senior High School, Yilan, Taiwan

1948

Entered the Department of Fine Arts at Taiwan Provincial College of

Series”, Hualien, Taiwan 1968

Invited to be the representative of the R.O.C. in the International

Education (now National Taiwan Normal University), Taipei, Taiwan

Plastic Arts Association, Paris, France

1951

Art editor of “Harvest Magazine”, Taipei, Taiwan

Invited as a member of the Architectural Art Industry Association,

1953

“The 7th Taiwan Provincial Fine Arts Exhibition”, Taipei, Taiwan

Tokyo, Japan

1956

“São Paolo Biennial”, São Paolo, Brazil

1957

“Stone Sculpture Series Exhibition”, Paul Gallery, Tokyo, Japan

“Esteemed Dignity” collected by the National Museum of Taiwan

1969

Completed the landscape at Hualien Airport, Hualien, Taiwan

History, Taipei, Taiwan

1970

Designed the landscape for Beirut’s park, Beirut, Lebanon

Ar t education committee member of the Ministry of Education, a

1971

The Second Modern International Sculpture Museum, Hakone

promoter commissioner in the National Museum of History, the artwork 1958

Open-Air Museum, Hakone, Japan

examiner of International Museum of Arts of Brazil, Taiwan, Brazil

1976

Drafted the park landscape project, Saudi Arabia

Associate Professor at National Taiwan University of Arts, Professor

1977

Dean of the Institute of Creative and Applied Arts of Dharma Realm

at Ar t Institute of Chinese Culture University, Commercial Ar ts

Buddhist University, California, USA

Department of Ming Chuan Institute (now Ming Chuan University),

Held a preliminary meeting of the Laser Promotion Association to

Tamkang College of Ar ts and Science (now Tamkang University), Taipei, Taiwan 1959

introduce laser art and technology to Taiwanese people, Taipei, Taiwan 1978

Convened the first preparatory meeting on Chinese Modern Ar t

Laser Ar t Association, and was invited to be the member of the

Center foundation, Taipei, Taiwan 1960

Together with Chen Chi-Lu and Mao Kao-Wen founded the R.O.C. Nippon Laser Association, Taipei, Taiwan

“The 1st International Youth Art Exhibition”, Paris, France

1979

Founded the Da-Han Laser and Technology Research Institute, Taipei, Taiwan

“Yang Yu-Yu Sculpture and Print Exhibition”, National Museum of

1980

Member of the standing committee in the R.O.C . Space Ar t

History, Taipei, Taiwan

Association, Taipei, Taiwan

Completed the landscape design for the Sun Moon Lake Teachers’ Hostel.

“From Landscape Sculpture to Laser Landscape”, Hua Ming Gallery,

The design included landscape sculpture “The Sun”, “The Moon”, “The Sun

Taipei, Taiwan

and The Moon” and the pond “Fountain of the Phoenixes”, Nantou, Taiwan

“The 4th International Society for Laser Surger y Conference

Silver medal of Hong Kong International Painting Salon, Hong Kong, China

Exhibition”, Japan

Par ticipated in the annual exhibition organized by the National

The 1st R.O.C. Architectural Golden Vessel Award for the landscape

Gallery, National Museum of History, Taipei, Taiwan

design project of the Taipei National Building, Taiwan

1963

Designed the trophy for the Golden Horse Award, Taipei, Taiwan

Laser landscape artwork “Spring Has Arrived” collected by Yan Jia-

1964

“Contemporar y Chinese Ar t Exhibition”, Modern Ar t Museum,

Gan, Taipei, Taiwan

Rome, Italy

Designed the landscape for the Historical Relics Park at Anping Fort,

“Adoration” collected by Pope Paul VI, Vatican

Tainan, Taiwan

1961

1962

70


CHRONOLOGY | YANG Yu-Yu

1981 1982

1984 1985

“The 1st R.O.C International Laser Landscape Sculpture Exhibition”,

“Yang Yu-Yu 1993 Solo Exhibition”, Shin Kong Mitsukoshi

Taipei, Taiwan

Department Store, Taipei, Taiwan

The ar ticle “Architecture and Landscape” was published in Credit

“The 2nd Nippon International Contemporary Art Fair (NICAF)”,

Reference of Taiwan’s Architecture, Taiwan

Yokohama, Japan

The article “The Orientation for Chinese Sculpture“ was published

“International Contemporary Art Fair (FIAC)”, Paris, France

in Taiwan Handcrafts, Taiwan

The National Culture Grand Prize from Executive Yuan, Taiwan

The article “Wisdom, Laser, Craft” was published in Taiwan Handcraft

Created his first titanium alloy sculpture “Union with the Universe”,

Industry, Taiwan

Taipei, Taiwan

The speeches “To Predict Ar t Future from the Development of District Character” and “The Differences Between Eastern and

1986

Founded the Yuyu Yang Art Education Foundation, Taipei, Taiwan 1994

“Yang Yu-Yu 1994 Solo Exhibition”, Guanghua Gallery, Hong Kong, China

The thesis “Art, Life and Education” was published in Thesis Collection

“The 3rd Nippon International Contemporary Ar t Fair (NICAF)”,

of the National Taiwan Normal University Alumni, Taiwan

Yokohama, Japan

“Contemporary Chinese Sculpture Exhibition”, Exchange Square,

“International Contemporary Art Fair”, Miami, New York, USA

Hong Kong, China

“International Contemporary Art Fair”, Hong Kong, China

“Yang Yu-Yu Laser Landscape Sculpture Exhibition”, Hong Kong Arts

“The Third International Stone Sculptures Exhibition”, Japan

Center, sponsored by Hanart Gallery, Hong Kong, China “Experimental Contemporar y Ar t Exhibition”, National Palace

1987

1988

1990

“Asia International Sculptures Exhibition”, Fukuyama Museum of Art, Japan 1995

“Yang Yu-Yu Solo Exhibition”, Grounds for Sculpture Museum, New

Touring Exhibition “Art-Units”, Tokyo, Nagoya, Japan

Jersey, USA

“A Sculpture Series of Ancient Musical Artifacts”, National Concert

“The 4th Nippon International Contemporary Ar t Fair (NICAF)”,

Hall at the Chiang Kai-Shek Memorial Hall, Taipei, Taiwan

Yokohama, Japan

Completed the landscape sculpture “Ancient Musical Heritage”, National

Awarded as the first international committee member of the Royal

Concert Hall at the Chiang Kai-Shek Memorial Hall, Taipei, Taiwan

Society of British Sculptors, England

Designed the trophy “Joy and Expectation” for The 1st UNITAS

Director of the National Culture and Arts Foundation, Taipei, Taiwan

Freshman Award in the category of novels, Taipei, Taiwan

“Yang Yu-Yu Landscape Sculpture Exhibition”, Shin Kong Mitsukoshi

The ar ticle “Towards the Future While Based on Tradition“ was

Department Store, Taipei, Taiwan 1996

“Yang Yu-Yu Landscape Sculpture Exhibition”, Royal Society of British

Designed the trophy “National Quality Award”, Taipei, Taiwan

Sculptors, London, England

“Young Phoenix” collected by the Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

Completed the landscape sculpture "Grace Bestowed on Human

Completed the stainless steel landscape sculpture “Phoenix Scales

Beings" for National Chiao Tung University as a gift for its centennial

the Heavens” for the Beijing Asian Games, Beijing, China Completed the sculpture “Lily”, which became a spiritual symbol of

anniversary, Hsinchu, Taiwan 1997

“Landscape Sculpture of Yuyu Yang”, Hakone Open-Air Museum,

the student movement, Taipei, Taiwan

Hakone, Japan

Gave the speech “The Future of Ecological Ar t in China” at the

“Four Masters from Taiwan”, Art Beatus Gallery, Vancouver, Canada

Chinese and Oriental Culture International Symposium in Beijing University, Beijing, China 1991

“Yang Yu-Yu Solo Exhibition”, UC Berkeley Museum of Art, California, USA

Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

published in Taiwan Provincial Fine Arts Museum Magazine, Taiwan 1989

“Yang Yu-Yu 1994 Solo Exhibition”, New York, USA

Western Sculpture Concepts” were published, Taiwan

“Yang Yu-Yu 1991 Solo Exhibition”, Singapore National Museum

Passed away on October 21st, Hsinchu, Taiwan 2014

“Abstract / Symbol / Oriental – Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern Art", Liang Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

Gallery, Singapore R.O.C's Literature and Arts Society, World Peace Prize for Culture and Arts, Taiwan 1992

“Yang Yu-Yu 1992 Solo Exhibition”, Shin Kong Mitsukoshi Department Store, Taipei, Taiwan Founded the Yuyu Yang Museum, Taipei, Taiwan “Art Asia Hong Kong”, Hong Kong, China

1993

“Yang Yu-Yu 60 Years of Ar t Retrospective Exhibition”, Taiwan Provincial Fine Arts Museum (now Taiwan Museum of Art), Taichung, Taiwan Source of data: Yuyu Yang Art Education Foundation

71


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

深耕東方美學的台灣現代景觀藝術先鋒 楊英風 文

廖新田

楊英風 (1926-1997),台灣戰後重要藝術家,創作形式多元多 樣,以雕塑見長,涵蓋公共藝術、浮雕、版畫、繪畫、插畫、 設計等等,藝術論述上亦有其見地與主張,在質與量上堪稱台 灣藝術史中之佼佼者。

楊英風出生於宜蘭,青少年時期隨父母在北京就讀日本學校, 1944 年留學東京美術學校建築科,受業於雕塑名家朝倉文夫及 建築大師吉田五十八。回台後師從於郭柏川,1946 年又就讀於 北京輔仁大學教育學院美術系,隔年回到台灣成家,並在蘭陽 女中任教,後又到台北擔任台大植物系繪圖員。1948 年考入國 立師範大學藝術系,師事張大千、溥心畬等藝術名師。因經濟 壓力,楊英風並未完成師大學業,1951 年擔任《豐年》雜誌美 術編輯長達 11 年,期間記錄眾多台灣民間與鄉土生活,因此 在視覺表現上能傳神地掌握台灣文化的面貌。曾獲得第十五屆 台灣美術展覽會台陽獎 (1952 年 )、第十六屆台陽美術展覽會 台陽獎 (1953 年 ) 以及台灣全省美術展覽會主席獎 (1954 年 ), 1970 年大阪萬國博覽會中國館《鳳凰來儀》最為人們所津津樂 道,也是他最重要的代表作之一。1958 至 1961 年,楊英風應 聘國立藝專,並歷任文化大學藝術學院、銘傳學院商業美術科、 淡江文理學院等。楊英風研習藝事不輟,1965 年更赴義大利國 立羅馬藝術學院雕塑系就讀,隔年又進入義大利國立造幣雕刻 專校,當年並獲得義大利第一屆藝術及文化奧林匹克大會油畫 金章獎及雕塑銀章獎,以及第四屆全國十大傑出青年金手獎。 楊氏之藝術成就亦深獲國際肯定,1959 年參加第一屆「法國巴 72


ESSAY | YANG Yu-Yu: Taiwanese Modern Landscape Pioneer Rooted in Oriental Aesthetics

黎國際青年藝展」,1962 年榮獲香港國際藝術沙龍展銀章獎, 1965 年受邀為英國皇家雕塑家協會首位國際會員,並於美國加 州柏克萊大學美術館舉行個展,1966 年及 1967 年分別於英國 倫敦與日本箱根舉行景觀雕塑展。世界各地與台灣各處均有他 的藝術痕跡。

楊英風不但深根於傳統中華文化,亦勇於創新不輟,1978 年發 起成立中華民國雷射科藝推廣協會,將雷射藝術及科技引進台 灣;隔年,成立大漢雷射科藝研究所,舉辦兩場「雷射景觀展」 與「雷射雕塑作品展」;1981 年於台北圓山飯店及天文台舉行 「第一屆中華民國國際雷射景觀雕塑大展」。延續於此,1986 年於香港舉行「楊英風雷射景觀雕塑」,他以光藝術作品參加 1988 年台灣省立美術館所舉辦的「尖瑞科技藝術展」。

楊英風相信藝術環境是分工與團隊合作下的結果,沒有一種藝 術專長可獨立完成,這和西方個人主義式的藝術創作不同。他 為現代都市建築與建築師設想了兩種專業來彌補其不足:造型 雕塑師 與環境造型家,分別由學院中的雕塑藝術學系和景觀藝 術學系來培養專才。細看他的專業培育課程規劃〈輔仁大學呦 呦藝工學院構想草案〉(1972 年 ),其中字字珠璣,含義深刻, 相當真切地反映他如下的美學主張:

YANG Yu-Yu

Tower of Dreams

楊英風 夢之塔

1972

Bronze

182×25×47cm

一、探究中華立體美學的精奧,發掘人與自然和諧之相生相 成途徑。 二、謀求東方精神史觀與現代西方科技的物理性史觀的調和。 三、推展立體藝術教育,推向未來的生活空間有意義的創造。 四、糾正、彌補工業化、商業化的現象,化解冰冷、調理零 亂,滋育社會的生機。

楊英風不但是一位開創與革新的創作者,更是一位生活美學推 動者與藝術教育家。除了眾所周知的朱銘是他的學生外,作育 許多英才。他強調中國元素的現代化與東方生活美學,認為藝 術要融入於生活,成為陶冶身心的主要媒介或寄託。他反覆圍 繞著一些關鍵觀念,並有系統地建築他的美學理想:都市景觀、 73


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

立體造型、現代中國文化與生態美學。這些觀念容或在不同的時間點 出現,但如果把這些關鍵詞邏輯地連貫起來,大致是:「現代都市景 觀大都缺乏藝術性的考量,因此開創以中國傳統文化為基礎的現代立 體造型,彌補、改善以科學為主導的西方思維,就能為本土發展出與 自然共生的諧和環境,此即為生態美學,或謂中國生態美學,或宏觀 美學。」在這個陳述裡有觀察、有批評、有做法、有步驟、有層次, 並且具體而微地鋪陳,形上與形下互通,更有革新之理念為後頓,整 體看來是頗為完整的。檢視上述的命題,「楊氏美學」風格是相當鮮 明的:他定義景觀的形上 / 內在的功能,以區別於西方風景的形下表 象指涉,並強調景觀的文化與精神層面;藝術在此意義下應該是應用 的藝術、對社群有正面教育與涵化作用的藝術;他認為藝術為人生服 務,是整體的功能,和西方的獨善其身 ( 或謂個人主義 ) 不同;他認 為現代都市在科學獨霸的態勢下,生活環境之景觀變得冰冷可憎、乏 善可陳;他更認為藝術家可投入這個拯救的工程,以重拾中國文化精 髓作為匡弊的良方。因此,各式的藝術工作者負有「成教化,助人倫」 的使命。好的立體造型,在公共空間裡呈現,可促成和諧的社會、轉 化固有的優良文化形式並與自然和諧共生,這就是中國文化的生態美 學,對應了中國文化的生活美學態度與哲學態度。最後,中國生態美 學朝向自然、樸實、圓融、健康的終極目標。

楊英風天人合一的宇宙觀與自然觀呼應其創作美學與實踐,並融入於 台灣的公共空間之中,實現其潛移默化的人文理想。1993 年獲頒行政 院文化獎章,肯定其文化成就與對台灣社會的美學貢獻。為推廣與實 踐其藝術理念,1994 年成立楊英風藝術教育基金會,其關懷社會的熱 誠是沒有間斷的。宜蘭開拓兩百週年紀念之「協力擎天」規劃、日本 箱根雕刻之森美術館「大乘景觀雕塑個展」為 1997 年辭世前最後的 兩項力作。總之,他以豐富而鮮明的風格展現其一生藝事,以精彩深 刻尚不足以形容其廣度與深度。 74


ESSAY | YANG Yu-Yu: Taiwanese Modern Landscape Pioneer Rooted in Oriental Aesthetics

YANG Yu-Yu: Taiwanese Modern Landscape Pioneer Rooted in Oriental Aesthetics Written by

LIAO Hsin-Tien

Yang Yu-Yu (1926-1997) was an impor tant post-war Taiwanese ar tist. Though his works take diverse and multiple forms, including public ar t, relief, engraving, drawing, illustration, and design, Yang is par ticularly renowned as a sculptor. Yang also had unique insights and perspectives in ar tistic discourse. Yang could be considered a leading figure in Taiwanese ar t both in terms of the volume or character of his works.

Born in Yilan County, Yang lived with his parents in Beijing during his teens, and was educated at Japanese school. In 1944, Yang studied architecture at the Tokyo University of the Ar ts, where he came under the tutelage of renowned sculptor Fumio Asakura and master architect Isoya Yoshida. On returning to Taiwan, he was instructed by Kuo Po-Chuan. In 1946, Yang Source of Life

1972

Bronze

65×97×50cm

楊英風 YANG Yu-Yu 太極 二 ( )

enrolled in the ar t depar tment within the College of Education at Fu Jen Catholic University (then situated in Beijing). Returning to Taiwan the year after, Yang married, began teaching at Lan-Yang Girls’ Senior High School, and later worked as an illustrator for the Botany Depar tment at National Taiwan University. In 1948, Yang was accepted to the National Taiwan Normal University’s Depar tment of Ar t, where he received instruction from renowned ar tists including Chang Dai-Chien and Pur u. Due to economic pressure, Yang was unable to complete his education at National Taiwan Normal University. In 1951, Yang began his 11-year sojourn as ar t editor for Harvest magazine. During that time, he documented innumerable details of Taiwanese folk and rural life. This familiarity contributed to Yang’s vivid knowledge of Taiwan’s cultural landscape. Yang was awarded the 15th Tai Yang Award at the Taiwan Fine Ar ts Exhibition (1952), the 16th Tai Yang 75


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

Award at the Tai Yang Ar ts Exhibition (1953), and the Chairman’s Award at the Taiwan Provincial Fine Ar ts Exhibition (1954). His sculpture, Advent of the Phoenix, which exhibited in the China Pavilion at the 1970 Osaka World Expo, was his most well-known and representative work. From 1958-1961, Yang taught at the National Taiwan University of Ar ts, the College of Ar ts at Chinese Culture University, the Commercial Ar ts Depar tment at Ming Chuan University, and Tamkang College of Ar ts and Sciences. Yang continued to study ar t, and enrolled in sculpture at the Accademia di Belle Ar ti di Roma in 1965, and then to the National Copper Coin Sculpture Academy in the year after. That year, Yang was awarded the gold medal for oil painting and silver for sculpture at the first Italian Olimpiade d' Ar te Cultura, as well as the 4th Golden Hand Award from the National Ten Outstanding Young Person’s Foundation. The international community has also recognized Yang’s achievements. In 1959, he exhibited at the 1st International Youth Ar ts Exhibition in Paris, France. In 1962, Yang was awarded the Hong Kong International Ar ts Salon silver award. In 1965, Yang was invited to become the first international member of the Royal British Society of Sculptors, and held a solo exhibition at UC Berkeley’s Ar t Museum in California. In 1966 and 1967, Yang held landscape sculpture exhibitions in London and Hakone. Traces of Yang’s ar tistry can be found in Taiwan and the world over.

In addition to being deeply rooted in traditional Chinese culture, Yang was also undaunted by continual innovations. In 1978, he founded the R.O.C. Laser Ar t Association. The year after, Yang founded the Da-Han Laser Technology and Research Institute, and held two laser landscape and laser sculpture exhibitions. In 1981, Yang organized the 1st R.O.C. International Laser Landscape Sculpture Exhibition at the Grand Palace Hotel and at the Taipei Astronomical Museum. Following this event, Yang exhibited his laser landscape sculptures in Hong Kong in 1986. His light-based creations also appeared at the High-tech Ar t Exhibition, held in 1988 at the Taiwan Provincial Museum of Fine Ar ts.

Yang believed that the ar tistic environment is a product of the division of labor and team-cooperation, and that no ar tistr y can be completely independent. This is different from western notions of individualist ar tistic creation. He envisioned two professions to compensate for the insufficiencies of contemporar y urban 76


ESSAY | YANG Yu-Yu: Taiwanese Modern Landscape Pioneer Rooted in Oriental Aesthetics

architecture and architects: modeling sculptor and environmental modeler. The sculpture and landscape ar ts depar tment would foster these two professions. A detailed examination of the professional training curriculum from the Draft for the Fu Jen Catholic University Yuyu Arts Institute reveals deep significance and wisdom, which vividly reflect his aesthetics:

1. Explore the essence of three-dimensional Chinese aesthetics and discover the mutually complementary path between humankind and natural harmony. 2. Seek for the harmony of oriental and western techno-physical historical perspectives. 3. Promote the education of three-dimensional ar ts toward the creation of meaningful future living spaces. 4. Cor rect and compensate for the effects of industr ialization and commercialization; resolve frigidity and chaos to foster society’s life force.

Phoenix Rising

楊英風 YANG Yu-Yu 神采飛揚

1981

Bronze

74×87.5×27.5cm

As well as an innovator and pioneer, Yang was also an educator and a promoter of life aesthetics. In addition to the renowned ar tist Ju Ming, Yang fostered many other talented individuals. He emphasized the modernization of Chinese elements and oriental life aesthetics. Yang believed that ar t should be integrated into life as a source or medium of bodily and mental sustenance. He revisited several key concepts and systematically constructed his ideal aesthetics. Key concepts include: urban landscape, three-dimensional modeling, contemporary Chinese culture, and environmental aesthetics. Though these concepts appeared at different points in time, connecting the concepts together leads along the lines of: “contemporar y urban landscape largely lack ar tistic considerations. Therefore, using Chinese traditional culture as a basis, current three-dimensional modeling could be established as a means of compensating for and improving scientifically oriented western discourse. This could natively produce a harmonious environment in coexistence with nature – which can also be termed environmental aesthetics, or Chinese environmental aesthetics, or macro-aesthetics.” In this narrative there are obser vations, criticism, methodology, procedures, and layers. A scheme interoperable in form and concept is laid out in detail, followed by innovative ideas in its conclusion. On the whole, it is fairly complete. An examination of the above indicates that Yang’s aesthetics is distinct in character. He defined the intrinsic 77


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

individualism, which considers benefit to individuals. He fur ther believed that ar tists could devote themselves to this redemptive project, which seeks to reclaim the essence of Chinese culture as a corrective antidote. Therefore, ar tists bear the burden of enlightenment and moralization. Good three-dimensional models, displayed in public, can contribute to a harmonious society, transform existing cultural excellence, and coexist peacefully with nature. This is the environmental aesthetics of Chinese culture, which reflects the philosophy and aesthetics of life of Chinese culture. Finally, the ultimate goal of Chinese environmental aesthetics is natural, simple, harmonious, and robust.

Yang’s unified cosmic perspective and his natural perspective were reflected and realized in his creative aesthetics, as well as integrated into Taiwan’s public spaces as implementations of his subtle cultural ideals. In 1993, he was awarded the Executive Yuan’s National Cultural Award, affirming his cultural achievements and contributions to aesthetics in Taiwanese society. To promote and implement his ar tistic ideals, the Yuyu Yang Ar ts Education Foundation was established in 1994 to continue to give back to society. The “Wonders of Solidarity” in celebration of Yilan’s 200th centennial and a series of “Lifescape Sculptures” at the Hakone Open-Air Museum, Japan, were Yang’s works. Yang’s rich and distinct style was present through his life’s ar tistic creations, and words are inadequate to express the brilliance of his scope and depth. 78

Cosmic Encounter

that ar t should serve life as an integrated function, which is distinct from western

楊英風 YANG Yu-Yu 天地星緣

application, which positively acculturates and educates social groups. Yang believed

1987

77×120×72cm

scenery, and emphasized its cultural and spiritual layers. Under this definition, ar t is

Stainless steel

functions of landscape, differentiated it from the representative referents of western


About the Critic | LIAO Hsin-Tien

藝評 簡介

廖新田 LIAO Hsin-Tien 廖新田,中英格蘭大學藝術博士、台灣大學社會學博士,現任 台灣藝術大學藝術與文化政策管理研究所教授兼人文學院院 長,曾任澳洲國家大學台灣研究資深講師、歷史博物館。專長 為台灣美術與文化、後殖民視覺文化論述、文化與藝術社會學、 藝術批評研究。著有論文集《台灣美術四論:蠻荒 / 文明,自 然 / 文化,認同 / 差異,純粹 / 混雜》(2008 年)、《傅狷夫 行草字編》(2009 年),《藝術的張力:台灣美術與文化政治 學》(2010 年)、《格藝致知》(2013 年)、《風景入藝》(翻 譯 2013 年)。

Liao Hsin-Tien obtained his PhDs in ar t history from the University of Central England in Birmingham, and sociology from National Taiwan University. He is the Dean of the College of Humanities of the National Taiwan University of Ar ts (NTUA) and is also the professor at the Graduate School of Ar t Management and Culture Policy of NTUA. He is the academician of Taiwanese Ar t Academician. From July 2010 to June 2013, he was a senior lecturer of Taiwan Studies at School of Culture, Histor y and Language. He previously worked at the National Museum of Histor y in Taiwan, Taipei National University of the Ar ts and Tainan National University of the Ar ts. He specializes in Taiwanese ar t history, sociology of visual ar t, and ar t criticism and calligraphy. He has published his studies: Research on the Study of Engraving Calligraphy of Ching Dynasty (1992), Four Essays on Taiwanese Fine Art (2008), The Tension of Art (2010) and Extending Knowledge Through Investigating Art (2013), and translation book Landscape Into Art by Kenneth Clark. 79


楊英風 YANG Yu-Yu

夢之塔 Tower of Dreams 1972 Bronze 182×25×47cm

80


楊英風 YANG Yu-Yu

山水 Scenery 1969 Bronze 25.5×96×22cm

81


楊英風 YANG Yu-Yu

太極 ( 二 ) Source of Life 1972 Bronze 65×97×50cm

82


楊英風 YANG Yu-Yu

神采飛揚 Phoenix Rising 1981 Bronze 74×87.5×27.5cm

83


楊英風 YANG Yu-Yu

天地星緣 Cosmic Encounter 1987 Stainless Steel 77×120×72cm

84


朱為白 CHU Wei-Bor


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

朱為白 1929 年出生於中國南京

1944

就讀於重輝商專,南京,中國

1947

就讀於陸軍通訊兵學校,南京,中國

1952

於廖繼春「雲和畫室」學習基礎素描、水彩、油畫,台北,

1980

於多明尼克畫廊舉行個展,馬尼拉,菲律賓 「國際版畫交流展」,首爾,韓國

1981

台灣

「東方.五月二十五週年聯展」,台灣省立美術館(今國立 台灣美術館),台中,台灣

1983

「第一屆中國國際版畫展」,台北,台灣

1958-71 參加「第二屆至第十五屆東方畫展」,台北,台灣

1985

「環亞現代化中非聯展」,台北,台灣

1960

「第一屆國際沙龍展」,香港,中國

1986

「台北現代畫 1986 香港大展」,香港、台北

1965

「現代版畫會」,台北,台灣

「中國現代繪畫回顧展」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣

「中國當代繪畫展」,羅馬,義大利

「中國當代繪畫展」,國立歷史博物館,台北,台灣

1958

成為「東方畫會」會員,台北,台灣

1965-85 擔任華興育幼院教職,台北,台灣

1987

1967

1987-91 與李錫奇、徐術修合辦「三原色藝術中心」,台北,台灣

「中國當代藝術展」,美國

1969-70 參加「第十一屆及第十二屆現代版畫展」,台北,台灣

1988

1969-85 加入藝術家畫廊,台北,台灣 1970

中心),高雄,台灣

1970-85 於藝術家畫廊舉行個展,台北,台灣 於史丹佛大學舉行個展,加州,美國

1972

於特瑞斯畫廊舉行個展,紐約,美國

1973

「香港中國版畫家展」,香港,中國

1974

「第四屆英國版畫雙年展」,英國

1975

「台灣當代藝術展」,德國

「中華民國美術發展聯展」,台灣省立美術館(今國立台 灣美術館),台中,台灣 1993 1994

於李元佳畫廊舉行個展,英國

「台北-新疆版畫大展」,烏魯木齊,中國 於金山成立工作室,台北,台灣 「台北現代藝術交流展」,泰國美術館,泰國

1996

1975-76 於聚寶盆畫廊舉行個展,台北,台灣 1976

於三原色藝術中心舉行個展,台北,台灣 「現代繪畫展」,高雄市立中正文化中心(今高雄市文化

「第一屆國際版畫展」,利馬,秘魯

1971

「中國當代繪畫新貌展」,國立歷史博物館,台北,台灣

於龍門畫廊舉行個展,台北,台灣 「台北現代藝術交流展」,上海美術館,上海,中國

1996-97 「五月、東方四十週年紀念聯展」,高雄,台灣

1977

「中韓現代版畫交流展」,台北,台灣

1997

「台北現代畫展」,孫逸仙畫廊,台北,台灣

1978

「國際版畫交流展」,首爾,韓國

1998

「台灣現代版畫 40 回顧展」,帝門藝術中心,台北、台中,

1978-82 與李錫奇一同成立「版畫家畫廊」,台北,台灣 1979

台灣

於版畫家畫廊舉行個展,台北,台灣

「世紀末台灣當代藝術大飆展」,台中,台灣

「第六屆英國國際版畫雙年展」,英國 獲中國畫協頒發「金爵獎」,台灣

88

「台北現代畫展」,世宗會館,首爾,韓國 1999

「99’首爾亞細亞美術展」,首爾,韓國


CHRONOLOGY | CHU Wei-Bor

「台灣檔案展」,薩拉戈薩,西班牙 2000

「國際版畫邀請展」,國立台灣藝術館,台中,台灣 「2000 首爾亞細亞美術展」,首爾,韓國 「韓、台美術交流展」,首爾、台北,韓國、台灣 「台北現代畫展」,花蓮,台灣 「第十五屆亞洲國際美展」,台南,台灣

2001

於世宗文化會館舉行個展,首爾,韓國 「2000 亞洲藝術交流展」,香港,中國 「台北當代藝術交流展」,上海,中國 「國際華人抽象畫展」,香港、廣州、深圳,中國

2003

「長流- 50 年代台灣美術發展」,台北市立美術館,台北, 台灣

2004

「前衛- 60 年代台灣美術發展」,台北市立美術館,台北, 台灣

2005

「朱為白八十創作展」,月臨畫廊,台中,台灣

2006

「淨化.超越」,天使美術館,台北,台灣

2008

「問雲思空」,天使美術館,台北,台灣

2010

「禪境空間」,學學文創,台北,台灣 「福言禪境」,月臨畫廊,台中,台灣

2012

「黑與白」,月臨畫廊,台中,台灣 「造空者」,關渡美術館,台北,台灣

2014

「抽象.符碼.東方情-臺灣現代藝術巨匠大展」,尊彩 藝術中心,台北,台灣

89


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

CHU Wei-Bor 1929

Born in Nanjing, China

1944

Studied at the College of Business, Nanjing, China

1947

Studied at the Army’s Signal Corps School, Nanjing, China

1952

Entered Liao Chi-Chun’s studio to learn drawing, watercolor and

“International Exchange Exhibition of Prints”, Seoul, Korea 1981

The Fifth Moon Group”, Taiwan Provincial Museum of Fine Ar ts

oil painting, Taipei, Taiwan 1958

Became one of the first members of the Ton Fan Group, Taipei, Taiwan

“Group Exhibition of the 25th Anniversary of Ton Fan Group and

(now National Taiwan Museum of Fine Ar ts), Taichung, Taiwan 1983

“The 1st International Exhibition of Chinese Prints”, Taipei, Taiwan

1958-71 “The 2nd-15th Ton Fan Group Exhibition”, Taipei, Taiwan

1985

“China-Philippines Modern Painting Exhibition”, Taipei, Taiwan

1960

“The 1st International Salon”, Hong Kong, China

1986

“Taipei Modern Painting 1986 Hong Kong Exhibition”, Hong Kong

1965

“Modern Graphic Ar t Association”, Taipei, Taiwan

“Retrospective Exhibition of Modern Chinese Painting”, Taipei Fine

“Contemporary Chinese Painting Exhibition”, Rome, Italy

Ar ts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

1965-85 Obtained a teaching post at the Hua Hsing Orphanage, Taipei, Taiwan

“Contemporary Chinese Painting Exhibition”, National Museum of

1967

History, Taipei, Taiwan

“Contemporary Chinese Ar t Exhibition”, USA

1969-70 “The 11th and 12th Modern Graphics Exhibition”, Taipei, Taiwan

1987

1969-85 Joined the Ar tists’ Gallery as a basic member, Taipei, Taiwan 1970

“The 1st International Graphics Exhibition”, Lima, Peru

Taipei, Taiwan 1987-91 Jointly ran the Gallery Triform with Lee Shi-Chi and Hsu Shu-Hsiu,

1970-85 Solo exhibition, Ar tists’ Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan 1971

Solo exhibition, Bechtel International Center Leland Stanford

“New Modern Chinese Painting”, National Museum of Histor y,

Taipei, Taiwan 1988

Solo exhibition, Gallery Triform, Taipei, Taiwan

University, California, USA

“Modern Painting Exhibition”, Kaohsiung Chiang Kai-Shek Cultural

1972

Solo exhibition, Tirisfal Gallery, New York, USA

Center (now Kaohsiung Cultural Center), Kaohsiung, Taiwan

1973

“Hong Kong Chinese Printmakers Grand Exhibition”, Hong Kong, China

“The Development of Chinese Art”, Taiwan Provincial Museum of Fine

1974

“The 4th British International Print Biennial”, UK

1975

“Exhibition of the Contemporary Ar t of Taiwan”, Germany

1975-76 Solo exhibition, Cornucopia Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan 1976

Solo exhibition, LYC Ar t Gallery, UK

1977

“China-Korea Modern Prints Exhibition”, Taipei, Taiwan

1978

“International Exchange Exhibition of Prints”, Seoul, Korea

Arts (now National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts), Taichung, Taiwan 1993

“Taipei – Xinjiang Graphics Exhibition”, Urumqi, China

1994

Set up a studio in Jinsan, Taipei, Taiwan “Taipei Modern Ar t Exchange Exhibition”, Thailand

1996

“Taipei Modern Ar t Exchange Exhibition”, Shanghai Ar t Museum,

1978-82 Together with Lee Shi-Chi founded the Graphic Artist Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan 1979

1980

90

Solo exhibition, Lung Men Ar t Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

Shanghai, China

Solo exhibition, Printmakers’ Ar t Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

1996-97 “The Fifth Moon – Ton Fan Modern Spirit”, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

“The 6th British International Print Biennial”, UK

1997

“Taipei Modern Art Exhibition”, Sun Yat-Sen Art Gallery,Taipei, Taiwan

Chinese Painting Association, Golden Cup Award, Taiwan

1998

“A Retrospective of the Moder n Block Pr ints in Taiwan”,

Solo exhibition, Gallerie Dominique, Manila, Philippines

Dimension Ar t Center, Taipei, Taichung, Taiwan


CHRONOLOGY | CHU Wei-Bor

“Taiwan Contemporary Art Exhibition End of 1998”, Taichung, Taiwan “Taipei Modern Ar t Exchange Exhibition”, Seoul, Korea 1999

“99’ Seoul ASIA Invitation Ar t Exhibition”, Seoul, Korea “Taiwan’s File”, Zaragoza, Spain

2000

“International Exhibition of Prints”, National Taiwan Museum of Fine Ar ts, Taichung, Taiwan “2000 Seoul ASIA Invitation Ar t Exhibition”, Seoul, Korea “Korea-Taiwan Ar t Exhibition”, Seoul, Taipei, Korea, Taiwan “Taipei Modern Art Exhibition”, Hualien Cultural Center, Hualien, Taiwan “The 15th Asian International Ar t Exhibition”, Tainan, Taiwan

2001

Solo exhibition, Sejong Cultural Center, Seoul, Korea “Asian Ar t 2000 – A Vision of Change”, Hong Kong, China “Taipei Contemporary Ar t Exhibition”, Shanghai, China “Exhibition of International Chinese Abstract Paintings”, Hong Kong, Gungdong, Shenzhen, China

2003

“From the Ground Up – Ar tist Association in 1950s Taiwan”, Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

2004

“The Experimental Sixties: Avant-Garde Ar t in Taiwan”, Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

2005

“Exhibition of Chu Wei-Bor 80”, Moon Gallery, Taichung, Taiwan

2006

“Purify.Beyond”, Angel Ar t Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

2008

“What the Cloud Knows”, Angel Ar t Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

2010

“Zen Environment.Space”, Xue Xue Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan “Blessing Words and Zen Environment”, Moon Gallery, Taichung, Taiwan

2012

“Black and White”, Moon Gallery, Taichung, Taiwan “Sunyata”, Kuandu Museum of Fine Ar ts, Taipei, Taiwan

2014

“Abstract / Symbol / Oriental – Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern Ar t", Liang Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

91


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

走向藝術誕生之地:朱為白的藝術實踐

廖仁義

朱為白是一位確定已經在台灣藝術史留下姓名的現代藝術家, 而且在整個華人世界的二十世紀藝術史中,肯定也是形象鮮明 的代表人物。在他超過六十年的創作歷程中,無論是材料與技 法,或者是觀念與風格,他都獨樹一幟。當台灣藝術家或者華 人藝術家正在為傳統與現代的關係、東方與西方的相遇滔滔雄 辯的時刻,他早已自創一個不受時代與社會差異所困擾與迷惑 的藝術語言,自由自在走向藝術誕生之地。

朱為白在一九二九年出生於中國南京,一九四九年跟隨國民政 府來到台灣,一九五三年進入廖繼春畫室學習素描,從此開始 他的創作生涯。他從廖繼春身上學習到最重要的就是「認真」, 而我們也清楚看到,這個認真的精神一直維持在他的每一件作 品中。

一九五七年東方畫會成立,朱為白也隨即在一九五八年就加入 這個團體,也與這個團體的創始成員一直維持友誼直到今天。

二○○五年,台北市立美術館曾經舉辦一場「朱為白回顧展」。 在這次的展覽中,朱為白曾經將他的創作歷程分為三個階段:

92

Ink-1

格。

朱為白 CHU Wei-Bor 水 墨 -1

依附於團體的光環,而是開創了一種完全屬於他自己的獨特風

1972

如東方畫會每一個藝術家都各具自己的原創性,他也不是只能

Ink

象藝術的思想原理,但是從他過去六十年的創作歷程來看, 正

142×79cm

做為東方畫會的成員,他也從東方文化的傳統中重新獲得抽


ESSAY | Walking Towards the Birthplace of Art: CHU Wei-Bor's Artistic Practice

第一階段是「悟」(Awakening),從一九五三年到一九八三年: 主要收錄了他最早時期的素描、油畫,以及木刻版畫作品。雖 然他謙稱這是起步的覺醒,但是這一時期的紙上作品與布上作 品,都已表現出他試圖從「圖像」進入「意境」的探索。即使 是當時那些木刻版畫,在刻劃民間節慶的主題之餘,也隱藏著 一個如同夢境一般的全景式觀看位置與觀點,在寫實之外平添 了一種超乎現實的「意境」。這份意境,為他日後的創作演變, 預備了一條路徑。

第 二 階 段 是「 化 」(Transfiguration), 從 一 九 八 一 年 到 一九九九年:這一時期的作品主要以棉布或麻布做為材料,以 裁剪與切割做為技法,開始浮現他個人風格的辨識性。雖然不 少評論家認為,這時期他的風格主要是受到二次大戰結束之 後義大利「貧窮藝術」的藝術家封達那(Lucio Fontana, 18991968)的影響,但事實上,或許我們可以同意他曾經受到封達 那的啟發,也不表示我們可以忽略這時他已經找到東方哲學的 依據,特別是道家有無相生的形上學,正在形成他自己的風格。

Droplet

朱為白 涓

1991

CHU Wei-Bor

185×65cm

Cotton

第三階段是「淨」(Purification),從一九九八年到二○○五年: 這一時期的作品涵蓋著兩種材料,一個是布上作品,主要是以 裁剪與切割的動作在棉布或麻布上創作,使單色的布料產生結 構,形成一種經由視覺構圖轉化出來的非視覺構圖;而另一個 是紙上作品,技法與前者相同,這就是他在二○○四年發展出 來的新作「冊頁系列」。評論家方美晶曾經極為精確地指出: 「冊頁系列以線裝方式將數張素描紙串接在一起,輔以雕工, 在反覆實踐中深入變化……黑白分明的單色畫面,呈現出純淨 的視覺形象。」這一系列,飽滿地展現了朱為白的嚴謹與深刻。 93


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

CHU Wei-Bor CHU Wei-Bor

Outside the Horizon

朱為白 天際外

2010

All Blessing

2010

102×72cm

Paper

朱為白 全福

109.7×79cm

Paper

從二○○五年的回顧展,我們清楚看到一位藝術家從起步摸索

從二○○五年以後,朱為白除了繼續發展「冊頁系列」,他又

到成熟穩健,直到他個人風格的形成。也就是說,到了第三階

發展出一種立體的紙雕塑系列。這一系列作品,可以說是他領

段「淨」,他的藝術思維已經到達顛峰。但是,朱為白的藝術

悟意境的另一個藝術表現。

思維達到純淨的顛峰,並非只是一種創作形式的顛峰,更是他 生命思想的顛峰。從此,他的作品不是只在表現一種視覺形象,

一如冊頁系列,他以手工線裝書的方式將一疊同一顏色的素描

更是在表現一種生命覺悟,或者更貼切地說,便是這份生命覺

紙裝成一冊,然後一頁一頁切割,使前後各頁產生空間的結構

悟透過他的雙手,轉化成為一件件的作品。

關係,卻又使之不受限於三度空間的幾何原理,完成後攤開站 立,彷彿是一個詩畫意境的立體呈現。這個紙本線裝書的雕塑

這份生命覺悟,既是一個人看透大有大無,也是一個藝術家自

系列,除了延續著他原來的純淨意境,也豐富了他的作品世界。

由自在進出虛實之間。他的作品,既然是來自他對有無與虛實

不只是他作品種類的豐富,也是他作品境界的豐富。既是視覺

的覺悟,那麼我們更是要釐清他作品之中的「意境」。

的豐富,也是空間的豐富,更是生命意義的豐富。每一件作品, 都自成一個圓滿的世界。那是一個可以進入的世界,一個只要

關 於 境 界, 一 般 可 以 分 為 三 種 層 次。 第 一 種 可 以 稱 之 為「 知

心無所求就可以進入的世界。或許,也正是這個原因,朱為白

境」,這是一種來自知識的境界,在藝術風格中,幾何抽象屬

曾以「福言禪境」一語形容這一系列作品。

之;第二種可以稱之為「情境」,這是一種來自情感的境界, 在藝術風格中,抒情抽象與封達那的抽象屬之;第三種可以稱

如果這一系列屬於雕塑,那麼它會增加我們對雕塑的理解。如

之為「意境」,這是一種來自覺悟的境界。而朱為白的境界,

果它不只是雕塑,那麼它也會擴充我們對藝術的理解。如果它

正是「意境」。他所要表現的境界,雖然可以透過眼睛去觀看,

不只是藝術,那麼它更會豐富我們對生命的理解。

但是卻不需要化為知識,也不需要鼓動情感,只需要會意;就 像詩句或者六祖檀經,所謂意境,清澈如水,無塵無染。

我們可以確定,在朱為白的創作歷程中,每一個階段的藝術作 品,都可以讓我們看見他對藝術的定義正在做出新的貢獻。他

而這個意境,在朱為白的創作歷程中,也就誕生了一件件簡約

不但讓自己走出自己熟悉的疆界,也讓藝術走出我們熟悉的疆

樸素的藝術作品,既可以表現為平面作品,也可以表現為立體

界。

作品。 94


ESSAY | Walking Towards the Birthplace of Art: CHU Wei-Bor's Artistic Practice

Walking Towards the Birthplace of Art: CHU Wei-Bor's Artistic Practice Written by

LIAO Jen-I

Chu Wei-Bor is a contemporary ar tist who has already established his place in Taiwanese ar t history and is undoubtedly a key figure of Chinese ar t in the 20th Century. Throughout Chu's ar tistic career, which spans six decades, the materials, techniques, ar tistic concepts, and styles he chose consistently to stand out from other ar tists. While other Chinese ar tists were still deep in the controversy of how to consolidate tradition with modern ar t or Orient with Occident, Chu had already developed a brand new ar tistic language, which freed him from the constraints of any era or society.

I. Chu was born in 1929 in Nanjing, China and moved to Taiwan with Kuomintang (KMT) government in 1949. In 1953, he star ted practicing sketching at the Liao Chi-Chun's studio. This was the star t of his ar tistic career. The core value he learned from Liao was “conscientiousness”, and it can clearly be perceived in his ever y ar twork. Ton Fan Group was established in 1957, and Chu joined the group in 1958, keeping in touch with the group-founding members to the present day. Despite being a Ton Fan Group member, his fame is not solely derived from its membership. The defining goal of his ar tistic career has been to bring out the abstract concept in traditional oriental culture. He is not only original, as all the members are, but has truly inaugurated his own unique style.

In 2005, Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum held a “Retrospective Exhibition”. In this exhibition, Chu divided the evolution of his ar twork into three phrases. 95


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

Phrase one: Awakening. From 1953 to 1983, the ar twork includes sketches, canvases and woodcut prints from his early ar tistic career. Although he modestly called this his initial awakening, his ar tworks on paper and canvas both reveal a design concept that turned “imagery” into patterns of “ar tistic conception”. Even the woodcut prints, seeming to depict a theme around traditional festival, conceal a dreamlike panorama beneath the surface. This brought his ar tistic conception beyond realism, laying the foundation for his creative development later.

Phrase two: Transfiguration. At this stage, from 1981 to 1999, cottons and linens were chosen as the main materials of creation, and tailoring and cutting techniques were adopted, with his personal style and uniqueness star ting to emerge. Few critics realized his style at this stage was influenced by an Italian ar tist, Lucio Fontana (1899-1968), from the “Ar te Povera” at the end of World War II but, even if we acknowledge Lucio Fontana’s influence, that does not mean we should miss the fact that Chu was already steeped in the philosophy of oriental ar t. In par ticular, Taoism's metaphysical concept of “being opposite yet complementary to each other” informed his

transforming the visual into the non-visual. The latter, work on paper, employed the same technique. In 2004 he created the “thread-bound book series”. A critic, Fang Mei-Ching, said that, “the thread-bound book series involved binding a stack of sketch papers in string and employed complementar y sculpting techniques to form a variety of visual effects. Through repeated practice … the monochrome image achieves visual purity.” This series perfectly demonstrates Chu's meticulosity and profundity. 96

Three in One

cutting movements, giving the monochrome fabric spatial structure and

2010

ar twork was implemented on cottons or linens through tailoring and

109.7×79cm

spanned two materials. One was canvas, the other paper. The former

Paper

Phrase three: Purification. At this stage, from 1998 to 2005, his ar twork

朱為白 CHU Wei-Bor 三位一體

own style.


ESSAY | Walking Towards the Birthplace of Art: CHU Wei-Bor's Artistic Practice

II. From the “Retrospective Exhibition” in 2005, we can clearly obser ve an ar tist beginning to mature and form his own personal style. By the third stage “Purification”, his ar tistic thought patterns had already reached maturity. However, the level of purity Chu achieved was not just present in his style of creation: it defined his life. His works do not just take the form of visual images, they express his consciousness or, to put it another way, his consciousness transformed his ar twork through his hands. His consciousness is that of a person who has seen through concepts of opposition and complement, an ar tist who can stand freely between the imaginary and the real. Since each of his works is related to a life philosophy and conceptions of imagination vs. reality, we should clarify the “ar tistic conception” in his work.

Generally, an ar tistic realm can be categorized into three levels. One of the realms is “knowing”, which derives from knowledge. Amongst ar tistic styles, geometric abstraction belongs to this level. Another level is “situational”, which derives from emotions. In ar tistic styles, lyrical abstraction and Fontana's spatialism belong to this level. The last is “ar tistic conception”, Purify D

1999

169.5×84.5cm

Cotton

朱為白 CHU Wei-Bor 淨化 D

which derives from the consciousness that Chu employs in his works. Although the realms Chu expressed are visible, they do not have to be turned into knowledge or stir up emotions. They only need to be perceived. It is a poem, the Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch – an ar tistic conception as pure as water, immaculate and purified. Over the course of Chu's ar tistic career, these realms become the major contributing factors in his simple and minimalistic ar twork, be they two-dimensional works or three-dimensional works.

After 2005, having continuously developed the "thread-bound book series", he also expanded to a series of three-dimensional paper sculptures. This series can be said to be another level of his ar tistic conception.

97


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

The “thread-bound book series” uses the same methods as a handmade thread-bound book, combining a stack of sketch paper of the same color. Cuts are applied page by page to form spatial and structural relationships, not limited to the geometric principles of the three-dimensional. When it is completed, the book is left open and standing as if presenting a poem in three dimensions. In this paper thread-bound book series, he not only extends his original ar tistic conception of purity, but enriches the collection of his ar twork. Chu's works feature a vast variety of ar tistic conceptions. They are rich in visual space as well as meaning. Each of his works is a consummate world, a world that ever yone can enter when their mind is at peace. Maybe that is the reason why Chu used “Blessings and the Zen Environment” as the title for this series.

Not only has he exceeded his specialty, but he has also brought about a new frontier for ar t.

98

Formless Form

stage shows us his great contribution to the goal of defining what ar t is.

朱為白 CHU Wei-Bor 無相有相

career, we can cer tainly say that the different ar twork he made at each

1970

if it is not just ar t, it will enrich our understanding of life. Of Chu's ar tistic

74×40cm

sculpture; if it is not just sculpture, it will expand our understanding of ar t;

Oil, plastic, glass plate

If this series belongs to sculpture, it might enhance our comprehension of


About the Critic | LIAO Jen-I

藝評 簡介

廖仁義 LIAO Jen-I 廖仁義,臺灣雲林人,畢業於台灣大學哲學博士,後赴法國深 造,取得巴黎第十大學美學博士。曾任行政院文建會駐法國巴 黎臺灣文化中心主任、財團法人朱銘美術館館長、國立臺北藝 術大學主任秘書暨藝術與人文教育研究所所長。學術專長為美 學、藝術社會學、歐陸博物館專題。曾任宜蘭縣立蘭陽博物館 館長,目前教於國立臺北藝術大學博物館研究所。

Liao Jen-I was born in Yunlin, Taiwan. He graduated from National Taiwan University, where he obtained his PhD degree in philosophy. He also went to France to study at the Université de Nanterre Paris X and obtained another PhD degree in aesthetics. He was the Director of the Council for Cultural Affairs at Taiwanese Cultural Center in Paris (France), the General Director at Juming Museum (Taiwan), the Chief Secretar y of the Graduate Institute of Ar ts and Humanities Education at the Taipei National University of the Ar ts. He specializes in aesthetics, sociology of ar t, and studies on museums of Europe. Currently, Liao is a Professor of the Graduate Institute of Museum Studies at Taipei National University of the Ar ts, and the General Director of Lanyang Museum in Yilan County.

99


朱為白 CHU Wei Bor

智慧種子 The Wisdom Seeds 1998 Linen 108×80cm

100


朱為白 CHU Wei Bor

秋 Autumn 1981 Linen 81.5×66.5cm

101


朱為白 CHU Wei Bor

涓 Droplet 1991 Cotton 185×65cm

102


朱為白 CHU Wei Bor

突出 Eminence 1986 Cotton, linen, resine 55.5×133cm

103


朱為白 CHU Wei Bor

網路 Network No.3 1996 Cotton 46×37.5cm

104


朱為白 CHU Wei Bor

黑洞 1 Black Hole No.1 1987 Cotton 162×130cm

105


朱為白 CHU Wei Bor 行 On the Move 1991 Cotton, linen 91.5×168cm

106


楚戈 CHU Ko


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

楚戈 1931-2011 年出生於中國湖南

1947

就讀於汨羅中學,湖南,中國

獲「國際作家工作室」邀請至愛荷華大學訪問,美國

1957

參與新詩現代派運動,並採用「楚戈」作為筆名,台北,台灣

耶魯大學邀請演講「中國水墨畫的思想背景」,美國

1958

參加新文學現代派詩社,台北,台灣

柏克萊大學邀請演講「龍與中國性崇拜」,美國

1962

受邀擔任「獅子吼雜誌」主編,台北,台灣

1966

就讀於台灣藝術專科學校(今國立台灣藝術大學)夜間

「第二屆中韓現代繪畫交流展」,首爾,韓國

部,台北,台灣

「中華民國水墨抽象畫展」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣

出版詩集「青果」,並自繪內頁插圖,台北,台灣

「台北現代畫 1986 香港大展」,香港藝術中心,香港,

1967

1968

1970 1971

1986

「中國傳統繪畫之新潮流」,台北、凡爾賽;台灣、法國

受邀至中國文化學院(今中國文化大學)擔任「藝術概論」

中國

和「中國文化概論」講師,台北,台灣

出版藝術評論集《審美生活》,台灣

「楚戈、李錫奇聯展」,台北,台灣

1987

「中華民國現代繪畫新貌」,國立歷史博物館,台北,台灣

至故宮博物院器物處工作,台北,台灣

「第二屆亞洲美術展覽會」,國立歷史博物館,台北,台灣

在幼獅文藝雜誌連載「中國藝術之回顧」,以散文和詩介

「台灣水墨畫家七人展」,布魯塞爾,比利時

紹古代美術,台北,台灣

「楚戈、席慕容、蔣勳山水聯展」,台北,台灣

「中國現代畫展」,美國 策劃「第一屆台北當代藝術家陶瓷展」,台北,台灣

「中國現代水墨畫聯展」,巴黎、舊金山,法國、美國 1988

於《中華文藝復興月刊》連載〈中國美術通史〉,台灣

「中華民國當代藝術創作展」,國立歷史博物館,台北, 台灣

1972

「中國當代作家書畫展」,台北,台灣

「奧林匹克世界運動會國際美展」,首爾,韓國

1974

「中國現代繪畫展」,上野美術館,東京,日本

「第三屆亞洲國際美術展覽」,國立歷史博物館,台北,

1976

與亞弦、商禽、辛鬱等人赴韓國文人協會訪問,韓國

台灣

出版《中華歷史文物》,台灣

出版《龍史》,台灣

1978

為國立故宮博物院策劃「文物與歷史特展」,台北,台灣

1979

於版畫家畫廊舉行個展,台北,台灣

1989

「第四屆亞洲國際美術展覽」,國立歷史博物館,台北,

《花季》,獲韓國現代美術館收藏,韓國 1981 1983

110

「向畢卡索致敬展」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣 1990

於首修藝術文化中心舉行個展,法國

於龍門畫廊舉行個展,台北,台灣

「生命之色彩展」,巴黎國家圖書館,巴黎,法國

出版詩畫集《散佈的山巒》,台灣

「第五屆亞洲國際美術展覽」,國立歷史博物館,台北,

「中國現代美展」,首爾,韓國 1985

台灣

赴香港大學設計學院講學,香港,中國 「水墨陶瓷版畫個展」,香港藝術中心,香港,中國

於傑克巴荷遠東藝術畫廊舉行個展,巴黎,法國

擔任私立東海大學美術系教授,台中,台灣

台灣 「韓、中-現代水墨畫展」,台北、首爾,台灣、韓國


CHRONOLOGY | CHU Ko

1991

「楚戈的深情世界-楚戈 60 回顧展」,台北市立美術館,

2007

「楚戈畫展」,國立成功大學,台南,台灣

台北,台灣

「是偶然也是必然-楚戈油彩畫個展」,名山藝術,台北,

「楚戈.再生的火鳥」,藝昌畫廊,香港,中國

台灣

「花季-楚戈、席慕容、蔣勳聯展」,清韻畫廊,台北,

「現代水墨六大家聯展」,中原大學,中壢,台灣

台灣 1992

1993

「水墨新貌-現代水墨聯展」,香港,中國

「奧林匹克世界運動會國際美展」,巴塞隆那,西班牙 《剎那與永恆》,獲瑞士奧運博物館收藏,瑞士 於馬里蘭大學美術館舉行個展,美國

於台北 99° 藝術中心舉行個展,台北,台灣

2008

「楚戈詩畫展」,板橋林本源園邸,新北市,台灣

2009

「創作就是要好玩-楚戈藝術大展」,國立交通大學藝文 中心,新竹,台灣

「楚戈招待展」,韓國

3 月 1 日,病逝於台北,享壽八十歲

1994

「線于無限-楚戈近作展」,香港科技大學,香港,中國

2011

1995

「楚戈觀想結構展」,台灣省立美術館(今國立台灣美術

2013

「台灣 50 現代畫展」,築空間,台北,台灣

2014

「火鳥傳奇-楚戈創作巡回展」,台灣創價學會,台南、

館),台中,台灣 1997

「楚戈結情作品展」,國立歷史博物館,台北,台灣

1998

於香港藝術中心舉行個展,香港,中國

1999

於舊金山文化中心、加州大學戴維斯分校舉行個展,舊金

彰化,台灣 「抽象.符碼.東方情-臺灣現代藝術巨匠大展」,尊彩 藝術中心,台北,台灣

山、加州,美國 「國際雕刻公園創作展」,韓國 2000

「新世紀兩岸水墨對話畫展」,上海,中國 「亞細亞水墨畫三人展」,京都,日本 「秋季沙龍展」,巴黎,法國

2002

「人間漫步-楚戈 2003 創作大展」,國父紀念館,台北, 台灣

2003 2004

於劉海粟美術館舉行個展,上海,中國 「繩子與手套的對話」,國立歷史博物館,台北,台灣 「MANIF 國際藝術展」,首爾,韓國

2005

「現代水墨畫會中國巡迴展」,中國

2006

「迴流-楚戈現代水墨大展」,湖南省博物館,湖南,中國 「水墨變相-現代水墨在台灣」,台北市立美術館,台北, 台灣

111


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

CHU Ko 1931-2011

Born in Hunan, China

1947

Enrolled in Miho High School, Hunan, China

Solo exhibition, Lung Men Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

1957

Participated in the Modernist Poetry Movement, started using Chu

Published poetry collection “Walking in the Mountains”, Taiwan

Ko as his pseudonym, Taipei, Taiwan

"Exhibition of Modern Chinese Art", Seoul, Korea

1958

Participated in the New Modernist Poetry Group, Taipei, Taiwan

1962

Editor of “Idiom Magazine”, Taipei, Taiwan

Taichung, Taiwan

1966

Enrolled in National Taiwan College of Ar t (now National Taiwan

Was invited to visit the University of Iowa by the “International

University of Arts), Taipei, Taiwan

Writer’s Workshop”, Iowa, USA

Published first poetr y collection “Unripe Fruit” with self-drawn

Gave lectures on “Ideological Background of Chinese Ink Painting”,

illustrations, Taipei, Taiwan

Yale University, New Haven, USA

Gave lectures on “Introduction to Art” and “Introduction to Chinese

Gave lectures on “Worshiping Dragon and China”, University of

Culture”, College of Chinese Culture (now Chinese Culture

California, Berkeley, USA

1967

University), Taipei, Taiwan 1968

1985

1986

Professor in the Depar tment of Fine Ar ts of Tunghai University,

“New Trends in Chinese Traditional Painting”, Taipei, Taiwan; Versailles, France

“Chu Ko and Lee Shi-Chi Exhibition”, Taipei, Taiwan

“The 2nd Chinese and Korean Modern Painting Exhibition”, Seoul, Korea

Started working at the National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

“Abstract Ink Painting in the Republic of China”, Taipei Fine Ar ts

Published “Review of Chinese Art” in the literary magazines, Taipei, Taiwan

Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

1970

“Exhibition of Modern Chinese Art”, USA

“Taipei Modern Art 1986 Exhibition”, Hong Kong Arts Center, Hong

1971

Curated “The First Modern Ceramics Exhibition”, Taipei, Taiwan

Kong, China

Published “Comprehensive History of Chinese Fine Arts” in Chinese Literary Renaissance Monthly, Taiwan 1972 1974 1976

1978

1981

History, Taipei, Taiwan

Taipei, Taiwan

“The 2nd Asian International Art Exhibition”, National Museum of

“Exhibition of Modern Chinese Paintings”, Ueno Royal Museum,

History, Taipei, Taiwan

Tokyo, Japan

“Exhibition of Seven Taiwanese Ink Painters”, Brussels, Belgium

Together with Ya Xian, Shang Chin, Xin Yu and others went to visit

“Exhibition of Landscapes by Chu Ko, Xi Mu-Rong, Chiang Hsun”,

Korean Scholars Association, Korea

Taipei, Taiwan

Published “Chinese Historical and Cultural Heritage”, Taiwan

“Exhibition of Modern Chinese Ink Paintings”, Paris, France; San

Curated “Heritage and History Exhibition” at the National Palace

Francisco, USA 1988

112

“Modern Chinese Ar t Exhibition”, National Museum of Histor y,

Solo exhibition, Printmaker’s Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

Taipei, Taiwan

“Youth” collected by the National Museum of Modern and

“Olympic Games International Exhibition”, Seoul, Korea

Contemporary Art, Korea

“The 3rd Asian International Ar t Exhibition”, National Museum of

Lectured at the School of Design of the University of Hong Kong,

History, Taipei, Taiwan

Hong Kong, China 1983

“The New Look of Chinese Modern Ar t”, National Museum of

“Exhibition of Chinese Paintings and Calligraphy of Modern Writers”,

Museum, Taipei, Taiwan 1979

Published essays collection “The Aesthetics of Everyday Life”, Taiwan 1987

“Ceramic Ink Prints Exhibition”, Hong Kong Arts Center, Hong Kong, China

Published “Long Shi”, Taiwan 1989

Solo exhibition, Jacques Barrere – Art D’Extreme Orient, Paris, France


CHRONOLOGY | CHU Ko

“The 4th Asian International Ar t Exhibition”, National Museum of

1990

2004

Taipei, Taiwan

“Tribute to Picasso: Exhibition”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

“MANIF”, Seoul, Korea

Solo exhibition, Arts and Culture Center, France

2005

“Modern Chinese Ink Painting Touring Exhibition”, China

“Colors of Life”, National Library, Paris, France

2006

“Reflux – Modern Ink Painting Exhibition of Chu Ko”, Hunan

“The 5th Asian International Ar t Exhibition”, National Museum of

Provincial Museum, Hunan, China

History, Taipei, Taiwan

“Ink Transformation – Modern Ink Painting”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum,

“Korea, China – Modern Ink Painting Exhibition”, Taipei, Seoul; Taiwan, Korea 1991

1992

“A World of Feelings – A Retrospective”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum,

Taipei, Taiwan 2007

“Chu Ko Solo Exhibition”, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

“A Man for All Seasons: Chu Ko”, Alisan Fine Arts, Hong Kong, China

“Chu Ko Oil Paintings Exhibition”, Mingshan Art, Taipei, Taiwan

“Youth – Exhibition of Chu Ko, Xi Mu-Rong, Chiang Hsun”, Qing

“Modern Ink Painting – Group Exhibition of Six Artists”, Chung Yuan

Yung Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

Christian University, Chungli, Taiwan

“Olympic Games International Exhibition”, Barcelona, Spain

“New Ink Painting – Modern Ink Painting Exhibition”, Hong Kong, China 2008

Switzerland Solo exhibition, University of Maryland Art Gallery, College Park, USA

1995

“Chu Ko Poetry Exhibition”, Lin Family Mansion and Garden, New Taipei City, Taiwan

2009

“Exhibition by Chu Ko”, Korea 1994

Solo exhibition, Degree Art Center, Taipei, Taiwan

Taipei, Taiwan

“Moment and Eter nity” collected by the Olympic Museum, 1993

“The Rope and Gloves Dialogue”, National Museum of Histor y,

History, Taipei, Taiwan

“Artistic Creation Must have Fun – Solo Exhibition of Chu Ko’s Art”, National Chiao Tung University Arts Center, Hsinchu, Taiwan

“The Ceaseless Line: Recent Wor ks by Chu Ko”, Hong Kong

2011

Passed away on March 1st, Taipei, Taiwan

University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China

2013

“Taiwan 50 – Modern Art Exhibition”, Arki Galeria, Taipei, Taiwan

“Contemplating Structure”, Taiwan Provincial Museum of Fine Arts

2014

“Legend of the Firebird – A Touring Exhibition of Chu Ko’s

(now National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts), Taichung, Taiwan

Artworks”, Taiwan Soka Association, Tainan, Changhua, Taiwan

1997

“Ties of Affection”, National Museum of History, Taipei, Taiwan

“Abstract / Symbol / Oriental – Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of

1998

Solo exhibition, Hong Kong Arts Center, Hong Kong, China

Modern Art", Liang Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

1999

Solo exhibition, San Francisco Cultural Center, Univer sity of California, San Francisco, Davis, USA “International Sculpture Park Art Exhibition, Korea

2000

“New Centur y of Cross-strait Chinese Ink Painting Exhibition”, Shanghai, China “Asian Ink Paintings Exhibition”, Kyoto, Japan “Autumn Salon”, Paris, France

2002

“Sauntering Through the human World – An Exhibit of Works by Chu Ko”, National Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall, Taipei, Taiwan

2003

Solo exhibition, Liu Hai Su Art Museum, Shanghai, China

113


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

楚戈及其現代水墨改革思想

白適銘

從廢除「國畫」事件談起

在一九七○年代中期舉辦的一場座談會中,楚戈曾大膽倡言廢除「國 畫」一詞,暫先不論其背景因由如何,當時與會的呂佛庭曾揚言,若 廢除「國畫」即要「切腹」自殺以明志。這個「國畫」廢除事件,不 只是當時不同陣營的意見對立而已,從呂佛庭的激烈反應來看,更應 視為台灣戰後水墨畫改革爭論衝突的頂點。1 根據劉國松的回憶,楚 戈堅持廢除的理由,主要在於「國畫是守舊因襲的象徵」,同時,水 墨媒材為東亞諸國繪畫傳統所共有,並無理由獨稱為「中國畫」,然 其背後最重要的想法,卻在於反對明清以來繪畫的模仿積弊。2

從以上所見,楚戈的「國畫」廢除思想,一方面來自於對傳統繪畫落 伍問題的省思與批判,另一方面卻是由更為寬闊的國際視野所促使。 在一篇撰述於二十年後的文章中,他再次重申:

照理,國立故宮博物院最少應成為「東亞文化共同體」的殿堂,但文 化沙文主義下,台灣執政者畫地自限,把這種東亞人共同都畫的「水 墨畫」,硬稱之為「國畫」,目的在麻痺人心,永遠堅持明朝、清朝 封建時代之形式。……二十世紀的「國畫」意識已使我們失去主導東 亞文化進展的地位和機會,再迷信過去,會導致更多的輕蔑。

3

1

有關台灣戰後水墨畫壇新舊勢力爭衡及楚戈之相關批評,請參考拙

著,〈窮途或新徑?楚戈有關「現代中國畫」之論述與意義建構〉, 收入政治大學藝文中心、財團法人楚戈文化藝術基金會編,《楚戈紀 念畫展暨當代藝術研討會論文集》( 台北市:政治大學藝文中心、財

楚戈「文化沙文主義」激切批評中所指涉的,顯然包含蔣氏政權長期 推行的中華文化復興運動、其推崇的明清文人畫封建傳統復辟,以及 文化最高主事單位、國民黨文官等之封閉傲慢。文中,他更批評「國 畫」全然缺乏內省以及國畫家的癡人說夢,建議國人放棄東亞文化宗 主國的自大意識及自取其辱,普及「東亞文化共同體」的認識,並創

團法人楚戈文化藝術基金會,2012),頁 58-64。 2

有關此事件的基本經過及爭論內容,請參考劉國松,〈楚戈的現代

中 國 畫 〉, 收 入 陶 幼 春 編,《 楚 戈 2005~2006》( 作 者 自 行 出 版, 2006),頁 2。 3

楚戈,〈叫「國畫」太沉重〉,《拾穗月刊》,第 536 期 (1995),

頁 100-102。 4

楚戈有關中國繪畫現代化的理論及思想,主要請參考氏著,〈論現

代中國繪畫〉,《新生報》,1967 年 7 月 12 日,後收入郭繼生主編, 《 當 代 台 灣 繪 畫 文 選:1945-1990》( 台 北 市: 雄 獅 美 術 圖 書 公 司,

造出真正屬於二十世紀的繪畫,「文化才有希望」。4 114

1991),頁 118-135。


ESSAY | CHU Ko and His Revolution on Modern Ink Painting

「五四」未竟革命事業在台灣的延續

楚戈數十年間所致力推動的水墨畫「現代化運動」,雖然是在戰後政 治社會局勢最動輒得咎、最肅殺的時代中展開的,不過,卻可以視為 是民初「五四運動」在戰後台灣的延續。他曾說:「由於國民政府沒 有從文化基礎上省悟,也沒珍惜『五四』運動的精神,……國民政府 反而站在原本要推翻的舊社會的那一邊,因而導致了數十年來的動亂 與分裂。……新繪畫本來也可望像白話文一樣,成為民國主導著文化 發展時代的繪畫形式。」5 可以知道,楚戈認為戰後以來文化沉痾的 源頭,即來自於國民政府對「五四精神」的漠視,並未自文化上進行 真正的改革所致。這些言論,切中百年來中國文化現代化的坎坷歷程 與乖舛命運,同時也指出為政者的短視及無能。劉國松對楚戈所提出 近代中國文化改革失敗的原因,有更清楚的回應與補充:

五四新文化運動的失敗,的確是他們忘卻了美術,忘記了義大利的文 藝復興中,藝術所扮演的角色。……由於當時社會封建思想的根深柢 Primal Structure

1997

150×153cm

Acr ylic and ink on canvas

楚戈 CHU Ko 原初的結構

固,……阻礙了創造性的發揮與自我個性的確立,而覺醒的藝術家實 在鳳毛麟角。……等國民政府退居台灣之後,有革命思想的藝術家又 都留在大陸,政府反被封建的保守派所包圍,轉而又站在反革命的一 邊,護衛著應該打倒舊社會的國畫,忽略帶有革命性的新藝術。

6

由楚、劉二人的言論可見,民國初年以來迄於戰後台灣,中國文化的 現代化改革,因為主政者及社會整體環境之封閉所致,一再失去最寶 貴的時機,因此,由「民間藝術家」自發性繼承及完成「五四」未竟 的革命事業已刻不容緩,此即一九六○年代初以來,包含「五月畫 會」、「東方畫會」、「現代版畫會」等團體在內、在戰後台灣所開 展出來的「中國畫現代化運動」。「中國畫現代化運動」的空前回響, 被認為已然「建立起一種既中國又現代的現代水墨畫,達到了藝術革 命的成功,隨後,其影響所及遍布海內外,以及東亞儒家文化共同體」 7

,同時,補足了五四時代所缺席的藝術改革事業。可以知道,楚、劉

二人長期所致力的「現代水墨畫運動」,可以被認為是延續民初「五四 5

楚戈,〈建立嶄新中國風貌〉,《時報週刊》,1990 年 4 月 1 日。

6

劉國松,〈為五四補篇章─現代文人畫家楚戈〉,《藝術家》,第

精神」,並就當時新文化運動未克完成藝術改革的殘篇斷簡,進行了 補綴,以創造出符合二十世紀現代社會需要的全新文化內涵及藝術形

340 期 (2003),頁 240。 7

同上註,頁 240。

式。 115


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

楚戈 CHU Ko 造山運動時奔騰過的山

the Formation Long Ago

Scattered Mountain after

2005

79×146cm

Acr ylic and ink on paper

「隨意畫」的理論與實踐─楚戈現代水墨創作中的 文化概念

一如上述,楚戈廢除「國畫」的建議,與致力水墨畫現代化以

楚戈在藝術表現上,基於上述「率性」、「即興」、「隨心」

建構現代文化的構想,具有直接的因果關係。然而,其與劉國

等人文精神概念的啟蒙,導致其形成一種極具個人鮮明標幟、

松等人所開創出來所謂「影響所及遍布海內外」、「既中國又

不拘常格的藝術風貌,並擴展至複合媒材的運用選擇上。特別

現代」、「代表這一個時代的中國畫……對文化史、歷史盡了

在現代水墨畫方面,他認為八世紀畫家的革新概念,事實上已

8

這一代中國人的本份」 的現代水墨畫又是什麼?具有何種在

包括了西方抽象畫的因素及「似又不似」的中庸精神;另一方

文化史、歷史上特殊意義?同時,劉國松口中「他搞理論,我

面,唐代畫家超越寫實的侷限,走向「恣肆而為」發洩激情的

9

搞實踐」 、深知現代中國水墨改革問題的楚戈,又如何跳脫紙

創發,已使得中國畫「從集體意識轉入了個人自由的發揮」,

上談兵,進而成為一位具有行動力的藝術革命家?

並認為「這是二十世紀現代主義的先驅」。

13

姑不論楚戈對中

國或西方藝術史的認知是否正確,二者間是否確有關連?較為 楚戈的文化身分至為複雜,包含古史學者、青銅器紋飾研究者、 10

重要的是,在其所謂現代中國畫改革的理論中,純然的古代模

作家、藝術家、評論家、文化史學者等 ,這種現象,來自於

仿與西方因襲都應避免、摒棄,其目的,一方面在於創造出符

他對創作的多元興趣與「率性」、「即興」的人格特徵有關,

合現代、世界藝術思潮的形式,另一方面,則同時回歸中國傳

11

然而,其藝術家的身分形成最晚,約在近五十歲之時。 有趣

統,以發揚古代珍貴的人文精神。這些來自於東西文化史、歷

的是,楚戈更自稱此種「率性」、「即興」畫風的形成,來自

史學研究所獲致的學理認知,不僅成為其一生所建構的中國畫

於現今「自由」社會的反映,及「隨心的現代藝術」乃二十世

現代化理論的核心,同時,也可以說是楚戈現代水墨畫創作最

紀文化主流的藝術史認知。此外,他並將此種來自西方現代藝

重要的指導方針。

術的史學知識,與中國畫的「寫意」傳統進行比較,嘗試分析

8

劉國松,〈楚戈的現代中國畫〉( 前引文 ),頁 2。

9

同上註,頁 2。

中西文化之差異。而其所貫徹的「隨意畫」畫風,即來自於早

10

在唐代已然建構完成的「寫意文化」傳統,並可追溯至先秦哲 學思想中的「心物合一」、「物我一體」及「有生於無」等觀 念之上,此種思想上的溯源,即其所謂現代水墨畫、現代中國 畫應具備的「深厚文化基礎」。 116

12

14

蕭瓊瑞,〈吾道一以貫之─楚戈的藝術思維與成就〉,《湖南文獻》,38 卷

4 期 (2010),頁 45。 11

劉國松,〈楚戈的現代中國畫〉( 前引文 ),頁 4。

12

楚戈,〈隨心所欲常逾矩〉,收入陶幼春編,前引書,頁 16-18。

13

楚戈,〈水墨現象〉,《現代美術》,第 59 期 (1995),頁 47。

14

有關楚戈藝術風格的探討,另請參考蕭瓊瑞,〈線條的行走─楚戈的人文造

型〉,《台灣美術》,第 54 期 (2003),頁 42-55。


ESSAY | CHU Ko and His Revolution on Modern Ink Painting

CHU Ko and His Revolution on Modern Ink Painting

Written by

PAI Shih-Ming

I. The Incident of Abolishing “National Painting” Once in a conference held in the 1970’s, Chu Ko boldly advocated to abolish the term “National Painting”. Regardless of the background of this cause, his remark arose various tense controversies among ar tists. Lu Fo-Ting even announced that if this term was taken away, he would do the hara-kiri, a Japanese way of committing suicide by cutting open one’s own belly, usually done by samurais for loyalty. From Lu’s extreme reaction, this event can be viewed as the summit of the post-war ink painting revolution in Taiwan. 1 According to Liu Kuo-Sung, Chu Ko’s insistence was based on the belief that the term “National Painting” was the symbol of conser vative conventionalism, and that ink painting was a common proper ty shared by all East Asian countries. There was no reason to address it as “Chinese Painting”. However, what was hidden behind was his main concern about the corruption brought by the conventional imitations in the ink painting field passing down from the Ming and Qing dynasty. 2

1

Regarding the conflicts between the old and new forces

in the ink painting field during the post-war period in Taiwan, and the related critics by Chu Ko, please see my paper “End Road or New Path? Chu Ko’s Discussion and Constr uction on Modern Chinese Painting”, which is

Accordingly, Chu Ko’s advocacy derived from, on the one hand, the critics and pondering on the conventions of traditional painting; on the other hand, it was motivated by the broadened international art scene. In one article, twenty years later, he again asserted:

included in the publication for Chu Ko Memorial Ar t Exhibition and the Conference on the Development of Contemporary Ar t (Taipei: NCCU Ar t & Cultural Center and Chu Ko Culture and Ar ts Foundation, 2012), pp. 5864. 2

Regarding the course of the incident and its controversy,

please see Liu Kuo-Sung’s “Chu Ko’s Modern Chinese Painting”, edited by Tao You-Chun in Chu Ko 2005-2006 (Published by the author, 2006), p. 2. 3

Chu Ko, “Too Serious to Be Called “National Painting””,

in Gleaners, Vol. 536 (1995), pp. 100-102.

To paralyze people’s minds and to insist on the forms of the bureaucratic Ming and Qing dynasty, the political rulers stuck to the cultural chauvinism and confined what was originally shared by all the East Asia to their own “Chinese Painting”. Otherwise, the National Palace Museum might have the chance to at least become the mecca of the “Commonwealth of the East Asia”... The concept of “National Painting” in the 20th century hindered us from getting the chance to lead the cultural evolution of the East Asia. If still indulged in it, more contempt will follow. 3 117


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

The target of Chu Ko’s “cultural chauvinism” obviously included the Chiang’s regime, whose r uling par ty had per severingly been tr ying to revive the Chinese culture and the bureaucracy in the tradition of literati painting during the Ming and Qing dynasty. Also, it indicated the arrogance and self-confinement of the KMT cultural policy makers. In his ar ticle, he criticized that the so-called “National Painting” was totally lack of reflection and was the daydreams of the moron “Chinese painters”. He suggested that people here should abandon egotism of being the center of East Asians to avoid self-humiliation. To enlighten culture, people need to embrace the concept of “East Asian Commonwealth” and, therefore, create a real painting, belonging to the 20th century. 4

II. The Continuation of the Unfinished “May Fourth Movement” in Taiwan The “modernization movement” of the Chinese ink painting, which Chu Ko had been working on for decades, though under the toughest, the bleakest, the most terrifying political environment, could be regarded as the continuation of the May Four th Movement in post-war Taiwan. Chu once said, “The KMT government did not introspect itself on the fundamental cultural level, nor did they cherish the spirit of the May Four th Movement… On the contrar y, they took the side of the old culture, which they originally wanted to over throw, thus, causing the turbulence and segregation for decades… New painting should have had the chance to prevail like vernacular Chinese and become a painting form to lead the development of the culture.”

5

It shows that Chu Ko thought that the origin of

the corr uption of the cultural development was the indifferent attitude the KMT government had toward the May Four th Movement. As a consequence, none of the revolutionary improvements had been made culturally. These remarks hit the bull eye when it comes to the sufferings and agony the modernization of the Chinese culture has endured over the past hundred years. In the mean while, they pointed out the incapability and shor tsightedness of the authority. Liu Kuo-Sung gave more detailed explanation about Chu Ko’s viewpoint: 4

Regarding Chu Ko’s thoughts and discussion on the

The failure of the May Fourth Movement was partly because they forgot about art. They forgot

modernization of Chinese painting, please see his ar ticle

the role that art played in the Italian Renaissance… Because of the deeply-rooted bureaucratic

in Taiwan Shin Sheng Daily News on July 12th, 1967. It was

thought … it ruined the development of creativity and the assertion of individual personality.

“The Discussion on Modern Chinese Painting” published later included in Essays on Contemporary Painting in Taiwan 1945-1990, edited by Jason C . Kuo (Taipei: Lion Ar t

And at that time, artists with self-awareness were far and few in between… After the KMT

Publication, 1991), pp. 118-135.

inhabited Taiwan, most of the revolution-conscious artists were left behind the iron curtain, and

Times Weekly, April 1st, 1990.

118

5

Chu Ko, “Establishing the New Chinese View”, in China


ESSAY | CHU Ko and His Revolution on Modern Ink Painting

the government was ironically surrounded by the conservative bureaucracy. They stood on the anti-revolution side, defending the old traditional “national painting”, neglecting the revolutionary new art. 6

According to Chu and Liu’s words, starting from the beginning of this Republic (around the 1910’s) till the post-war Taiwan (after 1945), the chance for Chinese culture innovation was ruined because of the government shutting down the whole social environment and shifting toward new concepts. After repeatedly losing the precious oppor tunities to change, the unofficial artists found themselves racing with the time and spontaneously tried to carry on and continue the unfinished May Fourth Movement. Thus, in the 1960’s, artist groups such as the “Fifth Moon Group”, “Ton Fan Group” and the “Modern Print Association” appeared, and led the modernization of Chinese painting movement in the post-war Taiwan. This movement won March Affairs III

楚戈 CHU Ko 三月記事之三

1993

109×241cm

Acr ylic and ink on paper

tremendous feedback from the public, and was regarded as “setting up a modern form of ink painting that is both Chinese and modern, and successfully reaching the goal of art revolution. Later, its impact extended both at home and abroad and spread out to all the Eastern Asian countries sharing the same Confucianism”. 7 And at the same time, it filled out the absence of art which had to play in the May Fourth Movement. Consequently, Chu and Liu’s long term dedication to the “Modern Ink Painting Movement” can be taken as the continuation of the May Fourth Movement, and added up the missing puzzles to the unfinished art reform, and, as a result, created a new art form matching the new modern social needs of the 20th century.

III. The Theory and Embodiment of “Impromptu Painting”: The Cultural Concepts in Chu Ko’s Modern Ink Painting As mentioned above, Chu’s suggestion for abolishing the term “National Painting” has to do with the concept of constructing modern culture with modernized ink painting.

Never theless, what is the modern ink painting, which Chu and Liu adver tise, and which is 6

Liu Kuo-Sung, “Writing After the May Four th Movement

– Chu Ko, The Modern Literati Painter”, in Artist Magazine, Vol. 340 (2003), p. 240. 7 8

Ibid. Liu, “Chu Ko’s Modern Chinese Painting”, in Chu Ko

2005-2006, edited by Tao You-Chun (Published by the author, 2006), p. 2. 9

Ibid.

“having impact at home and abroad”, ”both Chinese and modern” and “representing modern Chinese painting … taking his par t culturally and historically”? 8 What special element do they put into history and culture? Meanwhile, Liu declared, “Chu creates the theory, I practice it”. 9 Chu Ko was an ar tist that knew the problem of ink painting and its innovation very well. But how could he walk one step forward and how did he begin to practice what he preached and how did he become an ar tist revolutionist in action? 119


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

Chu Ko owned many cultural identities. He was a scholar in ancient history, a researcher in decoration on bronze design, a writer, an ar tist and a critic. 10 This came from both his wide interests in creation and his improvisation in personality. However, the identity as an ar tist came in the latest, established when he was approaching 50. 11

He said his impromptu style in painting was in fact the reflection of a “free” social atmosphere and the “modern ar t at will” was the mainstream conception of the 20th centur y ar t histor y. Besides, he made comparison between the western modern ar t concept and the “freehand style” in traditional ink painting and tried to analyze the difference. What he practiced thoroughly in his “impromptu style” actually came from the early Tang dynasty “freehand style”, which at that time was already a well-rounded construction. And it could even date back to the philosophy of the “unification of mind and material”, “unification of material and individual” and “being comes from not being” in preQin period. The trackback of the thought was the “deep cultural base” which Chu thought all the modern ink painting, modern Chinese painting should possess. 12

Because of the enlightenment of the proper ty of being “headstrong”, “impromptu” and “at will”, Chu Ko had his own colors and was very unique in ar t performance. He even extended his canvas to multi-media material. Especially in the field of ink painting, he thought the innovation concept in the 8th centur y had, in fact, contained the elements of the western abstract painting and the mixture of “similarity and difference”. On the other hand, in Tang dynasty, some painters had already excelled in the confinement and entered the “free-hand zone” to liberate their feeling and imagination, which enhanced the Chinese painting from “group consciousness to individual free inspiration” and was viewed as “the predecessor of the 20th century modernism”13. Regardless of whether Chu Ko’s viewpoint was objective, what is more impor tant is that in his theory of Chinese painting

10

Hsiao Chong-Ray, “I Persist My Unifying Principle – Chu

innovation, he pointed out that total tradition or western imitation should be avoided

Ko’s Ar t Thinking and Accomplishment”, in Hunan wen

and abandoned, so that an ar t form which can fit in the modern, global world today can

11

Liu, “Chu Ko’s Modern Chinese Painting”, p. 4.

12

Chu Ko, “I Follow My Hear t and Often Break the Rules”

be developed. On the other hand, he advocated going back to the Chinese tradition and bringing out the valuable ancient humanity spirit. The concepts he got from studying both

xian, Vol. 38, 4th edition (2010), p. 45.

in Chu Ko 2005-2006, edited by Tao You-Chun (Published by the author, 2006), pp. 16-18. 13

eastern and western cultural history became the core value of his theory in modernizing Chinese painting. At the same time, it is the most impor tant guideline in Chu Ko’s creation of modern ink painting. 14 120

Chu Ko, “The Appearance of Ink and Wash”, in Modern

Art, Vol. 59(1995), p. 47. 14

Regarding the discussion on Chu Ko’s ar tistic style,

p l e a s e s e e H s i a o ’s “ T h e Wa l k o f L i n e — C h u K o ’s Humanistic Form” in Taiwan Ar t, Vol. 54(2003), pp. 42-55.


About rhe Critic | PAI Shih-Ming

藝評 簡介

白適銘 PAI Shi-Ming 白適銘教授,畢業於日本京都大學藝術史博士,現任國立台灣師範大學美術系 教授,近年來專注於台灣近現代美術、文化論述及與週邊地區文化交流等議 題,重新探討近代東亞美術發展間的文化影響關係、歷史記憶、現代性、文化 疆界與主體性建構等。主要著作包含:〈花都幻影-張義雄巴黎時期作品中的 愛與死〉、〈「戰後」如何前衛?-李仲生的現代繪畫策略與台灣戰後美術方 法論〉、〈「地方色彩」問題再議-日治時期台灣美術文化論述中的東亞視域 與主體建構〉、〈「寫生」與現代風景之形構-陳澄波早年(1913-1924)水 彩創作及其現代繪畫意識探析〉、〈「自我」表象與身體啟蒙-日治時期台 灣洋畫家自畫像試析〉、“Modernity in Agony: Contemporaneity, Landscape, and the Representation of Modern Life in Colonial Taiwanese Art”、〈行歌昔遊成古 今-林玉山「憶舊」寫生中的生命意識問題論析〉、〈林玉山有關「現代國畫」 改革意見探析-從致梁又銘信函談起〉等。

Prof. Pai Shi-Ming received his PhD in ar t histor y from Kyoto University, Japan. Currently, he is a professor of the Depar tment of Fine Ar ts at National Taiwan Normal University. In recent years, he has been focusing on the modern ar t issues in Taiwan, cultural discourses and cultural exchanges with neighboring areas, etc. He aims to reexamine the impact of the culture, historical memor y, modernity, cultural boundaries and constr uction of subjectivity on the development of modern ar t in East Asia. Some of the major publications include: “Illusionar y Shadows at the City of Light: Love and Death in Chang Yi-Hsiung’s Works From the Paris Period”, “Postwar Avant-garde? Li Chung-Sheng’s Modern Painting Strategies and the Methodology of Postwar Taiwanese Ar t”, “Modernity in Agony: Contemporaneity, Landscape, and the Representation of Modern Life in Colonial Taiwanese Ar t”, “Everlasting Poems From Past Journeys: An Analysis on the Life Consciousness in the ‘Nostalgic’ Sketches of Lin, Yu-Shan”, and others. 121


楚戈 CHU Ko

原初的結構 Primal Structure 1997 Acrylic and ink on canvas 150×153cm

122


楚戈 CHU Ko

吾道一以貫之 In the Way I Follow 1997 Acrylic and ink on canvas 144×187cm

123


楚戈 CHU Ko

垂象 In Suspense 2004 Knot 150×200cm

124


楚戈 CHU Ko

結繩的記憶 Memory of Tying the Rope 2001 Bronze 51×33×40cm

125


吳昊 WU Hao


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

吳昊 1931 年出生於中國南京

1948

就讀江蘇省立工專預備科,蘇州,中國

1978

版畫個展,版畫家畫廊,台北,台灣

1949

擔任空軍總部文書上士

1979

油畫個展,版畫家畫廊,台北,台灣

1950

國防部文康大競賽宣傳畫組第一名

1951

進入李仲生畫室習畫,結識霍剛、蕭勤、歐陽文苑等人

第六屆英國國際雙年版畫展「爵主獎」 1980

國防部文康大競賽木刻組第一名 1952

與夏陽、歐陽文苑進駐防空洞創作

1956

與夏陽、霍剛、蕭勤等人成立「東方畫會」 「中華民國四十五年度全國美展」,台北,台灣

個展,龍門畫廊,台北,台灣 中華民國版畫學會「金璽獎」

1983

個展,龍門畫廊,台北,台灣 「台北市立美術館開館展」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣

1984

「第二接觸展」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣

1957-71 第一屆至第十五屆「東方畫展」,台北,台灣

1986

個展,名門畫廊,台中,台灣

1964

1987

擔任中華民國版畫學會董事長

「國際青年雙年展」,巴黎,法國 「中國現代藝術家聯合展」,羅馬,義大利

1966

正式開始版畫創作,加入「現代版畫會」

1970

「第一屆國際版畫展」,利馬,秘魯

1971

「吳昊現代版畫展」,聚寶盆畫廊,台北,台灣

「財團法人李仲生現代繪畫文教基金會」成立,擔任董事長 1991

個展,龍門畫廊,台北,台灣 「東方、五月畫會成立三十五周年聯展」,時代畫廊,台北,

「義大利國際藝術家展」,義大利

1972

1973

台灣

「第八屆國際版畫展」,東京,日本

1992

「義大利國際版畫展」,義大利

1993/94/96 擔任國家藝文獎評審委員

「中國當代九人藝展」,米蘭藝術中心,米蘭,義大利

1994

版畫及素描個展,德國

「台灣史詩大展」,皇冠藝術中心,台北,台灣

油畫版畫個展,鴻霖畫廊,台北,台灣

1995-96 「台北國際藝術博覽會」,台北,台灣 1996

版畫個展,香港中文大學,香港,中國

1976

版畫個展,集一畫廊,香港,中國

1977

版畫個展,藝術家俱樂部,台北,台灣

「東方、五月畫會成立四十周年聯展」,高雄積禪五十藝 術中心,高雄,台灣

1997

「中國現代畫家十人展」,米蘭藝術中心,米蘭,義大利

128

「吳昊四十年創作展」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣 「高雄市立美術館開館邀請展」,高雄市立美術館,高雄,台灣

油畫版畫個展,聚寶盆畫廊,台北,台灣 1975

個展,龍門畫廊,台北,台灣

中華民國畫學會「金爵獎」

「中國畫家聯展」,明畫廊,華盛頓,美國 1974

個展,當代畫廊,台中,台灣

「吳昊的繪畫歷程展」,台灣省立美術館(今國立台灣美術館), 台中,台灣 「吳昊個展」,龍門畫廊,台北,台灣

1999

個展,帝門藝術中心,台北 / 台中,台灣


CHRONOLOGY | WU Hao

「李仲生師生聯展」,台灣省立美術館(今國立台灣美術 館),台中,台灣 2001

「人間花影」,龍門畫廊,台北,台灣 「吳昊個展」,國立中央大學藝文中心,中壢,台灣

2002

「陌上花開蝴蝶飛-吳昊油畫展」,形而上畫廊,台北,台灣 「馬年快樂」,形而上畫廊,台北,台灣

2003

「東方式的浪漫」,形而上畫廊,台北,台灣

2005

「動靜之間」,形而上畫廊,台北,台灣

2006

「花開了」,形而上畫廊,台北,台灣

2007

「陌上花兒開」,月臨畫廊,台中,台灣

2009

「吳昊個展」,月臨畫廊,台中,台灣

2010

「東方響馬」,新思惟人文空間,高雄,台灣 「心花朵朵開」,形而上畫廊,台北,台灣

2011

「SKY - 2011 亞洲版/圖展」,關渡美術館,台北,台灣

2012

「繁華的獨白」,月臨畫廊,台中,台灣 獲頒國立台北藝術大學榮譽博士學位,台北,台灣

2013

「吳昊版畫展」,關渡美術館,台北,台灣

2014

「四季刻痕」,月臨畫廊,台中,台灣 「吳昊版畫回顧展」,小畫廊,高雄,台灣 「抽象.符碼.東方情-臺灣現代藝術巨匠大展」,尊彩藝 術中心,台北,台灣

129


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

WU Hao 1932

1948

Born in Nanjing, China

High School, Suzhou, China 1949

1950

1952

1956

1974

Taipei, Taiwan

the Air Force

Solo exhibition of prints and oil paintings, Cornucopia Gallery, Taipei,

Ministry of Defence talent competition, First Prize in educational

Taiwan 1975

Kong, China

Chin, Ouyang Wen-Yuan, etc.

“Ten Contemporary Chinese Artists Exhibition”, Milan Art Center,

Ministry of Defence talent competition, First Prize in wood block

Milan, Italy

print category, Taiwan

1976

Solo exhibition of prints, Che Art Gallery, Hong Kong, China

Began painting at bomb shelter along with Ouyang Wen-Yuan and

1977

Solo exhibition of prints, Artists Club, Taipei, Taiwan

Hsia Yan

1978

Solo exhibition of prints, Print Maker's Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

Co-founder of “Ton Fan Group”, Taipei, Taiwan

1979

Solo exhibition of oil paintings, Print Maker's Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

1957-71 The 1st to 15th “Ton Fan Group Exhibition”, Taipei, Taiwan

1966

Solo exhibition of prints, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong

Began studies with Lee Chun-Shan, and met Ho Kan, and Hsiao

British International Print Biennial, Duke Award, UK

“1956 National Art Exhibition, ROC”, Taipei, Taiwan

1964

Solo exhibition of prints and oil paintings, Morrison Art Gallery,

Took a position as a copy clerk in the General Headquarters of

painting category, Taiwan 1951

“Chinese Artists Exhibition”, Min Gallery, Washington D.C., USA

Attended preparatory courses at Suzhou Provincial Vocational

1980

Solo exhibition, Lung Men Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

“International Youth Biennale”, Paris, France

Graphic Art Society of the Republic of China, Gold Seal Award,

“Chinese Modern Artists Group Exhibition”, Rome, Italy

Taiwan

Concentrated on printmaking, par ticipated in “Modern Graphic Ar t

1983

Solo exhibition, Lung Men Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

Association”, Taiwan

“Grand Opening Exhibition”, Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum, Taipei,

1970

“The 1st International Print Exhibition”, Lima, Peru

Taiwan

1971

Solo exhibition of prints, Cornucopia Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

1984

“The Second Contact”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

“Italy International Artists Exhibition”, Italy

1986

Solo exhibition, Ming Men Art Gallery, Taichung, Taiwan

“The 8th International Print Exhibition”, Tokyo, Japan

1987

Chairman of the “Graphic Art Society of the Republic of China”, Taiwan

1972

“Nine Contemporar y Chinese Ar tists Exhibition”, Milan Ar t

1973

130

Chairman of “Lee Chun Shan Modern Painting Foundation”, Taiwan

“Italy International Print Exhibition”, Italy 1991

Solo exhibition, Lung Men Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

Center, Milan, Italy

Solo exhibition, Contemporary Art Gallery, Taichung, Taiwan

The Art Society of China, Golden Pitcher Award, Taiwan

“Ton Fan and Fifth Moon – The 35th Anniversary Joint Exhibition”,

Solo exhibition of prints and sketches, Germany

Shi-Dai Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan


CHRONOLOGY | WU Hao

1992

Solo exhibition, Lung Men Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

“Blooming”, Metaphysical Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

1993/94/96 Served on Examination Committee for National Award for Arts, Taiwan

2011

“Asia Plate and Print Exhibition”, Kuandu Museum of Fine Arts, Taipei, Taiwan

1994

2012

“Flourishing Monologue”, Moon Gallery, Taichung, Taiwan

“Wu Hao – Works in 40 years”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan “Grand Opening Exhibition”, Kaohsiung Fine Ar ts Museum,

Awarded Honorar y Doctorate, Taipei National University of the

Kaohsiung, Taiwan “Epic Exhibition”, Crown Art Center, Taipei, Taiwan 1995-96 “Taipei Art Fair International”, Taipei, Taiwan 1996

1997

1999

Arts, Taipei, Taiwan 2013

“The Prints of Wu Hao”, Kuandu Museum of Fine Arts, Taipei, Taiwan

2014

“Indelibly Marked: Woodblock Printing by Wu Hao”, Moon Gallery,

“Ton Fan and Fifth Moon – The 40th Anniversary Exhibition”, Chi-

Taichung, Taiwan

Chan 50 Art Space, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

“Retrospective Exhibition of Wu Hao’s Prints”, Show Galler y,

"Wu Hao's Painting Journey", Taiwan Provincial Museum of Fine Arts

Kaohsiung, Taiwan

(now National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts), Taichung, Taiwan

“Abstract / Symbol / Oriental – Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters

Solo exhibition, Lung Men Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

of Modern Art”, Liang Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

Solo exhibition, Dimensions Art Gallery, Taipei, Taichung, Taiwan “Homage to Master Lee Chun-Shan: A Mentor and His Pupils”, National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts, Taichung, Taiwan

2001

“Shadow of Flowers”, Lung Men Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan “Solo exhibition of Wu Hao”, National Central University Ar t Center, Chungli, Taiwan

2002

“Dancing Butterflies Blooming the Paths – Wu Hao's Oil Painting Exhibition”, Metaphysical Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan “Happy New Year – Horse”, Metaphysical Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

2003

“The Eastern Romantic”, Metaphysical Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

2005

“Between Moving and Still”, Metaphysical Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

2006

“Blooming Season”, Metaphysical Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

2007

“Blooming on Footpaths in the Field: Wu Hao Oil Painting Exhibition”, Moon Gallery, Taichung, Taiwan

2009

“Wu Hao Oil Painting Exhibition”, Moon Gallery, Taichung, Taiwan

2010

“The Solo Exhibition of Wu Hao”, Sincewell Gallery, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

131


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

當代華麗容顏—談吳昊的創作

陶文岳

「在無意識中,沒有任何事物會結束,沒有任何事物會成為過 去或被遺忘……」—— 佛洛伊德《夢的解析》

吳昊的創作與「記憶」有關,這個記憶深埋藏於每個曾經因為 戰亂而被迫遷徙的中國人心中,特別是那些歷經顛沛流離苦難 的人,總會時時刻刻地從內心翻湧出鄉愁思緒。如同知名的文 學家余光中在離別家鄉二十年後,因思鄉之苦,寫下了〈鄉愁〉 新詩,寄情於母親的思念;分別以「郵票」、「船票」、「墳墓」、 「海峽」等四個象徵意象和從「小時候」到「長大」,「後來」 到「現在」等不同時空階段性的區隔互動來印證他不可解的濃 烈鄉愁。

事實上我們已知的記憶儲存訊息包含兩種類別,分為「程序型」 和「陳述型」。前者讓我們保持認識和感知的功能,並能無意 識地自然表現出來的記憶形式,後者來自於對事實認定和對世 界信念的合組功能。比較複雜的是「陳述型」的記憶又可區分

出歡愉氛圍。他的創作從過往的鄉土民間生活中擷取純樸趣味 的元素造型,環繞在故鄉風景、花朵、蝴蝶、女人與小孩的題 材,運用在他的版畫與繪畫上,畫面充滿了繁複勾勒細線描繪 的輪廓造型、裝飾與扁平式的構成、絢麗迷人的色彩、豐富動 人的故事情節等,創造出華麗吟詠、獨白式的個人風格。 132

Chr ysanthemum in Bloom

意以裝飾的手法來粉飾真正隱含於其內心的孤獨與苦悶,營造

吳昊 WU Hao 菊花朵朵開

活一切都是這麼美好自然 快樂,他是藉由繁華表象的畫面,刻

2011

其實吳昊的鄉愁不直接地表現在創作裡,觀其畫,好像世間生

Oil on linen

我的過去、現在、或未來時空穿梭旅行的意念想像與交會。

73×91cm

為「語意型」和「情節型」,分別代表著主觀事實看法和對自


ESSAY | Visages of Splendor: On the Art of Wu Hao

在五〇年代,吳昊受教於「中國繪畫現代先驅」李仲生的教導

紅綠互補的配色、或兼具民俗色彩的桃紅與土黃顏色,例如《菊

啟發,李仲生要求學生勇於追求現代繪畫精神與原創性,注重

花朵朵開》從盆花靜物溫馨的創作描繪、《蝴蝶與女孩》簇擁

素描力的表達,在在都影響吳昊的創作觀點與表現形式,其中

在群蝶飛舞中而仰首觀看的女孩、亦或是《玫瑰和茶花》滿室

印象最深刻的是要創作出屬於自己的繪畫風格。吳昊回憶:「當

爭妍綻放馨香的花朵、《曼陀林樂手》偏著頭歡樂沉醉於彈奏

時在安東街畫室,我們這一班有歐陽文苑、夏陽、金藩和我在

樂聲中的女孩、還有《鼓舞》歡愉活潑打鼓跳舞的女孩群像等,

樓下的畫室空間學畫,李老師則在樓上很少下來。剛開始他看

呈現他不同於其他藝術家的人生觀察。

我們的畫,就說:『你們每個人都長得不一樣,為什麼結果畫 出來都一樣?』於是,大家就想辦法改變,有的畫淡一點,有

其實在大自然裡,不管美醜,都有它們存在的意義與價值。從

的畫線條粗一點,這樣大家的風格就慢慢區別開來。但是李老

另外一個角度來觀看,如果放在時間行進軌跡上來檢視,吳昊

師 從 來 沒 有 修 改 過 我 們 的 畫, 就 是 不 要 我 們 畫 得 一 樣。」 李

創作的美麗歡樂作品,比對現實社會的冷漠真實,讓我們呈現

仲生在教學過程中對於吳昊所畫的人物造型和動態表現稱讚有

視覺與心理距離的迷惑,恰似「浮光掠影」顯現的虛像,不就

加,也讓他領悟了使用線條的創作魅力。

是人生如夢的最佳詮釋。

今日我們看著吳昊的版畫或是繪畫創作,不管是刀刻的線條,

六〇年代的台灣,呈現了風起雲湧的藝術改革運動,在當時藝

還是繪畫的線條,就像敘事詩一般,延伸出藝術家的創作精神

壇上號稱「八大響馬」的吳昊和其他藝術戰友們共同發起組織

與情感表現。吳昊創作的細黑線條在繁複造型與強烈色彩交織

「東方畫會」,意氣風發地和另一個知名的現代藝術團體「五

的畫面中,起了穩定的作用。這些線條不踰矩,在有限的創作

月畫會」各勝擅場,衝鋒陷陣於國內外藝壇,參與台灣第一波

範圍內稍作變形,扮演好造型輪廓的約束功能,也從中流露出

的現代繪畫運動,影響台灣現代藝術深遠。時值今日看來,當

藝術家細膩、耐心和理性的一面。而色彩如同一塊塊的記憶拼

年許多投入現代藝術運動的畫家們早已在台灣藝壇各自擁有一

圖,自由典雅的表達主觀和感性的情感,使他的繪畫主動散發

片天空,然而當年豪氣干雲的創作衝勁,依舊存在於每個人內

出如詩學般的律動視覺效果。

心深處凝聚不散。目前擔任李仲生基金會總舵手的吳昊,除了 創作之外,依舊積極推動著基金會的業務,每年舉辦比賽發掘

法國攝影大師布列松(Henri Car tier-Bresson, 1908-2004)喜歡

藝術新銳,為台灣的藝術發展持續努力貢獻。而在他創作領域

利用直覺按下快門來攝影,捕捉決定性瞬間的影像。他認為時

上,則始終如一地扮演著獨特藝術家的角色。

間定格在最佳狀態裡,就能夠拍出感人的作品。我覺得吳昊也 是選擇性地停格在他人生最美好的記憶中,植基於東方情感的 意象表現方式。他避開了悲傷憂鬱的情感表現,喜歡大量使用 133


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

Visages of Splendor: On the Art of WU Hao

Written by

TAO Wen-Yueh

“Nothing can be brought to an end in the unconscious; nothing can cease or be forgotten” Freud, Dream Psychology

Wu Hao’s works are related to memories buried deep within the hear t of every Chinese individual. This homesickness surfaces from time to time from the hear ts of those who have suffered through the pangs of war and exile – just as renowned writer Yu KwangChung composed “Nostalgia” after twenty years in exile as an expression of his longing for his mother, using four symbolic images of stamps, ferr y tickets, graves, and the sea shore to witness his inextricable homesickness through the interaction and separation of the four temporal phases of youth, adulthood, then, and now.

We know that the storage of memories can be classified into two types: procedural memor y, and declarative memor y. The former allows us to maintain cognition and emotion, and is capable of unconscious and natural expression. The latter is a combined

Wu Hao’s homesickness is not expressed directly in his works. Looking on his paintings gives the impression that all things in life are beautiful, natural, and joyous. Wu uses the appearance 134

Red Flowers

about the past, present, and future self through time.

2008

of subjective facts and the meeting point of ideas and imaginations

Oil on linen

into semantic and episodic memor y, variously representing views

81×81cm

world. Declarative memory is more complex and can be subdivided

吳昊 WU Hao 紅花朵朵

function that derives from factual cognition and beliefs about the


ESSAY | Visages of Splendor: On the Art of Wu Hao

of prosperousness and purposefully decorative techniques to

Looking at Wu’s prints or paintings now, whether in the engraved

conceal the loneliness and gloom hidden in his hear t, creating

or the drawn lines, there is a sense of narrative poetry from which

an atmosphere of delight. His works capture rustic and playful

the ar tist’s spirit of creativity and emotional expression extends.

elements of style from folk life. Nostalgic homely landscapes, floral

The fine black lines in Wu’s pieces stabilize compositions with

blooms, butterflies, women, and children surround his drawings

interlinking and complex stylization and strong colors. These lines

and prints. The surface images present complex, detailed contours,

do not transgress. Instead, they subtly alter within the boundaries

decorations, flat configurations, brilliant stunning colors, rich and

of the piece, performing the function of constraining contours. They

moving plots, creating a style that is at once enchantingly gorgeous

fur ther reveal the delicate, patient, and rational side of the ar tist.

and monologist.

The colors are like pieces of a memory puzzle, freely and elegantly expressing subjective and emotional feelings, allowing his works to

During the 1960s, Wu Hao was schooled by the vanguard of

actively emanate a sense of poetic visual rhythms.

contemporar y Chinese ar t, Lee Chun-Shan. Lee demanded that students fearlessly pursue the spirit and originality of modern ar t,

French photography master Henri Car tier-Bresson (1908-2004)

and focused on expressiveness. These ideas influenced Wu Hao’s

liked to shoot by instinct, capturing images of decisive instants. He

creative perspective and expressive form. Most impor tantly, students

believed that time stopped in an ideal state creates moving images.

were encouraged to create their own style. Wu remembers: “At the

I believe that Wu has also chosen to stop time at the point of his

time in the Andong Street studio, our class included Ouyang Wen-

most pleasant memories, based on the imagistic means of oriental

Yuan, Hsia Yan, and Chin Fan. We worked in the downstairs studio,

expression. He avoids sadness and depression, and prefers to use

whereas Lee was mostly upstairs and rarely came down. At the

large quantities of complementary reds interspersed with greens, or

beginning, when he saw our pieces, he’d say ‘You each have different

folk-like hues of fuchsia and ear then yellow. For instance, the cozy

appearances, so why do your works all look the same?’ So everyone

depiction of potted still life in “Blossoming Chr ysanthemums”; the

tried to find ways to change. Some drew lighter, some made their

girl with the upraised head, surrounded by butterflies in “Butterfly

lines thicker. So ever yone’s styles gradually grew distinct. But Lee

and Girl”; wildly blooming buds in “Roses and Camelias”; the girl

never made changes to our pieces. The point was that they had to

who dips her head, immersed in sounds of music in “The Mandolin

be unique.” During the process, Lee praised the style and dynamism

Player”; or the girls who dance and drum animatedly in “Drum and

of Wu’s characters, and taught him the charms of using lines.

Dance” – all these express his unique point of view, distinct from other ar tists. 135


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

In nature, whether beautiful or repulsive, all things have their significance and value. From another angle, placed in the progress of time, Wu Hao’s joyous and beautiful creations, when contrasted with cold social reality, allow us to examine the confusion arising from the distance between the visual and the psychological. Just as light and shadow on water is illusory, so Hao’s works are the best interpretation of life as dreamscape.

Taiwan in the 1960s was rife with ar tistic upheavals and revolution. At the time , the so-called “Eight Great Outlaws” of the ar t community, including Wu Hao and his ar tist friends, gathered together to form the “Ton Fan Group”, to stand proudly against the other renowned modern ar t organization, “Fifth Moon Group”. Active domestically and broad, the Ton Fan Group took par t in many of Taiwan’s first wave of modern ar tistic movements and had profound long-lasting influence on Taiwan’s modern ar t scene. Looking back today, many of the ar tists who threw themselves into the modern ar t movement are now well established in the Taiwanese ar t scene. However, the same passion and impetuous drive that spurred them in the past remain untarnished in their hear ts. Wu Hao is currently head of the Lee Chun-Shan Modern Paiting Foundation, and actively pursues his ar t in addition to his duties as chairman. Each year, contests are held to promote fresh ar tistic talent in an unbroken effor t to fur ther Taiwan’s ar tistic development. In the realm of his craft, Wu continues to play the role of a unique ar tist. 136


About the Critic | TAO Wen-Yueh

藝評 簡介

陶文岳 TAO Wen-Yueh 陶文岳,為專業畫家、藝術評論、獨立策展人,1961 年生於基 隆。1987 年國立藝專美術科西畫組畢業。1994 年法國巴黎國 立高等裝飾藝術學院 ( ENSAD ) 空間藝術系碩士畢業。2007 年 迄今擔任國立台灣藝術大學美術系兼任講師。2011 年擔任國立 台北教育大學藝術與造型設計學系兼任講師。旅法 20 年。從 事繪畫創作,專研當代藝術評論與藝術研究欣賞。個展十餘次, 聯展百餘次於國內外。1994-2014 年間出版個人畫集九冊。著 有《抽象.前衛.李仲生》。2012-2013 年於和泰智庫撰寫〈藝 術.藝述〉專欄。藝術評論文章及報導曾發表於國內外各相關 藝術雜誌與畫展畫集。

Tao Wen-Yueh, born in Keelung in 1961, is a professional painter, ar t critic, and independent curator. In 1987, he graduated from the Depar tment of Ar ts at the National Taiwan Univer sity of Ar ts. In 1994, he obtained Master’s degree from the Spatial Ar t Depar tment at the École Nationale Supérieure des Ar ts Décoratifs (Paris, France). In 2011, Tao star ted lecturing at the Depar tment of Ar ts and Design at the National Taipei University of Education. Later, he moved to Fr ance and lived there for 20 year s. He engaged in painting, specialized in contemporar y ar t criticism and ar t appreciation. Tao held a dozen solo exhibitions and over hundred group exhibitions at home and abroad. During the period from 1994 to 2014, he published nine exhibition catalogues. He also published “Abstract. Avant-Garde. Lee Chun-Shan”. His ar ticle reviews and repor ts have been published in relevant domestic and international ar t magazines and exhibition catalogues. 137


吳昊 WU Hao

蝴蝶與女孩 Butterfly and Girl 1995 Oil on linen 62×62cm

138


吳昊 WU Hao

紅花朵朵 Red Flowers 2008 Oil on linen 81×81cm

139


吳昊 WU Hao

鼓舞 The Youth of Dance 2008 Oil on linen 130×194cm

140


吳昊 WU Hao

菊花朵朵開 Chrysanthemum in Bloom 2011 Oil on linen 73×91cm

141


劉國松 LIU Kuo-Sung


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

劉國松 1932 年出生於中國安徽

1951

畢業於台灣省立師範學院附屬中學(今國立台灣師範大學 附屬高級中學),台北,台灣

1956

「中國之新聲」巡迴展,美國 1968

畢業於台灣省立師範大學(今國立台灣師範大學)藝術 系,台北,台灣

於西雅圖藝術博物館舉辦個展,西雅圖,美國 1969

與郭東榮、李芳枝、郭豫倫等人創立「五月畫會」,宜蘭,台灣 1957

代表台灣參加「亞洲青年美展」,東京,日本

1959

代表台灣參加「聖保羅國際雙年美展」,聖保羅,巴西

1960 1962

1963 1965

1970

代表台灣參加「巴黎青年雙年美展」,巴黎,法國

1971

受聘擔任私立中原大學建築系專任講師,中壢,台灣

1972

「第一屆國際美展」,西貢,越南

受聘擔任香港中文大學藝術系教授,香港,中國 「中國繪畫之新方向-十一位當代中國藝術家聯展」,肯 薩斯州立大學藝術博物館, 美國

「中國現代繪畫展」,國立歷史博物館,台北,台灣

1974

「當代中國之繪畫與書法聯展」,耶魯大學美術館,美國

「現代繪畫赴美展覽預展」,國立歷史博物館,台北,台灣

1975

「十個中國先進藝術家聯展」,東京大都會博物館,東京,日本

《雲深不知處》獲香港藝術館收藏,香港,中國

1976

當選國際藝術教育協會亞洲區會會長,台北,台灣

擔任「第五屆全國美展」評審委員,台北,台灣

1978

擔任台北市立美術館籌備委員,台北,台灣

於國立台灣藝術館(今國立台灣藝術教育館)舉行個展,

1981

「五月畫會與東方畫會二十五週年聯展」,台灣省立博物 館(今國立台灣博物館),台北,台灣

由文星書店出版論文集《中國現代畫的路》,台北,台灣

1983

於拉古拉藝術協會美術館舉行個展,加州,美國

1984

於美國各主要城市,美國

於北京中國美術館舉行個展,北京,中國 「第六屆全國美展」,北京,中國 獲北京「第六屆全國美展」特別獎,中國

1985

由文星書店出版論文集《臨摹.寫生.創作》,台北,台灣

獲邀擔任北京中央工藝美術學院講師,教授水墨,北京, 中國

1966-68 「中國新山水傳統展」於美國各主要博物館和美術館巡

《沈山人的呼吸裡》受邀參加法國五月沙龍,於巴黎大皇

迴展出,美國

宮展出,法國

於納爾遜美術博物館、喬治亞大學美術館、一百號畫廊、

獲東京都美術館國際水墨畫展獎,日本

諾德勒斯畫廊、明尼蘇達州立大學柯夫曼美術館舉辦個 展,美國 144

獲邀擔任威斯康辛史道特州立大學藝術系客座教授,美國 於科隆東方博物館舉行個展,科隆,德國

獲美國洛克斐勒三世基金會兩年環球旅行獎金,巡迴展出

1967

《地球何許?》獲得「主流’69 國際美展」繪畫首獎,美國 《子夜的太陽》獲史丹佛大學美術館收藏,美國

台北,台灣

1966

成立「中國水墨畫學會」,台北,台灣

1987

於湖南長沙市國畫館、山西大學美術館、山東濰坊博物館 舉行個展,中國


CHRONOLOGY | LIU Kuo-Sung

1988

於「水墨化研討會」發表論文《當前中國畫的觀念問題》,

「現代的衝擊-劉國松畫展」,新竹、台中、台南,台灣

北京,中國

「一個東西南北人-劉國松教授現代水墨畫展」,中央研

1989

擔任北京「全國現代書畫大賽」評審委員,北京,中國

1990

於台北市立美術館舉行回顧展,台北,台灣

1991

究院,台北,台灣 「劉國松創作回顧展」,泰勒版畫院,新加坡

「東方.五月畫會三十五週年聯展」,時代畫廊,台北, 台灣

「劉國松師生展」,亞里桑那州立大學,美國 2006

術館,中國

獲頒李仲生現代繪畫文教基金會「現代繪畫成就獎」,台灣 1992

「宇宙心印-劉國松現代水墨畫展」,桃園縣政府文化局,

擔任東海大學客座教授,台中,台灣

桃園,台灣

「六十回顧展」,台灣省立美術館(今國立台灣美術館),

「新中國山水畫展」,哈佛大學,美國

台中,台灣 1996

擔任國立台南藝術學院(今國立台南藝術大學)造型藝術

2007

「劉國松研究展」,國立歷史博物館,台北,台灣

2008

獲得第十二屆國家文藝獎,台灣

「中華五千年文明藝術展」,古根漢美術館,紐約,美國

2009

至西南大學與四川美術學院授課,中國

「展望 2000 -中國現代藝術展」,聖佩提展覽教堂,呂貝克,

「宇宙心印:劉國松繪畫一甲子」,國父紀念館,台北, 台灣

德國 1999 2000 2001

「宇宙即我心」,中山國家藝廊,台北,台灣 赴西藏大學授課,西藏,中國

「宇宙心印-劉國松七十回顧展」,並巡迴於智邦藝術中 心、中國歷史博物館、上海美術館、廣東美術館及台北京 華城,台灣、中國

2003

「劉國松七十回顧展」,漢雅軒,香港,中國

2004

「劉國松的宇宙」,香港藝術館,香港,中國

2005

2010 2012

「西疆擴遠:劉國松畫展」,成都現代藝術館,中國 「無限中華藝術大展」,紐約,美國

2002

「宇宙心印:劉國松繪畫一甲子」,北京故宮博物院,北 京,中國

研究所所長,台南,台灣 1998

「心源造化:劉國松創作回顧展」,杭州博物館、西湖美

於 Michael Goedhuis 畫廊舉行個展,倫敦,英國 「一個東西南北人-劉國松 80 回顧展」,國立台灣美術 館,台中,台灣

2014

「抽象世代:朱德群、林壽宇、劉國松、蕭勤」,亞洲現 代美術館,台中,台灣 「抽象.符碼.東方情-臺灣現代藝術巨匠大展」,尊彩 藝術中心,台北,台灣

出席牛津大學主辦的「現代中國藝術學術研討會」,英國 145


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

LIU Kuo-Sung 1932

1951

Born in Anhui, China

Graduated from the Affiliated High School of Taiwan Provincial College of Education (now National Taiwan Normal University), Taipei, Taiwan

1956

“New Voice from China”, Museums of American universities, USA 1968

Graduated from the Fine Arts Department of Taiwan Provincial University of Education (now National Taiwan Normal University), Taipei, Taiwan

Solo exhibition, Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, USA 1969

Together with Kuo Tong-Jung, Li Fang, Kuo Yu-Lung and others Represented Taiwan in “The Young Asian Artists”, Tokyo, Japan

1959

Represented Taiwan in “The Biennale de Sao Paulo”, Museu de Art Moderna, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Stanford University, USA 1970

1960 1962

1965

“The 1st International Art Exhibition”, Saigon, Vietnam

Art Gallery, USA 1975

“Ten Chinese Leading Artists”, Metropolitan Museum, Tokyo, Japan

Taipei, Taiwan

1976

Elected as Asian representative to the International Art Education Association, Taipei, Taiwan

USA”, National Museum of History, Taipei, Taiwan

1978

Named board member of the Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

“Clouds Amidst Deep Mountains” collected by the Hong Kong

1981

“Fifth Moon and Ton Fan Group – The 25th Anniversar y Joint

Museum of Art, Hong Kong, China

Exhibition”, Taiwan Provincial Museum of Fine Arts (now National

Adjudicator of “The 5th National Art Exhibition of Taipei”, Taipei, Taiwan

Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts), Taichung, Taiwan

Solo exhibition, National Center of Arts (now National Taiwan Arts

1983

Solo exhibition, National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China

Education Center), Taipei, Taiwan

1984

“The 6th National Art Exhibition”, Beijing, China

Bookstore, Taipei, Taiwan

Received Special Prize at the 6th National Art Exhibition, China 1985

“Salon de Mai”, Grand Palais, Paris, France

Received the John D. Rockefeller 3rd Fund, Award to travel for two

Received International Ink Painting Exhibition Award at the Tokyo

Published “Copy, Realism, Creation”, Wen-Hsing Bookstore, Taipei, Taiwan

Metropolitan Art Museum, Japan 1987

1966-68 “The New Chinese Landscape”, touring leading museums and Solo exhibition, Nelson Gallery of Art, Atkins Museum, Georgia University Art Gallery, Gallery 100, Lee Nordness Galleries, Coffman Gallery, USA

Solo exhibition, National Painting Museum of Hunan Province, University Art Gallery of Shansi University, Weifang Museum, Hunan,

galleries in the USA

146

Visiting Professor, China Institute of Arts and Handicrafts, Beijing, China

Solo exhibition, Laguna Beach Museum, California, USA years around the world, USA

1967

“Contemporary Chinese Painting and Calligraphy”, Yale University

“Chinese Modern Painting Exhibition”, National Museum of History,

Published “The Road to Modern Chinese Painting”, Wen-Hsing 1966

“New Directions in Chinese Painting – 11 Contemporary Chinese Artists”, University of Kansas Art Museum, Kansas, USA

1974

“Pre-exhibition of the Travelling Exhibition of Modern Painting to 1963

Professor at the Fine Ar ts Depar tment of Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

1972

Lectured in the Department of Architecture, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli, Taiwan

Visiting Professor, University of Winsconsin-Staut, Wisconsin, USA Solo exhibition, Museum of East Asian Art, Cologne, Germany

1971

Represented Taiwan in “The Premiere Biennale de Paris”, Musee d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Paris, France

“Which is Earth?”, Mainstream ’69, First Prize, USA “The Mid-Night Sun” collected by the Cantor Ar ts Center at

founded the “Fifth Moon Group”, Yilan, Taiwan 1957

Established “Chinese Painting Study Society”, Taipei, Taiwan

Shansi, Shandong, China 1988

Published “Some Conceptual Questions in Contemporary Chinese Painting”, Chinese Painting Research Institute, Beijing, China


CHRONOLOGY | LIU Kuo-Sung

1989

Adjudicator of the “National Modern Painting Competition”, Beijing, China

1990

Retrospective exhibition, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

1991

“Ton Fan and Fifth Moon – The 35th Anniversary Joint Exhibition”,

1992

“Rebel as Creator : The Ar t of Liu Kuo-Sung and His Students”, Arizona State University, USA 2006

Shi-Dai Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

West Lake Art Museum, Hangzhou, China

Lee Chun-Shan Modern Painting Foundation, Achievement Award

“The Universe in the Mind – A Retrospective of Liu Kuo-Sung”,

for Modern Painting, Taiwan

Modern Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

Guest Professor, Depar tment of Fine Ar ts, Tunghai University,

“New China Landscape”, Harvard University, Boston, USA

Taichung, Taiwan

2007

“A Sixty-Year Retrospective”, Taiwan Provincial Museum of Fine Arts 1996 1998

“The Universe in the Mind – 60 Years of Painting by Liu Kuo-Sung”, Palace Museum, Beijing, China

(now National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts), Taichung, Taiwan

2008

Received the 12th National Award for the Arts, Taiwan

Dean of Graduate School of Plastic Arts, National Tainan College of

2009

Lectured at Southwest University and Sichuan Fine Arts Institute, China

Arts (now Tainan National University of the Arts), Tainan, Taiwan

“The Universe in the Mind – 60 Years of Painting by Liu Kuo-Sung”,

“An Exhibition of the Ar t of Liu Kuo-Sung”, National Museum of

National Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall, Taipei, Taiwan

History, Taipei, Taiwan

2010

Solo exhibition, Michael Goedhuis Gallery, London, UK

“China 5000 Years”, Guggenheim Museum, New York, USA

2012

“Liu Kuo-Sung 80th Bir thday Retrospective Exhibition”, National

“Vision 2000”, St-Petri-Ausstellungskirche, Lübeck, Germany 1999

“Liu Kuo-Sung Retrospective Exhibition”, Hangzhou Museum, The

“The Universe and My Heart”, Zhongshan Art Gallery of National

Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts, Taichung, Taiwan 2014

“An Era of Abstraction: Chu Teh-Chun, Richard Lin, Liu Kuo-Sung,

Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall, Taipei, Taiwan

Hsiao Chin”, Asia Museum of Modern Art, Taichung, Taiwan

2000

Lectured at Tibet University, Tibet, China

“Abstract / Symbol / Oriental – Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of

2001

“The West is Far Away: Paintings by Liu Kuo-Sung”, Chengdu

Modern Art", Liang Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

Contemporary Art Museum, Chengdu, China “China Without Borders”, Sotheby’s Exhibition Hall, New York, USA 2002

“The Universe in the Mind – A Retrospective of Liu Kuo-Sung”, Accton Ar ts Center, Taipei Living Mall, Taiwan; Beijing Histor y Museum, Shanghai Art Museum, Guangdong Museum of Art, China

2003

“A Seventy-Year Retrospective”, Hanzart TZ Gallery, Hong Kong, China

2004

“Liu Kuo-Sung – A Universe of His Own”, Hong Kong Museum of Art, Hong Kong, China

2005

Par ticipated at the conference on Modern Chinese Ar t, Oxford University, Oxford, UK “Modern Impact: Liu Kuo-Sung”, Hsinchu, Taichung, Tainan, Taiwan “A Man of All Worlds”, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan “Creation in Retrospect”, Singapore Tylor Print Institute, Singapore

147


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

文化認同與中國水墨畫:劉國松六十年的 藝術探索 文

李君毅

劉國松常用的一方印章上,鐫刻著「一個東西南北人」的字句。 此印文具體而微地反映了在其藝術創作歷程中,他所面對有關 「東方」與「西方」、「中國」與「台灣」,以及「傳統」與「現 代」等文化課題的挑戰。從劉國松多年的繪畫創作與藝術論述 可見,他以高掌遠蹠的氣魄識見作出回應,不但為其作品的文 化身份尋求定位,並且力圖創建水墨畫興滅舉廢的現代轉化。

原籍山東的劉國松,1932 年生於安徽蚌埠。經過多年戰亂的顛 沛流離,作為一個北方人的他,在 1949 年隻身來到偏陲南隅 的台灣。劉國松於師範大學完成藝術學習後,便義無反顧地挑 戰當時主宰藝壇的保守勢力,成為了台灣現代美術運動的領導 人物。他和五月畫會的同道們,為求踵武發揚中國繪畫的傳統, 不遺餘力地引入西方的藝術觀念與技巧。

劉國松早期的繪畫創作與藝術論述,皆濡染了西方現代主義的 觀念,諸如對當下的執著、個人主義的浪漫情懷、歷史進化論 的信念、嶄新科技的追求,以及人文主義的個性解放。 但不同

148

Impression of Sunset 9

他們的模仿行為及崇洋心態。

劉國松 LIU Kuo-Sung 日落的印象之九

常把批評的矛頭指向那些跟隨歐美現代藝術風潮起舞者,痛責

1972

有違藝術創作的本質。因此他不但對保守陣營展開攻擊,更經

185.5×46.2cm

著嚴肅批判的態度。劉國松堅信若捨棄傳統而附麗於西方,實

Ink on paper

於五四運動的先驅們,他對盲目求新與全盤西化的作為,秉持


ESSAY | Cultural Identity and Chinese Ink Painting : Liu Kuo-Sung’s Sixties Years of Artistic Exploration

劉國松通過繪畫技巧的實驗與抽象形式的探索,矢志創造一種

劉國松創建中國繪畫新傳統的樂觀信念,顯然帶有濃厚的民族

既「中國」又「現代」的藝術表現方式。他強調傳統的紙筆墨,

思想及愛國精神。這驅使他倡導一種融合傳統與現代的繪畫創

以求確立中國文化身份的認同。在其六十年的藝術創作生涯

作, 並 將 之 命 名 為「 現 代 水 墨 畫 」。 自 八 十 年 代 開 始, 劉 國

中,劉國松一直秉持著改革與復興水墨畫傳統的理念。他六十

松通過在大陸各大城市的成功展覽,積極推動現代水墨畫的發

年代發展的大筆觸寫意風格,即利用抽象性的書法元素使畫作

展。隨著跟中國的交流連繫不斷增加,他的近作在形式技巧與

兼具中國與現代的特質。至於他描繪宇宙星體的所謂「太空畫

文化內涵上,更彰顯出傳統價值的重要性。劉國松使用富於表

系列」創作,則踰越了俗世中東方與西方的界限,賦予其獨創

現性的藝術語言,窮形盡相地描繪中國各地的山水面貌,像其

性的視覺語言普遍性的價值。劉國松後期的作品,利用饒有天

西藏、九寨溝及張家界等系列作品,在在流露他對祖國的深厚

趣的水拓法及漬墨法,進一步融合傳統有關自然的哲學與美學

情感。

觀念以及現代的環保意識。 作為一個藝術創作者與美術教育家,劉國松享有崇高的名聲及 事實上劉國松強調傳統,以及他選擇水墨畫的媒材進行創作,

深遠的影響。他激發起新一代中國藝術家創造意識的覺醒,特

涉及到如何界定現代「中國」藝術的問題。自一個世紀多以來,

別是孕育了水墨畫如百花齊放的實驗及創新。近十年來劉國松

中國經歷了西方現代文明的衝擊,傳統的社會結構與文化價值

先後在北京故宮博物院、中國美術館、國立台灣美術館及國立

瀕於崩潰,從而導致嚴重的認同危機。中國藝術家遂在一種文

歷史博物館舉行盛大的回顧展,足見兩岸美術界與學術界對其

化身份失落的狀況下,競相採用西洋繪畫的媒材技巧,乞靈於

六十年創作生涯的肯定,同聲相應地 頌揚他橫跨東方與西方、

歐美現 代藝術以求取個人創作的定位。劉國松堅持中國紙筆墨

傲視中國與台灣、融合傳統與現代的藝術成就。目睹中國的政

的傳統繪畫材料,其實跟林風眠 (1900-1991)、朱屺瞻 (1892-

治與經濟在世界舞台上的地位日增,他更堅信伴隨「中國世紀」

1996)、李可染 (1907-1989)、丁衍庸 (1902-1978) 等前輩畫家

的到來,水墨畫必可建構輝煌燦爛的新傳統。已屆杖朝之年的

所走過的藝術道路不謀而合。他們都是在學院接受西洋畫的訓

劉國松,其堅守傳統而勇於革新的藝術追求,將繼續在廿一世

練後,卻不約而同地放棄了油畫而轉用水墨的媒材,結果成功

紀成為中國水墨畫除舊佈新的動力泉源。

創造出具有現代意義的中國繪畫風格。

劉國松論證他的藝術創作,特別針對中國水墨畫文化定位的問 題,標榜傳統的重要意義。他認為數百年來的中國雖被封建保 守的思想所腐蝕,然而通過重新發揚民族的精粹,其革故鼎新 的傳統將可挑戰強勢的西方文明。劉國松所抱持的基本觀點, 就是世界上的美術史進程,存在著 「西方」跟 「東方」或「中 國」這兩條並行的發展軌跡。他進一步闡析,指出無論西方或 中國美術史的發展,根據各自的思想觀念與藝術媒界,都是從 寫實經過變形寫意而走向抽象意境的自由表現。劉國松深信這 兩條發展方向,將 趨於一個大一統的世界文化,而中國藝術家 可以對此作出重大的貢獻。 149


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

Cultural Identity and Chinese Ink Painting: LIU Kuo-Sung’s Sixty Years of Artistic Exploration Written by

LEE Chun-Yi

One of the seals Liu Kuo-Sung frequently uses bears the phrase Yige dong xi nan bei ren, which literally means “a Man of East, West, South and Nor th.” As an absolute epitome of his ar tistic exploration, the inscription on the seal pointedly suggests the cultural dilemmas he confronted concerning questions and conflicts between “East” and “West,” “China” and “Taiwan,” as well as “tradition” and “modernity.” Liu Kuo-Sung’s critical and insightful responses to these challenges, as reflected in both his paintings and writings, contribute to his ar tistic triumph in shaping the cultural identity of his work and in revitalizing the shuimo (ink painting) tradition.

Liu Kuo-Sung, a native of Shandong, was born in Bangbu, Anhui province in 1932. After years of deprivation in war time China, as a beifang ren (man from the nor th), he moved southwards to Taiwan in 1949. Liu Kuo-Sung completed his ar t training at the Taiwan Normal University and became a pivotal figure in the modern ar t movement that strived to over throw the prevailing conser vatism

moder nism, such as a preoccupation with the present, the 150

Behind a Green Tree the Sun Climbs

ar tistic career bear the imprint of the familiar notions of Western

2006

Liu Kuo-Sung’s paintings and writings from the early stage of his

89.5×57.5cm

from the West to enrich the tradition of Chinese painting.

Ink on paper

were enthusiastic in introducing new ar tistic ideas and techniques

劉國松 LIU Kuo-Sung 日上綠樹頭

in the ar t world of Taiwan. He and his Fifth Moon Group comrades


ESSAY | Cultural Identity and Chinese Ink Painting : Liu Kuo-Sung’s Sixties Years of Artistic Exploration

romantic affirmation of the self, the positivist belief in the forward

Facing the long-standing question that deals with the cultural

movement of histor y, the confidence in the beneficial possibilities

identification of modern “Chinese” ar t, Liu Kuo-Sung’s emphasis on

of new technologies, and the ideal of freedom defined within the

and adoption of the ink painting media illuminates his commitment

framework of a broad humanism. But unlike many of his modernist

and dedication to tradition. For the past century or so the Chinese

predecessors from the May Four th Movement, Liu Kuo-Sung took

have gone through an identity crisis that is the result from the

a critical attitude towards an indiscriminate search for “newness”

disintegration of traditional social structures and cultural values. The

from the West. His asser tion was that the Chinese ar tists who

problems of self-identity baffled many ar tists in China, causing them

embraced the novelties of Western ar t without reflecting on their

to vacillate between the Western oil and Chinese ink media. Liu

own tradition violated the principles of ar tistic creativity. Therefore,

Kuo-Sung’s response to the problems was not different from those

Liu Kuo-Sung not only sustained an antagonistic attitude towards

of Lin Fengmian (1900-1991), Zhu Qizhan (1892-1996), Li Keran

the conser vative camp but he especially directed his criticisms at

(1907-1989), Ding Yanyong (1902-1978), and many others. They all

the timeser vers of modern ar t, denouncing their “modernity” as

abandoned Western media after having been trained as oil painters

second-hand imitations of Western ar t trends and ideas.

in ar t schools, and the decision to do so later proved to be the master-strokes of their ar tistic careers.

Liu Kuo-Sung devoted himself to the creation of an ar t form that is both “Chinese” and “modern,” engaging in a dialogue with tradition

Liu Kuo-Sung sought to justify his painting practice by underscoring

through experimentation on the technical means of media and

the impor tance of tradition in defining the cultural identity of

exploration of abstraction. He glorified the use of the ink brush

Chinese ink painting. For him, Chinese cultural tradition, though

and xuan paper in his search for a Chinese identity. Liu Kuo-

afflicted with a spiritual disease for hundreds of years, could be re-

Sung’s initiative and drive to contribute to the revitalization and

created while preser ving the national essence to challenge the

revalidation of ink painting tradition has dominated over sixty years

dominant Western civilization. His basic viewpoint was that there are

of ar tistic creativity. In his semi-abstract landscapes of the 1960s,

two painting lineages in the world, the “Western” and the “Eastern,”

he demonstrates how the calligraphic qualities of abstraction make

or the “Chinese,” and from this he developed the arguments about

his works both “Chinese” and “modern.” His ar tistic approach of

their overall directions of evolution and their characteristics of

viewing the planets from outer space from his so-called “Space

pictorial representation in different historical stages. Liu Kuo-Sung

Series” also allows him to transcend the ear thly boundaries of “East”

elucidated that both Western and Chinese paintings had emerged

and “West” while infusing his original and personal style of ink

from representational realism towards defor mation or xieyi

painting with a new universal appeal. Later works by Liu Kuo-Sung

(sketch conceptualism), and ultimately towards free expressions of

that utilize the intriguing shuituo (water rubbing) and zimo (steeped

abstraction according to their disparate ideologies and media. These

ink) techniques fur ther explore the representational possibilities of

two painting lineages, he believed, would merge together in a new

the ink painting media, through which he incorporates traditional

world culture, in which Chinese ar tists could play a significant, if not

philosophical and aesthetic concept of naturalness with modern-day

leading, role.

environmental concerns. 151


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

Liu Kuo-Sung’s optimistic vision of a new preponderant tradition of Chinese painting, which is evidently filled with patriotic passion, galvanized his advocacy of the practice of xiandai shuimo (modern ink painting), a term he coined to denote an amalgamation of tradition and modernity. Since the 1980s, he has been an active proponent of modern ink painting in mainland China through his successful and far-reaching exhibitions in major cities across the countr y. Accompanying an increasing obsession and engagement with China, Liu Kuo-Sung’s technical reference and cultur al commitment to the ink painting tradition became even more pronounced in his recent wor ks. In his render ing of specific geographic landscapes of his beloved countr y, such as those in his Tibet, Jiuzhaiguo and Zhangjiajie series, he inser ts obvious, representational elements into his expressive and abstract ar tistic language.

As an ar tist and an ar t educator, Liu Kuo-Sung enjoys widespread fame and influence in China. He has inspired young generations of Chinese ar tists to explore new creative directions, and in par ticular, he has fostered the emergence of exciting experiments and innovations in ink painting. His retrospective exhibitions at the Beijing Palace Museum, National Ar t Museum of China, National Taiwan Museum of Fine Ar ts and National Taiwan Museum of Histor y in the past decade demonstrate the honor and esteem he has received in ar t and academic circles across the Straits for his sixty years of ar tistic career, which has spanned from the East to the West, and from Taiwan to China. Acknowledging the rise of Taiwan and China as rising powers on the world stage, Liu KuoSung affirms his belief that a new tradition of ink painting will prevail with the arrival of the “Chinese Centur y.” Now in his eighties, his ar tistic endeavors and creative pursuits remain impor tant sources of inspiration for the continual process of renewal and invigoration of Chinese ink painting in the 21st century.

152


About the Critic | LEE Chun-Yi

藝評 簡介

李君毅 LEE Chun-Yi 李君毅先後於香港中文大學藝術系與東海大學美術研究所隨劉 國松習現代水墨畫。獲美國亞利桑那州州立大學中國藝術史博 士。曾任鳳凰城美術館中國繪畫博士後研究員。現任教於台灣 師範大學美術系。李君毅有關劉國松之研究出版包括《宇宙心 印:劉國松的藝術與思想》、《劉國松畫語錄》及《劉國松研 究文選》等。另其英文論著有《仙筆:道教與沈周之藝術》及《中 國繪畫中情愛生死之隱喻》。

Lee Chun-Yi studied modern Chinese ink painting from Liu KuoSung at the Chinese University of Hong Kong and the Depar tment of Fine Ar ts at Tunghai University, Taiwan. He received his PhD in Chinese ar t history from Arizona State University. Lee was a postdoctoral fellow at the Phoenix Ar t Museum and currently teaches at National Taiwan Normal University. Lee’s publications on the study of Liu Kuo-Sung include: “Universe in the Mind: Liu Kuo-Sung’s Ar t and Thoughts”, “Liu Kuo-Sung on Ar t”, and “Selected Essays on Liu Kuo-Sung’s Ar t”. His other English publications include: “The Immor tal Brush: Daoism and the Ar t of Shen Zhou (1427-1509)”, and “Hidden Meanings of Love and Death in Chinese Painting: Selections from the Marilyn and Roy Papp Collection”.

153


劉國松 LIU Kuo-Sung

日落紅湖白(二) White All Over When Sunset II 1969 Ink on paper 55×86cm

154


劉國松 LIU Kuo-Sung

太陽圖之 21 Sunmap No. 21 2011 Ink on paper 82.7×72.8cm

155


劉國松 LIU Kuo-Sung

日上綠樹頭 Behind a Green Tree the Sun Climbs 2006 Ink on paper 89.5×57.5cm

156


劉國松 LIU Kuo-Sung

日落的印象之九 Impression of Sunset 9 1972 Ink on paper 185.5×46.2cm

157


夏陽 HSIA Yan


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

夏陽 1932

1948

出生於中國湖南

南京師範畢業,南京,中國

「照相寫實主義-一些觀點展」,喬治森畫廊,康乃迪克,美國

1949

隨軍抵高雄,台灣

「由藝術認知時空聯展」,哈賽特畫廊,紐約,美國

1951

入安東街畫室,台北,台灣

「紐約畫廊照像寫實作品精選展」,北德州立大學,德州,美國

1956

「全國書畫展」,台北,台灣

1957

「東方畫展首展」,台北新聞大樓,台北,台灣

1958

「二十世紀畫廊 20 週年紀念展」,威廉斯堡,維吉尼雅,美國 1980

於克朗畫廊舉行聯展,西班牙

「極端寫實主義展」,冷堡大學藝術中心,賓州 ,美國

「東方畫展」,台北,台灣 1959

「美國 1950-80 人像畫展」,克萊斯勒美術館,維吉尼亞州,

「五月畫會合辦證明展」,台北,台灣

美國

聖保羅雙年展,聖保羅,巴西 巴黎青年畫展,巴黎,法國

「海外畫家聯展」,新像藝術中心,台北,台灣

於版畫家畫廊舉行個展,台北,台灣 1981

「紐約影像展」,東京都美術館,東京,日本

1961

於紐約米舟畫廊舉行個展,紐約,美國

「轉變:美國的藝術 1881-1981」,馬蓋特大學,威斯康辛,美國

1962

東方畫會於弗拉色替畫廊聯展,義大利

「東方、五月二十五週年聯展」,台灣省立美術館(今國立

中國現代藝術家聯合展,薩摩那,義大利 1964 1965

「TA -聯展」,義大利

1971 1972 1973 1974

1982

於杜.峨巴末畫廊舉行個展,巴黎,法國 「中國現代美展」,義大利

1967

台灣美術館),台中,台灣 於 O.K. 哈里斯畫廊舉行個展,紐約,美國 1983

於杜.峨巴末畫廊舉行個展,巴黎,法國

「美國當代寫實主義聯展」,柯德斯特羅姆畫廊,德州,美國 1984

成為 O.K. 哈里斯畫廊的代理畫家,紐約,美國

於 O.K. 哈里斯畫廊舉行個展,紐約,美國 1985

於 O.K. 哈里斯畫廊舉行個展,紐約,美國 1975

「視像的改變」,阿爾代里期現代美術館,里奇菲爾德,美國

1976

「都市美學展」,昆士美術館,紐約,美國

1977

「美國寫實主義:精確的影像聯展」,伊勢丹美術館,東京, 日本 「70-80 年代的藝術聯展」,歐瑞須當代美術館,康乃迪克, 美國

「今日美國的繪畫和雕刻展」,印第安納波里術館,印第

1986

「紐約畫家十一人聯展」,廣東美術學院,廣東,中國

安納,美國

1987

「台灣畫家展」,上海,中國

「繪畫的照相寫實主義展」,好萊塢藝術文化中心,加州,美國 「新舊典藏展」,美國南德州美術館,德州,美國 「照像寫實主義展」,聖彼得堡美術館,佛羅里達,美國 於 O.K. 哈里斯畫廊舉行個展,紐約,美國

1978

「舊傳承和新方向聯展」,國際藝術中心,紐約,美國

1979

「托勒多現代收藏展」,托勒多美術館,托勒多,俄亥俄,美國

160

「台灣畫家六人作品聯展」,中國美術館,北京,中國 「路易士與克拉克收藏聯展」,視覺藝術中心,奧瑞岡,美國

「具象風貌特展」,克里夫蘭美術館,克里夫蘭,俄亥俄,美國 「新寫實主義展」,史基摩爾大學畫廊,紐約,美國

「紐約的繪畫聯展」,紐約市立美術館,紐約,美國 「紐約華裔畫家聯展」,東方畫廊,紐約,美國

「中國當代九人藝術展」,米蘭,義大利 畫風受照相寫實主義影響,開始了黑白系列,紐約,美國

「海外華僑名家繪畫聯展」,香港美術館,香港,中國

於 O.K. 哈里斯畫廊舉行個展,紐約,美國 1989

於誠品畫廊舉行個展,台北,台灣

1990

「當代名家素描展」,誠品畫廊,台北,台灣

1991

「紐約華裔畫家聯展」,東方畫廊,紐約,美國 「台北-紐約畫家聯展」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣 於誠品畫廊舉行個展,台北,台灣


CHRONOLOGY | HSIA Yan

1992 1994

於新展望畫廊舉行個展,台中,台灣 「夏陽:創作四十年回顧展」,台市立美術館,台北,台灣 「台北現代畫展」,曼谷國家美術館,曼谷,泰國

1995 1996

「門神.新年代-藝術家聯展」,皇冠藝文中心,台北,台灣 於誠品畫廊舉行個展,台北,台灣 「伊通聯展」,伊通公園,台北,台灣

1997

「東方-五月 40 週年紀念展」,高雄、台中、台北、金門,台灣 「台北現代畫展」,上海美術館, 上海,中國

1998

「台北現代畫展」,新町美術館,信州,日本 「東方現代備忘錄-穿越彩色防空洞」,帝門藝術中心, 台北,台灣 「夏陽回顧展」,台灣省立美術館,台中,台灣 「典藏常設展-萌芽.生發.激撞」,台北市立美術館, 台北,台灣

1999

「亞太三年展」,昆士蘭美術館,昆士蘭,澳洲 於帝門藝術中心舉行個展,台北,台灣

2000

於誠品畫廊舉行個展,台北,台灣 第四屆文藝獎美術類得獎者,財團法人國家文化藝術基金 會,台北,台灣

2003

「美術節特展-國家文藝獎得主作品展」,台北福華沙龍, 台北,台灣 「藝象-國家文藝獎五大名家聯展」,國立台南藝術學院 藝文中心,台南,台灣

2005

「觀念與表現-藝術家聯展」,視平線畫廊,上海,中國 「歸來的星光-夏陽的個展」,視平線畫廊,上海,中國 「夏陽 vs. 袁旃」,誠品畫廊,台北,台灣

2006

「意象武夷」,上海美術館,上海,中國

2010

「陳夏雨、熊秉明、夏陽雕塑展」,誠品畫廊,台北,台灣

於誠品畫廊舉行個展,台北,台灣 「上海 2010 雙年展」,上海美術館,上海,中國 2014

「抽象.符碼.東方情-臺灣現代藝術巨匠大展」,尊彩 藝術中心,台北,台灣

161


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

HSIA Yan 1932

Born in Hunan, China

1948

Graduated from Nanjing Normal College, Nanjing, China

1949

Together with the army arrived Kaohsiung, Taiwan

1951

Entered the Andong Street Studio, Taipei, Taiwan

1956

“National Exhibition of Paintings and Calligraphies”, Taipei, Taiwan

1957

“Ton Fan Painting Exhibition”, Taipei, Taiwan

Ohio, USA

1958

Group exhibition, Krone Gallery, Spain

“Photo-Realism – Some Points of View”, Jor gesson Galler y,

“Ton Fan Painting Exhibition”, Taipei, Taiwan

Connecticut, USA

“Ton Fan Group and Fifth Moon Group Joint Exhibition”, Taipei, Taiwan

“Perceiving Time and Space Through Ar t”, Har thett Gallery, New

“Bienalle of São Paulo”, São Paulo, Brazil

York, USA

“Bienalle of Young Artists”, Paris, France

“Selections of Photo-Realism From New York Galleries”, Nor th

1961

Solo exhibition, Mi Chou Gallery, New York, USA

Texas State University, Denton, Texas, USA

1962

“Ton Fan Painting Exhibition”, Galleria Flasetti, Italy

“Twentieth Century Gallery 20th Anniversary”, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA

1959

“Young Chinese Artists”, Savona, Italy

Solo exhibition, O.K. Harris Works of Art, New York, USA 1978

“Old Heritage and New Directions”, International Art Center, New York, USA

1979

1980

“Modern Art in Toledo Collections”, Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo,

Solo exhibition, Graphic Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

1964

“Gruppo TA”, Galleria d’Arte, Mesina, Italy

“Radical Realism”, Center for the Ar ts of Muhlenberg College,

1965

Solo exhibition, Galerie du Haut Pave, Paris, France

Allentown, Pennsylvania, USA

“Art Cinesi Contemporanei”, Messina, Italy

“American Figure Painting 1950-80”, Chr ysler Museum, Norfolk,

1967

Solo exhibition, Galerie du Haut Pave, Paris, France

Virginia, USA

1971

“9 Artisti Contemporanei Cinesi”, Milan, Italy

1972

Influenced by the American Photo-realism, his first attempt was the

1973 1974

Solo exhibition, Graphic Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan 1981

of the 20th Century”, Tokyo Metropolitan Art Museum, Tokyo, Japan

New York’s prominent art gallery O.K. Harris accepted him as their

“Changes: Ar t in America 1881-1981”, Marquette Univer sity,

represented artist, New York, USA

Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA

“Aspects of the Figure”, Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, Ohio, USA

“25th Anniversary of the Ton Fan Group and the Fifth Moon Group”,

“New Realism”, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, New York, USA

Taiwan Provincial Museum of Fine Ar ts (now National Taiwan

Solo exhibition, O.K. Harris Gallery, New York, USA 1975 1976

“A Change of View”, Aldrich Museum of Contemporar y Ar t,

Museum of Fine Arts), Taichung, Taiwan 1982

Museum of Art, Hong Kong, China

“Urban Aesthetics”, Queens Museum, Queens, New York, USA

Solo exhibition, O.K. Harris Works of Art, New York, USA 1983

“Paintings in New York”, Museum of the City of New York, New York, USA

Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indianapolis, USA

“Exhibition of Works by Chinese Ar tists in New York”, Orient

“Photo-Realism in Painting”, Art and Culture Center of Hollywood,

Gallery, New York, USA

California, USA

“Contemporar y American Realism”, Foster Goldstrom Galler y,

“Selection for New and Old Collections”, Ar t Museum of South Texas, Corpus Christi, Texas, USA “Photo-Realism”, Museum of Fine Arts, St. Petersburg, Florida, USA

162

“Paintings by Leading Overseas Chinese Ar tists”, Hong Kong

Ridgefield, Connecticut, USA “Painting and Sculpture Today ‘76”, Contemporary Art Society of the 1977

“Visions of New York City: American Paintings, Drawings, and Prints

Black and White Series, New York, USA

Dallas, Texas, USA 1984

“Six Artists From Taiwan”, National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China “Lewis and Clark Collections”, Por tland Center for Visual Ar t,


CHRONOLOGY | HSIA Yan

Portland, Oregon, USA

Gallery, South Brisbane, Australia

Solo exhibition, O.K. Harris Works of Art, New York, USA 1985

“American Realism: The Precise Image”, Isetan Museum of Art, Tokyo, Japan

Solo exhibition, Dimensions Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan 2000

“The Art of 1970’s and 1980’s”, Aldrich Museum of Contemporary

The 4th National Award for Ar ts, National Culture and Ar ts

Art, Ridgefield, Connecticut, USA 1986 1987

“Eleven New York Artists Works Exhibition”, Guangdong Academy,

Solo exhibition, Eslite Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan Foundation, Taiwan

2003

“Special Show of Fine Ar ts Festival – The Winners’ Works of

Guangdong, China

National Award for Arts”, Howard Salon, Taipei, Taiwan

“Artists of Taiwan and Shanghai”, Shanghai, China

“The Five Winners’ Works of National Award for Arts”, Art Center

Solo exhibition, O.K. Harris Works of Art, New York, USA

of Tainan National College of the Arts, Tainan, Taiwan

1989

Solo exhibition, Eslite Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

2005

1990

“Contemporary Artists Drawing Exhibition”, Eslite Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

Gallery, Shanghai, China

1991

“Exhibition of Works by Chinese Ar tists in New York”, Orient

“Return of the Stars – Hsia Yan Solo Exhibition”, Eye Level Gallery,

Gallery, New York, USA

Shanghai, China

“Exhibition: Taipei – New York”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan Solo exhibition, Eslite Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan 1992

Solo exhibition, New Trends Gallery, Taichung, Taiwan

1994

“Hsia Yan: Continuation and Rejuvenation. A Retrospective of His

“Hsia Yan vs. Yuan Jai”, Eslite Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan 2006

Bangkok, Thailand 1995

“Imagery of Mt. Wu-Yi”, Shanghai Art Museum, Shanghai, China Solo exhibition, Eslite Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

2010

Works From 1954-1994”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan “Taipei Modern Ar t Exhibition”, Bangkok National Ar t Galler y,

“Concept and Expression – Ar tists Group Exhibition”, Eye Level

“Chen Hsia-Yu, Hsiung Ping-Ming, Hsia Yan”, Eslite Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan “Shanghai Biennale”, Shanghai Art Museum, Shanghai, Taiwan

2014

“Abstract / Symbol / Oriental – Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art”, Liang Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

“Door God.New Era – Ar tists Group Exhibition”, Crown Ar t Center, Taipei, Taiwan

1996

Solo exhibition, Eslite Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan “IT Park Group Exhibition”, IT Park Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

1997

“40th Anniversar y of Ton Fan Group and Fifth Moon Group”, Kaohsiung, Taichung, Taipei, Kinmen, Taiwan “Taipei Modern Art Exhibition”, Shanghai Art Museum, Shanghai, China

1998

“Taipei Modern Art Exhibition”, Shinmachi Museum, Shinshu, Japan “Eastern Modern Memorandum – Through a Colorful Bomb Shelter”, Dimensions Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan “Hsia Yan: A Retrospective Exhibition”, Taiwan Provincial Museum of Fine Arts, Taichung, Taiwan “Highlights From the Permanent Collection”, Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

1999

“Asia-pacific Triennial of Contemporar y Ar t”, Queensland Ar t

163


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

夏陽

賴香伶

夏陽在台灣藝術發展史中,早已成為具有時代標竿意義的重要 藝術家。夏陽本名夏祖湘,1932 年生於湖南省湘鄉縣。自幼雙 親早逝,由祖母撫育成長。1945 年對日抗戰勝利後,夏陽曾就 讀南京市立師範學校,畢業後為求生活自給,轉而從軍。其後 隨國民政府撤退來台,先後被編調入高雄陸軍軍官學校和台北 空軍總部等單位,直至 1959 年才自軍中退伍。

幼年喜愛塗鴉的他,很早即顯露繪畫的興趣與才華。來台初期 基於對於繪畫的興趣,夏陽曾進入由劉獅和黃榮燦所主辦的美 術訓練班上課,並在參觀現代畫展時接觸到李仲生、朱德群等 人的作品。1951 年夏陽和軍中袍澤吳昊與歐陽文苑等三人連袂 進入安東街畫室,隨李仲生老師習畫,1955 年夏陽與畫室同學 吳昊、霍剛、蕭勤、陳道明、李元佳、蕭明賢、歐陽文苑等八 人共同組織,成立標榜現代藝術創作的東方畫會,並負責草擬 畫會宣言,其後開始以個人創作發表或畫會集體聯展等方式積 極參加國內外的展覽活動。1963 年夏陽 決定赴歐開拓視野,與 蕭勤在米蘭會合,復於巴黎短暫居住數年後,終於 1968 年遷 居紐約,直至 1992 年結束近三十年的海外生活,返回台北, 目前定居上海。

Tai Tzu Yei

164

夏陽 Hsia Yan 太子爺

是夏陽摸索現代繪畫的實驗階段。李仲生啟發式的教導鼓勵學

1990

實寫照。自安東街畫室習畫至 1963 年出國的這段期間,可說

183×112cm

夏陽孜孜探求藝術創新的漫漫長路,也是其個人生命經歷的如

Acr ylic on canvas

自 1951 年隨李仲生習畫至今,已逾一甲子的創作生涯不僅是


ESSAY | HSIA Yan

生內省探索,追尋契合個人的創作方向。而其強調藝術的創造

並未帶有強烈的敘事性,大多以藝術家的都會生活經歷與觀察

性本質,以及「堅持在繪畫上作現代的表現;注重現代世界美

為題,刻劃出現代社會中人類的生存境況,以及藝術家個人生

術思潮的發展與變遷;重視獨創性和素描基礎」等主張,對於

活寫照。例如疏離冰冷的人際關係《審判》(1967)、光怪陸

包括夏陽在內的學生影響至鉅。

離的城市景象《車禍》、《馬戲團》(1965)、多采多姿的藝 壇活動《畫展開幕》(1966)、以及克難溫馨的家庭生活《家庭》

在台早期夏陽嘗試結合東西方題材與技法,進行繪畫空間透

(1967)等。

視、物象造型以及動態表現的探索與實驗。並由中國神話傳說、 民間信仰和日常生活發掘創作靈感,參考中國藝術中的線條表

1968 年夏陽遷居紐約,巴黎的毛毛人系列在紐約有了進一步

現、傳統圖飾元素和西洋繪畫的空間構成方式創作,呈現出具

的突破性發展。紐約熱鬧的城市街景和熙來攘往的行人成為

有超現實風格和文學性的質樸意趣。如於《飛天》(1954)、《夜

夏陽筆下的最佳題材,而當時蔚為主流的超寫實風格(Super-

叉》(1955)、《貴妃之死》(1955)、《泥娃攤》(1957)

Realism,又稱照相寫實 Photorealism)則提供創新的可能參照。

等素描或油畫作品中。

照像寫實主張客觀紀錄生活現實,利用照片作為主要的創作媒 介,以街景、行人、建築、櫥窗等都會生活與平凡事物為主要

在李仲生的影響之下,夏陽在 1950 年代末期至 1960 年代初期

題材。此時期夏陽的作品延續巴黎時期的動靜對照畫面構成,

曾經專注於抽象繪畫創作,從而探討東西藝術謀合之道。李仲

前期動態的毛毛人逐漸化身為穿梭於城市中面目模糊的移動身

生強調以現代藝術的觀念,發揚中國藝術傳統的精華,並創造

影,而原來簡單構成的畫面背景則由超級寫實手法精細刻劃而

出具有獨特性的新藝術面貌。基於對於中國藝術中線條表現傳

成的城市街景所取代。描繪的對象大多為城市民眾及其平凡生

統的認知,夏 陽嘗試嫁接東方傳統墨藝與西洋油畫技法,以開

活,如舊貨攤、玩具攤、機器店、熱狗小販、電工、學生和商

拓出中國畫的現代新境。在為期不長的抽象繪畫創作歷程中,

人等。夏陽藉由摹寫現代城市迅捷的真實生活步調,作為對於

夏陽專注於線條、色彩、肌理、構圖的實驗,常見畫作中並行

國際城市景觀的客觀紀錄,這種深具時代性的社會寫實創作得

著剛健蒼勁的筆墨表現與平塗潑淋的油彩肌理,兼具緊密遒結

到了藝術圈的注目,於 1972 年應邀在紐約 O. K. Harris 畫廊舉

與豁然疏朗的形式構圖,在在呈現出藝術家對於兼容中西抽象

行首次個展,並於其後陸續多次發表創作。

趣味的嘗試與努力,如《繪畫》(1959)、《垂》(1960)等 作品。

自八〇年代末開始,在台灣公立美術館和民間畫廊的邀請之 下,夏陽多次返台辦展也前往大陸探親,更於 1992 年結束近

為開拓自我的國際藝術見聞和創作視野,夏陽於 1963 年赴歐,

三十年的作客異鄉,遷返台北和上海定居。夏陽的返鄉定居不

定居巴黎數年。藝術之都巴黎豐富的藝術環境資源,充滿活力

僅在生活上覓得安定的歸宿,於藝術的創新實驗上更拓展出另

的都會生活激發出藝術家旺盛的創作能量。夏陽延續著進行多

一精彩篇章。此時期夏陽重拾代表著線條表現實驗的毛毛人形

年的線條創作實驗,並積極思考以其造像的可能,因此逐漸回

象,並回溯早期對於中國神話傳說、民俗信仰和工藝的的興趣,

復到具象繪畫的方向,發展出著名的毛毛人系列。極具動態的

創作題材不再只聚焦於城市生活的社會性觀察,而擴延至與精

毛毛人看似以飛筆揚掃而成,其人物造形實由無數粗細不一、

神生活相關的傳統神話典故和宗教傳奇人物,如濟公、魁星、

曲直各異的短促線條構成,帶著緊張激越的情緒張力。相對之

門神與魯智 深拔柳等。此階段的繪畫援引民間常見宗教祭符的

下,畫面背景則是以硬邊色面風格或冰冷機械調性處理而成,

體例形式,畫面佈局延續一貫對於動 / 靜、虛 / 實和物質 / 精

和毛毛人形成了動靜之間的明顯對照。巴黎 時期的毛毛人畫作

神的二元並置,以簡化的背景以及充滿動勢的前景人物構圖。 165


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

行雲流水般的酣暢筆法、活潑自如的色彩描繪與超寫實精細技 法,在在展現出藝術發展的另一高峰。

對夏陽而言,藝術創作是一場永不終止的實驗和探索,九〇年 代末及至新世紀以來,他沉浸於另一階段的藝術實驗。《獅子 啣劍系列》(1993-1995)在近似的畫幅構圖中進行著筆墨、 肌理和造型的實驗;1997 年的《維納斯的誕生》、《梅杜莎之 筏》、《最後的晚餐》等名畫系列則是夏陽與美術史大師鉅作 的跨時空對話,也是探索中西繪畫交輝對話的另一嘗試。2000 年後,夏陽的創作也由平面繪畫拓展至立體雕塑。在一個偶然 的機會中,他發現了平面繪畫轉化為立體作品的可能性,從而 開啟對於物質和空間虛實互動關係的探究。夏陽的立體雕塑乃 由金屬條片組構而成,並無一般金屬雕塑量體的沉重形貌;他 運用金屬材料的可塑性表現毛毛人畫作中的飛揚線條以及充滿 著能量的動勢。而多年來對於民間藝術的喜好,以及客居紐約 時期維修骨董文物的心得,使得夏陽的立體雕塑帶有樸實而真 稚的質感和工藝趣味。

在夏陽一生創作不懈、勇於突破,多年來其生命和藝術同步演 繹,發展出兼具延續性和開創性的藝術美學。逾六十年的創作 進程中,初期和東方畫會的畫友們倡議現代藝術的觀念和實 踐,致力探索融合東西藝術菁華。自 1960 年代開始,夏陽以 個人在社會現實之下的存在現象作為藝術探討的課題,更積極 追尋具個人獨特性的藝術表現語言。夏陽的創作同時具有犀利 的洞察和質樸的天真,於當代目不暇給的藝術流變之中,彷彿 磐石上的清流,永遠令人期待。2000 年夏陽獲頒國家文藝獎, 得到藝術終身成就獎的殊榮。 166


ESSAY | HSIA Yan

HSIA Yan

Written by

LAI Hsiang-Ling

Hsia Yan is viewed as one of the milestone ar tists in the development of ar t histor y in Taiwan. His original name is Hsia Tsu-Hsiang and was born in 1932 in Xiangxiang County, Hunan Province. He was an orphan since ver y young and was brought up by his grandmother. After Sino-Japanese War in 1945, he was enrolled in the Nanjing Normal school for teachers, but after graduation he joined military and came to Taiwan with the KMT government. Before his retirement from the militar y in 1959, he had worked in the institute of army officers in Kaohsiung and the air force unit in Taipei.

He has showed his talent in painting since childhood. After inhabiting in Sword in Lion's Mouth No.10

夏陽 Hsia Yan 獅 子 啣 劍 No.10

1992

170×170cm

Acr ylic on canvas

Taiwan, he took ar t training classes held by Liu Shi and Huang Rong-Can And after visiting some modern ar t exhibitions, he got the chance to get to know the works by Lee Chun-Shan and Chu Teh-Chun. In 1951, Hsia Yan, with two of his colleagues Wu Hao and Ou Yang Wen-Yuan, began to take classes in Lee Chun-Shan’s studio in Andong street. In 1955, eight ar tists from Lee Chun-Shan’s studio organized the “Ton Fan Group” adver tizing the creation of modern ar t. These eight ar tists are Hsia Yan, Wu Hao, Ou Yang Wen-Yuan, Ho Kan, Hsiao Chin, Tommy Chen, Li Yuan-Chia and Hsiao Ming-Hsien. And Hsia Yan was the one that was responsible for drawing the declaration. Later, he began to par ticipate actively in the domestic and international ar t events exhibiting works individually or with his ar t group par tners. In 1963, Hsia Yan decided to broaden his horizon. He first met Hsiao Chin in Milan and then went to stay in Paris for several years, and finally moved to New York in 1968. After nearly thir ty years living abroad, he came back to Taipei in 1992, and he now lives in Shanghai.

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Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

From 1951 till now, it has been over 60 years since Hsia took

originality. Based on the knowledge he obtained from traditional

apprentice under Lee Chun-Shan. During these years, he has been

Chinese linear designs, Hsia tried to graft traditional Chinese ink

working diligently searching for the creation of modern ar t. At the

painting skills into Western oil painting to create a new form of

same time, it is also the time for Hsia to explore his life journey.

modern Chinese painting. During his shor t abstract painting period,

The time between he went to Lee’s studio in 1951 to the year he

he focused on the experiment of linear design, color, texture and

went abroad in 1963 was the experimental period for Hsia to find

structure. In his works, strong brush strokes are often accompanied

a direction for his modern painting. Lee is heuristic in encouraging

by balanced spread of color texture and fluent structure both tightly

students to probe inside individual minds to look after the matching

connected and clearly arranged. Such vivid examples of the ar tist’s

directions for creation. He put emphasis on the essence of ar t

effor ts to mingle the West and the East can be seen in the works

creation, persistent in showing modern elements in painting. At the

such as Painting (1959) and Droop (1960).

same time, he obser ved closely the tendency and change of the global ar t trends. His thinking much of originality and his emphasis

To broaden his horizon internationally, Hsia went to Europe in

on basic skills on sketches, together with his attitude towards

1963 and stayed in Paris for several years. The bounty resources

modern ar t creation, have huge impacts on his students, inclusive of

and vital metropolitan life in Paris inspired the ar tist’s imagination

Hsia Yan.

and enhanced his energy for creation. Hsia resumed his long term experiment on linear patterns and began to think actively of the

In his early period in Taiwan, Hsia tried to combine the themes

possibilities of creating figures with lines, thus, turning back to the

and skills of both the East and the West. He did experiment and

direction of figurative painting, and brought life to the famous series

practiced the skill of space perspective in drawing, the molding of

of “Fuzzy People”. Fuzzy People are figures full of action. They look

material and the expression in motion. He looked for inspiration

like being created by flying brush strokes, but, in fact, are formed

from Chinese myth, folk beliefs and everyday life, taking reference

with numerous bold and slim shor t lines, some straight and others

from the Chinese linear patterns, traditional totem elements

curved, bringing out a shor t tense tempo full of action and emotion.

and space structure in the western painting. His works suggest

On the contrary, its background is deliberately designed with hard

surrealism and show unpolished nature literarily.

rock style and is cold and mechanic in mold, showing contrast between the stillness and action of the fuzzy people. During the

These features can be appreciated in his works of oil painting and

Paris period, the Fuzzy People series was not yet narrative, mostly

sketch such as Flying Apsaras (1954), Yaksha (1955), The Death of Gui

depicting the ar tist’s observation and adventure in the metropolitan,

Fei (1955) and The Stand of Ni Wa (1957).

sketching out modern human beings in existence and the ar tist’s own life description. For instance, Car Accident and Circus (1965)

Under Lee’s influence, Hsia once focused his attention on abstract

depicted the bizarre city sight. In Judgment (1967), we perceive

painting in the late 1950s to the early 1960s, trying to find a way

the detached relationship. Exhibition Opening (1966) described the

to mix the eastern and western ar t. Lee taught students to pay

versatile ar t scene and in Family (1967), we can experience the

attention to the concepts of modern ar t. He wanted them to bring

tough but warm family life.

out the extract of Chinese ar t tradition and create new ar t with 168


ESSAY | HSIA Yang

Hsia Yan

The Bird

夏陽 若禽

2007

traffic of people became the most exciting materials for Hsia. And then, prevailing

300×150×120cm

experienced a breakthrough there. The hustle and bustle city sight and the flowing

Brass sheet

In 1968, Hsia moved to New York, and the “Fuzzy People” which star ted in Paris

mainstream ar t form - the super realism (also called photo realism), provided possibilities for innovation. Photo realism advocates objective recording of real life, using photos as the media, introducing ordinar y city lives such as street scenes, pedestrians, buildings and windows. At that time, Hsia seemed to continue his Parisian style of showing contrast between stillness and motion. However, the early stage of the “fuzzy” figures have gradually becoming moving blur figures weaving in and out the busy city in New York. What’s more, the originally cold mechanic background was substituted by delicately craved street scenes, because of the influence of photo realism. The themes on the canvas were the city people and their ordinary everyday life. We can see shabby stands, toy stores, shops for machines, hotdog venders, plumbers, students and merchants. Hsia objectively keeps records of the metropolitan by depicting the rapid paces of the real life. These realistic contemporar y works, reflecting the real lives, immediately caught eyes of the ar t field. He was invited to hold his first solo exhibition at the O.K. Harris gallery in New York in 1972. After that, he continuously exhibited his works for many times.

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Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

Since late 1980s, Hsia has been repeatedly invited by public

The elastic feature of the metal bars, which are to be used as

museums and private galleries to do exhibitions in Taiwan. At the

assor ted lines to assemble the “fuzzy people”, provides vividness

same time, he also went to visit his relatives in China. Moreover, in

and energy for the iconic figures. In addition, because of his interest

1992, he moved back to Taipei and Shanghai, what enabled him to

in folk ar ts and the skills he obtained in fixing antiques when living in

live more comfor tably and his ar t forms became more bountiful.

New York, Hsia’s three dimensional sculptures show homely genuine

During this period, Hsia, again, picked up his well-known Fuzzy

quality and the delight of craft ar t.

People and traced them back to the Chinese myth, folk beliefs and ar t crafts. His subjects were not merely urban people anymore;

With his life long diligent creation, daring to face breakthrough

instead, he extended them to legendar y figures both in myth and

and his own life evolution, Hsia cultivates an ar t aesthetics, which

religion. His works are not only about objective records of the big

has the ability to extend and explore. Over the 60 years, he firstly

cities but are also mentally connected to the culture. Examples of

worked with his ar tist friends in the “Ton Fan Group” to adver tise

works include Ji Gong, Kui Xing, The Door God (1990) and Lu Zhi-

the concept and the embodiment of modern painting, aiming to

Shen Is Uprooting the Willow (1987). During this stage, religious

find the way to mix the essence of East and West. Star ting from

rituals are often seen in the painting. The composition of the canvas

1960s, Hsia’s motif was about the existence of the individual under

still follows the old rule of dualism: the motion/stillness, abstract/

the social reality, trying hard to search for a language to express the

concrete, material/spiritual, accomplished by simplified background

originality of his ar t. Hsia Yan’s works are both keen and perspective

with the front stage figures full of motion. His fluent flowing strokes,

in observation, and meanwhile, suggests unpolished genuine quality.

rich vivid coloring and surreal delicate detailed skills illustrated that

In a big stream full of flowing ar t trends, Hsia stands still, and always

he is still mounting another summit.

provides expectation. In 2000, Hsia Yan was awarded the National Culture and Ar ts Foundation Award, acknowledging his lifetime

To Hsia Yan, the process of ar t creation is a never-ending experiment and exploration. With the end of the 20th centur y and the approaching of the new era, Hsia has something new in process. In Lion Biting The Sword series (1993-1995), with the similar composition, he experimented different brushstrokes, texture and forms. The Birth of Venus, The Boat of Medusa and The Last Supper in 1997 are the conversation Hsia is trying to make with the peerless giant masters, which is another way to explore the combination of the West and the East. In 2000, Hsia’s creation turned to three dimensional sculptures. Occasionally, he found the possibilities to turn his two dimensional works into three dimension; thus, he began to do research on the relationship between material and space, vacancy and concreteness. Hsia’s material for sculpture are striped metal bars; therefore, it does not give the impression of heaviness. 170

achievement.


About the Critic | LAI Xiang-Ling

賴香伶 LAI Hsiang-Ling 美國堪薩斯州立大學美術史碩士,喬治華盛頓大學博物館學研 究所進修。於臺灣美術界具有豐富的美術館規劃、營運以及藝 術策展經驗。現為獨立工作者,並擔任當代藝術基金會、春之 文化基金會以及帝門藝術教育基金會董事。曾任上海外灘美術 館創館館長、台北當代藝術館館長、國家文化藝術基金會獎助 組總監、帝門藝術教育基金會執行長,並曾於臺灣國立美術館 與臺北市立美術館擔任展覽組策展工作。2001 年獲國家文化藝 術基金會以及傅爾布萊基金會共同獎助,赴美進行美術館策展 和教育的考察研究。

Lai Hsiang-Ling holds a Master in the History of Fine Ar t from the University of Kansas, and studied at the Museum Studies Program of George Washington University. She has more than 20 years of experiences in curatorial practice and management in Taiwan, and is currently on the boards of the Contemporar y Ar t Foundation, Spring Foundation and Dimension Endowment of Ar t. She also served as Director of the Museum of Contemporary Ar t in Taipei, Founding Director of Rockbund Ar t Museum in Shanghai, Executive Director of the Dimension Endowment of Ar t, and Head of the Grant Depar tment of the National Culture and Ar ts Foundation. Formerly, she was a curator at the National Taiwan Museum of Fine Ar ts and the Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum. In 2001, she was the recipient of a joint fellowship from the National Culture and Ar ts Foundation and the Fulbright Commission for travel and research in the U.S.

171


夏陽 HSIA Yan

太子爺 Tai Tzu Yei 1990 Acrylic on canvas 183×112cm 圖檔提供:誠品畫廊 Painting provided by Eslite Gallery

172


夏陽 HSIA Yan

獅子啣劍 No.10 Sword in Lion's Mouth No.10 1992 Acrylic on canvas 170×170cm 圖檔提供:誠品畫廊 Painting provided by Eslite Gallery

173


夏陽 HSIA Yan

若禽 The Birds 2007 Brass sheet 300×150×120cm 圖檔提供:誠品畫廊 Sculpture provided by Eslite Gallery

174


霍剛 HO Kan


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

霍剛 1932 年出生於中國南京

1949

隻身與國民革命軍遺族學校來台灣,台北,台灣

於巴爾巴畫廊舉行個展,卡斯代蘭札, 義大利

1950

入省立台北師範學校(今國立台北教育大學)藝術科就

於封答各畫廊舉行個展,邁西拉,義大利

讀,台北,台灣

於交爾基畫廊舉行個展,佛羅倫斯,義大利

經歐陽文苑介紹赴二女中,拜訪李仲生老師,台北,台灣

1972

於馬斯佩斯與羅美佳里工作室舉行個展,松德里奧, 義

1951

入李仲生畫室學習現代繪畫,台北,台灣

大利

1953

省立台北師範學校(今國立台北教育大學)畢業,台北,台灣

於 AeA 畫廊舉行個展,大朗多,義大利

景美國小任教,促成全省第一個國民美術教室,台北,台灣

於覺維奧畫廊舉行個展,科摩,義大利

1954

1956

加入台灣省教育廳(今教育部)教師研習會,台北,台灣

1973

於藝術中心畫廊舉行個展,米蘭,義大利

於安東街畫室共組繪畫觀摩會,台北,台灣

於中義協會舉行個展,米蘭,義大利

籌組創辦第一個現代繪畫團體「東方畫會」,台北,台灣

於拜奈待地尼神父隱修院舉行個展,菲那爾碧亞,義大利

1957-58 擔任全省國民教育巡迴輔導團美術輔導員至一九五八年, 台北,台灣

於獅子畫廊舉行個展,特拉達得,義大利 1974

「第一屆東方畫展」,衡陽街新生報大樓,台北,台灣

於馬爾空第四畫廊舉行個展,羅馬,義大利 於安多羅美達畫廊舉行個展,波隆那,義大利

1958

「亞洲青年美展」,東京,日本

1975

於解邁里畫廊舉行個展,利米尼,義大利

1960

「國際抽象畫展」,伯拉多,義大利

1976

於藝術中心畫廊舉行個展,米蘭,義大利

1964

前往歐洲,後轉往義大利定居米蘭,義大利

1977

於庫茲畫廊舉行個展,索洛,瑞士

1965

國際藝術發展獎,古比奧,義大利

1978

於藝術中心畫廊舉行個展,米蘭,義大利

1966

國際藝術發展獎,古比奧,義大利

1979

於馬且拉達美術博物館舉行個展,馬且拉達,義大利

國際繪畫金牌獎,利諾瓦拉,義大利 1967

國家繪畫首獎,孟扎,義大利

1969

久賽彼.莫利首獎,萊科,義大利

1970

「東方、五月畫會成立二十五週年聯展」,台灣省立博物 館(今國立台灣博物館),台北,台灣

1982

於藝術中心畫廊舉行個展,米蘭,義大利

「第七屆國際繪畫聯展」,坎比奧奈,義大利

1984

於藝術中心畫廊舉行個展,米蘭,義大利

1985

於環亞藝術中心舉行個展,台北,台灣

於奧萊茲畫廊舉行個展,海牙,荷蘭

於不是書店舉行個展,米蘭,義大利

於工作室畫廊舉行個展,馬特拉,義大利

於布雷赫波爾畫廊舉行個展,格蘭斯,瑞士

於藝術中心畫廊舉行個展,米蘭,義大利

178

1981

「國際繪畫年展」,阿契雷阿萊,義大利

於布蘭巴哈畫廊舉行個展,巴塞爾,瑞士

1971

於普魯沙爾特畫廊舉行個展,邁斯得雷,威尼斯,義大利

1986

於台北市立美術館舉行聯展,台北,台灣


CHRONOLOGY | HO Kan

1987

於鑽石宮現代藝廊舉行個展,費拉拉,義大利

1988

於藝術中心畫廊舉行個展,米蘭,義大利

1990

於誠品畫廊舉行個展,台北,台灣

1994

於台灣省立美術館(今國立台灣美術館)舉行個展,台中, 台灣

1997

「東方現代備忘錄-穿越彩色防空洞」聯展,帝門藝術中心, 台北,台灣 獲第五屆李仲生基金會現代繪畫成就獎,台灣

1999

「李仲生師生展」,台灣省立美術館(今國立台灣美術館), 台中,台灣 「霍剛的歷程」個展於帝門藝術中心,台北,台灣

2001 2010 2011

「東方的結構主義」,帝門藝術中心,台北,台灣 於大象藝術空間舉行個展,台中,台灣 「藝載乾坤-霍剛校園巡迴展」,清華大學藝術中心,新 竹,台灣

2012

「藝拓荒原-東方八大響馬」,大象藝術空間館,台中, 台灣 「霍剛八十.素描展」,大象藝術空間館,台中,台灣

2014

「抽象.符碼.東方情-臺灣現代藝術巨匠大展」,尊彩 藝術中心,台北,台灣

179


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

HO Kan 1932

1949

Born in Nanjing, China

Came to Taiwan with the Revolutionary Military Dependent’s School,

1971

Solo exhibition, Galleria Studio, Matera, Italy

Taipei, Taiwan

Solo exhibition, Galleria Arte Centro, Milan, Italy

Accepted to the Department of Art at Taipei Normal School, Taipei, Taiwan

Solo exhibition, Galleria Del Barba, Castellanza, Italy

Introduced by Ouyang Wen-Yuan met Lee Chun-Shan, Taipei, Taiwan

Solo exhibition, Galleria II Fondaco, Messina, Italy

1951

Attended Lee Chun-Shan’s studio to study Western painting, Taipei, Taiwan

Solo exhibition, Galleria Giorgi, Florence, Italy

1953

Graduated from Taipei Normal School, Taipei, Taiwan

1950

1954

1956

1972

Solo exhibition, Studio Maspes-Romegialli, Sondrio, Italy

Taught at Jingmei Elementary School and helped to establish the first

Solo exhibition, Galleria AeA, Trento, Italy

art studio domestically, Taipei, Taiwan

Solo exhibition, Galleria Giovio, Como, Italy

Joined the “Teachers Association”, Taipei, Taiwan

1973

Solo exhibition, Galleria Arte Centro, Milan, Italy

Together with students from the studio on Antong street formed

Solo exhibition, Instituto Itali Cinese, Milan, Italy

salon, Taipei, Taiwan

Solo exhibition, Abbazia dei Padri Benedettini, Finalpia, Italy

Co-founded the “Ton Fan Group”, Taipei, Taiwan

Solo exhibition, Galleria del Leone, Tradate, Italy

1957-58 Art instructor at Education Touring Council, Taipei, Taiwan

1974

“The 1st Ton Fan Group Exhibition”, Shin Shung News Building,

Solo exhibition, Galleria Marcon IV, Roma, Italy Solo exhibition, Galleria Andromeda, Bologna, Italy

Taipei, Taiwan

1975

Solo exhibition, Galleria Gemelli, Rimini, Italy

1958

“Asian Young Art Exhibition”, Tokyo, Japan

1976

Solo exhibition, Galleria Arte Centro, Milan, Italy

1960

“International Abstract Art Exhibition”, Prato, Italy

1977

Solo exhibition, Galleria Chutz, Solothurn, Switzerland

1964

Went to Europe and settled in Milan, Italy

1978

Solo exhibition, Galleria Arte Centro, Milan, Italy

1965

Won International Art Development Price, Bubbio, Italy

1979

Solo exhibition, Pinacotecae Museicomunali, Macerata, Italy

1966

Won International Art Development Price, Bubbio, Italy Won International Paint Golden Price, Novara, Italy

Solo exhibition, Galleria Plusart, Venice, Italy 1981

“The 25th Anniversary Joint Exhibition of Ton Fan and Fifth Moon

1967

Won National Paint Golden Price, Monza, Italy

Groups”, Taiwan Provincial Museum (now National Taiwan Museum),

1969

Won Giuseppe Mori Golden Price, Lecco, Italy

Taipei, Taiwan

1970

“International Painting Exhibition”, Acireale, Italy

1982

Solo exhibition, Galleria Arte Centro, Milan, Italy

“The 7th International Painting Exhibition, Campione, Italy

1984

Solo exhibition, Galleria Arte Centro, Milan, Italy

Solo exhibition, Galleria Brambach, Basel, Switzerland

1985

Solo exhibition, Asia Art Center, Taipei, Taiwan

Solo exhibition, Galeria Orez, Den Haag, Netherlands

180

Solo exhibition, Non Libreria, Milan, Italy


CHRONOLOGY | HO Kan

Solo exhibition, Galerie Toni Brechbuhl, Grenchen, Switzerland 1986

Group exhibition, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

1987

Solo exhibition, Galleria Civica d’Arte Moderna Palazzo dei Diamanti, Ferrara, Italy

1988

Solo exhibition, Galleria Arte Centro, Milan, Italy

1990

Solo exhibition, Eslite Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

1994

Solo exhibition, Taiwan Provincial Museum of Fine Arts (now National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts), Taichung, Taiwan

1997

“The memo of Ton Fan”, Dimensions Art Center, Taipei, Taiwan Won Modern Art Achievement Price, Lee Chun-Shan Foundation, Taiwan

1999

“Lee Chun-Shan and His Pupils Exhibition”, Taiwan Provincial Museum of Fine Arts (now National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts), Taichung, Taiwan “Ho Kan: Retrospective”, Dimensions Art Center, Taipei, Taiwan

2001

“Eastern Structuralism”, Dimensions Art Center, Taipei, Taiwan

2010

Solo exhibition, Da Xiang Art Space, Taichung, Taiwan

2011

“Universal Eternity – Ho Kan Solo Exhibition”, National Tsing Hua University Arts Center, Hsinchu, Taiwan

2012

“Exploring the Westland – The Eight Highwaymen of the East”, Da Xiang Art Space, Taichung, Taiwan “Age 80 – Ho Kan’s Drawing Exhibition”, Da Xiang Ar t Space, Taichung, Taiwan

2014

“Abstract / Symbol / Oriental – Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern Art", Liang Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

181


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

霍剛的迴盪符號— 幾何空間裡的東方詩情 文

曾長生

心靈空間的宇宙象徵

旅居義大利的霍剛,五十年來用不斷思索的感覺來畫生命。他 走過文化貧乏的五○年代,曾從支離、沉鬱的調子,走向開朗、 純粹;從無意識的超現實幻想,轉為內斂感恩的形而上節奏。 如今許許多多複雜多元的意象,都被他還原到單純而確定的畫 面,其表現形式很西方,但精神確是抒情的東方。

西 方人 心目 中 的神 秘 的東 方, 誠 如 波 赫 士(Jorge Luis Borges, 1899-1986)所言:「在西方的想像系統中,中國文化是最謹 小慎微,最為秩序井然的,最無視時間的事件,但又最喜愛空 間的純粹展開。既使它的文字也不是以水平的方式複製聲音的

且屬於某種沉默的秩序之物,簡言之,這個事實是說:存在著 秩序。」

而霍剛的藝術世界正是立足於中國傳統繪畫的基礎上,他借用 西方的觀念與某些畫法而創造出獨特的藝術形式;他的畫予人 182

HO Kan

始事實;在其自發的秩序下面,存在著其本身可以變得有序並

1

它完全致力於空間的有序,這種文化發現,自身面臨著一個原

Untitled 1

交往。於是在我們居住的地球的另一端,似乎存在著一種文化,

霍剛 無題

的畫像、紊亂的路徑、奇異的場所、秘密的通道和出乎意料的

2012

但是這種詞和範疇卻植根於莊重的空間,它們全都超載了複雜

140×70cm×3

此導致了一種沒有空間的思想,沒有家園和場所的詞與範疇,

Pencil on paper

飛逝;它以垂直的方式樹立了物的靜止但仍可辨認的意象。如


ESSAY | HO Kan’s Resonant Symbols : The Eastern-style Poetry in a Space of Geometrics

永恆穩定之感,具有平和的靜態美,這種含蓄的寂靜,具有中國傳統文人畫 精神,很合乎老莊哲學與禪學所稱的「空無」的境界。中國畫法的明顯特徵 是在單純的平面上經營,位置不受現實時空侷限,以空白作背景,直陳佈勢 物像,極富裝飾意趣。此空白不是空無,而是宇宙的本體,空白處充滿著生 命的律動。霍剛稱:「我嘗試去追求生命的本質,我畫中形象是一種符號、 一種象徵、一種啟示。我使用的技巧是為了達到精神的心靈空間,一種對人 類及宇宙萬物無限嚮往的情愫。」

東方圖像的神秘之旅

霍剛的詩意空間是他經歷半個世紀對生命不斷思索後的感覺與瞭解的呈現。 生命之於他,是連綿不盡的宇宙中的獨特個人聲音的乍現,在此充滿隱喻 的聲音之中,同時濃縮了時間與空間,正似現象學家閔可夫斯基(Eugène Minkowski, 1885-1972) 所 稱 的 生 命 迴 盪。 閔 可 夫 斯 基 曾 在「 邁 向 宇 宙 論 」 (Vers une Cosmologie)書中稱:「當我們心靈之眼的原初型態甦活起來, 進而充滿了生命,我們便會發現一種嶄新的動態、生機範疇、宇宙的一種新 性質:迴盪(Retentir)。」

生命的迴盪並不是某個物質貫注在另一種東西裡面,而是響亮生命本身的動 力,透過它的運動,它襲捲、吸納了自己在路上所發現的一切貫注給空間的 切片,或更恰當地說,是貫注給它自己認定的世界切片,向此世界散發出它 自己的生命。此切片不可以用幾何學的意味來理解 , 它並不是要真的把世界

HO Kan

6

Untitled 6

霍剛 無題

2012

101×72cm×2

Pencil on paper

切割成響亮的圓球,其實,它已形成了一個自我完足的整體,一個小宇宙。

西方人將空間原型的物質想像分為:形式的想像和物質的想像,其所討論的 原型意象,多屬一系列空間方面的原型意象,諸如家屋、閣樓、地窖、抽屜、 匣盒、櫥櫃、介殼、窩巢、角落、微型、私密感、浩瀚感、巨大感、內外感、 圓整感。而霍剛的作品,許多複雜多元的意象,已被簡約還原成單純而穩定 的形象。而霍剛善於運用幾何圖像符號作為繪畫語言的特色,可源於他對中 國書法、金石、古代建築、器皿、文化圖騰、民間擺設及傢俱等的研究分析 後,解構還原為單純的圖象。他常運用的小圓點與短線條,則暗示、引申著 動與靜、虛與實之間的對比與呼應,使得畫面深含東方特有的沉潛與意境。 他對時間的流逝有強烈的眷戀,也提供一個絕對的寧靜,或神秘之旅的真正 內在。 183


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

閃爍音樂般的空間色彩

霍 剛 曾 是 一 位「 形 而 上 」 畫 家, 正 如 形 而 上 畫 派 大 師 奇 里 訶(Giorgio de Chirico, 1888-1978)所稱:「形而上繪畫在外觀上是晴朗寧靜的,但它給人 一種印象,像是有什麼事要發生似的。」奇里訶曾以兩種孤寂感的描述,來 解釋他的形而上繪畫,他說他的每一件嚴肅藝術作品,均包括兩種不同的孤 寂感:第一種可以稱之為「造形的孤寂」,這是一種冥想的至福狀態,由明 朗的構成與造形的結合而產生的,無論是把靜物擬人化或是將人物變靜物, 即兩種靜物生命均不是畫作的主體,那主要是在其超感性的佈局,有時活生 生的人物也可能包含於其中;第二種孤寂感即是線條與信號,這是一種形而

位置。

霍剛喜歡和平、安靜、思想,他減輕了筆觸和肌理的變化,徐徐展現在畫布 上的隨機符號,是一種對宇宙萬物無限嚮往的情愫,是一種不過度激動的詩 情感動,這些空間對話的組曲,正是他生命熱力與時俱增的見證。他的一些 表面理性、規矩的幾何圖像,都在秩序的組合中跳出點點火花,閃爍間整齊 的色面似乎都流動起音樂般的空間色彩,觀者還可以從這些諧趣又神秘的啟 發中感受到一種東方的玄想。總之,這樣獨特的藝術表情,正是獨特的霍剛 式語言,表現形式很西方,但精神卻抒情得東方。 184

HO Kan

物,在時間與空間無法計劃與想像的秩序中,每樣事物均有其早已命定了的

9

述,平衡與蓄勢待發,以及明智的行為與驚異。他這些不同種類的迷人混合

Untitled 9

狀、突兀的幾何學與穩靜的理性、無法充分瞭解的圖像突現與簡潔精巧的敘

2012

存在的凝聚及新組成的單位的出現所破壞。從無限的空間與細微短小的形

72×101cm

都有一個「事件」空間,等待著某件事,意識到整個的平衡一直不斷地被新

Pencil on paper

然而霍剛的創作形式顯示著一種明智地征服了的平衡,在他的每一件作品中

霍剛 無題

上的孤寂感,因為其間並沒有任何視覺上或是心靈上的邏輯訓練存在。


ESSAY | HO Kan’s Resonant Symbols : The Eastern-style Poetry in a Space of Geometrics

HO Kan’s Resonant Symbols The Eastern-style Poetry in a Space of Geometrics

Written by

Pedro Tseng

1. The Microcosm in One’s Heart Ho Kan, an ar tist who currently lived and wor ked in Italy, has devoted his fifty-year ar tistic career to painting “life” with his constant perceptions and emotions. He has lived through the 50s when culture was a luxur y. In his works throughout the years, we see the transformation from the fragmented, incoherent, and melancholic style to the optimistic, generous, and absolute tune. The unconscious and surrealistic fantasy now turns into the reser ved and grateful rhythm in metaphysical tempo. The ar tist has simplified those complicated images of multiplicity into a pure and cer tain one. His ar tistic expression might be western, but the spirit is symbolic and lyrical in an Eastern way.

The mysterious East exists in the Western imagination, as described in Jorge Luis Borges’s words:

In our traditional imager y, the Chinese culture is the most meticulous, the most rigidly ordered, the one most deaf to temporal events, most attached to the pure delineation of space; we think of it as a civilization of dikes and dams beneath the eternal face of the sky; we see it,

HO Kan

5

Continuity 5

200×82cm

Oil on canvas

霍剛 承合

spread and frozen, over the entire surface of a continent surrounded by walls. Even its writing does not reproduce the fugitive flight of the voice in horizontal lines; it erects the motionless and still-recognizable images of things themselves in vertical columns. So much so that the

185


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

Chinese encyclopedia quoted by Borges, and the taxonomy it proposes, lead to a kind of thought without space, to words and categories that lack all life and place, but are rooted in a ceremonial space, overburdened with complex figures, with tangled paths, strange places, secret passages, and unexpected communications. There would appear to be, then, at the other extremity of the earth we inhabit, a culture entirely devoted to the ordering of space, but one that does not distribute the multiplicity of existing thing into any of the categories that make it possible for us to name, speak and think.

Ho Kan’s ar t is firmly rooted in the foundations of traditional Chinese ar t, but by borrowing concepts and cer tain painting techniques from the West he has created a unique style. His paintings transmit a feeling of infinity and constancy, and possess a peaceful and static beauty about them. The understated stillness of his works has its origins in Chinese literati painting and the concept of “nothingness” propounded by Chuang Tzu and in Zen philosophy. In Chinese painting, a well-known technique is the depiction of scenes in a simple, flat plane, without realistic temporal and spatial restrictions. The background in traditional Chinese painting consists of empty white spaces, and the spatial arrangement of objects is used by the ar tist as a way of expressing feelings. Together, these elements contribute to the strong decorative quality of Chinese painting. Rather than being empty nothingness, the white spaces

Ho Kan’s “poetic space” is the manifestation of impressions and insights that he has gained from reflecting on life over the course of many decades. To Ho Kan, life is the abrupt appearance of a unique individual voice in the infinite universe. In this strongly metaphorical voice, time and space are simultaneously condensed, akin to metaphysical ar tist Eugène Minkowski’s retentir (reverberation) of life. In his Vers une Cosmologie, Minkowski states: “If, after having fixed before the mind’s eye the primitive form, we ask ourselves the question of knowing how this form comes 186

HO Kan

2. A Mysterious Journey of Eastern Images

1

and the universe is expressed.”

Continuity 1

spiritual plane, where a kind of sincerity towards the infinite yearning of humanity

霍剛 承合

are symbols, signs, and revelations. The techniques I use allow me to reach a

200×122cm

with living energy. Ho Kan once said, “I attempt to capture life’s essence. My images

Oil on canvas

of the background in fact represent the ver y essence of the universe and pulse


ESSAY | HO Kan’s Resonant Symbols : The Eastern-style Poetry in a Space of Geometrics

into being and fills itself with life, we discover a new category dynamic and vital, a new proper ty of the universe: to reverberate.”

The reverberation of life is not “concentrating” a cer tain proper ty into another. Rather, it is the “energy of reverberating life.” This energy completely permeates and absorbs everything encountered on one’s life’s journey and “concentrates” it into a spatial fragment. More accurately, it is a “concentrated” fragment of one’s world, which releases its own life force into the world. It is impossible to study the fragment geometrically. It is not its intention to segment the world into a resounding ball. In fact, it has become a self-sufficient unit – a microcosm.

In the Wester n culture , people divide the mater ial imagination of space prototype into “the imagination of form” and “the imagination of material.” The prototypical images in the discussion mostly belong to the categor y of space, such as house, attic, vault, drawer, box, cupboard, shell, nest, corner, microcosm, intimacy, immenseness, interiority, exteriority, and circularity. In his paintings, Ho Kan has simplified and reduced diverse images into simple but definite forms. These geometric symbols, his ar tistic language, are the result of Ho Kan’s study and analysis of Chinese calligraphy, seal car ving, classical Chinese architecture, Development 5

霍剛 HO Kan 開展之 5

2009

98×130cm

Oil on canvas

lacquerware, cultural totems, and folk ar t and craft. Ho Kan concentrates these ar t forms into his simplified forms. His signature little dots and shor t lines imply, and at the same time amplify the contrast and resonance between movement and stillness, real and fake, installing his works with an Oriental tranquility and mood. His fierce attachment to the flow of time gives rise to an absolute serenity in his paintings, which also express the authentic nature of his mystical journey.

3. The Colors of Space With Dazzling Musicality Ho Kan used to be a metaphysical ar tist. Master of the metaphysical school, Chirico, once said, “The metaphysical work of ar t is rather serene in aspect, yet gives the impression that something new must happen in this very serenity and that other signs, beyond those already manifest, must find place within the square of the canvas.” Chirico has used two descriptions of loneliness to explain his metaphysical ar t. According to Chirico, every piece of his serious ar tworks includes two different 187


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

sense of loneliness: the first is “the loneliness of shape”, which is the meditative ecstasy created by the combination of shapes and the constitution of lucidity. No matter it is the personification of the still objects or turning humans into still objects, both kinds of “still life” are not the subject of the paintings. The most impor tant is its meta-sensitive composition. Sometimes living figures might be included. The second sense of loneliness is lines and signals. It is a metaphysical sense of loneliness for that no logical training exists visually or spiritually.

Ho Kan’s ar t displays an intelligent mastery of balance. Each of his works is a space in which an event can take place. Waiting for something to happen, you become aware that the entire balance of the painting is constantly being shattered by the emergence of newly condenses and reconfigured elements. Infinite spaces and diminutive forms, shocking geometry and calm logic, mysterious forms and pure and refined narrative are balanced just so, at any moment to explode with accumulated power and intelligent action and impact. These enchanting composite forms each have a preordained position in the unpredictable and unimaginable temporal and spatial order of Ho Kan’s paintings.

Favoring peace, quiet, and reflection, Ho Kan uses light brush strokes and texture. His random forms are in a way an emotional response to the infinite reverberations of the great universe, a refined poetical expression. The melodies of these temporal dialogues are the evidence that his passion for life has grown over time. While ordered and composed, some of his seemingly logical and regulated geometric shapes throw out sparks of fire. Between these sparks, neat areas of color flow like space and color in musical form. Viewers can experience something of the wonder of the East from these harmonious and mysterious images. In summary, Ho Kan’s unique ar t comes from his unique self-styled language. His style is very Western, but his spirit and hear t is in the East. .

188


About the Critic | Pedro TSENG

藝評 簡介

曾長生 Pedro Tseng 曾長生,畢業於紐約大學藝術博士班(1991)、國立台灣師範大學美術研所 藝評組博士班(2010),專長為西方藝術文化評論、藝術創作。作品曾展於 《日本第四屆亞太國際藝術展》(1987),《巴黎龐畢度中心紀念六四藝術 展》(1988)。曾駐西班牙大使館、拉丁美洲大使館,擔任台灣美術院院士, 曾任教於台灣藝術大學、淡江大學及世新大學。早年擔任外交官的曾長生旅 居歐美三十多年,經常往返於南美洲與台灣之間,這段旅外漂泊的歲月形塑 他充滿中西融合的藝術風格,曾應邀在台灣、南北美洲與歐洲等地之美術館 與畫廊舉行過三十多次個展,近年的創作試圖以數位科技的角度,重新探索 繪畫藝術中的空間感、討論數位時代裡「藝術的精神性」。

Pedro Tseng obtained his PhD in Ar ts from New York University in 1991, and his second PhD from the Depar tment of Fine Ar ts at National Taiwan Normal University in 2010. He specialized in Western ar t and culture, and ar tistic creations. His works were exhibited in the “4th International Asian Ar t Exhibition” (Japan, 1987), and the “64th Commemorate Exhibition at Centre Pompidou” (France, 1988). Tseng worked at the Embassy of Taiwan in Spain and the Embassy of Taiwan in Latin American countries. He was also an academician at the Taiwan Academy of Fine Ar ts, and taught at National Taiwan University of Ar ts, Tamkang University and Shih Hsin University. During his early diplomatic career he was posted abroad to Europe and America where he spent over thir ty years, but often traveled for th and back to Taiwan. This experience of living abroad influenced his ar tistic style: he advocated the fusion of Chinese and Western styles. Tseng exhibited his works in museums and galleries in Taiwan, South America and Europe, and hold over thir ty solo exhibitions. Recently he has been applying digital technology to create new ar t pieces. Tseng aims to rediscover the feeling of space typical to the ar t of painting, and to discuss “the spirit of ar t” in the digital era. 189


霍剛 HO Kan

承合 1 Continuity 1 Oil on canvas 200×122cm

190


霍剛 HO Kan

承合 5 Continuity 5 Oil on canvas 200×82cm

191


霍剛 HO Kan

承合 3-1, 3-2 Continuity 3-1, 3-2 Oil on canvas 107×200cm×2

192


霍剛 HO Kan

開展之 5 Development 5 2009 Oil on canvas 98×130cm

193


霍剛 HO Kan

源起之 21 Origin 21 2006 Oil on canvas 111×193cm

194


霍剛 HO Kan 承合 6 Continuity 6 Oil on Canvas 50×50cm

霍剛 HO Kan 開展之 31 Development 31 2009 Oil on Canvas 70×70cm

196


霍剛 HO Kan 源起之 1 Origin 1 2006 Oil on Canvas 60×72cm

霍剛 HO Kan 源起之 2 Origin 2 2006 Oil on Canvas 60×72cm

197


莊喆 CHUANG Che


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

莊喆 1934 年出生於中國北京

1954

就讀台灣省立師範學院美術系(今國立台灣師範大學),

1968

「莊喆個展」,台灣省立博物館(今國立台灣博物館),

1969

「莊喆個展」,聚寶盆畫廊,台北,台灣

1970

「莊喆個展」,弗林特市美術館,密西根州,美國

1971

「莊喆個展」,藝術家畫廊,台北,台灣

台北,台灣 1958

畢 業 於 台 灣 省 立 師 範 大 學 藝 術 系( 今 國 立 台 灣 師 範 大

台北,台灣

學),台北,台灣 受邀加入「五月畫會」,台北,台灣

「中國當代畫」,馬德里,西班牙

「第一屆巴黎青年國際藝展」,巴黎,法國 1958-63 「五月畫展」,台北,台灣

「康城第二屆國際雙年展」,康城,法國

1959

「聖保羅國際雙年展」,聖保羅,巴西

「莊喆個展」,良士畫廊,台北,台灣

1961

「聖保羅國際雙年展」,聖保羅,巴西

「莊喆個展」,弗爾賽畫廊,密西根州,美國

1962

「國際繪畫沙龍」,香港,中國 (以「雲影」油彩畫獲

1972

金牌獎)

1963

獲中國畫學會金爵獎 「莊喆個展」,鴻霖畫廊,台北,台灣

「西貢國際美術展」,越南

「莊喆個展」,紐瓦克市美術館,紐澤西洲,美國

「中國現代畫展」,國立歷史博物館,台北,台灣

「莊喆個展」,孟特克里爾美術館,紐澤西洲,美國

「聖保羅國際雙年展」,聖保羅,巴西 「第二屆巴黎青年國際藝展」,巴黎,法國

「莊喆個展」,杜布斯畫廊,德州,美國 1973

「聖保羅國際雙年展」,聖保羅,巴西

「中國前衛畫展」,多明尼畫廊,雪梨,澳洲

「中國當代畫」,奧西卡西美術館,威斯康辛州,美國

「台灣現代展」,雅苑畫廊,香港,中國

「莊喆個展」,弗爾賽畫廊,密西根州,美國

1963-73 任教於東海大學建築系,台中,台灣

「莊喆個展」,阿爾法畫廊,新加坡

1964

「五月畫展」,多明尼畫廊,雪梨,澳洲

「莊喆個展」,泰德羅畫廊,密西根州,美國

1965

「莊喆個展」,國立藝術館(今國立台灣藝術教育館), 台北,台灣

「莊喆個展」,蕭.雷明頓畫廊,加拿大,美國 1974

「中國現代畫展」,羅馬現代美術館,羅馬,義大利 「中國當代畫展」,荷蘭各大城巡迴展,國立歷史博物館 主辦

「莊喆個展」,聚寶盆畫廊,台北,台灣 1975

「十位中國代表畫家」,都美術館,東京,日本

1976

「莊喆個展」,蕭.雷明頓畫廊,加拿大,美國

「亞洲重要畫家展」,國泰航空主辦,日本、台灣、香港 (獲首獎) 1966

「三位中國當代畫家」,山根市美術館,科羅拉多州,美國 1977

「莊喆個展」,塞格諾市美術館,密西根州,美國

美國

「莊喆個展」,卡拉馬左市美術館,密西根州,美國 「莊喆個展」,沙門畫廊,加州,美國

美國藝術協會,美國

200

「莊喆個展」,蕭.雷明頓畫廊,加拿大,美國

獲美國洛克菲勒三世基金會資助赴美研究當代世界繪畫, 「新中國山水傳統」,巡迴美國各大美術館(1966-1968),

1967

「四位中國畫家」,德霖畫廊,台北,台灣

「莊喆個展」,諾德內斯畫廊,紐約,美國

「莊喆個展」,弗里曼畫廊,密西根州,美國 1978

「莊喆個展」,龍門畫廊,台北,台灣

「莊喆個展」,費爾賽畫廊,密西根州,美國

「莊喆個展」,阿文畫廊,密西根州,美國

「卡內基國際三年展」,賓州,美國

「莊喆個展」,蕭.雷明頓畫廊,加拿大,美國


CHRONOLOGY | CHUANG Che

1979

「台北 - 紐約:現代畫之遇合大展」,台北市立美術館,

「莊喆個展」,弗爾賽畫廊,密西根州,美國 「莊喆個展」,杜布斯畫廊,德州,美國

台北,台灣

「莊喆個展」,弗里曼畫廊,密西根州,美國

「東方及五月畫會三十五年紀念展」,時代畫廊,台北,

「中國與日本當代畫展」,山峰市美術中心,紐澤西州,

台灣

美國 1980

「莊喆個展」,國立歷史博物館,台北,台灣

「五月畫會紀念展」,龍門畫廊,台北,台灣 1992

「莊喆個展」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣

「莊喆個展」,阿文畫廊,密西根州,美國

「莊喆個展」,路易紐曼畫廊,加州,美國

「莊喆個展」,龍門畫廊,台北,台灣

「莊喆個展」,龍門畫廊,台北,台灣

1981

「東方與五月畫會二十五紀念展」,台灣省立博物館(今國立

「兩個意象—莊喆與馬浩合展」,456 畫廊,紐約,美國

1982

「莊喆個展」,藝術中心畫廊,香港,中國

台灣博物館),台北,台灣

1994

學博物館,康乃狄克,美國

「莊喆個展」,朝雅畫廊,高雄,台灣

1996

「墨與紙的質變」,台北畫廊,紐約,美國

「莊喆個展」,龍門畫廊,台北,台灣

1997

「中國根」,上海美術館,上海,中國

「莊喆、馬浩、陳庭詩三人展」,香港藝術中心,香港,

1998

1984

「莊喆個展」,羅伯啟斯畫廊,密西根州,美國

「第二屆上海雙年展」,上海美術館,上海,中國

「莊喆個展」,路易紐曼畫廊,加州,美國

「莊喆個展」,科克畫廊林肯中心,紐約,美國

「中國海外畫家展」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣

「第一屆深圳雙年展」,深圳,中國

「莊喆個展」,龍門畫廊,台北,台灣

「莊喆個展」,龍門畫廊,台北,台灣

「莊喆個展」,第格來夫畫廊,芝加哥,美國

1999

「中國與希臘當代美術展」,盧迪.卡卡西斯畫廊,芝加哥,

2000

美國 1986

「莊喆個展」,韓藝術,魁北克省,加拿大 「莊喆個展」,Galerie Madeleine Lacerte,魁北克省,加拿大

獲美國博爾佈萊特基金資助返台,受邀任教於國立藝術學 2002

Fine Ar t,紐約,美國

「中國當代畫回顧展」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣 受邀與王無邪合舉行聯展,中國美術館,北京,中國

「巴黎秋季沙龍」,巴黎,法國(台灣特別邀請展)

「莊喆個展」,第格來夫畫廊,芝加哥,美國

2003

「六十年代台灣繪畫」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣

「中國現代畫」,台灣省立美術館(今國立台灣美術館),

2005

「新加坡藝術博覽會」,新加坡

台中,台灣 1988

「主題.原象」,國立歷史博物館,台北,台灣

「莊喆個展」,龍門畫廊,台北,台灣

「中國現代繪畫」,明尼蘇達大學美術館,美國

「莊喆個展」,第格來夫畫廊,芝加哥,美國

「台灣現代藝術:2005 關渡英雄誌」,關渡美術館,台北,

「莊喆個展」,普萊斯頓.波克畫廊,密西根州,美國 1989

1990

「國際華裔畫家抽象藝術展覽」,香港藝術公社,香港 「東方本質 : 美籍華裔畫家的抽象藝術」,Gary Snyder

「莊喆個展」,龍門畫廊,台北,台灣 1987

「莊喆個展」,456 畫廊,美國,紐約 「國際藝術座談會特別展覽」,魁北克省,加拿大

「莊喆個展」,路易.紐曼畫廊,加州,美國 院一年

「莊喆個展」,高雄市立美術館,高雄,台灣 「莊喆個展」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣

「莊喆個展」,杜布斯畫廊,德州,美國

1985

任教於高雄師範大學美術系客座教授一學期,高雄,台灣 「基本元素」,精藝軒,溫哥華,加拿大

中國 1983

「東方與西方之間—20 世紀末申國藝術的轉變」,發現科

台灣

「莊喆個展」,東西畫廊,漢堡,德國

2006

「莊喆個展」,亞洲藝術中心,台北,台灣

「莊喆個展」,當代畫廊,台中,台灣

2007

「嶺深道遠」,中國美術館,北京,中國

「當代藝術發展展覽」,國立歷史博物館,台北,台灣

2012

「統覽.微觀」,亞洲藝術中心,台北,台灣

「莊喆個展」,龍門畫廊,台北,台灣

2014

「抽象.符碼.東方情-臺灣現代藝術巨匠大展」,尊彩

「莊喆個展」,羅伯啟斯畫廊,密西根州,美國

藝術中心,台北,台灣

「莊喆個展」,大維遊畫廊,西雅圖,美國 「圖型大展」,漢堡國際藝術節,漢堡,德國 1991

「莊喆個展」,大維柏納畫廊,維斯康辛州,美國

201


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

CHUANG Che 1934

1954

Born in Beijing, China

Entered the Fine Arts Department at Taiwan Provincial College of Education (now National Taiwan Normal University), Taipei, Taiwan

1958

“Pintura China Contemporana”, Madrid, Spain 1970

Graduated from Taiwan Provincial University of Education (now National Taiwan Normal University), Taipei, Taiwan

Solo exhibition, Flint Art Museum, Michigan, USA “The 2nd International Cannes Biennial”, Cannes, France

1971

“The Premiere Biennale de Paris”, Paris, France

Solo exhibition, Artists’ Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan Solo exhibition, Liang’s Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

1958-63 “Fifth Moon Group Exhibition”, Taipei, Taiwan

Solo exhibition, Francise Seders Gallery, Seattle, Washington, USA

1959

“The Biennale de São Paulo”, São Paulo, Brazil

1972

1961

“The Biennale de São Paulo”, São Paulo, Brazil

Solo exhibition, Honglin Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

1962

“International Salon of Painting”, Hong Kong, China (Gold Medal Award)

Solo exhibition, Newark Art Museum, Newark, New Jersey, USA

“First International Art Exhibition”, Vietnam

Solo exhibition, Montclair Art Museum, Montclair, New Jersey, USA

“Chinese Modern Painting Exhibition”, National Museum of History, Taipei, Taiwan 1963

Awarded the Chinese painting Association Prize

Solo exhibition, Dubose Gallery, Houston, Texas, USA 1973

“The Biennial de Sao Paolo, Sao Paolo, Brazil

“The Biennale de São Paulo”, São Paulo, Brazil

“Contemporar y Chinese Paintings”, OshKosh Public Museum,

“The 2nd Premiere Biennale de Paris”, Paris, France

OshKosh, Wisconsin, USA

“Chinese Avant-Garde Exhibition”, Dominion Galler y, Sydney,

Solo exhibition, Forsythe Gallery, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

Australia

Solo exhibition, Alpha Gallery, Singapore

“Modern Art Exhibition from Taiwan”, Chatham Gallery, Hong Kong, China

Solo exhibition, Tadlow Gallery, Holland, Michigan, USA

1963-73 Taught at the Depar tment of Architecture at Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan

Solo exhibition, Shaw-Rimington Gallery, Toronto, Canada 1974

“Four Chinese Artists”, Morrison Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

1964

“Fifth Moon Group Exhibition”, Dominion Gallery, Sydney, Australia

1965

Solo exhibition, National Center of Arts, Taipei, Taiwan

1975

“Ten Chinese Leading Artists”, Metropolitan Museum, Tokyo, Japan

“Chinese Modern Ar t Exhibition”, Galleria del Palazzo delle

1976

Solo exhibition, Shaw-Rimington Gallery, Toronto, Canada

Solo exhibition, Magic Touch Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

Esposizioni, Roma, Italy

“Three Contemporar y Ar tists”, Foot Hills Ar t Center, Golden,

“Contemporar y Chinese Ar t Exhibition”, major cities in the Netherlands, held by National Museum of History

1966

Colorado, USA 1977

Solo exhibition, Saginaw Art Museum, Saginaw, Michigan, USA

organized by Cathay Airlines, Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong (won the

Solo exhibition, Kalamazoo Institute of Art, Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA

First Prize for the Taiwan area)

Solo exhibition, Sather Gate Gallery, Berkley, California, USA

Awarded a J.D. Rockefeller III Fund travel grant to study in the USA “The New Chinese Landscape”, touring exhibition of six Chinese

Solo exhibition, Freeman Gallery, East Lansing, Michigan, USA 1978

artists in Taiwan and USA through leading museums and galleries in

1968

Solo exhibition, Lee Nordness Gallery, New York, USA

Solo exhibition, Shaw-Rimington Gallery, Toronto, Canada 1979

202

Solo exhibition, Forsythe Gallery, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

Solo exhibition, Forsythe Gallery, Michigan, USA

Solo exhibition, Dubose Gallery, Houston, Texas, USA

“Carnegie International”, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, USA

Solo exhibition, Freeman Gallery, East Lansing, Michigan, USA

Solo exhibition, Taiwan Provincial Museum (now National Taiwan

“Contemporar y Chinese and Japanese Ar t”, Summit Ar t Center,

Museum), Taipei, Taiwan 1969

Solo exhibition, Lung Men Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan Solo exhibition, Arwin Gallery, Detroit, Michigan, USA

the USA 1967

Solo exhibition, Shaw-Rimington Gallery, Toronto, Canada

“An Exhibition of Paintings by Asia’s Leading Artists”, traveling exhibit

Solo exhibition, Magic Touch Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

Summit, New Jersey, USA 1980

Solo exhibition, National Museum of History, Taipei, Taiwan


CHRONOLOGY | CHUANG Che

Solo exhibition, Arwin Gallery, Detroit, Michigan, USA 1981 1982

1992

Solo exhibition, Louis Newman Gallery, Beverly Hills, California, USA

“Ton Fan and Fifth Moon 25th Anniversary Joint Exhibition”, Taiwan

Solo exhibition, Lung Men Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

Provincial Museum (now National Taiwan Museum), Taipei, Taiwan

“Two Images – Paintings by Chuang Che and Ma Hao”, 456 Gallery,

Solo exhibition, Art Center, Hong Kong, China Solo exhibition, Chao Ya Gallery, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

New York, USA 1994

Solo exhibition, Lung Men Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

1983

1984

Twentieth Century”, Discovery Museum, Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA 1996

“Mutations of Ink and Paper”, Taipei Gallery, New York, USA

Hong Kong Art Center, Hong Kong, China

1997

“The Roots of China”, Shanghai Art Museum, Shanghai, China

Solo exhibition, Robert Kidds Gallery, Seattle, Washington, USA

1998

Visiting Professor at the Depar tment of Fine Ar ts at National

Solo exhibition, Louis Newman Gallery, Beverly Hills, California, USA

Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

“Overseas Chinese Artists”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

“Urelement”, Art Beatus Gallery, Vancouver, Canada

Solo exhibition, Lung Men Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

“The 2nd Shanghai Biennale”, Shanghai Art Museum, Shanghai, China

Solo exhibition, De Graff Gallery, Chicago, Illinois, USA

Solo exhibition, Cork Gallery Lincoln Center, New York, USA

Solo exhibition, Dubose Gallery, Houston, Texas, USA

“The 1st Shenzhen Biennale”, Shenzhen, China

Chicago, USA 1985

Solo exhibition, Louis Newman Gallery, Beverly Hills, California, USA

1986

Awarded a Fulbright and returned to Taiwan for one year as a

Solo exhibition, Lung Men Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan 1999 2000

“Special Exhibition of the International Art Symposium”, Baie-Saint-

Solo exhibition, Lung Men Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

PauI, Quebec, Canada

“A Retrospective Exhibition of Contemporary Chinese Art”, Taipei

Solo exhibition, Han Art Gallery, Quebec, Canada

Invited by the Chinese Artists Association to have an exhibition with

Solo exhibition, Galerie Madeleine Lacerte, Quebec, Canada 2002

Kong Artist Commune, Hong Kong, China

Solo exhibition, De Graff Gallery, Chicago, Illinois, USA

“Oriental Essence: The Abstraction of Overseas Chinese Ar tists”,

“Exhibition of the Development of Arts in the Republic of China”,

Gary Snyder Fine Art, New York, USA “Paris Autumn Salon”, Paris, France

Museum of Fine Arts), Taichung, Taiwan

2003

“Taiwanese Art of the 60s”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

Solo exhibition, Lung Men Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

2005

“Singapore Art Fair”, Singapore

Solo exhibition, De Graff Gallery, Chicago, Illinois, USA

“Theme – Inverse Image”, National Museum of History, Taipei, Taiwan

Solo exhibition, Preston Burke Gallery, Detroit, Michigan, USA

“Chinese Modern Painting”, University of Minessota Ar t Museum,

Solo exhibition, Galerie Art East/West, Hamburg, Germany

Minneapolis, Minesota, USA

Solo exhibition, Contemporary Art Gallery, Taichung, Taiwan

“Kuandu Extravaganza: Exhibition of Modern Art in Taiwan”, Kuandu Museum of Fine Arts, Taipei, Taiwan

Museum of History, Taipei, Taiwan

2006

Solo exhibition, Asia Art Center, Taipei, Taiwan

Solo exhibition, Lung Men Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

2007

“Deep Ridge – Remote Way”, National Ar t Museum of China,

Solo exhibition, Robert Kidds Gallery, Seattle, Washington, USA Solo exhibition, Davidson Gallery, Seattle, Washington, USA

Beijing, China 2012

“Forum: Hamburg International Art Festival”, Hamburg, Germany 1991

“Abstract Ar t Exhibition of International Chinese Painters”, Hong

Wang Wu-Yen, National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China

“Exhibition of the Development of Contemporary Ar t”, National 1990

Solo exhibition, Gallery 456, New York, USA

professor at the National Arts College, Taiwan

Taiwan Provincial Museum of Fine Ar ts (now National Taiwan

1989

Solo exhibition, Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Arts, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Solo exhibition, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

1988

“Between East and West – Transformation of Chinese Art in the late

“Chuang Che, Hao Ma, Chen Ting-Shih: Exhibition of Three Artists”,

“Contemporary Ar t – China and Greece”, Rodi Karkazis Gallery,

1987

Solo exhibition, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

Solo exhibition, Lung Men Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

Solo exhibition, David Barnett Gallery, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA “Taipei – New York: Confrontation of Modernism”, Taipei Fine Arts

“Holistic View and Microscopic Vision – Chuang Che Solo Exhibition”, Asia Art Center, Taipei, Taiwan

2014

“Abstract / Symbol / Oriental – Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern Art", Liang Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

Museum, Taipei, Taiwan “Ton Fan and Fifth Moon 35th Anniver sar y Joint Exhibition”, Contemporary Art Center, Taipei, Taiwan “Fifth Moon Group Memorial Exhibition”, Lung Men Ar t Galler y, Taipei, Taiwan 203


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

試探莊喆早期結合中西的抽象繪畫

黃海鳴

這似乎是一篇有關莊喆研究的前言,或更正確的說,是一個新 的問題意識的提出。

莊喆這位重要的抽象畫家一向強調中西合璧的企圖,在台灣雖 然有一點被淡忘,但是在藝術市場上作品曝光率可以用驚人及 讓人頭暈目眩來形容。這文章,我只想稍微提出對於早期的中 西合璧的抽象繪畫的一些思考。

從 1963 年、1964 年的創作,基本上就是使用古畫的破片來拼 貼的技法,並且給人一種國破山河在的悲愴淒涼感覺,這種感

他創作中的國破山河在的情感,更多的是表現古老宮廷王朝凋 零沒落的情懷,是否西方早期普普藝術先驅者例如羅森伯格 (Rober t Rauschenberg, 1925-2008)的廢物拼貼,正好給了他 這種偉大王朝崩裂沒落的情感可用藝術語言?可是他喜歡的東 西並非那種古老文化所特有,如同醬缸的那種氛圍以及氣味。

有人強調莊喆是一位非常重視「筆勢」的藝術家,他的繪畫特 色之一,即是將中國書畫藝術中特有的「筆法」,包括了剛柔、 204

CHUANG Che

寶物,四、五歲的莊喆,從小就在中國藝術精華中耳濡目染。

Intersection

在烽火中一路輾轉到台灣,莊喆的父親莊嚴當時負責運送故宮

2000

教育來看這樣的初始狀態。他的童年和故宮歷史文物一起避難,

127×168cm

畫破片拼貼來呈現類似的感覺。或許我們能從莊喆的藝術養成

Oil and acr ylic on canvas

冷冽的大山水來表現,而莊喆卻用老化發黃或變成咖啡色的古

莊喆 交會

覺在劉國松的早期作品中也感覺得到。但是劉國松用一種殘破


ESSAY | When the East Meets the West – A Peek into CHUANG Che’s Early Abstract Paintings

Green Rock and Splendid Cloud

莊喆 CHUANG Che 石蒼雲燦

2010

127×336cm

Acr ylic on canvas

疏 密、 陰 陽、 濃 淡、 枯 潤 等 特 質 滲 入 西 畫 的 創 作, 於 是 中 西

在某種程度來說,他早期的中西合璧繪畫就很像立即對於新興

渾融,自創一格。也看過有人強調他對於觸覺以及味覺的敏感

大都會的新奇摩登視覺感、以及四面八方共時進行的速度感

表現,這也許反映了他早期的在所謂氣味上的劇烈轉折。著名

經驗。倒是稍後的抽象表現才開始有了更真實以及帶有負面

美學家劉文潭先生的文章也提到他的作品強烈的表現自然生生

情感的部分。這類的作品也許能夠和畫牛屍體的蘇丁(Chaïm

不息的中國藝術精神特質,這些都算是可以與其他的評論者類

Soutine, 1893-1943),以及畫醜怪猙獰女人的抽象表現派畫家

似,且能夠交織互補的詮釋。但是我卻要從劉文潭老師在同一

德.庫寧的創作有一些關聯。蘇丁畫中的形象是扭曲而粗糙的,

篇文章開始的一些描述開始。

表現出一種斯拉夫式的憂鬱。他的畫作中蘊含著激情和力量, 他並沒有追隨某個當時的畫派,而只是堅持自己獨特的風格。

劉文潭老師提到:「……那時他看到別人騎一輛嶄新的海格力

蘇丁的表現主義的內涵是依靠於直覺的力量,而不拘泥於形式

斯跑車,那發亮的烤漆,和那不鏽鋼的美妙線條,都使他艷羨

的束縛。

不已……都市的繁華,震耳欲聾噪音、五色繽紛的廣告,耀眼 奪目的霓虹燈,正是呈現在莊 喆 眼前的這種種摩登化的現象。

而德.庫寧,作為移民的身份,他被美國生活中的粗俗、誇張、

使他總結成一個決定也創作方向的問題:『這些現象怎能進入

躁動和矛盾深深地吸引著,他的作品見證著面對經濟、文化價

黑漆一團的水墨畫呢?!』」這種西方現代大都會中動態繁華

值崩潰之際內心的不確定感以及在藝術史和流行文化語境中不

絢麗的經驗,實際上就出現在莊喆早期國破山河在的老舊古畫

斷融合的有效嘗試。他像是一個創世主,在作品中創造了一個

拼貼完全不同的,創作在他到美國之後的抽象表現之中。那種

自給自足的視覺世界,以另一種紛繁和無序對抗著現實世界的

醬缸味很重的宮廷、胡同味道,這時已經換成了現代摩天大樓、

混亂和不安。這樣的分析能不能用在莊喆稍後的呈現動盪不安

百貨公司、精品店以及威士忌酒的味道。

的抽象表現繪畫?

如果再仔細區分,他的繪畫中確實包含了固體物以及做為行動

關於劉文潭老師在多年前的一篇精彩的評論中所提到的,莊喆

過程的筆勢。這種特質也許正好和還保留一些具象的抽象表現

的 抽 象 繪 畫, 是 一 種「 對 中 國 藝 術 精 神 ─ ─ 對「 自 然 」 的 尊

派畫家德.庫寧(Willem de Kooning, 1904-1997),以及 介於

重─的掌握」。比強調藝術家「他眼晴看外界──自然──是

普普藝術以及抽象表現之間的羅森伯格的創作有某些精神上的

一回事,面對一張畫布進行作畫──由開始到完結其間的過程

近似。事實上 20 世紀下半葉西方現代藝術的主要趨勢正好就

──又是另一經歷,雙方是在參照中進行的。總之,莊喆所採

是 ( 一 ) 藝 術 走 向 過 程、( 二 ) 藝 術 走 向 生 活。 在 這 個 交 叉 位

取的,是排除抄襲自然外形,探索自然本質的抽象之路。」這

置,正好有羅森伯格這樣一位代表性人物。羅森伯格是美國著

裡錯過了在移民者心中,根深蒂固的中國傳統意義的自然意象,

名的普普藝術家,50 年代創造了「結合繪畫」(「串聯繪畫」

與非常人工的美國大都會經驗,是無法真正融合的。似乎這永

Combing Painting)這是一種繪畫和繪畫上固定的物品所構成的

恆的、不斷擺動的猙獰與優雅、融合與拉扯,面對與逃避、脫

藝術,後來又發展成為「集合藝術」(Assemblage Ar t),將

離與回歸,成為莊喆創作的持續動力。似乎,他作品中的這種

藝術品同實物、生活等同起來。

撕裂感,對於具有真實移民經驗的華人也會有一定的吸引力。 205


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

When the East Meets the West – A Peek Into CHUANG Che’s Early Abstract Paintings

Written by

HUANG Hai-Ming

This ar ticle might be an introduction to a study of Chuang Che’s works. To be more precise, it brings out a new question to be explored.

Chuang Che, a major abstract painter, has always emphasized his attempt of blending the East with the West. Although he is not frequently remembered in Taiwan, his visibility in the ar t market is indeed impressive, even stunning. In this ar ticle I am simply offering some thoughts about Chuang Che’s early abstract paintings, which blend the East and the West.

His paintings in the 1963 and 1964 feature the collage of the remaining pieces of ancient paintings, creating a sense of desolation as if we were surrounded by war ruins. A similar feeling is also noticed in Liu Kuo-

Civil War. Chased by the spreading war flames, they came all the way to Taiwan. Chuang’s father was responsible for the transportation of the National Palace Museum treasure. When Chuang was still four or five years old, he was fully immersed in the quintessence of Chinese ar t. In his paintings, he visualized the sentiments to mourn for the 206

CHUANG Che

Palace Museum treasure to search for a shelter during the Chinese

Above & Beyond

he has received. He spent his childhood fleeing with the National

莊喆

such an expressive style in his early works through the art education

1994

ancient paintings to create a similar effect. Perhaps we can examine

168×168cm

landscape, while Chuang uses old, faded, and damaged pieces of the

Oil on canvas

Sung’s early works. Liu foregrounds the bleakness of the magnificent


ESSAY | When the East Meets the West – A Peek into CHUANG Che’s Early Abstract Paintings

collapsing empire. Did pioneering pop ar tists in the West, such as

paintings when he moved to the United States of America. The

Rober t Rauschenberg who was known for collage of trash, provide

smell of the royal cour t, the collapsing empire, and the lost alleys in

him an expression style that he could describe appropriately the

an ancient city were replaced with skyscrapers, depar tment stores,

decline of a great empire? However, he never liked the ancient flavor

boutiques, and the high-class whisky.

as old as the jar of sauce from centuries ago. If we examine his paintings more carefully, we can see the still Someone describes Chuang Che as an ar tist who pays par ticular

objects and the movement of the strokes. These qualities are

attention to “the movement of the strokes.” His paintings are best

somehow similar to the wor ks of Willem de Kooning, whose

known for how the unique “strokes” in the traditional Chinese

ab s tr ac t e x p re s s io nis t p aintings mainta in a slig ht t r a ce of

calligraphic ar t is integrated into a Western style. The contrasting

figurativeness, and Rober t Rauschenberg, an ar tist in between the

qualities between the hard and the soft, the spar se and the

Pop Ar t Movement and Abstract Expressionism. The truth is that

concentrated, yin and yang, the thick and the thin, or the dried

the trend of the Western modern ar t in the second half of the

and the moist are perfectly blended in the Western-style painting,

20th centur y was “the ar t moving toward the process” and “the

creating a unique ar tistic expression. Someone has also noticed his

ar t moving toward life.” Rober t Rauschenberg happened to be that

sensitivity to smell and touch. It might reflect the dramatic transition

typical figure who stood at the intersection. As a famous American

of the so-called “smell” in his early works. Mr. Liu Wen-Tan, a famous

pop ar tist, Rauschenberg created “Combing Painting,” an ar t form

aesthetician, has once mentioned in his ar ticle that Chuang’s works

featuring paintings and the objects fixed to the paintings. “Combing

expressively demonstrate the circle of life, which is considered

Painting” later was developed into “Assemblage Ar t,” which

to be the spiritual essence of Chinese ar t. Although it is not a

connected ar tworks with real objects and daily life.

groundbreaking perspective to study Chuang’s paintings since the idea inter textually echoes the interpretations of other critics, I still

To some extent, Chuang’s early paintings which blend the East

want to begin with a paragraph in Mr. Liu’s ar ticle:

and the West remind us of some modern visuality which we have experienced in an emerging metropolitan and a sense of speed

“He saw someone riding on a brand new Hercules. The shining

combined with simultaneous multiplicity. In comparison, the abstract

coating and the beautiful shape of the stainless steel amazed him…

expression in his later works shows a more realistic touch as well as

In front of him was the splendor of the big city, the deafening

cer tain negative emotions. These works might be related to Chaïm

noises, the dazzling light, and the colorful adver tisement signs. The

Soutine, who is known for his paintings of dead cattle (meat), and

experience of modernity raised a question in Chuang’s mind, which

the abstract expressionist Willem de Kooning, who is known for his

later became his ar tistic pursuit – ‘how can these scenes be included

paintings of ugly, scary, and hideous women. The images in Soutine’s

in an ink-wash painting when black is the dominant color?’ ” The

paintings are distor ted and rough, demonstrating a Slavic touch of

splendid, prosperous, and full-of-action quality of a Western modern

melancholy. His paintings are full of passion and power, but he never

metropolitan was totally different from the sense of ruins seen in

followed any ar t school at that time. Instead, he insisted on his

Chuang’s early collage of ancient paintings’ remaining pieces. The

unique ar tistic expression. The expressionist essence in Soutine was

sense of modernity first appeared in Chuang’s abstract expressionist

inspired by instinct rather than the regulations of forms. 207


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

Meanwhile, Willem de Kooning, as an immigrant in America, was fascinated with the vulgarity, exaggeration, anxiety, and contradiction permeating through the American society. His ar tworks not only witnessed people’s inner insecur ity when the economic and cultural values were falling apar t, but also effectively practiced the continuous blending of ar t history and pop culture. He was like a Creator, creating a self-sufficient visual world in his works to fight against the chaos and the anxiety of the real world with the help of an alternative non-order. Can we adopt such an analysis to study the uncer tainty visualized in Chuang’s abstract expressionist paintings?

As mentioned in an insightful critique written by Mr. Liu WenTan many years ago, Chuang Che’s abstract paintings “visualize the spiritual essence of Chinese ar t and show respect for ‘nature’.” Mr. Liu also points out that the ar tist “compares his perceptions of Nature – the external world he sees around him – and the ar tmaking process, from the beginning to the end, in front of the canvas in his works, avoiding a realistic representation of the physical appearance to explore the abstract essence of Nature.” However, what Liu does not mention is the impossibility to fully combine the natural image , which is deeply imbedded in the Chinese tradition, and the ar tificial atmosphere of an American metropolitan experienced by immigrants. It seems that the eternal and continuous oscillation between hideousness and the elegance, combination and struggle, confrontation and rejection, or depar ture and return become the motivation of Chuang Che’s ar tistic practice. Indeed, the sense of conflict in his ar tworks attracts the Han-Chinese who have real immigration experiences.

208


About the Critic | HUANG Hai-Ming

藝評 簡介

黃海鳴 HUANG Hai-Ming 黃海鳴,畢業於國立台灣師範大學美術系,後赴法國國立巴黎 第八大學深造,取得造形藝術系理論碩士與美學 ─ 藝術的科 技與科學博士。1990 年代起活躍於台灣美術展覽策劃、當代藝 術評論、當代藝術生態觀察研究、街區藝術營造等城市創意空 間規劃研究等領域。專長為藝術批評、大型展覽策劃、美學街 道與社區營造。就任台北市立美術館館長前,為國立台北教育 大學文化創意產業經營學系系主任兼所長。

Huang Hai-Ming graduated from the Depar tment of Fine Ar ts at National Taiwan Normal University. He also studied at Université Paris VIII in France where he obtained Master’s degree in Ar t Theor y and PhD in Ar ts and Technology of Image . Star ting from 1990, he actively or ganized Taiwanese ar t exhibitions, wrote contempor ar y ar t cr itiques, did obser vational studies of contemporar y and street ar t, as well as planning studies of creative spaces in the city. Huang specialized in ar t criticism, largescale exhibition planning, aesthetics of the streets and community buildings. Before taking a post as the Director in Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum, he was a Director of the Depar tment of Cultural and Creative Industries Management at National Taipei University of Education.

209


莊喆 CHUANG Che

Above & Beyond 1994 Oil on canvas 168×168cm

210


莊喆 CHUANG Che

交會 Intersection 2000 Oil and acrylic on canvas 127×168cm

211


莊喆 CHUANG Che

獨立蒼茫 Stand Alone on the World 2008 Acrylic on canvas 171.5×346cm

212


213


莊喆 CHUANG Che

石蒼雲燦 Green Rock and Splendid Cloud 2010 Acrylic on canvas 127×336cm

214


215


陳正雄 CHEN Cheng-Hsiung


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

陳正雄 1935 年出生於台灣台北

1952 1954

物館),台北,台灣 1955 1959 1960

「中韓現代書畫展」,漢城國立現代美術館,首爾,韓國

透過郭雪湖之推薦進入李石樵門下學習素描,台北,台灣 「第十八屆台陽美展」,台灣省立博物館(今國立台灣博

1982

1982-98 擔任全國美展、全省美展、台北市美展、現代畫展、中日

畢業於建國中學,台北,台灣 畢業於國立中興大學經濟系,台中,台灣

創立中華民國現代畫學會並擔任理事長,台北,台灣 美術交流展及國際美展等評審委員、籌備委員,台北,台灣

1983

「第六屆中日美術交流展」,東京都美術館,東京,日本

「台北市立美術館開館邀請展」,台北市立美術館,台北, 台灣

1963-66 榮獲頒台灣全省美展獎項,台灣 (台灣省政府購藏)

1984

「第一屆全國現代美展」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣

1964-67 獲頒台陽美展獎項,台灣

1985

「當代抽象畫展」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣

1965-72 「第 1 至 7 屆中日現代美展」,東京都美術館,東京,日本

「全省美展 40 年回顧展」,台灣省立博物館(今國立台灣博

1965-2001 「第 5 至 16 屆全國美展」,國立歷史博物館,台北,台灣 1968

「陳正雄個展」,保羅畫廊,東京,日本

1969

「第五屆國際青年美術家雙年展」,國立西洋近代美術館,

物館),台北,台灣 1987

籌備委員,台中,台灣

東京,日本 「中華文物歐洲巡迴展」,巡迴比、西、意、葡、希、盧與馬爾

「中國當代繪畫展」,漢城當代美術館,首爾,韓國 1987-2001 擔任國立台灣省立美術館、台北市立美術館及高雄市立美 術館諮詢委員、審議委員、典藏委員,台北、高雄,台灣

他七國美術館 「世界博覽會當代藝術展」,奧克蘭,紐西蘭

1988

「陳正雄回顧展:1964–1988」,夏威夷東西文化中心美術

「亞洲畫家聯展」,漢城美術館,首爾,韓國 1972-81 「陳正雄畫展」,台灣省立博物館(今國立台灣博物館), 1973 1974

「中國現代名家十人展」,歐西可希公立美術館,威斯康辛,

館,夏威夷,美國 1989 1990

獲頒英國皇家藝術學會「終身院士」,英國

台灣省立美術館(今國立台灣美術館)發行《原始藝術與 現代藝術》,台灣 於多倫多大學「第卅六屆東方學術會議」發表《象徵與傳 統》,加拿大

及新潟美術館,日本 「六人展」,台灣省立美術館(今國立台灣美術館),台中,

1991

1979 1981

218

「第 25 屆國際當代藝術大展」,摩納哥國立當代美術館,

「陳正雄畫展」,梅田畫廊,大阪,日本

蒙地卡羅,摩納哥

開始使用壓克力顏料創作,逐漸與油畫媒材訣別 透過美國國務院及美國在台協會的國際交流計劃赴美考察 藝術,美國 創立台北藝術家聯誼會並擔任會長,台北,台灣

代表中華民國出席聯合國教科文組織第 12、13、14 屆國 際藝術會議,巴黎,法國

台灣 1978

台灣省立美術館(今國立台灣美術館)發行《巴黎當代繪 畫展講評》(錄影帶),台灣

「第一至四屆中華現代繪畫十人展」,東京、橫濱、大阪

1977

「中國現代畫展」,舊金山市立美術館,舊金山,美國

美國 1975-79 率領台灣現代畫家赴日參展,日本

1976

赴美擔任美國東西文化中心-文化與傳播研究所訪問學 人、駐校藝術家,夏威夷,美國

「當代畫展」,威靈頓,紐西蘭

台北,台灣

獲聘為台灣省立美術館(今國立台灣美術館)評審委員、

1992

「第 47 屆巴黎五月沙龍展」,巴黎大皇宮,巴黎,法國 「陳正雄四十年回顧展:1958–1992」,台灣省立美術館(今 國立台灣美術館),台中,台灣


CHRONOLOGY | CHEN Cheng-Hsiung

1994

代表中華民國出席聯合國亞太地區藝術聯盟第 1、2、3 屆

2009

「陳正雄抽象畫巡迴展:1964–1994」,北京中國美術館、

2012

2012-13 「非形之形-台灣抽象藝術大展」,台北市立美術館,台 北,台灣

法國 1995-2004 「陳正雄巡迴展」,台灣創價學會巡迴台北、台中、高雄、

「非形之形-台灣抽象藝術大展」,廣東美術館,廣東,

新竹及斗六藝文中心,台灣 1996

「李石樵師生畫展」,李石樵美術館,台北,台灣

1997

「中國當代藝術展」,美麗城藝術空間,巴黎,法國

中國 2013

《奔騰飛躍之美-論銅奔馬的藝術》,台北國立歷史博物館 發行,台灣

「美麗台灣-台灣近現代名家經典作品展(1911-2011)」, 北京中國美術館、上海中華藝術宮,北京、上海,中國

「中國根—海內外華人藝術家作品特展」,上海美術館, 上海,中國

擔任台灣現代畫家赴法參展團團長,台北,台灣 獲聘為美國中華文化傳承基金會名譽董事長,台北,台灣

上海美術館,北京、上海,中國 1995-2002 「第 35-44 屆今日大師與新秀展」,布朗麗展覽空間,巴黎,

「陳正雄回顧展:1976-2006」,雀兒喜當代美術館,紐約, 美國

藝術會議

秀威資訊科技公司出版《陳正雄畫語錄》,台灣 2014

「陳正雄回顧展:1953-2013」,台北市立美術館,台北, 台灣 「陳正雄回顧展:1953-2013」,上海中華藝術館,上海,

1998

「’98 上海藝術雙年展」,上海美術館,上海,中國

中國

1999

「第二屆亞洲藝術大展」,新德里畫廊,印度

榮獲「國家文藝獎」,台灣

「台灣當代藝術展」,首都美術館,奧克拉馬,美國 「東亞當代文字藝術展」,漢城藝術中心,韓國

「抽象.符碼.東方情-臺灣現代藝術巨匠大展」,尊彩 藝術中心,台北,台灣

獲頒「'99 佛羅倫斯國際當代藝術雙年展」最高榮譽-「生 涯成就獎」及「偉大的羅倫佐金質獎章」,義大利 1999-2009 「第 2-6 屆佛羅倫斯國際當代藝術雙年展」,巴索大要塞 藝術空間,佛羅倫斯,義大利 2000

擔任上海美術館諮詢委員,上海,中國

2001

再度蟬聯獲頒「2011 佛羅倫斯國際當代藝術雙年展」最高榮 譽-「生涯成就獎」及「偉大的羅倫佐金質獎章」,義大利

2002-03 擔任國家文化藝術基金會評審委員,台北,台灣 2003

「陳正雄繪畫 50 年回顧展」,國立歷史博物館國家畫廊、 北京中國國家博物館、上海美術館、廣東美術館,台北, 台灣;北京、上海、廣東,中國

2004

「中國當代藝術大展」,貝雷維雷藝術空間,巴黎,法國

2007

「第 5 屆佛羅倫斯國際當代藝術雙年展」,巴索大要塞藝術

獲頒台北西區扶輪社「職業成就獎」,台灣 空間,佛羅倫斯,義大利

219


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

CHEN Cheng-Hsiung 1935

1952 1954

Born in Taipei, Taiwan

Studied the art of drawing under the tutelage of Prof. Shih-Chiao

1977

“Chen Cheng-Hsiung Solo Exhibition”, Umeda Gallery, Osaka, Japan

Lee on Mr. Hsueh-Hu Kuo’s recommendation, Taipei, Taiwan

1978

Began to paint in acrylic pigment, thus paving for the gradual

“Annual Taiyang Students Ar t Exhibition”, Taiwan Provincial Museum (now National Taiwan Museum), Taipei, Taiwan

1955

Graduated from Taipei Municipal Jianguo High School, Taipei, Taiwan

1959

Graduated from Depar tment of Economics, National Chung

1960

phasing-out of oil paintings 1979

Visited the US under the International Cultural Exchange Program of the American Institute in Taiwan to observe modern art, USA

1981

Co-founded the “Taipei Ar tists Club” and named the first

Hsing University, Department of Economics, Taichung, Taiwan

president of the club, Taipei, Taiwan

“The 6th Sino-Japanese Art Exchange Exhibition”, Metropolitan

“Sino-Korean Exhibition of Modern Painting and Calligraphy”,

Museum of Art, Tokyo, Japan

National Museum of Modern Art, Seoul, Korea

1963-66 Awarded at Annual Taiwan Art Exhibition, Taiwan

1982

1964-67 Awarded at Annual Taiyang Art Exhibition, Taiwan

Founded the “National Association of Modern Art R.O.C.” and elected the first president of the association, Taipei, Taiwan

1965-72 “The 1st-7th Sino-Japanese Art Exchange Exhibition”, Tokyo, Japan

1982-98 Appointed as a juror, a commissioner for the preparatory of

1965-2001 “The 5th-16th All-Taiwan Triennale”, National Museum of

All-Taiwan Triennale, Annual Taiwan Art Exhibition, Annual All-

History, Taipei, Taiwan

Taiwan Modern Art Exhibition, Modern Painting Exhibition, Sino-

1968

“Chen Cheng-Hsiung Solo Exhibition”, Paul Gallery, Tokyo, Japan

Japanese Art Exchange Exhibition, International Art Exhibitions,

1969

“The 5th International Young Artists Biennial”, National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo, Japan

Taipei, Taiwan 1983

”Touring Exhibition of Chinese Ar tifacts in Seven European Nations”, Italy, Spain, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Luxemburg, Malta

Museum, Taipei, Taiwan 1984

“Contemporary Art Exhibition“, Auckland, New Zeeland “Contemporary Art Exhibition “, Wellington, New Zeeland “Asian Painters Exhibitions“, The Museum of Seoul Art, Seoul, Korea

Taipei, Taiwan “A Retrospective: 40 Years of Annual Taiwan Ar t Exhibition”, Taiwan Provincial Museum of Fine Ar ts (now National Taiwan

“New Paintings by Ten Chinese Ar tists “, Oshkosh Public

Museum of Fine Arts), Taipei, Taiwan 1987

Awarded as a life-follow of the Royal Society of Art, UK “The 1st-4th Ten Chinese Ar tists Exhibition“, Ar t museums in

“Chinese Contemporary Exhibition”, Art Museum, Seoul, Korea 1987-2001 Appointed as a collection commissioner juror of the Taiwan

Tokyo, Yokohama, Osaka, Niigata, Japan

Museum of Arts, a consultant to the Kaohsiung Museum of Arts,

“6 Chinese Artists”, Taiwan Provincial Museum of Fine Arts (now

an juror of the Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts), Taichung, Taiwan

220

Appointed as a collection commissioner juror of the Taiwan Provincial Museum of Fine Arts, Taichung, Taiwan

1975-79 Leaded the Taiwan Modern Artists Delegation to Japan, Japan

1976

“An Exhibition of Abstract Painting”, Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum,

(now National Taiwan Museum), Taipei, Taiwan Museum, Wisconsin, USA 1974

“The 1st Annual All Taiwan Modern Art Exhibition”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

1985

1972-81 “Chen Cheng-Hsiung Solo Exhibition”, Taiwan Provincial Museum 1973

“An Invitational Exhibition of Chinese Artists”, Taipei Fine Arts

1988

Invited as a visiting scholar and an Artist in Residence at the Institute


CHRONOLOGY | CHEN Cheng-Hsiung

of Culture and Communication, East-West Center in Hawaii, USA

1999-2009 “The 2nd-6th Florence Biennale Internazionale Dell’Ar te

“A Retrospective, 1964-1988”, East-West Culture Center, Hawaii, USA 1989

“Modern Chinese Ar t Exhibition”, San Francisco Ar t Museum,

Contemporanea”, Fortezza da Basso, Florence, Italy 2000

San Francisco, USA 1990

“Prospect of Contemporar y Paintings in Paris” (Video Tape)

Shanghai, China 2001

published by National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts, Taiwan

Contemporanea”, Italy 2002-03 Appointed as a juror of National Culture and Arts Foundation,

“Tradition and Symbol” published by Toronto University, Canada 1991

Represented Taiwan in the 12th-14th Inter national Ar t

Taipei, Taiwan 2003

Museum of History, Taipei, Taiwan; National Museum of China,

“Le XXVe Prix International d’Ar t Contemporain de Monte-

Shanghai Fine Ar ts Museum, Guangdong Ar t Museum, Beijing,

“The 47th Salon de Mai”, Grand Palais, Paris, France

Shanghai, Guangdong, China 2004

Received “Occupational Achievement Award” by the Rotar y

Provincial Museum of Fine Arts (now National Taiwan Museum

Club of Taipei, Taiwan 2007

Represented Taiwan in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd International Ar t Conference organized by UNESCO Museum of China and Shanghai Arts Museum, Beijing, Shanghai, China

2009 2012

Appointed as a chief delegate of Taiwan Modern Ar tists Delegation to France, Taipei, Taiwan

Brandy, Paris, France

Appointed as a honorary chairman of Chinese Culture Heritage

1995-2004 “Robert Cheng-Hsiung Chen Touring Exhibition”, Art Centers in

Foundation, Taipei, Taiwan 2012-13 “Formless Form: Taiwanese Abstract Art”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum,

“An Exhibition of Prof. Lee Shih-Chiao and His Students”, Lee Shih-Chiao Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

“Chen Cheng-Hsiung A Retrospective: 1976-2006”, Chelsea Art Museum, New York, USA

1995-2002 “Le 35-44e Salon Grand et Jeune d’Aujourd’hui”, Espace Eiffel

Taipei, Taichung, Kaohsiung, Hsinchu, and Douliu, Taiwan

“Florence Biennale Internazionale Dell’Ar te Contemporanca”, Fortezza da Basso, Florence, Italy

“Chen Cheng-Hsiung Touring Exhibition: 1964-1994”, National Art

1997

“Del Arco Prints Exhibition”, Espace de Beauté, Paris, France

“Chen Cheng-Hsiung A Retrospective: 1958-1992”, Taiwan of Fine Arts), Taichung, Taiwan 1994

“Chen Cheng-Hsiung a 50 Year s Retrospective”, National

Conference organized by UNESCO, Paris, France Carlo”, National Art Museum of Monaco, Monte-Carlo, Monaco 1992

Awarded the “Lorenzo il Magnifica Life-time Achievement in Art Award” at the “Florence Biennale Internazionale Dell’Arte

“Primitive Ar t and Modern Ar t” published by National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts, Taiwan

Appointed as a consultant of Shanghai Fine Ar ts Museum,

Guangdong Art Museum, Taipei, Taiwan; Guangzhou, China 2013

“Majestic Island: The Development of Modern Ar t in Taiwan

“L’art Chinois Contemporain”, Espace Belleville, Paris, France

1911-2011”, National Art Museum of China, China Art Palace,

“The Chinese Root: Works by Mainland Chinese and Overseas

Beijing, Shanghai, China

Chinese Ar tists Ar t Exhibition”, Shanghai Fine Ar ts Museum,

“The Sayings of Chen Cheng-Hsiung on Art” published by the

Shanghai, China “The Beauty of the Flying Gallop – on the ar t of the Bronze

Showwe Information, Taiwan 2014

“Chen Cheng-Hsiung A Retrospective: 1953-2013”, Taipei Fine

Galloping Horse” published by National Museum of History, Taiwan

Arts Museum, China Art Museum, Taipei, Taiwan; Shanghai, China

1998

“98 Shanghai Biennale”, Shanghai Fine Arts Museum, Shanghai, China

“Chen Cheng-Hsiung A Retrospective: 1953-2013”, China Ar t

1999

“The 2nd Asian Art Exhibition”, New Delhi, India

Palace, Shanghai, China

“Taiwan Contemporar y Ar t Exhibition", Capitaol Galler y,

Received National Award for Arts, Taiwan

Oklahoa, USA

“Abstract / Symbol / Oriental: Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of

“Contemporary Letter Art Exhibition in East Asia”, Art Center,

Modern Art”, Liang Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

Seoul, Korea Awarded the “Lorenzo il Magnifica Life-time Achievement in Art Award” at the “Florence Biennale Internazionale Dell’Arte Contemporanea”, Italy 221


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

陳正雄 文

王秀雄

陳正雄先生長期在現代藝術創作、理論研究及推廣上,辛勤耕 耘一甲子,一生不斷地尋求突破,成就最佳作品,揚名國際, 蔚然有成,是台灣抽象派的先驅,人們稱他為「台灣抽象派教 父」、「台灣抽象畫推手」、「台灣抽象畫代言人」或「色彩 魔術師」,他的藝術成就及貢獻分述如下:

在國際藝術大展上屢獲大獎,是台灣之光

1999 年及 2001 年陳正雄連續兩度榮獲「佛羅倫斯國際當代藝術 雙年展」之最高榮譽-「終身藝術成就獎」及「偉大的羅倫佐」 (Lorenzo il Magnifico) 國際藝術金質獎章,是首位獲此榮譽的台 灣藝術家,也是亞裔第一人。該獎旨在肯定其對抽象繪畫所做 的歷史性貢獻,這種世界級至高榮譽的獎,得一次已是無上的 光榮與肯定,陳正雄能獲國際評審委員的「兩度肯定」,無疑 已確立了其在國際畫壇上不可動搖的地位,他是「台灣之光」。 繼他之後,曾得該獎的國際藝術大師有 2011 年美國當代藝術大 師傑夫.昆斯(Jeff Koons, 1955-)、2003 年英國當代大師大衛.

的巴黎「五月沙龍展」,是獲邀參展的三位華裔藝術家 ( 另兩 位為趙無極、朱德群 ) 中唯一的台灣畫家。美國著名藝評家、 佛羅倫斯國際當代藝術雙年展藝術總監史派克博士 (Dr. John T. Spike, 1951-) 認為,在抽象表現主義歷史上貢獻最大的三位華 人畫家是趙無極、朱德群及陳正雄。

222

The Dream of Forest at Night

此外,陳正雄歷年來亦屢次受邀參加代表前衛藝術最高榮譽

陳正雄 CHEN Cheng-Hsiung 夜森林之夢

獎」,實至名歸。

1988

2014 年,陳正雄榮獲代表台灣文藝界的最高殊榮-「國家文藝

72.5×91cm

(Christo and Jeanne-Claude, 1935- /1935-2009)夫婦等人。

Acr ylic on canvas

霍 克 尼(David Hockney, 1937-) 及 2005 年 捆 包 大 師 克 里 斯 特


ESSAY | CHEN Cheng-Hsiung

創作與理論兼備

陳正雄不但是一位有成就的專業藝術家,也是一位終生研究抽象藝術理論 的學者,可謂創作與理論兼備,這在台灣實屬難得。他不但有極傑出的繪 畫作品,學術著作也深獲好評,殊甚難得。早在 1992 年就由台灣省立美術 館邀請他撰寫《抽象畫》( 共出三版 ),甚獲好評。其後,又應北京清華大 學之特別邀請為該校撰寫《抽象藝術論》,更列為清華大學藝術叢書之一, 2005 年出版未及三個月又再版。北京清華大學陳池瑜教授說:「陳正雄的 《抽象藝術論》在大陸獲得讀者廣泛的好評與喜愛,是一本抽象藝術研究 的重要論著。」現在又應北京大學之邀,正著手為北大撰寫一本《抽象藝 術》,可以說海峽兩岸的抽象藝術理論的書,均由陳正雄撰寫。可見其在 抽象藝術理論方面之研究及造詣,甚獲海峽兩岸藝術界所推崇。對於兩岸 抽象藝術理念的傳承與發展,貢獻卓越。

推動國際及海峽兩岸藝術及學術交流,貢獻至鉅

陳正雄於 1998 年獲得美國傅爾布萊特獎金 (Fulbright Grants) 赴美國東西 文化中心 (East-West Center) 擔任訪問學人及駐校藝術家,中心並為其舉 辦學術演講及回顧展,又於 2008 年應邀在紐約雀兒喜美術館 (Chelsea Ar t Museum) 舉行「陳正雄回顧展」,為我國首位受邀在紐約知名美術館舉行 回顧展的現代畫家,促進台美藝術及學術交流。

Maples

陳正雄 楓紅

2012

CHEN Cheng-Hsiung

72.5×60.5cm

Acr ylic on canvas

除了與美國文化學術交流之外,陳正雄於 2004 年在台北策劃舉辦「兩岸當 代藝術學術研討會」。這十餘年來,陳正雄應邀在上海主持兩次抽象藝術 的學術研討會,並應大陸文化部之邀,在北京中國國家博物館、北京中國 美術館、上海美術館及廣東美術館等四大美術館舉行五次盛大回顧展,反 應熱烈,甚獲佳評。

1989 年 起, 陳 正 雄 迭 次 受 邀 代 表 中 華 民 國 參 加 聯 合 國 教 科 文 組 織 (UNESCO) 舉辦的國際藝術會議 (IAA) 及亞太地區藝術聯盟會議 (APRAF), 為我國在國際藝術會議上發言。陳正雄亦於 1998 年及 2000 年率領台灣現 代畫家代表團參加「巴黎今日大師與新秀展」,亦於 1975 年及 1977 年率 領我國現代畫家代表團赴日本東京上野美術館,舉行「中華現代繪畫十人 展」等,對推動台灣與國際,及海峽兩岸的藝術及學術交流,貢獻卓著。

223


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

推動抽象畫的偉大推手

半世紀以來,陳正雄在師大美研所、台大、政大、中興、淡大、創價學會、 耕莘文教院及扶輪社等社團藉演講傳播與推廣抽象藝術的福音。這十餘年 來,大陸各重點大學及美研所也相繼邀他演講「抽象繪畫」共四十餘場, 涵蓋的院校有中央美院、北京大學、清華大學、中國藝術研究院、徐悲鴻 藝術學院、杭州中國美院、四川美院、魯迅美院、復旦大學、交通大學、 南京藝術學院、四川大學、四川師大、成都美院、上海大學、上海師大、 上海華東師大、上海東華大學、上海畫院,蘇州藝術學院及北京今日美術 館等,堪稱為「海峽兩岸抽象藝術之推手」,在台灣藝術界無人能出其右。

跨領域研究

陳正雄除了對抽象藝術之創作與理論研究卓有成就外,亦做跨領域的學術

藝術道路上的勇者

陳正雄毫無疑問是藝術道路上的勇者,一甲子走來,不管多少風雨,他都 堅持自己的方向,如其所言,他緊抱著「終身不渝」、「不耽於既有風格, 勇於突破精進」及「不斷地豐富造形的基因庫」的信念,一路往前邁進, 其風格變化之豐、之精,我認為舉目世界畫家中亦難找到第二人。

一甲子是人生彌足珍貴的旅程,陳正雄先生能長期堅守藝術崗位,獻身現 代藝術六十載,成就卓越,獲得國際畫壇之肯定,是台灣之光。 224

CHEN Cheng-Hsiung

家」。

Mid-Autumn Festival

發現陳正雄是一位藝術家時,他們更是敬佩不已,讚譽他為「全方位藝術

1992

灣原住民藝術專欄達上百篇,當各國研究原住民藝術及服飾的學者專家們

Dia: 40cm

版《台灣原始藝術精選集》,並應邀在《聯合報》及《自立晚報》撰寫台

Acr ylic on canvas

2008 年為其出版《清代宮廷服飾》一書,1978 年台灣原始藝術館亦為其出

陳正雄 中秋夜

研究,他是國內研究「清代宮廷服飾」的專家與權威,國立歷史博物館於


ESSAY | CHEN Cheng-Hsiung

CHEN Cheng-Hsiung Written by

WANG Hsiu-Hsiung

Chen Cheng-Hsiung has spent over 60 years pursuing the many disciplines of Modern Ar t – the creation, theory, research, and promotion. He has dedicated his entire life in an effor t to create truly innovative works of ar t, which has made him both successful and renowned throughout his field. He is the forerunner of the Abstract Expressionism Movement in Taiwan, and has been variously dubbed ‘the Godfather’, ‘the invisible hand’, ‘the spokesperson’, and even ‘the color magician' of Taiwanese Abstract Ar t. His ar tistic success and contributions to the field include:

I. Winner of International Art Exhibitions: The Pride of Taiwan In 1999 and 2001, Chen was the first Taiwanese, and indeed the first Asian ar tist, to win back-to-back world-renowned awards (A Lifetime Achievement in Ar t Award of the Lorenzo il Magnifica) from the Florence Biennale Contemporar y Ar t Exhibition. The awards have recognized the significance of his contribution to Multi-layered Color-fields

1994

Dia: 50cm

Mixed media

陳正雄 CHEN Cheng-Hsiung 色面之疊景

abstract ar t more than once and thus highlighted Chen’s impor tance in the ar t world: as such he is the pride of Taiwan. Since then, other international modern ar t winners of the award have included masters such as Jeff Koons (United States, 2011), David Hockney (Britain, 2003), and wrapping ar t husband-wife duo Christo and Jeanne-Claude (2005).

In 2014, Chen was deser vedly bestowed with Taiwan’s highest ar t award, the National Award for Ar t.

Fur thermore, over the years, Chen has been a frequent guest at the pinnacle of Avant-Garde exhibition, the Salon de Mai in Paris, along with two other Chinese ar tists, Zao Wou-Ki, and Chu Teh-Chun; he was the only Taiwanese ar tist to have received the honor of being guest to the exhibition. Well-known American ar t critic, Dr. John T. Spike (Ar tistic Director of the Florence Biennale Contemporary Ar t Exhibition), believes the trio to be the all-time greatest Chinese contributors to the field of abstract expressionism. 225


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

II. Creation and Theory: A Rare Combination Chen is not only a successful professional ar tist, but he is also a researcher who has dedicated his whole life to researching the theory behind abstract ar t; for Taiwan he is a truly unique combination of excellence in both ar t production and theoretical publication. As early as 1992, having been commissioned by Taiwan Provincial Museum of Fine Ar ts, he wrote the first copy of Abstract Painting; to date, three revisions have been published to wide acclaim. After that, he was invited by Beijing’s Tsinghua University to write for its ar t text collection, On the Abstract Art, released in 2005, a second print being ordered within 3 months. Tsinghua University Professor Chen Chi-Yu referred to Chen’s text as “a widely applauded and popular text in China, and a very impor tant theory text on abstract ar t research.” As of now, he is writing a text for Beijing University on abstract ar t. The fact that he uses author's abstract ar t textbooks for both sides of the Taiwan Strait demonstrates the depth and significance of his research. His contribution to the legacy and development of abstract ar t across national borders is unprecedented.

invited to hold yet another exhibition of the same nature at the Chelsea Ar t Museum in New York (Chen was Taiwan’s first modern ar t ar tist to have held a retrospective exhibition there).

Beyond cultural and academic exchanges with the United States, he planned, in 2004 to hold a Conference on the Modern Art of the Strait. Over the last decade, he took par t in two Shanghai conferences on abstract ar t at the Ministr y of Culture, and the People’s Republic of China extended an invitation to hold retrospective exhibitions in his honor. Five large exhibitions 226

In Sight Series III

and retrospective exhibitions in his honor. A decade later, in 2008, he was

陳正雄 CHEN Cheng-Hsiung 洞見系列之三

at the East-West Center in the United States, where they held symposiums

1999

In 1998, Chen received a Fulbright Grant as a visiting scholar/resident ar tist

72.5×53cm

Strait Art and Academic Exchanges

Acr ylic on canvas

III. Prodigious Contribution to International and Cross


ESSAY | CHEN Cheng-Hsiung

were held at the National Museum of China, the National Museum of Ar t, the Shanghai Ar t Museum, and the Guangdong Museum of Ar t, all of which received overwhelmingly positive responses from the visitors.

Since 1989, Chen represented Taiwan on numerous occasions, taking par t in UNESCO conferences for the International Association on Ar t (IAA) and the Asia Pacific Regional Ar t Conference (APRAC). In 1998 and 2000, he also led delegations of Taiwan’s modern ar tists to take par t in the Salon Grands et Jeunes d’aujourd’hui, Paris. Earlier in 1975 and 1977, he led delegations to Japan’s Ueno Royal Museum and held numerous exhibitions such as "10 Modern Chinese Painters." His contribution towards bringing Taiwan to the international stage and bringing together ar tists in academic exchange across the straits is of great significance.

IV. The Force Behind Abstract Painting For half a centur y, Chen has spread the good word of abstract ar t through involvement with Taiwanese communities including the Fine Ar ts Depar tments of numerous universities (National Taiwan Normal University, Spring Within Spring Series IV

陳正雄 CHEN Cheng-Hsiung 春天裡的春天系列之四

1998

97×145.5cm

Acr ylic on canvas

National Taiwan University National Cheng Chi University, National Chung Hsing University, and Tamkang University), the Soka Association, Cardinal Tien Education Center, and the Rotary Club Association. In the last decade, he has also spoken at various key Chinese academic institutions and Fine Ar ts schools (China Central Academy Of Fine Ar ts, Peking University, Tsinghua University, Chinese National Academy of Ar ts, Remin University, China Academy of Ar t, Sichuan Fine Ar ts Institute, Lu Xun Academy of Fine Ar ts, Fudan University, Jiao Tong University, Nanjing University of the Ar ts, Sichuan University, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu Academic of Fine Ar ts, Shanghai University, Shanghai Normal University, East China Normal University, Donghua University, Shanghai Chinese Painting Academy, Suchou University School of Ar ts, Today Ar t Museum Beijing, etc.) on the subject of abstract painting on more than 40 separate occasions. He is "the force behind the abstract ar t of the Strait", and there is no one else in Taiwan’s ar t field quite like him. 227


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

V. Cross Disciplinary Research Beyond his excellence in the creation and theory of abstract ar t, Chen has also crossed into other disciplines. He is Taiwan’s foremost authority on Imperial costume during the Qing dynasty, and National Taiwan Museum of History commissioned him to work and release a book on the subject in 2008. In 1978, he had also worked on Masterpieces of Formosan Primitive Art for Museum of Formosan Primitive Ar t, and subsequently wrote hundreds of ar ticles about indigenous ar t for the pages of United Daily News and Independent Daily News. When various indigenous ar t researchers discovered Chen’s identity as an ar tist, they were so impressed that they named him "a polymath."

VI. A Hero on The Road of Art Chen is, without doubt, a hero on the long road of ar tistic endeavor. For more than 60 years, regardless of the difficulties and setbacks, he has held his own and, in his own words, has lived "a life unchanging", one which "never settles for current style, but is brave enough to innovate" and is "always enriching the gene pool of style." He still holds firmly onto such a belief and strives to move forward. It is ver y difficult to think of another man quite like him, whose sense of style is as rich as it is deep.

60 years is a long time to spend on the same journey. Chen Cheng-Hsiung’s ability to remain true to his field of Modern Ar t has brought him excellence and recognition throughout the world. He is, quite simply, the pride of Taiwan. 228


About the Critic | WANG Hsiu-Hsiung

藝評 簡介

王秀雄 WANG Hsiu-Hsiung

王秀雄,1931 年生於台灣高雄縣岡山鎮,1959 年台灣省立師

Wang Hsiu-Hsiung was born in 1931, in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. In 1959,

範大學(今國立台灣師範大學)美術系畢業,1965 年日本國立

he graduated from the Depar tment of Fine Ar ts at Taiwan Provincial

東京教育大學大學院教育學研究科(今筑波大學)碩士畢業、

University of Education (now National Taiwan Normal University,

博士班肄業。美國哥倫比亞大學美術史研究所研究,1966 年

NTNU). In 1965, he received Master’s degree from the Institute

自日本返台任教,曾任國立台灣師範大學美術研究所所長與教

of Education at Tokyo University of Education (now University

授、私立東海大學美術系研究所教授,現為台灣師範大學美術

of Tsukuba), Japan. Later, he also took PhD courses at the same

系暨美術研究所的名譽教授。

university. He spent some time in the United States doing research at the Depar tment of Ar t History at Columbia University. In 1966,

王教授任教於台師大美術系多年間引入國外的藝術研究思潮,

he moved back to Taiwan from Japan and took teaching position.

在各級學校美術科相關政策與實務之推動與研究、台灣美術史

He was the Chief and Professor of the Graduate Institute of Fine

的探討與本土藝術發展論述、藝術作品詮釋與價值判斷,以及

Ar ts at NTNU, and Professor of the Graduate Institute of Fine Ar ts

藝術創作人才的培育上皆有深厚的貢獻。其學術研究領域包括:

at Tunghai University. Now Wang is a Honorar y Professor of the

美術心理學、台灣美術史、美術史學方法論、博物館學等,譯

Depar tment of Fine Ar ts at NTNU.

作與著作等身,傳揚美術研究理論與方法,造就無數傑出子弟, 延續美育精神與成就,為台灣美術教育樹立典範。

Prof. Wang has been teaching at the Depar tment of Fine Ar ts (NTNU) for many years and introducing the trends of ar t studies from abroad. He is aiming to promote research-related policies and practices in ar t schools. He often elaborates on the ar t history of Taiwan and the development of local ar t. Wang also interprets and judges the value of the works of ar t. His academic research areas include: the psychology of ar t, Taiwan ar t history, ar t history methodology, museology, etc. He shares the theories and methods of ar t research, thus contributing to the ar t education in Taiwan.

229


陳正雄 CHEN Cheng-Hsiung

夜森林之夢 The Dream of Forest at Night 1988 Acrylic on canvas 72.5×91cm

230


陳正雄 CHEN Cheng-Hsiung

霧台山區 Budai Village 1987 Acrylic on canvas 111×145cm

231


陳正雄 CHEN Cheng-Hsiung

楓紅 Maples 2012 Acrylic on canvas 72.5×60.5cm

232


陳正雄 CHEN Cheng-Hsiung

洞見系列之三 In Sight Series III 1999 Acrylic on canvas 72.5×53cm

233


陳正雄 CHEN Cheng-Hsiung

春天裡的春天系列之四 Spring Within Spring Series IV 1998 Acrylic on canvas 97×145.5cm

234


陳正雄 CHEN Cheng-Hsiung

色面之疊景 Multi-layered Color-fields 1994 Mixed media 直徑 50cm

陳正雄 CHEN Cheng-Hsiung

中秋夜 Mid-Autumn Festival 1992 Acrylic on canvas 直徑 40cm

235


陳正雄 CHEN Cheng-Hsiung

酒之夢鄉系列之四 Dreamland of Wine Series IV 2003 Acrylic on canvas 100×192cm

236


蕭勤 HSIAO Chin


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

蕭勤 1935 年出生於中國上海

攝/ 鍾建輝

1946

就讀於金陵大學附屬中學,南京,中國

結識德庫寧,美國

1949

隨姑父王雪艇赴台,就讀於台北成功中學,台北,台灣

榮獲卡波多朗多市繪畫獎,卡波多朗多,義大利

1951

就讀台灣省立台北師範學校藝術科(今國立台北教育大

1970

學),並隨朱德群學習素描,台北,台灣 1952

向李仲生習畫,台北,台灣

1954

畢業於台灣省立台北師範學校藝術科(今國立台北教育大

「第十七屆全國版畫展」,布魯克林美術館,紐約,美國 「第三屆國際主流畫廊沙龍」,洛桑、巴黎,法國 「第一屆國際藝術博覽會」,巴塞爾,瑞士

1971

任教於米蘭歐洲設計藝術學院,米蘭,義大利

學),台北,台灣

「義大利繪畫展」,都柏林、貝爾法斯特,愛爾蘭

赴景美國小教書,台北,台灣

「第二屆國際藝術博覽會」,巴塞爾,瑞士

1956

創辦中國抽象繪畫團體「東方畫會」,台北,台灣

1972

1957

參加巴塞隆納之「法國學會」及「皇家藝術協會」,巴塞

1973

「國際藝術博覽會 IKI」,都森道夫,德國

隆納,西班牙

1974

「今日之亞洲:當代版畫展」,米蘭,義大利

於馬達洛美術館舉行個展,巴塞隆納,西班牙 「爵士沙龍」,巴塞隆納,西班牙 1958 1959

於波布畫廊舉行個展,巴黎,法國 1975

「構成主義之時代及傾向展」,米蘭,義大利

「第二屆五月沙龍」,巴塞隆納,西班牙

「第三屆國際藝術博覽會」,巴塞爾,瑞士

於數字畫廊舉行個展,佛羅倫斯,義大利

獲選馬沙拉市「義大利繪畫大師」獎章,馬沙拉,義大利 1976

與義大利畫家卡爾代拉拉發起「國際點藝術運動(台譯龐

「第四屆國際藝術博覽會」,巴塞爾,瑞士 「波洛尼亞藝術博覽會」,波洛尼亞,義大利

圖)」,米蘭,義大利

榮獲費洛德拉諾市國際藝術第二獎,費洛德拉諾,義大利

於阿農查德沙龍畫廊舉行個展,米蘭,義大利

榮獲郡藝術獎牌,米蘭,義大利

「匹茲堡國際美展」,匹茲堡,美國

1977

「繪畫與雕塑大獎展」,蒙地卡羅,摩納哥 1963

於義大利莫登那市立美術館舉行個展,莫登那,義大利

「第一屆五月沙龍」,巴塞隆納,西班牙

「第三屆五月沙龍」,巴塞隆納,西班牙 1961

任教於路易斯安那州立大學,路易斯安那,美國

「中國當代藝展」,萊凡庫森市立美術館,萊凡庫森,德國

「第五屆國際藝術博覽會」,巴塞爾,瑞士 「波洛尼亞藝術博覽會」,波洛尼亞,義大利

1978

與提爾遜、洛布司提、吾妻兼冶郎創辦「國際太陽藝術運

「當代藝展」,巴黎大皇宮,巴黎,法國

動」,米蘭,義大利

「第七屆聖保羅雙年展」,聖保羅,巴西

於台北國立歷史博物館國家畫廊舉行個展,台北,台灣

1964

於當代藝術畫廊舉行個展,巴黎,法國

1965

於馬里堡美術館舉行個展,馬里博爾,斯洛伐尼亞

「古傳統、新傾向展」,紐約,美國

1966

於威尼斯運河畫廊舉行個展,威尼斯,義大利

「太陽展」,米蘭,義大利

於龍門畫廊舉行個展,台北,台灣

「音樂之幾何展」,漢諾瓦藝術博覽會,漢諾瓦,德國 1967

於羅絲.弗里特畫廊舉行個展,紐約,美國

「第六屆國際藝術博覽會」,巴塞爾,瑞士 1979

榮獲米蘭省藝術獎,米蘭,義大利 1968

於波洛克畫廊舉行個展,多倫多,加拿大

1969

任教於紐約長島大學之南漢普頓學院教授繪畫及素描,並

240

於義大利馬皆拉塔市立美術館舉行個展,馬街拉塔,義大利 「第七屆國際藝術博覽會」,巴塞爾,瑞士

1980

於台北版畫家畫廊舉行個展,台北,台灣 「當代國際原作版畫展」,台北,台灣


CHRONOLOGY | HSIAO Chin

1981

「東方五月廿五週年聯展」,台灣省立博物館(今國立台

1982

「中國藝術家向利馬竇致敬展」,馬皆拉塔,義大利

1997

「聚合能量一度大限到新世界系列」,帝門藝術中心,台

1998

「1958-1998 回顧展」,達姆斯塔市立美術館,達姆斯塔,

北,台灣

灣博物館),台北,台灣

德國

「中國海外當代名家畫展」,香港藝術館,香港,中國 1983

任教於烏爾皮諾國立藝術學院教授藝術解剖及畫面分析,

「第十五屆全國美展」,台北,台灣

烏爾皮諾,義大利

「1998 上海美術雙年展」,上海,中國

「第三屆歐洲版畫雙年展」,巴登巴登,德國 「理性嚴謹抽象及具體之幻想展」,伽那,義大利 1984 1985

任教於都林國立藝術學院教授裝飾藝術,都靈,義大利

「第一屆深圳國際水墨畫雙年展」,深圳,中國 2000

「第 7 屆威尼斯國際建築展台灣館」,威尼斯,義大利

2002

「1958-2002 繪畫作品回顧展」,馬爾各尼畫廊,米蘭,

榮獲國際版畫雙年展金牌獎,挪威

義大利

任教於米蘭國立藝術學院教授版畫(現為永久聘任),米

「繪畫近作展」,姆迪瑪藝術基金會,米蘭,義大利

蘭,義大利

「1958-2000 紙上作品回顧展」,拉都阿達畫廊,米蘭,

於荷蘭普邁蘭瓦特蘭美術館舉行個展,普邁,荷蘭

義大利

與丁雄泉合展,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣

2004

「第二屆國際版畫雙年展」,台北,台灣 榮獲伽拉拉代市第十三屆全國藝術收藏獎,伽拉拉代市,

獲選第六屆家藝術文化美術獎,台北,台灣 2005

1988

「第卅屆米蘭全國雙年展」,米蘭,義大利

榮獲義大利總統授予 「義大利團結之星」騎士勛章,羅

「第三屆國際版畫雙年展」,台北,台灣

馬,義大利

「一九五九至一九八八:30 週年回顧展」,馬爾各尼畫廊,

2006

米蘭,義大利 「國際 Shakti 展」,哥本哈根,丹麥

1990

「義大利當代藝術展」,台灣省立美術館(今國立台灣美

1991

「物質中之色彩及符號展」,伐萊賽,義大利

「蕭勤的心」,大未來畫廊,台北,台灣 2007

「心之主題展」,馬佐塔空間,米蘭,義大利 「第五屆際版畫雙年展」,蒙蘇瑪諾溫泉市之當代及十九

榮獲李仲生基金會藝術成就獎,台北,台灣

世紀美術館,義大利 2009

「無限之旅 1955-2008 米蘭波維薩三年展」,米蘭,義大利

2010

「大炁之境-蕭勤 75 回顧展」,高雄市立美術館,高雄,

2012

「非形之形-台灣抽象藝術」,台北市立美術館,台北,

於北京中央美術學院及杭州中國美術學院舉辦回顧展(首

2013

「大能量」,大未來林舍畫廊,台北,台灣

次於中國展出),北京、杭州,中國

2014

「蕭勤-永恆能量」,荷軒新藝空間,高雄,台灣

術館),台中,台灣 「東方、五月卅五週年聯展」,時代畫廊,台北,台灣 「蕭勤回顧展」,台灣省立美術館(今國立台灣美術館),

台灣

台中,台灣 1994

「榮源-蕭勤七十回顧展 1955-2005」,北京中國美術館, 北京,中國

「義大利當代藝術家展」,莫斯科藝術宮,莫斯科,俄羅斯 1989

1992

「1954-2004 歷程展」,廣東美術館,廣東,中國 「蕭勤 1954-2004 歸源之旅」,中山美術館,廣東,中國

義大利 1987

「蕭勤繪畫歷程展 1958-2004」,上海美術館,上海,中國

台灣

榮獲義大利蘇莫那第 21 屆當代國際藝術首獎,蘇莫那,

「蕭勤-無限能量」,郭木生文教基金會,台北,台灣

義大利

「抽象.符碼.東方情-臺灣現代藝術巨匠大展」,尊彩

1995

「蕭勤的歷程:1953 – 1994 展」,台北市立美術館,台北,

1996

「蕭勤回顧展」,帝門藝術教育基金會,台北,台灣

藝術中心,台北,台灣

台灣 任教於台南藝術學院造型藝術研究所擔任專任教授,台 南,台灣

241


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

HSIAO Chin 1935

Photography /

Born in Shanghai, China

CHUNG Chien-Hui

1946

Attended Chinling University Middle School, Nanjing, China

1949

Accompanied uncle Wang Hsueh-Ting to Taiwan, transferred from

1969

University, met Williem de Kooning, Southampton, USA Painting Award, Capo d’Orlando, Italy

Taichung No. 2 High School to Taipei’s Chengkung High School, Taipei, Taiwan

Taught painting and sketching at Southampton College of Long Island

1970

“The 17th National Print Exhibition”, Brooklyn Museum, New York, USA

1951

Studied sketching briefly under Chu Teh-Chun, Taipei, Taiwan

“III Salon International de Galeries Pilotes”, Lausanne, Paris, France

1952

Joined Lee Chun-Shan’s Antung St. studio, Taipei, Taiwan

“The 1st International Art Fair”, Basel, Switzerland

1954

Graduated from Provincial Taipei Normal College (now National

1971

Taught visual theory at Milan’s Istituto Europeo di Design, Milan, Italy

Taipei University of Education), Taipei, Taiwan

“Italian Painting Exhibition”, Dublin, Belfast, Ireland

Began teaching at Jingmei Elementary School, Taipei, Taiwan

“The 2nd International Art Fair”, Basel, Switzerland

1956

Co-founded the “Ton Fan Group”, Taipei, Taiwan

1957

1972

Taught painting and sketching at University of Louisiana, Louisiana, USA

Par ticipated in “French Academic Association” and “Royal Ar t

1973

“IKI International Art Fair”, Dusseldorf, Germany

Association”, Barcelona, Spain

1974

“Asia Oggi: Rassegna di Grafica Contemporanea”, Milan, Italy

Solo exhibition, Mataro Fine Arts Museum, Barcelona, Spain “Barcelona Jazz Salon”, Barcelona, Spain

Solo exhibition, Galerie Beaubourg, Paris, France

1975

Solo exhibition, Museo Civico d’Arte Moderna, Modena, Italy

“The First May Salon”, Barcelona, Spain

“Momenti e tendenze del Construttivismo”, Milan, Italy

1958

“The Second May Salon”, Barcelona, Spain

“The 3rd International Art Fair”, Basel, Switzerland

1959

Solo exhibition, Florence’s Galleria Numero, Florence, Italy

Medal “Maestri della Pittura Italiana”, Marsala, Italy

“The Third May Salon”, Barcelona, Spain

1961

1976

Created “Punto Ar t Movement” together with Italian ar tist A.

“Bologna Art Fair”, Bologna, Italy

Calderara, Milan, Italy

2 Premio Internazionale d’Arte, Filottrano, Italy

Solo exhibition, Galleria Salone Annunciata, Milan, Italy

Premio d’Arte, Milan, Italy

“Pittsburgh International Art Exhibition”, Pittsburgh, USA

1977

“Grand Prix de Peinture et Sculpture”, Monte Carlo, Monaco

1963

“The 4th International Art Fair”, Basel, Switzerland

“Chinesische Künstler der Gegenwar t”, Museum Lever kusen,

“The 5th International Art Fair”, Basel, Switzerland “Bologna Art Fair”, Bologna, Italy

1978

Launched the “International Surya Art Movement” together with J.

Leverkusen, Germany

Tilson, G. Robusti, and Kengiro Azuma, Milan, Italy

“Art Contemporain”, Grand Palais, Paris, France

Solo exhibition, National Museum of History, Taipei, Taiwan

“VII Biennale di São Paulo”, São Paulo, Brazil

Solo exhibition, Lung Men Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

1964

Solo exhibition, Galerie Internationale d’Art Contemporain, Paris, France

“Ancient Heritage, New Directions”, New York, USA

1965

Solo exhibition, Museum of Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia

“Surya”, Milan, Italy

1966

Solo exhibition, Galleria II Canale, Venice, Italy

“The 6th International Art Fair”, Basel, Switzerland

“Musische Geometrie”, Kunstverein Hannover, Hannover, Germany

1967

Province of Milan, Art Award, Milan, Italy

1968

242

1979

Solo exhibition, Rose Fried Gallery, New York, USA Solo exhibition, Pollock Gallery, Toronto, Canada

Solo exhibition, Pinacoteca Comunale, Macerata, Italy “The 7th International Art Fair”, Basel, Switzerland

1980

Solo exhibition, Printmakers Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan “Contemporary International Original Prints Exhibition”, Taipei, Taiwan


CHRONOLOGY | HSIAO Chin

1981 1982

“Ton Fan and Fifth Moon 25th Anniversary Joint Exhibition”, Taiwan

2002

Gio Marconi Gallery, Milan, Italy

“Homage to Matteo Ricci by Chinese Artists”, Macerata, Italy

“Recent Large Size Paintings”, Mudima Foundation, Milan, Italy

“The Chinese Response – Paintings by Leading Overseas Ar tists”,

“Retrospective Exhibit of Works on Paper From 1958 to 2000”,

Hong Kong Museum of Art, Hong Kong, China

1983

Taught art dissection and picture analysis at the Accademia di Belle

Lattuada Gallery, Milan, Italy

2004

1985

Museum, Shanghai, China

“The 3rd Biennial of European Graphic Art”, Baden-Baden, Germany

Premio di Belle Ar ti del VI Premio Nazionale d’Ar te e di Cultura,

Taught at the Accademia di Belle Arti Albertina di Torino, Turin, Italy

1988

Taipei, Taiwan

2005

Museum of Art, Guangdong, China

Taught printmaking at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera, Milan, Italy

“Hsiao Chin 1954-2004. A Journey Back to the Source”, Zhongshan

Solo Exhibition, Museum Waterland, Purmerend, Netherlands

Museum of Art, Guangdong, China

Solo Exhibition, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

Nominato il 7 gennaio dal Presidente C. A. Ciampi Cavaliere della

“The 2nd International Biennial Print Exhibition”, Taipei, Taiwan

“Stella di Solidarieta Italiana”, Rome, Italy

2006

1955-2005”, National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China

“The 3rd International Biennial Print Exhibition”, Taipei, Taiwan

“Hsiao Ching Solo Exhibition”, Lin & Keng Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

“30-year Retrospective Exhibition: 1958-1988”, Studio Marconi,

2007

“Shakti 1”, Copenhagen, Denmark

Terme, Italy

2009

Awarded Arts Achievement of Lee Chun-Shan Foundation, Taipei, Taiwan “Italian Contemporary Art”, National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts,

1992 1994

“Viaggio in-finito 1995-2008 on die occasion of Triennale di Milano”, Milan, Italy

2010

Taichung, Taiwan

1991

“Exhibition of Heart Theme Paintings”, Spazio Mazzotta, Milan, Italy “5th Premio Internazionale Biennale d’Incisione”, Monsummano

“Contemporary Italian Artists”, Art Palace, Moscow, Russia

1990

“Glor y to the Source. A Retrospective Exhibition of Hsiao Chin

“The 30st Biennale Nazionale of Milan”, Milan, Italy

Milan, Italy

1989

“Hsiao Chin 1954-2004. A Journey Back to the Source”, Guangdong

Norwegian International Print Biennial, Gold Medal, Norway

Premio Acquisto al XIII Premio Nazionale Citta’ di Gallarate, Italy

1987

“The Journey of Hsiao Chin’s Painting 1958-2004”, Shanghai Ar t

Arti di Urbino, Urbino, Italy “Rigori astratti della ragione e fantasia del concreto”, Ganna, Italy

1984

“Retrospective Exhibit of Paintings on Canvas From 1958 to 2002”,

Provincial Museum (now National Taiwan Museum), Taipei, Taiwan

“Infinity of Chi: Retrospective of Hsiao Chin”, Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Arts, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Solo exhibition, Galleria La Crocetta, Gallarate, Italy

2012

“Abstract Art in Taiwan”, Taipei Fine Art Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

“Ton Fan and Fifth Moon 35th Anniversary Joint Exhibition”, New

2013

“Great All”, Lin & Lin Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

Age Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

2014

“Eternal Energy”, Lotus Art Gallery, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

“Hsiao Chin Retrospective Exhibition”, National Taiwan Museum of

“Hsiao Chin – Infinite Energy“, Kuo Mu Sheng Foundation, Taipei, Taiwan

Fine Arts, Taichung, Taiwan

“Abstract / Symbol / Oriental – Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of

Retrospective exhibitions at Beijing Central Ar t Academy and

Modern Art", Liang Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

Hangzhou Chinese Art Academy (Hsiao’s first exhibitions in China), Beijing, Hangzhou, China Awarded Fir st Pr ize al XXI Premio Inter nazionale d’Ar te Contemporanea, Italy

1995

“Hsiao Chin: the Odyssey 1953-1994”, Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

1996

“Hsiao Chin Retrospective Exhibition”, Dimensions Endowment of Art, Taipei, Taiwan Taught painting at Graduate Institute of Plastic Art in Tainan National College of the Arts, Tainan, Taiwan

1997

“Gathering Force”, Dimensions Art Center, Taipei, Taiwan

1998

“Retrospective 1958-1998”, Institut Mathildenhöhe, Darmstadt, Germany “The 15th National Art Exhibition of the Republic of China”, Taipei, Taiwan “Shanghai Biennial”, Shanghai, China “The 1st Shenzhen International Ink Painting Biennial”, Shenzhen, China

2000

“The 7th Venice International Biennial of Architecture”, Venice, Italy

243


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

從中國的象徵思考看蕭勤的抽象世界

顧世勇

如果說中國人的思想世界為何都是如此般地易於在客體的概念

蕭勤從 1956 年赴歐,經歷過研究後期印象主義、野獸主義及

化裡,做移情觀的表現,那可能是涉及到語言系統的影響;因

抽象繪畫等西方文化衝擊之後,愈覺得西方邏輯的吊詭辯結,

為中國文字的變革,總是依附在自然現象裡做具象底象徵思考

實和中國人文思想中的直觀淡泊、富冥想性的哲思,可謂是南

的唯心投射 ( 象形、指事、會意、形聲、轉注、假借 ),如此和

轅北轍;因此自 1961 年開始,逐一反芻中國老莊思想中的深

西方單純字母併置的抽象思考字義自然是大異其趣。

刻意涵及溶入東方宗教精神,試圖反映精神層次重於西方強調 的形式表達。在西方抽象形式裡到了絕對主義 (Surprématisme)

人類思考活動的肇端,是語言和行為的開始。誠如列維.斯特勞

之後,刻意放棄對周遭事物的具象呈現,以達到真正「不戴面

斯(Claude Lévi-Strauss, 1908-2009)所言 :「誰要討論人,誰就要

具」的藝術頂點,去創造出一件與自然無關的繪畫作品,並從

討論語言;而要討論語言,就要討論社會。」因此,毋庸置疑,

這有利的地點,透過純藝術感情的稜鏡來觀看生命。這種絕對

討論一個人的思維背景,就要從窺探其母語演譯體系來著手進行。

主義的抽象哲學,自然是懷疑論的表現來觀看人類容顏──面 具,因為它一概反駁人類容顏 ( 人類形式 ) 的虛幻性。一反過

語言是觀念的符號,依這個說法,最早為亞里士多德所提出,

去藝術家在創作中,仍偏愛利用人類容顏,因為他們在其中 ( 易

符號與思維的關係,在中國古代學術文化中,也是一個基本命

變的、活動的、感人的摹寫 ) 看到傳達他們自身情感之最佳工

題。在《易經》中,我們可以看到對於這個命題的詳盡論述。

具。然而表層看來,在蕭勤的抽象形式裡,也強調非具象感情

關於《易經》的產生,自古流傳著所謂「聖王作卦」的傳說。〈易

是他的創作資源;但仔細咀嚼之後,卻不難發現蕭勤的抽象哲

傳〉云:「古者庖犧氏之王天下,仰則觀象於天,俯則觀法於地,

學觀仍深受中國師法自然的象徵符號影響,展現豁達的宇宙觀

觀鳥獸之文與地之宜,近取諸身,遠取諸物,於是始作八卦,

及寧靜、淡泊的無為境界。這和西方藝術史裡的積極辯證觀點

以通神明之德,以類萬物之情。」由此可以觀之,古代先民「觀

是背道而馳,雖然自五○年代中到六○年代初,歐美倡導非形

物取象」和汲取自然運行的規律法則而轉化成為八卦乃是符號

象藝術,諸如:G. Mathieu, H. Michaux, F. Kline, J. Degotte 等,均

的初始。實際上這般帶有象徵意義的符號化,我們亦可在陰陽、

受中國書法精神的影響,但也僅是在形式、觀念與內容中試圖

八卦、六十四卦、直至爻變、卦變、爻辭等演變中窺見端倪。

尋獲一條新的出路,並未真正體驗其中精髓,畢竟是不同語系

如在「乾卦」爻辭,藉龍的起伏升降來象徵時勢的興衰沉浮:

的思考模式自然無法混為一談或混同心性的比較。

「初九:潛龍,勿用;九二:見龍在田,利見大人;上九:亢龍, 有悔;用九:見群龍無首,吉。」……等,都是中國傳統象徵

蕭勤的創作,我們也許可主觀地參照王弼在《周易略例》的〈明

哲學的真諦。因此,試以中國語言系統裡的象徵觀點,來析縷

象〉中,對符號系統曾做出如下觀點:

蕭勤的抽象藝術,當是另一種可能。 244


ESSAY | HSIAO Chin’s Abstract World : Viewed From Chinese Symbolism

La Grand Passione

蕭勤 HSIAO Chin 偉大的熱情

2008

200×600cm

Acr ylic on canvas

1. 夫象者,出意者也。

自 1981-1988 年,蕭勤更以氣聚氣散「炁」系列來探索宇宙瞬

2. 言者,明象者也。

息萬變的精氣奧妙。遠在春秋戰國時代,討論天地萬物構成的

3. 盡意,莫若象。

哲學家很多,有的認為是水、火、木、金、土等五種元素構成

4. 盡象,莫若言。

的;有的用陰陽兩種氣來解釋一切自然現象的生成和變化,有

5. 言生于象,故可尋言以觀象。

的認為水是萬物的根源。宋、尹更提出了「精氣」是構成萬物

6. 象生于意,故可尋象以觀意。

的本源,這樣更有利於說明宇宙萬物的運作及其統一性。蕭勤

7. 意以象盡,象以言者。

對�的詮釋,有他獨到之處,即將「炁」體現在行為和修持之

8. 故言者,所以明象,得象而忘言。

間,如此氣宇的光耀像在天上,幽微像在深淵,濕潤如在海洋,

9. 象者,所以存意,得意而忘象。

峭拔如在山峰。

10. 言者,象之蹄也,象者,意之笥也。 11. 存言者,非得象者也;存象者,非得意者也。

1989-1992 年間,蕭勤深受死亡夢魘的影響,首先是天安門大

12. 象生于意,而存象焉,則所存者乃非其象也。

屠殺事件,相繼是其愛女莎芒妲在美國事故去世,這一切給他

13. 言生于象,而存言焉,則所存者乃非其言也。

帶來莫大的打擊,在人生的悲歡離合裡,體悟出生死原本是天

14. 忘象者,乃得意者也。

象運行的規律,也有時包括人生吉凶禍福的規律意義。這些林

15. 忘言者,乃得象者也。

林總總的現象都轉化成為蕭勤的創作能源,表達出人生及生命

16. 得意在忘象,得象在忘言。

無止境的永恆性,每人都在生命的歷程中,安度過無數大限、

17. 立象以盡意,而象可忘也。重畫以盡情,而畫可忘也。

永遠昇華……。

18. 故觸類可為其象,合義可為其徵。 19. 存象,忘意之由也;忘象,以求其意義。

生命的喜怒哀樂隱蔽了藝術的真正容顏。蕭勤的繪畫世界實非 我們所認為的世俗世界,而是浮現在我們意識心理上的亙古象

這段舖排的中國傳統象徵哲學之引申,可以在蕭勤創作觀領域

徵。

裡觀得;特別是在 1975-1980「禪」的系列中,我們隱約可感 受到「有物混成」,先天地生,寂兮寥兮,獨立而不改,周行 而不殆。……的道家思想和禪宗直指心性的「物我兩忘」相互 熔於一爐。至此,蕭勤已體會出道常無名、大象無形的大宇宙 觀了。 245


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

HSIAO Chin’s Abstract World: Viewed From Chinese Symbolism Written by

KU Shih-Yung

When pondered why in the world of Chinese philosophy, all the beings, concretely existing or otherwise, tend to be performed objectively by sentimental shifting, the answer may fall on the effect of language system. The transformation process of all Chinese characters derive from the concrete forms things exist in the nature. They, then, have been gradually developed into abstract symbols, by means of pictographs, ideographic, compound ideographic, phono-semantic, phonetic loan characters, and derivative cognates. They are, therefore, not as simple and meaningless as the Western alphabets.

The origin of human mental activities star ts with their linguistic logic and behavior formation. According to Claude Lévi-Strauss, those who want to talk about a person should talk firstly about his language. And before talking about his language, they need to talk about the society he exists in. Consequently, without doubt, to discuss a person’s thinking process from his background, we need to probe into the deductive system of his mother language.

246

Hsiao Chin

that “the holy king made the divinator y trigram symbols”. Legend

La Luce Divina

about this. As to the origin of I-Ching, it is historically handed down

蕭勤 神光

Ching (The Book of Changes), we can find many detailed discussions

2008

was also a basic academic topic in ancient Chinese literature. In I-

300×150cm

asserted by Aristotle. The relationship between symbols and thoughts

Acr ylic on canvas

Language is the conveyance of conceptual symbols, originally


ESSAY | HSIAO Chin’s Abstract World : Viewed From Chinese Symbolism

has it that “Pao Xi Shi, an ancient holy king, often looked up to

itself from the prism of pure ar t. Those supremacists of course are

observe the change of the sky, and looked down to watch the rules

skeptical of the features and appearance of human - “masks” they

of the ear th. He perceived the communication between the animals

called it - and thought it illusory.

and them with the environment. He then took everything into his mind and created the eight holy trigram symbols to convey the

The supremacists are unlike the ar tists before their time some,

divinity from the gods and to narrate the balance and well-being

who still liked to make use of human features because they thought

among all the creatures”. Accordingly, the origin of the symbol is the

through the changeable, active, touching study and imitation of

eight divinator y trigrams, which the ancient Chinese derived from

human forms, they can convey their feeling. Hsiao Chin, specializing

both the forms of things and the running of natural course. In fact,

in abstract paintings, also emphasizes this concept, as his power

such meaningful symbolization process can also be noticed in the

source of creation. However, after thorough observation, we still can

evolution of “yin and yang”, “Bagua(the eight divinatory trigrams)”,

find his philosophy affected deeply by traditional Chinese symbolism,

“Hexagrams”, “Yao-bian”, “Gua-bian” and “Yao-ci”. Take “Qian-gua”

expressing his tranquil, open-minded contented view toward the

for instance, the rising and plunging of the dragon represent the

world and the universe, which is contrary to the western aggressive

roller coaster of the circumstances: the “First Nine… the ‘diving

dialectical views. Though in the 50s and 60s, under the influence of

dragon’ ”, “Forbidden”, “Second Nine… ‘viewing of the dragon in the

Chinese calligraphy, “Ar t non figuratif ” was advocated in the West,

field’ ”, “visiting the Lord”, “The Upper Nine… ‘the proud dragon

and works by such as G. Mathieu, H. Michaux, F. Kline, J. Degotte

should hid low’ ”, “regretful”, “Applying Nine… Find no leaders in

were very popular. However, they were only trying to elbow a new

the dragons” and “Auspicious”…etc. These examples illustrate the

way in forms, concepts and contents. They did not obtain the actual

true spirit of traditional Chinese philosophy. As a result, it is possible

essence of Chinese tradition, because ar tists from different linguistic

to analyze Hsiao Chin’s works from the symbolic viewpoints of

systems cannot think or act the same way.

Chinese linguistic system. What follows may be an interpretation of Hsiao Chin’s works, Since Hsiao went to stay in Europe in 1956, he has spent much time

subjectively illustrated with the reference from “Ming Xiang”, in the

on the Post-Impressionism, Le Fauvism, and the Abstract Painting.

book Examples of Zhou Yi by Wang Bi, who has made comments on

After thorough research, he began to compare the weird sophistry

Symbol system:

of western logic with the intuitional, contented, meditative Chinese philosophy, and found them totally different. Therefore, after 1961,

1. An image is meant to express meaning.

he began to reflect on the deep implication of Lao-Tzu and Zhuang-

2. Words are used to explain images.

Tzu and the eastern religious spirit, tr ying to emphasize more

3. To express meaning, images work the best.

on the eastern spiritual level than the western way of expressing

4. To explain images, it takes words.

through form. In the western abstract paintings, the Supremacists

5. Words come from images. Words can be looked for to describe

advocate to abandon the concrete expression, including all the

images.

background objects, to reach the ar tistic summit of “without mask”.

6. Images trace back to meaning. We can look for images to

It adver tises to create works alienated from nature to examine life

understand the meaning. 247


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

7. Images illustrate meaning fully. Words depict images.

During 1981-1988, Hsiao tried to explore the rapid substantial

8. Words are to describe images. Having got the images, you may

change of the universe with the series Qi, depicting the gathering

forget the words.

and dismissing of the flowing air. Far ago in the Spring and Autumn

9. Images are for meaning. After comprehending the meaning, images

Period and Warring States Period (770-221 BC), lots of Chinese

can be deleted.

philosophers had been talking about the formation of the Universe,

10. Words are for hunting images. Images are for catching meaning.

some saying it was made up of five elements, namely, gold, wood,

11. Saving the words only, you cannot get the images. Keeping the

water, fire and ear th, some insisting on yin and yang’s transformation

images alone, you cannot comprehend the meaning.

being the explanation of the natural phenomenon, some even

12. Images derives from words. Keeping the images alone, you may

claiming that water alone was the origin of everything.

get other images. 13. Words derives from images. Saving the words only, you may get

Song Xing and Yin Wen (philosophers in the Warring States Period)

other words.

declared that “genuine energy” was the sole essence, which better

14. He who forgets the image may get the meaning.

explained the operation and unity of the universe. Hsiao Chin

15. He who forgets the words may get the images.

has his unique interpretation of “qi” and embodied his Qi series,

16. Getting the meaning, you may forget the images. Getting the

keeping it in his behavior and self-cultivation, letting it out up to the

images, you may forget the words.

sky, plunging silently to the deep valley, making the ocean moist and

17. Images are formed to understand the meaning. Images can be

spiking it up to the mountain peak.

deleted. Paintings are done to express the feeling. Paintings can be forgotten.

In 1989-1992, Hsiao Chin was deeply affected under the nightmare

18. All the similar images can become the images, which can lead to

of death. First came the Tiananmen Square massacre and then the

similar meaning.

passing away of his daughter Samantha. These were the deadly

19. Saved the images, you may forget the meaning. To comprehend

blows to him, inducing him to figure out bir th and death, for tune

the meaning, you may forget the images.

and misfor tune being the regularity of meteorological phenomenon, after struggling through these fatal tragedies. All these incidents

The above extension of the Chinese symbolic philosophy can be

happening to him were transformed into the power sources of

perceived in Hsiao Chin’s creation, especially the series Zen created

his creations, expressing the endless eternity of human lives, and

between 1975 to 1980, in which we can feel the chaos of the

every individual, during his life journey, crossing over, tiding through

beginning of the universe when orders are not made. The sense

numerous difficulties and adversities, will enhance above forever.

of loneliness and serenity of being independent and alone while all things around move endlessly is expressed. The Daoism and the

The real features of ar t are hidden behind the diversities of human

core value of “Zen”, feeling the nature within the self and become

faces: ecstasy, anguish, sadness and happiness. Hsiao Chin’s world is

each other, all smelt into one pot. Hsiao Chin has experienced the

not the secular world we thought of. It is a remote ancient symbol

view of the universe, all coming from nothing and all being able to

which floats in our consciousness.

be invisible. 248


About the Critic | KU Shih-Yung

藝評 簡介

顧世勇 KU Shih-Yung 顧 世 勇, 法 國 國 立 巴 黎 第 一 大 學 藝 術 科 學 造 形 藝 術 博 士 (1996),現為國立台南藝術大學造型藝術研究所專任教授兼 視覺藝術學院院長,曾任國家文化藝術基金會跨領域暨科技藝 術審查委員、台北市立美術館典藏品點檢委員、義大利國際威 尼斯雙年展台灣館審查委員、台北市立美術館典藏委員、台北 獎評審委員。除了策展人及大學教授的身份,顧世勇更強調自 己是一位觀念性的藝術家,他的創作並不會侷限在某種形式、 媒材,因為當藝術家被別人定位成某種固定的風格時,這反而 是一種暴力。他認為只有讓思想解放、獲得絕對的自由,才能 讓創作不被外界的眼光所定型。

KU Shih-Yung received PhD degree from the Depar tment of Visual Ar ts and Science of Ar t, Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (1996). He is a Professor of the Graduate Institute of Plastic Arts and the Dean of the College of Visual Ar ts, Tainan National University of the Ar ts. He was a committee member of the Committee for Interdisciplinar y Ar ts and Technology (National Culture and Ar ts Foundation), Collection Ispection Committee (Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum), Taiwan Pavilion Examination Committee (Venice Biennalle), Collection Committee (Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum), and adjudicator for Taipei Awards. Ku Shih-Yung is also a conceptual ar tist, whose works are never limited to one form or media, because, as he claims, when others are trying to ascribe a cer tain fixed styles to an artist, it equals to violence. He believes that it is necessary to have ideological emancipation and absolute freedom in order to produce ar t that would not be influenced by the outside world. 249


蕭勤 HSIAO Chin

偉大的熱情 La Grand Passione 2008 Acrylic on canvas 200×600cm

250


蕭勤 HSIAO Chin

神光 La Luce Divina 2008 Acrylic on canvas 300×150cm

252


廖修平 LIAO Shiou-Ping


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

廖修平 1936

榮獲羅卻斯特市宗教美術展版畫首獎,美國 1973

「當代中國藝術家版畫展」,香港,中國 「IPSA 國際巡迴展」,日本、韓國

出生於台灣台北

榮獲十大傑出青年獎,台灣 1973-74 「亞細亞美術展」,東京,日本 1973-76 任教於國立師範大學、文化大學、國立藝專(今國立台灣 藝術大學),提倡現代版畫,台北,台灣 1974 1975

1959

榮獲中山學術獎藝術創作獎,台灣 「中日現代美術展」,國立台灣歷史博物館,台北,台灣

台灣省立師範大學(今國立台灣師範大學)美術系畢業,

1976

榮獲第一屆中華民國版畫學會金璽獎,台灣

台北,台灣

1977

任教於日本國立筑波大學並設立版畫工作室,日本

1962-64 國立東京教育大學繪畫研究科畢業,東京,日本

1978

「中韓現代版畫展」,首爾、台北,韓國,台灣

1963

1979

「龍與菊-中日藝術家聯展」,柏根郡美術館,紐澤西,

1965

「日本版畫協會展」,東京都美術館,東京,日本 榮獲春季沙龍銀牌獎,法國

美國

1965-66 「春季沙龍」,巴黎,法國 1965-68 於國立巴黎美術學院油畫教室、以及版畫十七工作室進 1966

1967 1968

榮獲吳三連文藝獎,台灣 1979-92 任教於美國西東大學藝術系版畫組,美國

修,巴黎,法國

1980

獲法國政府獎學金並進駐國際藝術家村,法國

1982

於台北省立博物館(今國立台灣博物館)舉行個展,台北,台灣

1983

榮獲第 21 屆台灣省展西畫類第一名,台灣

1983-87 「台灣版畫雙年展」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣

「國際彩色版畫三年展」,瑞士

1985

於國立歷史博物館舉行個展,台北,台灣 「海外藝術家展」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣 「當代版畫展」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣

獲得挪威政府獎學金,赴挪威藝術村駐村,挪威

1986-88 「秋季沙龍展」,巴黎,法國

赴紐約習畫,紐約,美國

1990

於邁阿密現代美術館舉行個展,邁阿密,美國 「五月沙龍」,巴黎大皇宮,巴黎,法國

1969

榮獲韓國漢城國際小版畫大獎,韓國

應邀至南京藝術學院擔任客座教授,主持現代版畫研習 班,南京,中國

1991

「當代版畫大展:台北-北京」,北京,中國

「巴黎國際版畫雙年展」,巴黎,法國

「台北-紐約:現代藝術的遇合」,台北市立美術館,台

「國際版畫雙年展」,阿根廷

北,台灣

「世界青年藝術家聯展」,紐約,美國

1992

榮獲普拉特版畫家展佳作,美國

於列日市立現代美術館舉行個展,列日,比利時 於台灣省立美術館(今國立台灣美術館)舉行個展,台中,台灣

1969-73 「聖保羅國際雙年美術展」,聖保羅,巴西

「美國版畫家協會展」,波特蘭美術館,奧立岡,美國

1970

「東西之間視景-紐約亞裔藝術家聯展」,中國、日本、韓國

於塔佛托美術館舉行個展,辛辛那提,美國 「瑞士國際版畫三年展」,瑞士

1993

「大阪萬國博覽會世界美術展」,大阪,日本 「義大利國際版畫雙年展」,翡冷翠,義大利

榮獲國際版畫三年展銀牌獎,挪威 1994

「東京國際版畫雙年展」,東京,日本 「布拉德福國際版畫雙年展」,英國 榮獲國際版畫雙年展佳作,日本 定居紐澤西,設立個人版畫工作室,紐澤西,美國 「惠特尼美術館大版畫特展」,紐約,美國 榮獲波士頓版畫家展優選,美國 1972

於國立歷史博物館舉行個展,台北,台灣 「挪威國際版畫展」,法城,挪威

256

與陳錦芳、謝里法創設「巴黎文教基金會」,台北,台灣 「中國當代繪畫展」,明斯克美術館,明斯克,白俄羅斯

1995

榮獲第四屆李仲生基金會現代繪畫成就獎,台灣

1996

「台北雙年展-台灣藝術主體性」,台北市立美術館,台北,

1997

「中加版畫交流展」,蒙特婁、台北,加拿大、台灣

榮獲奧杜龐藝術家展版畫首獎,美國 1971

「60 年代台灣現代版畫展」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣

台灣 1998

「巴黎三劍客作品展」,巴黎、台北,法國、台灣 「第二屆國家文藝獎得獎者展覽」,台北市立美術館、高雄 市立美術館,台北、高雄,台灣 榮獲第二屆國家文藝獎,台灣


CHRONOLOGY | LIAO Shiou-Ping

2000

「世紀版畫-橫濱 2000 年國際版畫展」,橫濱,日本

2001

「版畫師傅-廖修平版畫回顧展」,國立歷史博物館,台北,

榮獲第二十九屆行政院文化獎,台灣 2011

「藝林鼎足-朱為白、廖修平、李錫奇」,國立國父紀念館,

「千濤拍岸-台灣美術一百年」,國立台灣美術館,台中,台灣

台北,台灣

「台北現代藝術本位與對話」,上海美術館,上海,中國

「開創.交流-台灣美術院院士作品大陸巡迴展中國美術館」,

「方與圓-台灣當代藝術展」,國立台灣美術館,台中,

北京,中國

台灣;台北畫廊,紐約,美國

「SKY - 2011 亞洲.版/圖.展」,國立台北藝術大學關渡

2002-08 返台繼續從事繪畫和版畫創作,並任教於國立台北藝術大

美術館,台北,台灣

學、國立台灣藝術大學研究所,台北,台灣 2004

「版畫東西交流之波展-日本東京 ISPA 國際版畫藝術論壇暨

2012

「釜山國際版畫雙年展」,釜山,韓國

2006

「第五屆埃及國際版畫三年展」,埃及

「Prints Tokyo 2012 – International Print Exhibition Tokyo 2012」, 東京都美術館,東京,日本

「台灣美術-現代巨匠東京五人展」,相田光男美術館,日本

「非形之形-台灣抽象藝術」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣

「巴黎首都藝術聯合沙龍大展」巴黎大皇宮,巴黎,法國

「原點的維度- 2012 年上海國際版畫展」上海美術館, 上海,中國

「版畫藝術-中日韓現代版畫展」,Milal Museum of Ar t,

「後殖民與後現代 台灣美術院士第二屆大展」,國立國父

首爾,韓國

紀念館,台北,台灣

榮獲第五屆埃及國際版畫三年展優選獎,埃及 2007

「國美.無雙」,國立台灣美術館,台中,台灣

「符號人生.夢境系列」,台北國父紀念館,台北,台灣 「台灣美術種子-國立台灣師範大學美術學系系友留校作品展」,

2013

「現代.迭起 –2013 台灣的當代藝術」,國立國父紀念館,

2007-08 「歷史的光輝-全省美展六十回顧展」,國立台灣美術館,

台北,台灣

台中,台灣

「再現原始-台灣「原民/原始」藝術再現系統的探討」,

「全國十大傑出青年美術創作得主巡迴展」,國立國父紀念館,

國立國父紀念館,台北,台灣

台北,台灣

「台灣美術家刺客列傳.二年級生:1931-1940」,國立台

「台灣現代美術的先驅」,陶森大學亞洲文化藝術中心,

灣美術館,台中,台灣

馬利蘭州,美國

「第一屆澳門版畫三年展」,南灣舊法院大樓,澳門,中國

「台灣藝術.當代演繹」,國立摩拉維亞美術館,捷克 「2008 年亞太國際版畫邀請展暨學術研討會」,國立國父 紀念館,台北,台灣 2009

「跨域.典範-廖修平的真實與虛擬」,中華文化總會, 台北,台灣

國立台灣美術館,台中,台灣

2008

「界面.印痕-廖修平與台灣現代版畫之發展」,國立台灣 美術館,台中,台灣

邀請展」,東京藝術大學、町田市版畫藝術館,東京,日本 2005

「台灣現代版畫的播種者-廖修平」,雀兒喜美術館,紐約, 美國

台灣

2014

「版.畫.交響-廖修平創作歷程展」,高雄市立美術館, 高雄,台灣

「福華人生-廖修平作品展」,北京中國美術館,北京,中國

「今日.台灣-現代美術展」,松濤美術館,東京,日本

「廖修平作品展」,松濤美術館,東京,日本

「抽象.符碼.東方情-臺灣現代藝術巨匠大展」,尊彩

「60 年代旅巴黎台灣畫家展」,國立國父紀念館,台北,台灣

藝術中心,台北,台灣

「講.述:2009 海峽兩岸當代藝術展」,國立台灣美術館、 中國北京美術館,台中、北京,台灣、中國 2009-10 擔任國立台灣師範大學講座教授及台灣美術院院長,台 北,台灣 2010

「文化尋根-建構台灣美術百年史」,創價學會,台北,台灣 「觀城- 2010 上海國際版畫展」,上海虹橋當代藝術館, 上海,中國 「傳承與開創-台灣美術院美術院士首屆大展」,國立國父 紀念館,台北,台灣 「異象-典藏抽象繪畫展」,國立台灣美術館,台中,台灣

257


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

LIAO Shiou-Ping 1936

1959 1962-64 1963 1965 1965-66 1965-68 1966

1967 1968

1969 1969-73 1970

1971

1972

1973

258

Born in Taipei, Taiwan

BFA, Taiwan Provincial University of Education (now National Taiwan Normal University), Taipei, Taiwan Tokyo University of Education, Tokyo, Japan “Exhibition of Japanese Print Association”, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Tokyo, Japan Salon des Artistes Français, Silver Medal, France “Salon des Artistes Français”, Paris, France L’ecole des Beaux-Arts and Atelier 17, Paris, France Received French Government Scholarship for residence at Ar tist Village, France Solo Exhibition, Taiwan Provincial Museum (now National Taiwan Musuem), Taipei, Taiwan Taiwan Provincial Fine Art Exhibition (Western Painting), First Prize, Taiwan “International Triennial of Colored Graphic Prints”, Grenchen, Switzerland Received Norwegian Government Scholarship for residence at Artists Village, Norway Studied painting, New York, USA Solo Exhibition, Miami Museum of Modern Art, Miami, Florida, USA “Salon de Mai”, Paris, France “Biennale International de 1'Estampe”, Paris, France “International Print Biennial”, Buenos Aires, Argentina “Young Artists From Around the World”, New York, USA Pratt Print Exhibition, Honorable Mention, USA “Bienal de São Paulo”, São Paulo, Brazil Solo Exhibition, The Taft Museum, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA “International Triennial of Colored Graphic Prints”, Grenchen, Switzerland “World Fine Arts Exhibition”, Expo'70 Osaka, Japan “International Print Biennial”, Firenze, Italy “International Print Biennial”, Tokyo, Japan “British International Print Biennial”, Bradford, UK The 7th International Print Biennial, Honorable Mention, Japan The 28th Annual Audubon Artist's Exhibition, First Prize, USA Settled in New Jersey, set up a printmaking studio, New Jersey, USA “Whitney Art Museum Print Show”, New York, USA Boston Printmaker's Exhibition, DeCordova Museum Purchase Prize, USA Solo Exhibition, National Art Gallery, National Museum of History, Taipei, Taiwan “Norwegian International Print Biennial”, Fredrikstad, Norway New Jersey State Council in the Arts, Graphic Art Mini Grant, USA “Contemporary Prints by Chinese Artists”, Hong Kong Museum of Art, Hong Kong, China

1973-74 1973-76

1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1979-92 1980 1981 1982 1983 1983-87 1985 1986-88 1990 1991

1992

1993 1994

“ISPA International Traveling Exhibition”, Japan, Korea Ten Outstanding Youth Award, Taiwan “Asian Art Exhibition”, Tokyo, Japan Taught printmaking at National Taiwan Normal University, Chinese Culture University and National Taiwan College of Ar ts (now National Taiwan University of Arts), Taipei, Taiwan Sun Yat-Sen Academic Award, Taiwan “Chinese – Japanese Fine Ar ts Exhibition”, National Museum of History, Taipei, Taiwan Chinese Graphic Society, The Best Printmaker Award, Taiwan Taught at University of Tsukuba, set up a printmaking studio, Japan “Modern Chinese and Korean Print Exhibition”, Taipei, Taiwan; Seoul, Korea “The Dragon and the Chrysanthemum Summit”, Art Center, New Jersey, USA Wu San-Lien Creative Arts Award, Taiwan Adjunct Professor of Ar ts at Seton Hall University, South Orange, New Jersey, USA The 1st International Miniature Print Exhibition, Grand Prize, Korea “Artist 1981 International Art Exhibition”, New York, USA “Five From the Orient”, Bergen County Museum, New Jersey, USA Solo Exhibition, National Art Gallery, National Museum of History, Taipei, Taiwan “Overseas Chinese Ar tists Exhibition”, Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan “International Biennial Print Exhibition”, Taipei, Taiwan “Contemporary Prints Exhibition”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan “Salon d’Automne”, Paris, France Visiting Professor at Nanjing Univer sity of the Ar ts, hosted workshops on modern printmaking, Nanjing, China “Taipei – Beijing Contemporary Prints Exhibition”, Beijing, China “Taipei – New York Confrontation of Modernism”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan Solo Exhibition, Museum of Modern Art, Liege, Belgium Solo Exhibition, Taiwan Provincial Museum of Fine Arts (now National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts), Taichung, Taiwan “SAGA Print Show”, Portland Art Museum, Portland, Oregon, USA “Vision in Between: Asian Artists in Travel Show”, New York, USA; Hiroshima, Japan; Seoul, Korea; Taipei, Taichung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan “Taiwan Graphics From 1960’s”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan Norwegian International Print Triennial, Silver Medal, Norway Established “Paris Foundation of Ar ts” together with Chen TF and Xie Li-Fa, Taipei, Paris


CHRONOLOGY | LIAO Shiou-Ping

Solo Exhibition, G. Zen Art Gallery, Kaohsiung, Taiwan “Exposition de Peinture Contemporaine Chinoise”, Belarusian National Arts Museum, Minsk, Belarus 1995 The 4th Lee Chun-Shan Modern Painting Award, Taiwan 1996 “Taipei Biennial”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan 1997 “Taiwan & Canada Exchange Exhibition”, Taipei County Cultural Center, Taipei, Taiwan; Sigma Gallery, Montreal, Canada; Soho, New York, USA 1998 “Trois Peintres Mousquetaires au Contact de l’Europe”, Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan; Centre Culturel & d’Information de Taipei à Paris, Paris, France “The Exhibition of Winners of National Literature and Art Lifetime Achievement Award”, Taiwan National Literature and Art Achievement Award, Taiwan 2000 “Millennium Graphic”, 2000 International Print Exhibition, Yokohama, Japan 2001 “Gate Series and Seasonal Chat Series”, Chinese Culture Center, San Francisco, California, USA “The Master of Printmaking”, National Museum of History, Taipei, Taiwan “Wave Striking: One Hundred Years of Taiwanese Ar ts”, National Taiwan Museum of Arts, Taichung, Taiwan “The Origin, Interaction and Declaration of Taipei Modern Ar ts”, Shanghai Art Museum, Shanghai, China “Images of Circle and Square in Contemporar y Taiwanese Ar t”, Taipei Gallery, New York, USA; National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts, Taichung, Taiwan 2002-08 Returned to Taiwan, taught at Taipei National University of the Arts, National Taiwan University of Arts, Taipei, Taiwan 2004 “International Symposium of Print Art (ISPA)”, Tokyo Art University and Machida City Museum of Graphic Art, Tokyo, Japan 2005 “2005 International Print Festival”, Busan City Hall Gallery, Busan, Korea 2006 “The 5th Egyptian International Print Triennial”, Egypt “Le Salon 2006 – Art Capital”, Grand Palace, Paris, France “Prints on the Plate – Master’s Contemporary Prints from Korea, Taiwan & Japan”, Milal Museum of Art, Seoul, Korea The 5th Egyptian International Print Triennial Exhibition, Honorary Prize, Egypt 2007 “Symbols of Life – Dream Series”, National Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall, Taipei, Taiwan “Art Blooms in Spring – Works by Art Graduates of National Taiwan Normal University”, National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts, Taichung, Taiwan 2007-08 “The Glor y of Histor y – A Retrospective of 60 Years’ Taiwan Provincial Exhibition of Fine Art”, National Taiwan Museum of Fine Art, Taichung, Taiwan “The Exhibition of Ten Outstanding Young Persons’ Artists”, National Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall, Taipei, Taiwan 2008 “Tradition and Modernity – Taiwan’s Three Masters of Modern Art”, Asian Arts Gallery, Center for the Arts, Towson University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA “Bubble Tea: Ar t of Taiwan and its Contemporary Mutations”, The Moravian Gallery, Brno, Czech Republic “2008 Asia Pacific International Exhibition”, National Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall, Taipei, Taiwan 2009 “Exhibition of Art Works by Liao Shiou-Ping”, National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China “Liao Shiou-Ping Solo Exhibition”, The Shoto Museum of Art, Tokyo, Japan “Exhibition of Taiwan Artists in Paris During the 60s”, National Dr.

Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall, Taipei, Taiwan “Speak.Describe – 2009 Cross-Strait Contemporary Art”, National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts, Taichung, Taiwan; National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China 2009-10 Professor at National Taiwan Normal University, Dean of National Taiwan University of Fine Arts, Taipei, Taiwan 2010 “Searching for the Root of Culture – Constructing the Centennial

2011

History of Taiwanese Art”, Taiwan Soka Association, Taipei, Taiwan “Shanghai International Printmaking Exhibition 2010”, Shanghai Hongqiao Contemporary Art Museum, Shanghai, China “Taiwan Academy of Fine Arts”, National Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall, Taipei, Taiwan “Beyond Vision – Highlights of Abstract Paintings from Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts Collection”, National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts, Taichung, Taiwan The 29th National Cultural Award, Taiwan “The Pioneer of Modern Printmaking in Taiwan – Liao Shiou-Ping”, Chelsea Art Museum, New York, USA “Three Modern Ar t Masters – Chu Wei-Bor, Liao Shiou-Ping, Lee Shi-Chi”, National Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall, Taipei, Taiwan “Creativity & Communication – Mainland China Traveling Exhibition of the Taiwan Academy of Fine Arts”, National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China “SKY - 2011 Asia Plate & Print Exhibition”, Kuandu Museum of Fine Arts, Taipei, Taiwan

2012

“Interface . Imprint – Shiou-Ping Liao and the Development of

2013

2014

Modern Printmaking in Taiwan”, National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts, Taichung, Taiwan “Prints Tokyo 2012 – International Print Exhibition Tokyo 2012”, Tokyo Metropolitan Museum, Tokyo, Japan “Formless Form – Taiwanese Abstract Art”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan “Dimensions of Origin – The 2nd Shanghai International Printmaking Exhibition 2012”, Shanghai Art Museum, Shanghai, China “Post-Colonialism & Post-Modernism – 2012 Exhibition of Taiwan Fine Arts Academy”, National Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall, Taipei, Taiwan “Unique Vision: Highlights From the National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts Collection”, National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts, Taichung, Taiwan “Cross-domain Paradigms: The Real and Vir tual Imagery of ShiouPing Liao”, The General Association of Chinese Culture, Taipei, Taiwan “Taiwan 50: Modern Art Exhibition”, ARKI Galeria, Taipei, Taiwan “Modernity, the Ever-rising New Wave – Taiwan Contemporary Art 2013”, National Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall, Taipei, Taiwan “A Research for Representation of Primitivity ”, National Dr. Sun YatSen Memorial Hall, Taipei, Taiwan “The Pioneers of Taiwanese Ar tists, 1931-1940”, National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts, Taichung, Taiwan “The 1st Macau Printmaking Triennial”, Instituto Cultural do Governo da RAE de Macau, Macau, China “A Symphony of Printmaking and Painting: The Ar t of Liao ShiouPing”, Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Arts, Kaohsiung, Taiwan “Taiwan Modern Art Exhibition”, The Shoto Museum of Art, Tokyo, Japan “Abstract / Symbol / Oriental – Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern Art", Liang Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

259


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

創建生活美學次序的台灣現代版畫先驅 廖修平 文

廖新田

廖修平 (1936-),台灣現代版畫藝術家與推動者,亦跨及其他媒材如油畫、 現代雕塑與陶藝等等。台北艋舺人,1959 年師大美術系畢業後赴日本東 京教育大學繪畫研究科進修兩年,1965 年進入巴黎美術學院油畫教室及 版畫十七工作室研習,1973 年起在台灣各大學推動現代版畫,培養出許 多版畫人才。1977 年起赴日本筑波大學、美國西東大學任教,後擔任南 京藝術學院、台北藝術大學、台北市立師範學院、台灣師範大學客座教 授。他曾擔任世界各地之藝術評審,如紐約美國版畫家協會、台北與漢 城國際版畫雙年展等。自 1964 年日本東京造型畫廊個展起,廖修平在台 灣以及世界各地之個展達近百次之多,而收藏其作品的機構約有五十家。 廖修平曾獲國內省展西畫首獎、十大傑出青年獎、中山學術獎之藝術創作 獎、台灣版畫會金璽獎、吳三連文藝獎、國家文藝獎,獲得國外之獎項有: 法國春季沙龍銀牌獎、紐約奧杜龐藝術家展版畫首獎、波士頓版畫家展與 巴西聖保羅國際版畫雙年展優選獎、紐約州羅徹斯特市宗教美術展版畫首 獎、韓國漢城國際小版畫大獎、挪威國際版畫三年展銀牌獎。廖修平出版 兩本相關版畫著作:《版畫藝術》(1974 年 )、《版畫技法 123》(1987 年 )。

烈的以母文化為基底而建立自我特色之意識,因而「在台灣美術史上建立 其獨特的東方趣味風格」。王德育以變革與常態來概括廖修平的創作,前 260

LIAO Shiou-Ping

文論所探討的焦點之一。王秀雄教授認為廖修平在各個創作階段都有著強

Welcoming Spring

民俗的創作風格中,以特殊的設計與構成形成鮮明的跨文化風格則是許多

廖修平 迎春

代版畫之父 / 推動者」的敬稱實其來有自。除此之外,他的符號、圖騰、

1998

以及個人活躍在國際版畫界與藝術圈所獲致的高度肯定,因此,「台灣現

60×43cm

例如他在藝術教育上推動台灣版畫的關鍵角色、重大貢獻與深遠的影響,

Silkscreen and collagraph

廖修平的版畫藝術成就,我們大概可以從過去一些評論掌握到幾個面向,


ESSAY | Taiwanese Printmaking Pioneer, LIAO Shiou-Ping , and the Creation of Order in Living Aesthetics

Life's Seasons(A)

廖修平 LIAO Shiou-Ping 人 生 四 季 (A)

2013

60×121cm

Acr ylic and gold leaf on canvas

者指的是「根植於台灣文化精神的宗教情懷」,後者則是以符

與個人的理念。面對這一些既簡潔又有次序感的作品,觀者的

號「反映人類的集體潛意識」。梅丁衍分析廖氏的道教圖騰「具

美感經驗是強烈而深沉的藝術性審美經驗,而不是純粹設計目

有東方性現代藝術的創見」。美國西東大學曲培淳教授認為廖

的感知。廖修平關注、反思傳統符號與生活之元素擷取,因此

修平是「亞洲現代主義的先驅」。石瑞仁說他與西方藝術對話

專注於營造東方美學的現代呈現,他的系列創作:門與符號、

的策略是「有意透過藝術創作揭揚母土文化特質和標識自我身

木人、酒瓶與茶壺、結繩、夢境等,在在反映出他的感懷與情

份」、「廖修平的作品,除了訴諸門神、冥紙、春聯、吉祥紋

感的歸宿,雖西畫功力深厚,他仍義無反顧,執著於個人藝術

樣及五行色彩等民俗符象來提供一種『指示性的訊息』,更重

語彙之營造,終獲難能可貴之成果與廣泛的肯定。

要的是,他發展出一種結構性的語言,深入詮釋了這個符號群 所隱喻的『台灣文化特色』。…對『門』這格符號的專注使用,

廖修平作品中反覆與稍作變化的圖騰不是無意識的排列組合或

實有凸顯東西文化差異的企圖用意。」。廖修平的確有過文化

設計上的美觀需求,其實是民俗圖騰轉化為藝術圖騰後的祭儀

差異的掙扎,在體認身為東方人的處境後,決心創建自己的藝

性視覺再現,具有神聖與生活藝術結合的意涵,而且是整體的

術語言,不再隨西方之波逐流。他曾表示:「面對著這麼豐富

轉化,有一種強烈的神秘感與緩慢而深沉的律動。現代性的主

精深的『西方』繪畫傳統,帶給我內心強烈的衝擊與震撼,我

體性反思讓他的作品凸顯出「東方美學秩序」,這種次序感不

不禁冷靜下來沉思:作為東方人,想勉力去追求歐洲繪畫,不

同於藝術史學者 Gombrich 的圖像層次的次序感,亦呈現一種

只是不可能,就是窮一輩子精力,恐怕也無法追趕上啊!…經

文化的次序,或者更正確的說是特有的台灣常民文化的次序,

過無數次思考;我決心:要找出真正屬於自己的藝術道路。」

一個屬於在地的次序感。廖修平藝術創作的另外一種價值,那

他最後所選擇的,竟然是最原初、最熟悉的記憶:廟宇印象。

是過去的藝術批評比較少論及的,就是以裝飾設計抵抗西方的

民俗的符號、圖騰紓解了他的鄉愁與創作上的困頓,同時讓他

透視與平面化空間,一方面展現本土文化的特殊性,但又由於

找到了創作的曙光 !

裝飾與圖騰乃是世界普遍的視覺再現,甚至具有人 類學的因 子,因而有了廣大的溝通基礎。當代藝術演變之下裝飾與象徵

廖修平藝術的秩序感,或更明確的說是「東方美學 / 民俗生活

不再是創作的主要概念,在筆者看來,採取裝飾作為創作的風

的次序感」,是一種有策略性的抵抗,以裝飾的設計風格抵抗、

格策略,其實是回到藝術的原初狀態。廖修平的創作策略與藝

重構西方繪畫性的表達風格,進而達成藝術主體性的計畫。但

術價值是值得進一步探討的,因為這種創作模式有著藝術史的

是,我們仍然可以在這次展出的生活系列作品之構圖看到穩定

宏觀意義,深入了文化差異下不同藝術的對等對話之可能。當

的對稱形式,而內容上則是我們習以為常的剪刀、雨傘、梳子、

我們苦思各種方法、路徑來對抗西方以保有自身文化的特色、

藤籃等親切的形像,表達出簡單的生活寫照與豐富的在地文化

尋求藝術主體性,廖修平作了極為出色而成功的示範。

意義。他以現代的方式、運用傳統的圖騰,並不只是宣揚本土 文化或表現現代,而是有著更複雜的意涵,包含著藝術、文化

他出入傳統與現代的勇氣與洞見,堪稱台灣藝術家的典範。 261


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

Taiwanese Printmaking Pioneer, LIAO Shiou-Ping, and the Creation of Order in Living Aesthetics Written by

LIAO Hsin-Tien

Liao Shiou-Ping (born in 1936) is a pioneer of contemporar y printmaking in Taiwan, whose works also encompass other media including oil painting, contemporary sculpture, and pottery, among others. Originally from Monga, Taipei, Liao attended the Depar tment of Fine Ar ts at National Taiwan Normal University in 1959, before heading to Tokyo University of Education to study drawing for two years. In 1965, Liao entered the École des Beaux-Ar ts in Paris to study oil painting, and Atelier 17 to study etching. From 1973 onwards, Liao began to promote contemporar y printmaking at various universities in Taiwan, thereby fostering the talent of many individuals. In 1977, Liao taught at the University of Tsukuba, Japan, and Seton Hall University, USA. Later, Liao was guest lecturer at

Exhibition in Taiwan, and the Seoul International Print Biennale Exhibition in Korea. Since exhibiting at the Zokei Galler y, Tokyo, in 1964, Liao has held nearly a hundred exhibitions in Taiwan and internationally, and approximately fifty institutions has collected his works. Liao has been awarded prizes from national exhibitions, Ten Outstanding Young Person’s Foundation, the Sun Yat-Sen Academic and Cultural Foundation, the Taiwan Society of Printmaking, Wu San Lien Foundation, and the National Culture and Ar ts Foundation.

262

Life(6)

Graphic Ar tists in New York, the Taipei International Print Biennial

廖修平 LIAO Shiou-Ping 生活 六 ( )

as judge on various ar tistic panels, including Society of American

2006

Taipei), and National Taiwan Normal University. Liao has also served

Silkscreen

Ar ts, Taipei Municipal Normal College (present day University of

42×54cm

Nanjing University of the Ar ts, Taipei National University of the


ESSAY | Taiwanese Printmaking Pioneer, LIAO Shiou-Ping , and the Creation of Order in Living Aesthetics

Liao’s foreign recognitions include Silver Medal at the Salon des Ar tistes Français (Paris), First Prize at the 28th Annual Audubon Ar tist’s Exhibition (New York), Boston Printmaker’s Exhibition and Purchase Prize at the Sao Paolo International Printmaking Biennial, First Graphic Award at the Rochester Festival of Religious Ar ts, Grand Prize of the 1st International Exhibition of Miniature Prints (Seoul), Silver Medal at the Norwegian International Print Triennial. Liao also has two publications related to printmaking: The Art of Printmaking (1974), and Printmaking Techniques 123 (1987).

A few aspects of Liao’s success in the realm of printmaking may be understood through some aspects of past critical reception: for instance, Liao’s pivotal role in ar ts education, his promotion of printmaking in Taiwan, his major contributions and far-reaching influence, as well as the affirmation of his active involvement in the international printmaking and ar tistic community. Therefore, the title “father of Taiwanese contemporar y printmaking” is well deserved. In addition, the strong cross-cultural style of the unique design and composition of his folk symbols and totems has attracted much analysis and discussion. Professor Wang Hsiu-Hsiung believes that Liao’s idiosyncratic characteristics are founded upon strong cultural foundations at ever y stage, and therefore, “possesses unique oriental whimsy in terms of the development of Taiwanese ar t history.” Wang Teh-Yu considers Liao’s works from the perspective of change and constancy, where the former refers to “religious feelings rooted in Taiwanese culture and spirit” whereas the latter refers to “reflections of the collective human unconscious.” Mei Dean-E considers Liao’s Taoist totems to be “imbued with contemporary oriental originality.” Professor Chu Pei-Chun of Seton Hall University refers to Liao as the “forerunner of modernism in Asia.” Shih Jui-Jen observed that Liao’s strategy for dialoguing with the west is to “purposefully reveal the special characteristics of the mother-culture and self-label through ar tistic creation”. Fur thermore, according to Shih, Liao’s ar t:

In addition to calling upon folk symbols such as Door Gods, Ghost Money, Chinese New Year calligraphy scrolls, auspicious patterns, and five elements to provide a sor t of “indicative message”, more impor tantly, Liao developed a structural language which profoundly interprets the “Taiwanese cultural character” metaphorically represented by this group of symbols… There is purposeful intent in terms of the concentrated use of the character for “door” ( 門 ) to emphasize the cultural difference of east and west. 263


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

Liao did in fact struggle with cultural differences. Having experienced the situation of being from the east, Liao decided to create his own ar tistic language rather than blindly follow western trends. He once expressed: “facing such abundant and sophisticated [western] ar tistic tradition strongly influenced my interiority. I had to calm down and reflect: as an easterner, it would have been impossible for me to force myself to pursue European ar tistry. Not only impossible – even if I had spent my life’s energy upon it, I would probably not have been able to catch up… After endless reflection, I finally decided to find my own ar tistic path.” His choice in the end was the most primitive and most familiar memor y of temple images. Folk symbols and totems relieved his homesickness and his productive bottleneck, allowing him to find the light of his creativity.

The sense of order in Liao’s ar tistr y can be more accurately described as the “orderliness of oriental aesthetics and folk-life.” It is a strategic resistance, using a style of decorative design to resist and restructure the expressiveness of western drawing; fur thermore, it is a plan to achieve ar tistic subjectivity. However, stable symmetrical forms are never theless observable in the composition of pieces from the Symbols of Life series that is currently on exhibit. The contents are quotidian objects including scissors, umbrella, hairbrush, woven baskets, and other familiar forms that express rich native cultural significance as well as simple por trayals of daily life. Liao employs contemporar y methods alongside traditional totems not

of traditional symbols and elements of daily life, and therefore focuses on the presentation of oriental aesthetics. His ar t series: Gate Symbols, Manikin, Garden Party, Knots, Dreams, among others, continuously reflect his recollections and feelings of belonging. Despite his mature command of western techniques, he does not hold back from devoting himself to the creation of his personal ar tistic idiom. The hard-won fruits of his labor have been widely acknowledged.

The repetitive and slightly altered totems in Liao’s works are not unconscious 264

Column of Festivity ( Ⅳ )

Liao is concerned with and has reflected upon the distillation of the essence

2013

profound evaluation of beauty, rather than mere perceiving objectives of design.

Stainless steel

simple and orderly works, the obser ver’s aesthetic experience is an intense and

185×70×70cm

significances that include ar t, culture, and personal belief. Faced with this series of

廖修平 LIAO Shiou-Ping 節慶之柱 四 ( )

only to promote local culture or represent modernity, but with more complex


ESSAY | Taiwanese Printmaking Pioneer, LIAO Shiou-Ping , and the Creation of Order in Living Aesthetics

arrangements or the results of aesthetic design requirements, but the ritualistic visual representation of folk totems transformed into ar tistic totems. Imbued with the significance of the combining sacred and quotidian ar tistr y, it is a total transformation with a strong sense of myster y and slow, profound rhythm. Reflections of contemporar y subjectivity emphasize the “Oriental aesthetic orderliness” in his works. This sense of order is distinct from the sense of order of Gombrich’s image hierarchy. Rather, it presents a cultural order – or, more accurately, a cultural order specific to Taiwanese folk culture, which is of local origin. Another aspect of Liao’s ar t that is more rarely discussed in past criticism is the defiance of western perspective and spatial planes through decorative design. On the one hand, it is a display of the uniqueness of native culture. On the other hand, as decorations and totems are visual features the world over, and might even be said to possess anthropological factors, the basis of their expressiveness is broad. Through the evolution of contemporar y ar t, decoration and representation are no longer main concepts in creativity. The author believes that the strategic use of decoration as a creative style is actually a return to the primitive state of ar t. Liao’s creative strategy and ar tistic values deserve fur ther discussion. This mode of creativity contains macro-significances in terms of ar t history, and enters into the possibility of dialogue between the ar tistic traditions from different cultures. While we ruminate over methods and means to resist western influence and preser ve our own cultural distinctions, and seek out ar tistic subjectivity, Liao’s works serve as an excellent and successful example.

The courage and insight with which Liao traverses tradition and modernity makes him a paradigm of Taiwanese ar t.

265


廖修平 LIAO Shiou-Ping

生活 ( 二 ) Life (2) 1974 Acrylic and gold leaf on wood 122×122cm

266


廖修平 LIAO Shiou-Ping

雙福一二三 Double Wealth ⅠⅡⅢ 2008 Silkscreen 87×150cm

267


廖修平 LIAO Shiou-Ping

希望之門 Gate of New Hope 2007 Acrylic and gold leaf on canvas 194×550cm

268


廖修平 LIAO Shiou-Ping

迎福門(一) Gate of Prosperity Ⅰ 2010 Acrylic and gold leaf on canvas 162×422cm

270


廖修平 LIAO Shiou-Ping

富臨門 ( 四 ) Gate of Wealth Ⅳ 2014 Oil, acrylic and gold leaf on canvas 122×366cm

272


廖修平 LIAO Shiou-Ping

節慶之柱 ( 四 ) Column of Festivity ( Ⅳ ) 2013 Stainless steel 185×70×70 cm

274


李錫奇 LEE Shi-Chi


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

李錫奇 1938 年出生於台灣金門

1958

「旋舞系列」,SKY 畫廊,紐約,美國

省立台北師範學校(今國立台北教育大學)美術系畢業, 台北,台灣

1979

「時光系列」,版畫家畫廊,台北,台灣

「現代版畫會」創始成員,台灣 1960

「第一屆香港國際沙龍展」,香港,中國

1961

「第六屆巴西聖保羅國際雙年展」,聖保羅,巴西

1963

「東方畫會」會員,台北,台灣

1965

「亞洲先進藝術家畫展」,於新加坡 、馬尼拉、曼谷、東京、 香港巡迴展出

「時光系列」,多明尼克畫廊,馬尼拉,菲律賓

1980

「亞洲現代版畫巡迴展」,馬尼拉、吉隆坡、新加坡、曼谷、 香港

1982

香港中文大學客座教授,香港,中國 「中國現代繪畫展」,韓國漢城現代美術館,漢城,韓國

1983

台北市立美術館「第一屆國際版畫展」韓國湖嚴美術館獎

1967

「抽象繪畫期-拓印系列」,台灣藝術館,台北,台灣

「掠過」版畫作品,台灣

1968

「第一屆亞洲版畫展」,菲律賓

「國際版畫展」開館特展,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣

1969

日本第五屆「國際青年藝術家展」評論家獎「本位」十連

1985

榮獲第五屆金璽獎,台灣美術協會,台灣

作,日本 中華民國畫學會第七屆「金爵獎」,台灣 「亞洲版畫展」,Pratt Institue 博物館,紐約,美國 1970

1986

「大書法系列」,環亞藝術中心,台北,台灣

1987

「大書法系列」, Eagling Gallery,舊金山,美國 「當代繪畫展」,韓國國立現代美術館,韓國

菲律賓「第二屆亞洲版畫展」第二大獎,菲律賓 「複合媒材期-本位系列」,藝術家畫廊,台北,台灣 「第一屆國際版畫雙年展」,漢城,韓國

1972

「新風貌展」、「亞洲國際美展」,歷史博物館,台北,台灣 1988

「第二屆國際版畫雙年展」,漢城,韓國

「抽象書法創作期-月之祭系列」,林肯海瑪克畫廊,內布 拉斯,美國 「抽象書法創作期-月之祭系列」,亞洲藝術中心,西雅圖,

「第三屆亞洲國際美展」,福岡,日本 1991

「東方五月三十五年展」,時代畫廊,台北,台灣

1992

「臨界點系列」,時代畫廊,台北,台灣

1993

「記憶的傳說系列」,時代畫廊,台北,台灣 「台北訊息展-中華民國當代藝術展」,台灣省立美術館

美國

1977 1978 278

策劃主辦大陸畫家展(「中國水墨畫展」、「中國版畫大 展」、「星星畫展」、「黃冑個展」)

「七 O 年代中國現代藝術大展」,中國 1976

文化大學美術系版畫創作兼任教授,台北,台灣

「第一屆韓國漢城亞洲藝術邀請展」,韓國

(今國立台灣美術館),台中,台灣

「第五屆國際版畫雙年展」,英國

「台灣美術新風貌展」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣

中華民國文藝協會「文藝創作獎」,台灣 「旋舞系列」,一畫廊,香港,中國

1994

「鬱黑之旅系列」,Z 畫廊,紐約,美國 「鬱黑之旅系列」,爵歐亞特美術館,丹麥


CHRONOLOGY | LEE Shi-Chi

「淬鋒.本位.李錫奇」,廣東美術館,廣東,中國

「台北訊息展-中華民國當代藝術展」,瑞典喀爾美術館、 伊斯達美術館、瑞典東亞中心,瑞典 「第九屆亞洲美展」,歷史博物館,台北,台灣

2011

「返本歸真-台灣當代抽象繪畫展 I」,赤粒藝術,台北,台灣

2012

「非形之形-台灣抽象藝術聯展」,台北市立美術館,台北,

「書法之美展」,高雄市立美術館,高雄,台灣

台灣 「2012 台灣雙年展」,國立台灣美術館,台中,台灣

「中國現代水墨大展」,台灣省立美術館(今國立台灣美術館),

國家文化藝術基金會「第十六屆國家文藝獎-藝術家」,

台中,台灣 1995

「第十屆亞洲美展」,新加坡國家美術館,新加坡

1996

「李錫奇個展」,四方畫廊,漢城,韓國

台灣 2013

北京、上海,中國

「台北現代畫展」,上海美術館,上海,中國 1998

「美麗台灣-台灣近現代名家經典作品展 (1911-2011) 」,

「現代.迭起 2013 台灣當代藝術」,國父紀念館,台北,

「再本位個展」,帝門畫廊,台北,台灣

台灣

「第一屆水墨雙年展」,深圳,中國 1999

「台灣檔案-臺北現代畫展」,上海雙年展,上海,中國

「台灣 50 現代畫展 I」,築空間,台北,台灣

2001

「本位與對話-臺北現代畫展」,上海美術館,上海,中國

「齊聚藝堂- A-7958 當代藝術開幕首展」,A-7958 當代藝術,

2002

「浮生十帖-錯位 ˙ 變置 ˙ 李錫奇個展」,歷史博物館,台北, 台灣

2004

於 Gulerir Leda Fletcher 畫廊舉行個展,日內瓦,瑞士

2005

台灣台北草山行館藝術家工作室首位駐村藝術家,台北,

台中,台灣 2014

「抽象.符碼.東方情—臺灣現代藝術巨匠大展」,尊彩藝術 中心,台北,台灣

台灣 「李錫奇北京畫展」,中國美術館,北京,中國 「本位.新發.李錫奇個展」,上海美術館、北京美術館、 福州美術館,上海、北京、福州,中國 2006

「法國四大沙龍聯展」,巴黎大皇宮,巴黎,法國 「七十.本位.李錫奇」,國父紀念館,台北,台灣

2008

「台北國際藝術博覽會」,台北,台灣 「北京奧林匹克美術大展」,北京,中國 「釜山雙年展」,釜山,韓國

2009

「亞洲藝術雙年展」,國立台灣美術館,台中,台灣 279


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

LEE Shi-Chi 1938

1958

Born in Kinmen, Taiwan

“Whirling Dance Series”, Sky Gallery, New York, USA

Department of Fine Arts, Taipei Normal College (now National Taipei University of Education), Taipei, Taiwan

1979

“Time Series”, Dominique Gallery, Manila, Philippines “Time Series”, Print Artists Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

Co-founder of Modern Graphic Art Association, Taiwan 1980

“Modern Asian Prints Touring Exhibition”, Manila, Kuala Lumpur,

1960

“The 1st Hong Kong International Salon”, Hong Kong, China

1961

“The 6th São Paulo International Biennial”, São Paulo, Brazil

1963

Member of the “Ton Fan Group”, Taipei, Taiwan

1965

“Paintings by Asian Avant-garde Ar tists”, Singapore, Manila,

Kong, China

Bangkok, Tokyo, Hong Kong

“Exhibition of Modern Chinese Painting”, Seoul Museum of

“Solo Exhibition of the Abstract Period: Ink Rubbings Series”,

Modern Art, Seoul, Korea

1967

Taiwan Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

Singapore, Bangkok, Hong Kong 1982

1983

Guest professor at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong

“The 1st International Print Invitational Exhibit”, Taipei Fine Arts

1968

“The 1st Asian Print Exhibition”, Philippines

Museum, Ho-Am Art Museum Prize (South Korea), Taiwan

1969

“The 5th International Young Artists’ Exhibition”, Critic’s Prize, Japan

“International Print Exhibit, ROC”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum special

The Art Society of China, Golden Pitcher Award, Taiwan

opening exhibition, Taipei, Taiwan

“Asian Print Exhibition”, Pratt Institute, New York, USA 1970

1972

1976

Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan

“Mixed Media Period: Orientation Series”, Artist Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

Awarded the 5th ROC Golden Seal Prize, Taiwan

“The 1st International Print Exhibition”, Seoul, Korea

1986

“Large Calligraphy Series”, Asia World Art Centre, Taipei, Taiwan

“The 2st International Print Exhibition”, Seoul, Korea

1987

“Large Calligraphy Series”, Eagling Gallery, San Francisco, USA

“Grand Exhibition of Chinese Modern Art of the Seventies”, China

“Exhibition of Contemporary Painting from the ROC”, National

“Abstract Calligraphic Period: Moon Worship Series”, Lincoln-

Modern Art Museum, Seoul, Korea

Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery, Nebraska, USA

“New Styles”, “International Exhibition of Asian Ar t”, National

“Abstract Calligraphic Period: Moon Worship Series”, Asian Ar t

Museum of History, Taipei, Taiwan

280

1988

Curator of Chinese ar tists exhibitions, including “Chinese Ink

“The 1st Asian Art Conference”, Seoul, Korea

Paintings Exhibition”, “Chinese Printmaking Exhibition”, “Star

“The 5th International Print Biennial”, UK

Group Exhibition”, “Solo exhibition of Huang Zhou”

Chinese Writer's and Ar tist's Association, Prize for Ar tistic

“The 3rd International Exhibition of Asian Art”, Fukuoka, Japan

Creativity, Taiwan 1978

Printmaking Adjunct Professor, Fine Ar ts Depar tment, Chinese

“The 2nd Asian Prints Exhibit”, Second Main Prize, Philippines

Center, Seattle, USA

1977

1985

“Whirling Dance Series”, Chi I Gallery, Hong Kong, China

1991

“Ton Fan and Fifth Moon 35th Anniversary Exhibition”, Shih Tai Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan


CHRONOLOGY | LEE Shi-Chi

1992

“Zero Series”, Shi Dai Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

1993

“Legends of Memory Series”, Shi Dai Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

Mountain Chateau, Taipei, Taiwan

“News From Taipei – ROC Contemporary Ar t”, Taiwan Provincial

“Lee Shi-Chi Beijing Exhibition”, National Art Museum of China, Beijing, China

Museum of Fine Arts, Taichung, Taiwan

“Orientation, New Developments – Lee Shi-Chi Solo Exhibition”,

“New Approaches in Fine Ar ts From Taiwan”, Taipei Fine Ar ts

Shanghai Ar t Museum, Beijing Ar t Museum, Fuzhou Ar t Museum,

Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

Shanghai, Beijing, Fuzhou, China

1994

“Dark Journey Series”, Z Gallery, New York, USA

2005

2006

“70. Original Position. Lee Shi-Chi”, National Dr. Sun Yat-Sen

“ N e w s F r o m Ta i p e i – RO C C o n t e m p o r a r y A r t ” , K a l m a r

Memorial Hall, Taipei, Taiwan 2008

“Olympic Fine Arts 2008”, Beijing, China

“The 9th International Exhibition of Asian Art”, National Museum of

“Busan Biennale”, Busan, Korea 2009

“Asian Art Biennale”, National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts, Taichung, Taiwan

“The Beauty of Calligraphy”, Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Ar ts,

“Original Position. Trial. Lee Shi-Chi”, Guangdong Museum of Ar t,

Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Guangdong, China

“Grand Exhibition of Modern Chinese Ink Painting”, Taiwan Provincial

2011

Museum of Fine Arts (now National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts), Taichung, Taiwan

1998

“Art Taipei 2008”, Taipei, Taiwan

Center, Sweden

History, Taipei, Taiwan

1996

“May Salon Exhibition”, Paris Grand Palace, Paris, France

“Dark Journey Series”, Galleri Geaurt, Denmark

Konstmuseum, Yst’ud Konstmuseum, Sweden Art Museum, East Asia

1995

The fir st ar tist-in-residence of the ar tist studio in the Grass

“Return to the Essence – Survey of Contemporary Abstract Painting in Taiwan I”, Red Gold Fine Art, Taipei, Taiwan

2012

“Formless Form – Taiwanese Abstract Art”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum,

“The 10th International Exhibition of Asian Art”, National Museum

Taipei, Taiwan

of Art, Singapore

“2012 Taiwan Biennial”, National Taiwan Museum of Fine Ar ts,

“Lee Shi-Chi Solo Exhibition”, Square Gallery, Seoul, Korea

Taichung, Taiwan

“Exhibition of Taipei Modern Arts”, Shanghai Art Museum, Shanghai, China

National Culture and Arts Foundation, National Award for Arts, Taiwan

“Re-Orientation”, Dimensions Art Center, Taipei, Taiwan

2013

“Majestic Island – The Development of Modern Art in Taiwan (1911-

“The 1st International Ink Painting Biennial of Shenzhen”, Shenzhen, China

2011)”, Beijing, Shanghai, China

1999

“Shanghai Biennale Exhibition”, Shanghai, China

“Now, Again – 2013 Contemporary Art”, National Dr. Sun Yat-Sen

2001

“Taipei Modern Ar ts – Joint Exhibition”, Shanghai Ar t Museum,

Memorial Hall, Taipei, Taiwan

Shanghai, China

“Taiwan 50 Modern Art Exhibition I”, ARKI Galeria, Taipei, Taiwan

“Ten Aspects of My Artistic Life – Transposition, Variation”, National

“Artists Gathering Together”, A-7958 Gallery, Taichung, Taiwan

2002

Museum of History, Taipei, Taiwan 2004

Solo exhibition, Gallery Leda Fletcher, Geneva, Switzerland

2014

“Abstract / Symbol / Oriental – Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern Art”, Liang Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

281


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

從「抽象.符碼.東方情」的展題切入 談台灣現代藝術運動及李錫奇 文

石瑞仁

此次蕭瓊瑞教授為尊彩藝術中心策劃的展覽,以「抽象.符碼.

出了「傳統文化符碼再生」的創作策略。相對於抽象藝術中被

東方情」為內容主軸,參展者全是曾經參與台灣現代藝術運動

列為核心重點的個人形式風格和藝術姿態,這種強調「傳統文

之藝術家,這個展題,除了有意概括和回視當年現代藝術運動

化基因再造」的視覺藝術符碼,也因此特別富有集體的性格和

的共同目標和精神理念,站在二十一世紀的今日,以之來檢視

意義。回視過往,在台灣的現代藝術運動中,個人化的抽象語

各參展藝術家如何延伸早年的美學觀,並一路發展到個人目前

言開發和集體性的文化符碼再生,顯然不是兩條分岐發展的路

的風格,肯定也有很當下的意義。

線或自由的選項之一,而比較是每個參與運動的藝術家都想同 時扛在肩膀兩頭、並試圖從觀念、論述中去釐清和發揚,從創

「抽象」藝術,和「超現實」藝術被並列為 20 世紀現代藝術

作中去尋答和實踐的一種共業。

的兩大新潮和主流; 1910 年康丁斯基以水彩畫出了史上第一 幅抽象畫《無題》,此後,抽象畫在「純粹繪畫語言」的探索,

「東方情」,從某方面來看,是西方現代藝術思潮衝擊之 下,

「個人形式風格」的追求,或「個性氣質表現」這三大面向上,

整個亞洲文化圈,包括台灣、日本、韓國、大陸等地區的藝術

陸續有許多藝術家投入,之中有的匯聚成地方性的抽象藝術門

家,在吸收西方藝術的形式觀念乃至於媒材、技法之同時,希

派,有的發展成國際性的藝術潮流,台灣五 O 年代後期開展的

望用於展現自我並和西方藝術家有所區隔的一個努力方向。在

現代藝術運動,很明顯也感受和吸收了當時國際藝壇的脈動和

此,東方情的「情」,可能廣泛的指涉到個人視覺語言的研創、

抽象藝術的思潮,並在上述的三大面向之外,就地融合了「傳

宗教民俗符碼的轉化和文化記憶情感的抒發…等不同的面向,

統美學再造」的時代與文化課題,原先被視為雖然前衛卻也叛

而其中最大的交集,就是把個人印記式的抽象藝術語言,和集

逆 的抽象藝術,也因此在台灣找到了向下扎根生長的養分,和

體基因式的文化圖像符碼,包裝整合在視覺質感的「東方情調」

往前衝刺發展的動力。

或精神上的「東方美學」這兩個大方向上。在這群藝術家當中, 李錫奇不僅是其中的代表者之一,長遠看來,他無疑是很能一

「符碼」,尤其是具有傳統指涉和文化聯想的符碼,因為不夠

以貫之、戮力實踐的。

「純粹」,嚴格說來並不在「抽象」藝術這個範疇,但我們卻 不難發現,在抽象藝術演化成 20 世紀國際藝術風潮的過程中,

身為台灣現代藝術陣營的要角之一,李錫奇最大的特長是,能

各地藝術家一方面迎接和追求它所表彰的現代性,但另一方面

夠感性的吸收自各方的事物,透過知性的裁取運用,很快地轉

也想保有自身主體性格時,最常見也比較容易成功的,就是祭

化成一種專屬於個人的藝術符碼;同時,他也能夠透過理性的

282


ESSAY | A Discussion on Lee Shi-Chi and Taiwan’s Modern Art Movement on the Basis of Abstract / Symbol / Oriental – Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern Art

The Elegance of Han Dynasty

李錫奇 LEE Shi-Chi 漢 采 本 位 2014-10

Oriental 2014-10

2014

120×120cm

Lacquer, mixed media

路線規劃,讓自己的藝術創作在不斷的吸收轉變的清況下,始

有藝術新想和創作新招,從傳統的漆飾工藝中,他又看到了擴

終保有精神上的一體關聯性。他的另一可愛之處是,一直保有

大其「今古相融」的美學思維,延續其「書畫同體」之藝術概

自我反省的勇氣和自我推拉的意志 : 一方面相信創作必須要有

念的另一個可能性。二十一世紀後,他繼續衝刺創作,並勇於

大方向,另一方面更知道,唯有讓心性和直覺自由的驅使,藝

嘗試電腦繪圖、數位媒材的應用,對於藝術的創作生產和消費

術的生命才有成長和延續的可能性。回顧其歷年來的創作成

欣賞機制這個層面,也提出了一些開創性的觀念和實踐模式。

果,他能夠自我蛻變而不違其宗,能夠機靈奔駛而不自亂其向,

類此,李錫奇的創作生命,堪稱是一再華滋,始終富麗的。

能夠在龐然多樣之中而有一個中軸和價值體系。從歷年的創作 中可以看出,他擅長將即興的靈感發展成一種可以持續延伸的

除了藝術創作上的多變和豐富成就,李錫奇也是台灣現代藝術

藝術表現系統,喜歡從侷限的現實中尋找出各種開通的方案。

領域中,少數能同時扮演文化運動者、環境改造者和藝術行政

將缺點轉化為特點,將瑕疵昇華為美感,從有限中尋找無限,

者等不同角色,且著實發揮了社會面及歷史性影響的藝術家。

也正是他作為藝術家的特殊能耐。以他近期的漆畫創作為例,

就這點看,他的角色有點像影劇中的「變形金剛」,平日蟄居

由於藝術家的靈見和慧心,一種式微的傳統工藝才得以從悠久

在陋巷中低調地沉潛創作,必要之時就一馬當先、挺身而出,

的歷史歲月中翻箱而出,才得以諸神再現的身段重現在我們的

對於如何推動藝術圈內的合作互動、如何激發社會的藝術欣賞

眼前。前文所提的傳統與現代合流,曾經是許多台灣現代畫家

風氣、乃至於台灣畫壇與海外、大陸的展覽交流等事務,無怨

的自我命題,而李錫奇允言是這當中做的最徹底也 最有累積性

無悔地投入了個人的腦力、心力、時間和金錢,也先後結合了

成就的一位了。

同道好友和企業機構的奧援,不僅發揮具體的社會成效,更展 現了歷史關鍵的作用和意義。

具體看來,五 O 年代後期,李錫奇先以抒情具象的木刻版畫崛 起於台灣藝壇,六 O 年代中期,他已投入普普性格的物體藝術

2013 年,李錫奇榮獲國家文藝獎之勳榮,不論是創作上的個人

創作,率先把小傳統的民俗器物轉化成為藝術表現的元素。七

成就、改善藝術生態的努力、或推動文化環境的貢獻,李錫奇

O 年代中,他從大傳統的書法得到靈感,以絹印版畫為表現媒

都交出了相當優秀的成績,這是藝術界早已公認的事實,也因

介,成功地把中國的文字美學和歐美的現代造型觀念作了一次

此,他的得獎只算是一種遲來的肯定。

全新的整合;八 O 年代裡,他以噴槍為型版為創作工具,開始 在畫布上進行更直接也更另類的字畫試探。九 O 年初,他繼續 283


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

A Discussion on LEE Shi-Chi and Taiwan’s Modern Art Movement on the Basis of Abstract / Symbol / Oriental – Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern Art Written by

SHIH Jui-Jen

Abstract / Symbol / Oriental – Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern Art, the exhibition curated by Hsiao Chong-Ray at Liang Gallery, showcases ar tworks by ar tists who all have been involved in Taiwan’s modern ar t movement. The exhibition title not only summarizes the mission statement of the movement, examines the mutual goal in retrospect, but also explores how the exhibiting ar tists extend their previous aesthetics and develop the initial ideas into personal styles which they are known for today in the 20th Century. It indeed is meaningful to bring the past to the present.

Abstract ar t and Surrealist ar t are considered to be the two major trends of modern ar t in the 20th Century: in 1910, Wassily Kandinsky used watercolor to paint Untitled, which was the first abstract painting in the world. Since then, abstract painting has

movements around the world during that period of time as it echoed the contemporar y trend of abstract ar t. Therefore, apar t from the three perspectives mentioned above, the modern ar t movement in Taiwan integrated the cultural mission to “renovate the traditional aesthetics” and to make it relevant to the present time.

284

李錫奇 LEE Shi-Chi 漢 采 本 位 2014-11

which initiated in the late 1950s was clearly influenced by the ar t

Oriental 2014-11

make it an international trend. Taiwan’s modern ar t movement,

The Elegance of Han Dynasty

together to establish local abstract ar t schools, while some of them

2014

the expression of one’s disposition. Some ar tists have gathered

120×120cm

absolute painting vocabular y, the pursuit of a personal style, or

Lacquer, mixed media

attracted many ar tists to work on it for its exploration of the


ESSAY | A Discussion on Lee Shi-Chi and Taiwan’s Modern Art Movement on the Basis of Abstract / Symbol / Oriental – Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern Art

Despite of being associated with terms “avant-garde” or “rebellious,” abstract ar t has found its new home in Taiwan, rooting here with local culture as its nutrition of growth.

Strictly speaking, symbols, especially those associated with par ticular culture or tradition, are not categorized as “abstract ar t” for that it is not “pure” enough. However, we can easily figure out that the “renovation of traditional/cultural symbols as genetic heritage” was the best, the most common, and the most successful policy for ar tists from various places to pursue the modernity of modern ar t while also maintaining the individual subjectivity during the process as abstract ar t became the trend around the world in the 20th Century. Compared with personal styles or ar tistic gestures, which are regarded as the essence of abstract ar t, the visual/ar tistic symbols with an emphasis on the “renovation of tradition/culture” show a collective spirit and significance. When we look back to the modern ar t movement in Taiwan, the establishment of a personalized abstract vocabulary and the renovation of collective cultural symbols are not parallel concepts for an ar tist to choose between the two. Instead, most of the ar tists involved in the movement want to carry them both, trying to clarify and elaborate the concepts and narratives. Through ar tmaking, these ar tists have worked collectively to search for an answer and to bring the idea into practice.

The idea of “oriental,” judged from cer tain perspective, is how the ar tists from the East Asian cultural sphere (including Taiwan, Japan, Korea, and China) differentiate their ar tistic expressions from Western ar tists after they have learned the forms, concepts, media, and even techniques of Western ar t under its dominant trend. Meanwhile, the term “oriental” is also referred to how one establishes one’s own visual vocabulary, transforms the religious and cultural symbols, or expresses the cultural memories and emotions. One thing in common is that they integrate the personalized abstract vocabulary and the shared genetic heritage of cultural symbols into two main directions – the “oriental visual” and the “oriental spiritual.” Among these ar tists, Lee Shi-Chi is one of the representatives who have been persistent and devoted all the time.

As a major figure in Taiwan’s modern ar t, Lee Shi-Chi is best known for how he sensitively absorbs the things he obser ves and intelligently arranges the materials, transforming them into ar tistic symbols which are unique to him. Meanwhile, he maps out his ar tistic practice, which is continuously transforming and absorbing, with rationality to maintain 285


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

the unity with spirituality. Another interesting thing about him is

experiment on calligraphy and ink painting. In the early 1990s, he

his self-reflective courage and self-urge will: on the one hand, he

continued coming up with new ideas and ar tistic concepts. From

believes one should know the grand direction in ar t-making; on the

the traditional lacquer ar t, he saw a new possibility to extend

other hand, he realizes that only when one’s mind and intuition are

the concept of “bringing calligraphy and painting together” and

released can one’s ar tistic life keep growing and sustaining. As we

to extend the ar tistic sense of “combing the traditional and the

examine what he has achieved throughout the years, we see an

present.” Even now in the 21st Century, he never slows down his

ar tist who has experienced self-transformation as he still maintains

paces. He takes the challenge to work on computer drawing and

his true self. He is agile, clever, and energetic, but he knows where

digital media, offering innovative and practical thoughts on the

he should go. Surrounded by a great variety of things, he sor ts out a

production of ar t and the consumerist system of ar t appreciate.

system or a narrative of his sense of values. In his previous ar tworks

Likewise, Lee Shi-Chi’s ar tistic life is always splendid and impressive.

throughout the decades of his ar tistic career, he has perfectly developed the improvisational inspiration into an ar tistic expression,

Apar t from the variety and achievements in his ar tistic practice, Lee

which can be elaborated and extended. He loves searching for

Shi-Chi is also one of a few modern ar tists in Taiwan who are both

solutions in the restriction of reality. He turns disadvantage into

culturally and historically influential with his multiple identities as a

uniqueness, transcends flaws into the true beauty, and looks for

cultural activist, environmental advocate and ar t administrator. From

the unlimited from the limited. These are what make him a unique

this perspective, he is like the real-life version of “Transformer.” He

ar tist. In his recent lacquer paintings, the ar tist’s vision and aura

lives a quiet life in the alley to work on his ar tworks, but when it is

keep the traditional handicraft skill from dying. After so many years,

necessary, he wastes no time to jump out and to do what he should

the lost technique is once again set free from the box of histor y

do. He also devotes his life to promoting the collaboration within

as if it were the Genie appearing from the lamp. The confluence

the ar t society, encouraging the society’s love for ar t, improving

between tradition and modernity used to be the themes of many

Taiwan’s connection with the world in terms of ar t, and organizing

Taiwanese modern painters, while Lee Shi-Chi should be the most

exhibitions to increase cultural communications. With the suppor t

accomplished one.

of his fellows and some enterprises, he not only does his best for the society but also makes what he has done significant – historically

Specifically speaking, in the late 1950s, Lee Shi-Chi made his name

and culturally.

famous in Taiwan’s ar t society with his lyrical figurative woodblock printing. In the middle of 1960s, he was devoted to using objects

In 2013, Lee Shi-Chi received the National Award for Ar ts. No

in ar t-making with a touch of Pop ar t, turning small traditional folk

matter it is about his personal ar tistic achievement or his effor t to

objects into elements of ar tistic expressions. In the middle of 1970s,

improve the cultural situation, Lee Shi-Chi has impressed us in so

he was inspired by calligraphy, one of the mainstream traditions in

many ways. His contribution has already been acknowledged and

the Eastern culture, to work on silk printing as his ar tistic media,

appreciated, while the award is merely the one last gem on the

successfully and creatively combining the aesthetics of Chinese

crown.

characters with European/American modern shape. In the 1980s, he used spray paint as plate to conduct a direct and alternative 286


About the Critic | SHIH Jui-Jen

藝評 簡介

石瑞仁 SHIH Jui-Jen

石瑞仁,1954 年生於台灣南投,國立台灣師範大學美術系畢

Researcher of Exhibition Division, Taipei Fine Arts Museum. Currently,

業,美國費城天普大學藝術史研究所碩士。曾任臺北市立美術

Shih is a lecturer of the Taipei National University of the Ar ts, and an

館展覽組組長及副研究員,現任國立臺北藝術大學專任講師,

Executive Director of the Museum of Contemporary Ar t, Taipei. He

及台北當代藝術館執行總監,並擔任帝門藝術教育基金會董

also served as the Director of Dimension Endowment of Ar t, was

事、文建會公共藝術委員、國家文化藝術基金會美術類獎助審

a member of Public Ar t Committee of Council of Cultural Affairs,

查委員,台新銀行文化藝術基金會董事等義務性職務。1992 年

and a member of Fine Ar t Grants Review Committee of National

起,開始從事藝評寫作,歷年論述約兩百餘篇,散見於雄獅美

Culture and Ar ts Foundation. More, Shih also was the Director of

術、藝術家雜誌、炎黃美術、山藝術雜誌、新朝藝術、典藏藝

the Taishin Bank Foundation for Ar ts and Culture. Star ting from 1992

術雜誌及澳洲發行之 Ar t Asia Pacific 美術季刊等,並獲 1997 年

onwards, he engaged in ar t criticism writing and, as for now, he has

之「帝門藝術評論獎」。2008 年起擔任台北當代藝術館執行總

written over two hundred ar ticles. He published in: “Sanjian Yu Xiong

監以來,致力推動當代藝術館的國際化連結及在地化紮根,除

Shi Meishu”, “Ar tist Magazine”, “Mountain Ar t”, “Ar t China”, “Ar t and

陸續引介歐美、日、澳各地區當代藝術新潮,也先後將台灣當

Collection”, and “Ar t Asia Pacific” issued in Australia. In 1997, he won

代藝術展覽推介至上海、北京、威尼斯等地展出,四年多以來,

the “Dimension Ar t Critic Award”. In 2008, Shih was appointed as

成功地將藝術展覽及教育活動常態化地推廣至鄰近社區、公園

the Executive Director of the Museum of Contemporary Ar t, Taipei.

及捷運地下街。

He is committed to promoting international relations, introducing various local contemporar y ar t trends to Europe, America, Japan,

Shih Jui-Jen was born in 1954, in Nantou, Taiwan. He received

and Australia. He also aims to promote contemporar y Taiwanese

Bachelor’s degree from the Depar tment of Fine Ar ts at National

ar t exhibitions to Shanghai, Beijing, Venice, and other places. More,

Taiwan Normal University. Went to the United States to study

he successfully endorses ar t exhibitions and educational activities in

Master’s and graduated from the Graduate Institute of Ar t History

neighboring communities, parks, and underground streets in metro

at Temple University (Philadelphia). He was the head and Associate

stations. 287


李錫奇 LEE Shi-Chi

風起、水湧 0965 Rising Wind, Surging Water 2009 Mixed media 120×200cm

288


李錫奇 LEE Shi-Chi

本位淬鋒 2012-1 Root Refinement 2012-1 2012 Mixed media 120×320cm

290


292


李錫奇 LEE Shi-Chi

漢采本位 2014-8 The Elegance of Han Dynasty Oriental 2014-8 2014 Mixed media 100×460cm


294

李錫奇

李錫奇

LEE Shi-Chi

LEE Shi-Chi

漢采本位 2014-9

漢采本位 2014-10

The Elegance of Han Dynasty Oriental 2014-9

The Elegance of Han Dynasty Oriental 2014-10

2014 Lacquer, mixed media 120×120cm

2014 Lacquer, mixed media 120×120cm


李錫奇

李錫奇

LEE Shi-Chi

LEE Shi-Chi

漢采本位 2014-11

漢采本位 2014-12

The Elegance of Han Dynasty Oriental 2014-11

The Elegance of Han Dynasty Oriental 2014-12

2014 Lacquer, mixed media 120×120cm

2014 Lacquer, mixed media 120×120cm

295


李重重 LEE Chung-Chung


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

李重重 1942 年出生於中國安徽

2007

1965

政戰學校藝術系畢業,台北,台灣

1971

於凌雲畫廊水墨舉行個展,台北,台灣

「台灣水墨畫精品展」,東京國立新美術館,東京,日本

1975

於美國文化中心舉行個展,台北,台灣

「第三屆成都雙年展│特別邀請展:水墨新動向-台灣現

1978

於龍門畫廊舉行水墨個展,台北,台灣

代水墨畫展」,成都,中國

1981 1984

「中國現代繪畫趨向展」,賽紐斯基博物館,巴黎,法國 於美國文化中心舉行個展,台北,台灣

「水墨變相-現代水墨在台灣」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣 2008

1985-93 「第一屆至第九屆-亞洲國際美展」,漢城,韓國 1986

1988

於亞洲藝術中心舉行個展,馬利蘭州,美國

1991

於台北市立美術館舉行個展,台北,台灣

1992

於有熊氏藝術中心舉行個展,台北,台灣

1993

「第二屆台北當代水墨雙年展」,台北市立美術館,台北,台灣 2009

「台灣當代藝術創作展」,聖荷西埃及博物館,加州,美國

1990

「中國全國美展」,北京,中國 2011

「百歲百畫-台灣當代畫家邀請展」,國父紀念館中山畫 廊,台北,台灣

於國立歷史博物館舉行個展,台北,台灣

「台北國際藝術博覽會」,新時空文化,台北,台灣 2012

美術館),台中,台灣 1998

「國際水墨大展暨學術研討會」,國父紀念館中山畫廊,

「今日大師與新秀大展-台灣當代抽象藝術新風貌」,巴

2001 2003

於東海大學藝術中心舉行水墨個展,台中,台灣 「亞洲國際美展」,香港,中國 「台灣現代水墨畫展」,北京國家博物館,北京,中國

2004

「台北現代水墨畫」,廣東、青島博物館,中國

2005

「關渡英雄誌台灣現代美術大展」,國立台北藝術大學, 台北,台灣

2006

298

「李重重心象水墨個展」,國父紀念館逸仙藝廊,台北,台灣

「無美不作-李重重現代水墨個展」,藝星藝術中心,台 北,台灣

於國際藝展空間舉行水墨個展,台北,台灣

黎,法國

「李重重現代水墨個展」,新時空文化時空藝術會場,台 北,台灣

「中國現代墨彩畫展」,俄羅斯民族博物館,俄羅斯

「中國現代水墨畫大展」,台灣省立美術館(今國立台灣

「開顯與時變-當代創新水墨藝術展」,台北市立美術館, 台北,台灣

「台北現代水墨畫」,上海美術館,中國 1994

於台南縣立文化中心舉行水墨個展,台南,台灣 於天使美術館舉行水墨個展,台北,台灣

於大家藝術中心舉行個展,台北,台灣 「中國傳統繪畫之新潮流」,凡爾賽宮,巴黎,法國

於國立雲科大藝文中心舉行水墨個展,雲林,台灣

台北,台灣 2013

「墨染心韻-李重重個展」,貝瑪畫廊,台北,台灣 「亞洲國際美術展覽會」,拉加達曼仁當代藝術中心,曼 谷,泰國 「當代中國畫學術論壇暨學術展」,國父紀念館中山畫廊, 台北,台灣 「台灣美術家『刺客列傳』1941-1950 三年級生」,國立 台灣美術館,台中,台灣 「台灣現當代女性藝術五部曲 1930-1983」,台北市立美


CHRONOLOGY | LEE Chung-Chung

術館,台北,台灣 2014

「山水現象-李重重個展」,赤粒藝術,台北,台灣 「跨地域的水墨經驗-上海新水墨藝術大展」,喜瑪拉雅 美術館,上海,中國 「典藏奇遇記-藝享天開詩與樂」,高雄市立美術館,高 雄,台灣 「女人-家:以亞洲女性藝術家之名」,高雄市立美術館, 高雄,台灣 「抽象.符碼.東方情-臺灣現代藝術巨匠大展」,尊彩 藝術中心,台北,台灣

299


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

LEE Chung-Chung 1942

1965

Born in Anhui, China

Graduated from the Depar tment of Fine Ar ts, Fu Hsing Kang

2003

“Asian International Art Exhibition”, Hong Kong, China

College, Taipei, Taiwan

“Taiwan Modern Ink Paintings Exhibition”, National Museum of

1971

Solo exhibition of ink paintings, Ling Yun Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

Beijing, Beijing, China

1975

Solo exhibition, American Cultural Centre, Taipei, Taiwan

1978

Solo exhibition of ink paintings, Lung Men Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

1981

“Exhibition on Trends of Modern Painting”, China Cernuschi Museum,

2004

Guangdong, China 2005

Paris, France 1984

Solo exhibition, American Cultural Centre, Taipei, Taiwan

Solo exhibition, Dachia Art Center, Taipei, Taiwan

“Kuan-Tu Heroes Chronicle – Taiwan Modern Art Exhibition”, Taipei National University of the Arts, Taipei, Taiwan

2006

1985-93 “The 1st-9th Asian International Art Exhibition”, Seoul, Korea 1986

“Taiwan Modern Ink Paintings Exhibition”, Qingdao Ar t Museum,

“Ink Painting of Lee Chung-Chung”, Yat-Sen Gallery of National Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall, Taipei, Taiwan

2007

Solo exhibition of ink paintings, Art Center of Yunlin University of

“New Trends in Chinese Traditional Painting”, Versailles, Paris, France

Science and Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan

“Taiwan Contemporary Creative Ar t Works Exhibition”, San Jose

“Taiwan Ink Painting Treasures Exhibition”, National Ar t Center,

Egyptian Museum, California, USA

Tokyo, Japan

1990

Solo exhibition, Asian Art Centre, Maryland, USA

“The 3rd Chengdu Biennale | Special Invitation – New Trend of

1991

Solo exhibition, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

Contemporar y Ink Painting: Ink Works from Taiwan”, Chengdu

1992

Solo exhibition, H&W Art Centre, Taipei, Taiwan

Contemporary Art Museum, Chengdu, China

1993

“Chinese Modern Ink-and-Color Paintings Exhibition”, Folk Museum

“Ink Transformation – Modern Ink Painting”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum,

of Russia National Museum, Russia

Taipei, Taiwan

1988

“Taipei Modern Ink Paintings Exhibition”, Shanghai Ar t Museum,

1994

Solo exhibition of ink paintings, Angel Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

Solo exhibition, National Museum of History, Taipei, Taiwan

“The 2nd Taipei International Modern Ink Painting Biennial”, Taipei

“Chinese Modern Ink Paintings Exhibition”, Taiwan Provincial Museum of

Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

300

2009

“Open Flexibility: Innovation Contemporary Ink Art”, Taipei Fine Arts

Solo exhibition of ink painting, International Art Exhibition, Taipei, Taiwan

Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

“Exhibition of Wor ks by Today’s Master s and New Talents –

“China Art Exhibition”, Beijing, China

Refreshing Images of Taiwan Contemporar y Abstract Ar t”, Paris,

2001

Solo exhibition of ink paintings, Art Center of Tainan County, Tainan, Taiwan

China

Fine Arts (now National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts), Taichung, Taiwan 1998

2008

2011

Solo exhibition of modern ink paintings, Starts Studio of Spatial &

France

Timing Arts, Taipei, Taiwan

Solo exhibition of ink painting, Tunghai University Ar t Galler y,

“100 Taiwan Contemporary Invitational Exhibition”, Zhongshan Art

Taichung, Taiwan

Gallery of National Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall, Taipei, Taiwan


CHRONOLOGY | LEE Chung-Chung

“Art Taipei 2011”, Starts Studio, Taipei, Taiwan 2012

Solo exhibition of ink paintings, Star Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan “International Ink Painting Exhibition and Symposium”, Zhongshan Art Gallery of Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall, Taipei, Taiwan

2013

“L’encre de Chine, Chant du Coeur – Solo Exhibition of Ink Paintings”, Pemalamo Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan “Asian International Art Exhibition”, Contemporary Art Center LAC Dammam, Jen, Bangkok, Thailand “Contemporary Chinese Painting Academic Forum and Academic Exhibition”, Zhongshan Art Gallery of Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall, Taipei, Taiwan “The Pioneers of Taiwanese Ar tist, 1941-1950”, National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts, Taichung, Taiwan “Women Adventurers: Five Eras of Taiwanese Art 1930-1983”, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taipei, Taiwan

2014

“Landscape Impressions – Solo Exhibition of Ink Paintings”, Red Gold Fine Art, Taipei, Taiwan “On-site: Cross-contextual Ink Art Experience – Parallel Exhibition of Shanghai New Ink Painting Ar t Exhibition”, Shanghai Himalayas Museum, Shanghai, China “Marvelous Encounters in the Collection: On Wings of Music and Poetry”, Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Arts, Kaohsiung, Taiwan “Women – Home: In the Name of Asian Female Artists”, Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Arts, Kaohsiung, Taiwan “Abstract / Symbol / Oriental – Exhibition of Taiwan's Masters of Modern Art”, Liang Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan

301


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

墨染新韻詩迴旋 視讀李重重的現代水墨世界 文

廖潤珮

« Une âme est plus grande qu’un monde. » Victor Hugo, Les Contemplations 一個人的靈魂比大千世界更遼闊-雨果《冥想》

色彩飽和鮮明、線條變化豐富、畫面瀟灑奔放,迥異於大眾對 水墨畫的印象,李重重的現代抽象水墨具飛揚生命力的律動跳 脫沉重傳統,以自然流線的構圖宣示強烈個人風格。在具象與 抽象超出物形間悠然游走,時而飄然純淨,時而蓊鬱深沉,在 墨色與留白之間,邀請觀者進入詩意的自由想像空間。面對創 作執著堅持、淡然態定,李重重在現代抽象水墨的指標性意義 與創作地位已不容置疑。創作是不斷激盪自己,在永遠的質疑 中迷失與冒險,也在尋找與實驗中找到自我。立體派畫家喬治. 布拉克(Georges Braque, 1882-1963)說過,科學讓人感到安 全,但藝術的存在是為了顛覆。李重重帶來的就是某種顛覆:

走出個人的路成為宣示自我的一種必然,現代抽象水墨也彷彿 迎接解放的新時代女性,以自信沉穩與堅定勇敢邁開步伐,放 302

LEE Chung-Chung

李重重筆下有個人風格的奔放快意與灑脫豪邁,掙脫傳統束縛

Realm of Fancy

跨文化世紀的東西方現代對話

2014

術的傳奇。

122×122cm

的自信自覺中向浩瀚多彩的世界開放,以現代之姿再現墨韻藝

Ink and color on paper

筆觸顛覆傳統技法與印象而獨樹一格。或實驗或探索,在東方

李重重 逸境

在男性主導的水墨領域中以女性之身卻自由豪放而大器不羈的


ESSAY | The Poetics and Echoes of New Ink Art A Visual Interpretation of LEE Chung-Chung’s Modern Ink Painting

Contemplation of Time

李重重 LEE Chung-Chung 歲月的沈思

2013

69×70cm

Ink and color on paper

具象、抽象、心象,彩潤空靈萬象 加 斯 東. 巴 舍 拉(Gaston Bachelard,1884-1962) 說 過 :「 如 果 沒有影像的改變、影像間令人意外的結合,就沒有想像力的活 動」。由寫實走入半具象,在轉化思想內涵的觀念下,抽象入 畫中有自然為吾一體,造化為師的想法,外內在、天與人之間 並無衝突。現代主義的黑太陽,波特萊爾(Charles Baudelaire, 1821-1867)認為崇高卓越必須棄絕細節,藝術為追求完美能 回歸到最原始狀態,因為在選擇前必須已經內化擁有,重要的 不在模仿,而在以簡單與燦爛高明的語彙重新詮釋。有一些觸 及人心的感動可以是亙古不變的。波特萊爾在詩集《惡之華》 的一首詩〈萬物照應〉(Correspondances)中嘗試解釋人與物 之間、不同感官間的相互關聯。詩人看的見敏感的世界,以特 手走出自己的人生。鍾情水墨創作,熟悉表達工具,由原來與

殊的情感審視不同的創作語言卻有共通之處的藝術領域。大自

畫家父親情感聯繫的視覺語言中,她體會在西方先進的表現技

然是殿堂,我們穿梭在列柱間以熟悉的眼光尋找象徵。精神感

法與語彙下,水墨傳統或書法用筆中其實也存在類似與無限發

官在五感六覺中運轉遊移,在審美的觀想中,不同的官能感覺

揮的空間。長年實踐獨特畫風,不論是學習融合的蛻變期,墨

在想像世界中結合、對流。藝術中的感應如空氣中流動的芬芳、

色為主調的墨韻期,或是潑墨、拓墨、自動技法與多重材質和

如視覺辨識下的色彩、如詩韻抒情的律動節奏、如音樂的音調

諧混搭的多元期,一步一腳印的琢磨洗練,李重重持續在探索

旋律都可互相呼應。

中追求突破,在水墨畫中自成一格。 由內在感性結構中的觀念交感共通、相互影響以呼喚形象之外 在現代觀念引導下領悟線條美可以勝形象美,抽象美也能超越

的感覺,是為了達到藝術重新整合詮釋、追求直覺昇華的最高

相似美,偶然與不經意的現象與效果也認真影響她面對水墨創

境界與理想的實驗美學。閱讀修養、觀想品味、直覺本能的磨

作 的 態 度。 她 希 望 能 夠 汲 古 潤 今, 引 西 潤 中, 透 過 個 人 擁 有

練也都影響作品的內涵深度、創造力與想像力。水墨畫傳統本

的藝術語言將自我悟性移入作品,在內在摸索與空靈轉化中也

具備深度的人文思考,天地一體的抒情畫景在詩、書、畫的結

尋求書畫鍛鍊修心的啟示。在不求形式與流派的水墨中展現自

合中詮釋反映畫家的心景情懷。觀山臨水、畫物寫情、而屬於

由之應用變化與本我覺醒,以自身宇宙觀的特質尋求詮釋世界

老莊的物我轉換與幻化、變與不變之間的心靈狀態,主體、客

性。在創作中透過追求自我與自由意識捕捉心靈觀念的內涵,

體相融互容的狀況也像夢蝶與魚我間的互換。有容乃大,自由

在畫中有詩、物我兩忘的水墨層次與空靈氣韻的筆情意趣中傳

的心境也自然在抽象中筆染詩意詮釋萬象。李重重相信觀察的

達 思考,在多變與傳神的抽象審美中理出超越時空的美學。在

過程影響畫 法,點、線、面與四面八方的觀察在眼、心、手的

現代抽象表現畫風中,展現個人用色、構圖與表達方式,以東

流程中,也從抽象藝術的經驗發展另一境界的自我呈現,物隨

方的筆觸重新詮釋文化激盪下的省思。

心,萬境轉。 303


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

佈局、寫意、氣韻,濃淡氣勢磅薄

看似瀟灑的畫面其實與草書一樣必須有潛沉、醞釀的準備過程,才能在構圖 上一氣呵成,一手一筆重塑天地。完成速度可以驚人,但卻是思考縝密之後

比效果,在傳統延展出的現代中穿梭遊走,揮灑自如中,筆也出入古今在空 靈氣魄上用心開拓水墨格局。韻律輕盈變動之間,可以動如脫兔,可以靜如 處子。在現代的線條裏再現大自然,沒有過多的矯情華麗,澎湃流轉的線條 與點染間,旨趣也能寬廣無限。

在點染、破潑、勾勒中,陰柔與陽剛同時內化也傳達了東方藝術中的收與放。 水墨表達許多東方特有的氣蘊特質,如同李重重的筆觸在彷彿安然恬適看似 含蓄靜默與婉約的表象下,也同時擁有狂熱奔放、隨時可能爆發的自由生命 力。筆下看似溫潤纖細柔情似水的墨色,卻在運籌帷幄的力道中可以陽剛大 氣,可以一寫心中無限丘壑,可以兼容並蓄與詮釋開展微觀與宏觀的宇宙。 在線與面的結構中,李重重尋覓以水墨筆觸與壓克力彩滲透的淡墨變化,透 過抽象效果詮釋生命的能量,由抽象經驗去發展已將自我心境融合於天地之 間縱情發揮的獨立境界。墨色對比強調其他色彩的炫麗,然而虛白則是必要 的呼吸與沉澱,是飽滿後需要的休養生息。那是屬於東方傳統美學特有的想 像靈視空間,想像力創造世界也同時駕馭這個世界。水墨在抽象表達影響中 的空靈墨韻和意境變化與思考內涵有其特有的視覺語言,也能再顯人性關懷 的思維與心靈共鳴。 304

Sentient Beings

在紙上空間婆娑迴旋,表達現代心象美感的神秘密碼。重墨營造視覺上的對

2003

的律動,有輕盈透明的帶過。筆墨之間,心寫詩韻,層層意境下墨趣重重,

45×35cm

面執手,恣意翩然起舞;率性與風情起伏,點點步伐輕重劃落,有鮮明瑰麗

Ink and color on paper

放手自由,是技法成熟後的自然與胸有成竹。在李重重的世界裡,線條與畫

李重重 LEE Chung-Chung 有情眾生

的豪放。掌握傳統技法與訓練純熟穩固的根基上,在潑墨與拓印之間也可以


ESSAY | The Poetics and Echoes of New Ink Art A Visual Interpretation of LEE Chung-Chung’s Modern Ink Painting

賦在筆端 – 墨彩還未畫完詩情故事 ...

藝術將個人故事解放轉化為自由,藝術是種反抗命運的反骨。從許多女性創 作者身上,我們都可看到一種在自身條件與實際大環境裡交戰、共存的必要 Mind Stroll 1

2013

69×70cm

Ink and color on paper

李重重 LEE Chung-Chung 心靈的散步之一

自覺與剛柔並濟的堅毅特質,那也是身為女性必須在生活中兼顧一切與踏實 前進的敏感度,如果畫畫是一輩子的事,創作就該是隨遇而安,時時立命又 永遠調整步伐的生活超越。以女性敏感之柔察物反思以見樸真,在鮮麗明亮 與動靜皆美的墨彩中,李重重深信藝術應該與生活結合,為人生帶來快樂喜 悅也同時融入個人行動與美學品味的實踐體現。

在傳統文人世界中,詩書琴棋畫全面思考的創作本是種自然的有感而發,是 人與天地,是大千世界幻化轉換為小宇宙的抒懷;而水墨就是人文生活中的 詩情妙趣。創作是發現的過程,在體驗與感受品味中取材生活的多元,藝術 的力量也在於驅使我們想去挖掘汲盡它的源源不絕。動人心弦的美需透過生 命內涵與熱情經驗的淬煉沉澱,在創造自我風格獨樹一幟的同時也撫慰感動 大眾。在彩筆渲染中揮灑生命豪情,從創作分享中表達內心繾綣意念,百轉 千迴中墨韻情牽人間,李重重在對生活與創作的愛中找到平衡,在相互呼應 與共生共存的理想中成就圓融戲墨人生。延續傳統,嘗試創新,在其現代風 格中水墨也透過國際繪畫視覺語言推介蘊含東方哲理的美學意境,給予世界 精神空間與藝術領域的新可能性,生命的旋音繼續在詩韻墨彩中舞迴旋 ...

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Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

The Poetics and Echoes of New Ink Art A Visual Interpretation of LEE Chung-Chung’s Modern Ink Painting Written by

LIAO Jun-Pei

A man’s soul is more grand than the ten thousand realms. Victor Hugo (The Contemplations)

Saturated and bright hues, volatile and exuberant lines, bold and free arrangements contribute to non-conventional ink impressions. Lee Chung-Chung’s modern abstract ink paintings exhibit a soaring dynamic rhythm that confronts the confines of tradition to claim a personal signature using spontaneous flowing lines. Between tangible and intangible objects and subjects, an exploration beyond imageries exercises a drifting pureness and lush profoundness. Between ink dyes and blank spaces, audiences are invited into an unrestricted poetic

Braque (1882-1963) once expressed that although science guarantees a sense of security, the purpose of ar t is to subver t. What Lee ChungChung strives to produce is a form of disruption in the ink painting categor y dominated by male counterpar ts. Underlying her visionar y ar t manifested in unrestrained and daring strokes is a femininity, which undermines conventional techniques and popular impressions. Whether experimental or expeditional, her Oriental consciousness adopts a modern global approach to represent the grand ink heritage. 306

LEE Chung-Chung

as a quest and exploration to find one’s identity. Cubism ar tist Georges

Vitality

motivated inspirations, an indulgence in ignorance and chance, as well

李重重 生機

and pur suit to depict the inexplicable . Aesthetic creations are

2010

modern abstract ink ar t circle is grounded on her zeal for challenges

35×45cm

evident. Lee Chung-Chung’s established influence and prestige in the

Ink and color on paper

space. His persistent and relaxed approach to creative practice is


ESSAY | The Poetics and Echoes of New Ink Art A Visual Interpretation of LEE Chung-Chung’s Modern Ink Painting

Cross-Cultural and Centennial Modern Dialogue of the Orient and the West By using bold and free style Lee Chung-Chung strives to discard doctrines and build an individual path as a form of self-declaration. The ar tist appears to emancipate a new generation of woman through modern and abstract ink ar t and progresses fearlessly to a promising future with confidence and perseverance. Lee Chung-Chung favors ink ar t, because the alternative visual reper toire is the most familiar expression and represents a symbolic paternal band. In addition to a strong emotional affiliation, her master y of advanced Western techniques and terminology has also led to a discover y of the unlimited possibilities present in traditional ink painting and calligraphy. Whether in the stage of metamorphosis valuing integrated learning, the period of ink rhyme featuring ink dyes, or the era of diversity highlighting the use of ink splashes, printmaking, automatic techniques, mixed media, and creative combinations, step by step, Lee Chung-Chung endeavors to establish unique signatures of her own and continues to make breakthroughs in trial experiments to foster personal trademarks.

Under the influence of Modernism, Lee Chung-Chung comprehends the aesthetic value of line over form, as well as abstract over real. The occasional random

LEE Chung-Chung

White Dew

2013

69×69cm

Ink and color on paper

李重重 白露

and unintended conditions and effects have tremendously transformed her attitude toward ink works. She hopes to incorporate classic adaptations into contemporaneity and infuse Oriental disposition with Western techniques through a personal aesthetic discourse to adopt an introspective character, engaging in inward explorations and spiritual metamorphoses, as well as mental cultivation from ar t education. Disregarding the formality and fads of ink ar t to demonstrate the application and evolution of free will and self-awareness, the ar tist uses a subjective universalism to identify and analyze worldliness. Through creative practices, she seizes the nature of mentality by depicting the self and free will. Ink illustrations of poetry and intersubjectivity, as well as the witty strokes of spiritual intelligence convey the Nirvana, and an aestheticism beyond temporal and spatial limitations is inspired by abstract ar t which discards design and realism. Through modern and abstract expressions, an Oriental approach is thus selected to reinterpret ar t stimulated by philosophical thinking. 307


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

LEE Chung-Chung

Spring's Arrival

李重重 春臨

2013

69×69cm

Ink and color on paper

Concrete, Abstract, Mental Delineations of All

Interweaving concepts derived from an inner sensibility mutually

Intelligent Creations

reflect and influence, and evoke sensations beyond impressions to attain an exper imental aestheticism which pr ior itizes re-

Gaston Bachelard (1884-1962) has said: “Without changes in

integrated aesthetic interpretations and a sublime intuition in its

impressions, and astounding collages of imageries, imagination

most advanced state and vision. The ar tist’s daily training in reading,

would be rendered functionless.” Recognized as the Dark Sun of

cultivation, contemplation, taste, intuition, and instinct affect the

Modernism, Charles-Pierre Baudelaire defines sublime as an omission

nature, depth, creativity, and imagination of practice. Humanistic

of frivolous details to allow the ar tistic pur suit of perfection

thinking already prevails in the Chinese ink ar t tradition. Poetic

return to the most pristine state because prior to selection, the

sentiments and presentation of a heaven and Ear th unity is explored

internationalization process should be implemented. Instead of

in the inter textuality of poetry, literature, and painting to interpret

stressing simulation, the focus should be on a re-interpretation of a

and project the ar tist’s mindscape. Obser vations of mountains

simple yet complex reper toire. Inspired hear ts make impact on an

and water and painting of subjects and sentiments, the rotation

enduring principle. In the poem Correspondances from “Les fleurs du

and illusion of objects and subjects exhibited in the teachings of

mal,” Charles-Pierre Baudelaire (1821-1867) strives to denote the

Laozi and Zhuangzi, and the mental state between dynamism and

interconnectivity and correspondences among subjects and objects,

staticism, the conversing and merging of subjectivity and objectivity

and distinct sensual experiences. Poets perceive a sentimental world

resemble the butterfly dream and fish-subject mutation. A mental

using a peculiar sensibility to interrogate the multitude of creative

realm, which encapsulates the concept of mass, is more and an

expressions yet discern a universal ground in the creative industries.

unleashed state casually delineates all creations in the strokes

Nature is a shrine, allowing individuals to stroll along the pillars in

and poetics of abstract ar t. Lee Chung-Chung firmly believes the

search of familiar symbols. Spirit and senses function and travel in

effects of the contemplation process on techniques: from point, line,

sensual experiences; by contemplating aesthetics, different faculties

plane, to an omnipresent aspect regarding the application of eyes,

and perceptions unite and interact in the world of fancy. Through

mind, and hands, an abstract aesthetics is developed to illustrate

aesthetic dialogues, the intuitions resemble an enchanting airy flow,

an alternative personal por trait, showcasing how mind constructs

a visually differentiated color spectrum, beats and rhythms in rhymes

forms and conditions external realities.

and lyrics, with corresponding tunes and melodies. 308


ESSAY | The Poetics and Echoes of New Ink Art A Visual Interpretation of LEE Chung-Chung’s Modern Ink Painting

Perceiving Cries of Nature 2

李重重 LEE Chung-Chung 傾聽大地之聲二

2013

90×90cm

Ink and color on paper

Firmness and Lightness Presented Through

Dye dots, ink splashes, outlines, as well as the simultaneous

Composition, Impression, Disposition

internalization of feminine and masculine elements convey the opening and closing of Oriental Aesthetics. Ink ar t expresses the

Similar to cur sive calligraphy, bold arrangements require deep

temperament and qualities of the Orient. As demonstrated in Lee

and contemplative preparations to achieve a sense of unity and

Chung-Chung’s painting, a wild passion bursting with dynamism lies

continuity to re-fabricate Heaven and Ear th stroke by stroke.

beneath a serene and seemingly implicit and gentle exterior. Strokes

Achieved through careful planning, the rapid execution shows

with moist and tender hues build a masculinity exercised through

unrestr ained motions. An unrestr icted play using splash ink

firm grips to por tray range impressions, as well as correspond,

and printmaking is grounded on the master y of conventional

interpret, and develop a micro and macro universe. Within the

instruments and disciplines to attain a natural and solid maturity.

structure of lines and planes, Lee Chung-Chung utilizes ink textures

Lee Chung-Chung’s creative concepts are presented through

and acrylic colors to permeate ink transformations by depending on

fluttering lines and compositions: the carefree disposition and

abstract effects to manifest life’s vitality: an independent condition

emotional intensities carried out in tiny steps and soft and solid

indulged in and inspired by abstract practices nur tures a unity of

strokes are exemplified in vivid and lovely vibes with a gentle and

self and state amidst Heaven and Ear th. Heightened ink shades

translucent charm. Between ink strokes and poetic presentations,

highlight radiating colors and blank spots crucial for creating a space

layered impressions of ink ingenuity twirling on paper exhibit a

for breathing and contemplating, similar to the notion of cessation

modernistic mental and aesthetic encr yption. Employing intelligent

follows saturation. One of the features of traditional Oriental

strokes beyond the framework of ink painting, the stark contrast

aesthetics is a fictional space in which imagination constr ucts

of solid ink visual designs is fostered from traditions to create a

and dictates forms. The evolution and philosophy of ink grandeur

sense of modernism and navigates unrestrictedly. The splendor

and impressions under the influence of abstract expressions

of an arbitrar y lightness encompasses the nimbleness of a rabbit

have a unique visual language. The visual reper toire distinct in

and quietness of a virgin. Modern lines represent nature without

ink expressions can also represent the philosophical humanistic

extravaganzas and surging and flowing ink lines and dots aim to

concerns and shared reflections.

exemplify a brilliant originality.

309


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

Brushes of Long Verses – A Poetic Tale of Ink Impressions to be Continued... Ar t is a subversive resistance against fate. Some female creative workers must combat and coexist with personal conditions and the environment in life to nourish perseverance built on self-awareness and a gentle firmness. Such is a sensitivity achieved through an all-embracing and steady progress essential to woman’s life. The ar tist deems creative practice an unmediated condition and effect, approaching it with ease yet always making adjustments to the pace of life to overcome dilemmas. The ar tist’s soft and intuitive feminine insight produces a sense of simplicity and creativity. Por trayed in the glamour and aesthetic dynamism and staticism evident in her ink trademarks, Lee Chung-Chung firmly believes that ar t should coexist harmoniously with life, and bring joy and pleasure. Ar t should also be adapted to life, as well as executed and exercised through personal actions and aesthetic tastes.

sentiments. The state of sublime visible in ar t and love fuels mankind to excavate unlimited inspiration. Enchanting tunes require contemplations on the essence, enthusiasm, and experience of life through manufacturing personal trademarks as well as aspiring to calm and motivate the public. Vibrant colorful strokes paint a daring dynamism and ar tworks share lingering longings, seizing twists of ink charm to project secular sentiments. Lee Chung-Chung seeks to maintain equilibrium in her love for life and creation and fulfill a theatrical life on paper in a corresponding and coexisting vision. Carr ying on the heritage, the ar tist aims to cultivate a per sonalized modern style using a global visual reper toire to introduce the philosophy and aesthetics of Oriental thinking. Ink ar t offers the world explorations beyond spiritual potentials and creative realms. The enduring lyrics of life, and poetry’s engagement with ink colors continues to echo on Ear th...

310

Cloud Encounters Mountain

savoring life’s heterogeneity in a perceptual cycle of experiences and affiliated

李重重 LEE Chung-Chung 雲與山的相遇

Ink ar t seizes the originality of a liberal life. Creation is a process of discover y,

2014

and delineates an illusion of ten thousand realms evolving into a petit universe.

91×120cm

education is casual and spontaneous, projects a unity of Man and Heaven and Ear th,

Ink on paper

In the literati tradition, a creative approach achieved through a holistic humanities


About the Critic | LIAO Jun-Pei

藝評 簡介

廖潤珮 LIAO Jun-Pei 廖潤珮,巴黎大學比較文學博士,政治大學歐語系暨淡江大學 法 文 系 兼 任 助 理 教 授; 主 修 法 國 二 十 世 紀 文 學、 比 較 文 學、 跨文化研究。出版著作有《法國文學之中華世界:1895 年- 1995 年之百年影響》等多篇法語學術論文,散文《薔薇的故 事》,翻譯作品《文化多元性與全球化》、《羅浮宮導覽》、 藝術賞析作品《墨染新韻詩迴旋-李重重畫集 / 山水現象》、 《差異與不同,美麗新世界 / 耿晧剛創作集 4》等。

Liao Jun-Pei obtained PhD degree in comparative literature from the University of Paris. She is a Adjunct Assistant Professor at National Chengchi and Tamkang Universities. Liao specializes in 20th-century French literature, comparative literature and cross-cultural studies. Her publications include: academic paper in French L'Univers Chinois dans la Littérature Française de 1895-1995, essays The Story of Rose, Chinese translation of the Diversite Culturelle et Mondialisation, A Toure of the Louvre, books on ar t appreciation Landscape Impressions 2014, The Difference Between – What a New World, and other writings on ar t.

311


李重重 LEE Chung-Chung

白露 White Dew 2013 Ink and color on paper 69×69cm

312


李重重 LEE Chung-Chung

春臨 Spring's Arrival 2013 Ink and color on paper 69×69cm

313


李重重 LEE Chung-Chung

傾聽大地之聲二 Perceiving Cries of Nature 2 2013 Ink and color on paper 90×90cm

314


李重重 LEE Chung-Chung

山影凍 Frozen Mountain Shadows 2014 Ink and color on paper 90×90cm

315


李重重 LEE Chung-Chung

雲與山的相遇 Cloud Encounters Mountain 2014 Ink and color on paper 90×120cm

316


李重重 LEE Chung-Chung

景 View 2003 Ink and color on paper 212×255cm

317


總年表

Chronology


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

1965

戰後台灣現代藝術發展年表 1945-2014

1966

國立故宮博物院遷至外雙溪,並開始公開展覽 第一屆「現代藝術季」於台北舉行 「畫外畫會」於台北成立

1967

「UP 展」於國立台灣藝術館舉行

台灣文化協會成立

1946

台灣文化協進會舉辦「美術座談會」

1947

台北、新竹、台南各師範學校同時成立藝術師範科

1968. The 11th Ton Fan Group Exhibition (back row from right to left: Lee Shi-Chi, Lee Wen-Han, Hsi De-Jin, Wu Hao, Chung Chiun-Hsiung; back row from right to left: Chu Wei-Bor, Chin Sung, Huang Jun-Se)

1945

第一屆「台灣省全省美術展」於台北市中山堂揭幕 1948

台陽美協恢復活動,並舉行光復後之首屆「台陽展」 1971

「青雲美展」於台北舉行 1950

「中國文藝協會」在台北市中山堂舉行成立大會,下設美術委員會 「新竹美術研究會」成立

1972

首屆「長流畫展」

「美術研究班」於台北市漢口街成立

1973

「東南美術會」成立 「油畫學會」成立

1974

「現代畫聯展」於台北中山堂舉行,並發表宣言

1953

膠彩畫家組成「長流畫會」

「高雄美術研究會」成立 「台南美術研究會」成立

1975

「第一屆現代中國美展」舉行

1977

「中國攝影學會」成立

1978

《藝術家》雜誌創刊 省立博物館及中華版畫美術教育協會合辦「中外當代版畫家聯展」 「中華民國空間藝術協會」成立 「午馬畫會」成立

「台灣南部展覽會」於高雄舉辦 1979

「中國藝苑」組成,開渡海名家在民間傳授書畫之先河

雄獅美術社舉辦「展望省展新紀元座談會」 「中華民國造形藝術教育學會」成立

「中部美術協會」成立

1956

1979. Lee Shi-Chi at Printmakers Gallery, planning “The 1st Contact Exhibition” (from left to right: Ku Chung-Kuang, Lee Shi-Chi, Wu Hao, Chen Cheng-Hsiung, Hsu Kun-Cheng, Hsieh Hsiao-Te, Yang HsingSheng, Chu Wei-Bor, Chen Ting-Shih, Chen Shu-Ming)

原行動美協(Mouve)成員組「紀元美術會」 國立歷史博物館開幕,並成立國家畫廊 「東方畫會」成立 「巴西聖保羅藝術雙年展」首度向台徵求現代作品,由國立歷史 博物館主辦 1957

國立台灣藝術館成立 「五月畫會」成立,並於台北中山堂舉行首次展覽 第五屆五月畫展 陽路新聞大樓 年五月於台北衡 1961

1958

The 5th Fifth Moon Group Exhibition in 1961 at Taipei News Building on Hengyang Road 東方畫展於臺北新聞大樓 1957 Ton Fan Group Exhibition at Taipei News Building, 1957

首屆「東方畫展」於台北市新聞大樓舉行

1960

畫界人士籌組「現代藝術學會」,第三度向內政部提出申請 屏東縣中正藝術館落成,為本省各縣市文化中心首先完成者 1981

1964

「中國現代水墨畫會」成立

「行政院文化建設委員會」成立 「中華水彩畫家協會」成立 首屆「亞太藝術教育會議」於台北舉行,共 15 國參加 「台灣省膠彩畫學會」成立

1982

立法院通過《文化資產保存法》 「中國現代畫學會」成立

中國現代藝術中心於國立歷史博物館籌備舉辦「現代藝術展」 「中國美術協會」成立

320

藝術歸鄉運動在中部、南部和東部持續一個月的活動

「中國現代版畫會」成立

1961

台北市市長李登輝支持新象舉辦之「國際藝術節」 「南部藝術家聯盟」成立

中美文化協會辦「現代中美版畫展」於台北新聞大樓,後被 追認為第一屆現代版畫展

1959

1980

年,李錫奇於版畫家畫廊策劃「第 1979 一接觸聯展」時合影(左起:顧重光、 李錫奇、吳昊、陳正雄、許坤成、謝孝 德、楊興生、朱為白、陳庭詩、陳世明)

1954

雄獅美術社舉辦「台省美展座談會」 「中華民國油畫學會」成立

教育廳創辦「台灣全省學生美展」 1952

「第一屆全國版畫展」舉行 「中華民國雕塑學會」成立

依國際慣例,定三月廿五日為美術節 1951

年, 第 十 一 屆 東 方 畫 會( 後 1968 排 右 起 : 李 錫 奇、 李 文 漢、 席 德 進、 吳 昊、 鐘 俊 雄 : 前 排 右 起 : 朱 為白、秦松、黃潤色)

「不定型畫展」於台北文星畫廊舉行

「台北新藝術聯盟」、「夔藝術聯盟」、「台北當代畫會」、「一〇一 現代藝術群」、「現代眼畫會」、「笨鳥藝術群」分別成立 1983

副總統謝東閔提出「環境與雕塑」計劃


CHRONOLOGY

台北市立美術館主辦「東方美術與現代藝術研討會」 「中華民國畫廊協會」成立 《文化藝術獎助條例》完成立法 省美館推出「40 年來台灣地區美術發展研究」 1993

尊彩藝術中心成立 文建會策劃的《環境與藝術叢書》由藝術家出版社發行

1981 年,國際知名藝術家蔡文穎來台訪問,藝文界朋友於版畫家畫 廊聚餐。後排右起:侯平治、古月、何政廣、朱為白、李錫奇:後 排左起:蕭勤、韓湘寧、夏陽、李祖原:前排右起:楚戈、陳正雄、 陳長華、蔡文穎、席德進

「亞洲藝術博覽會」設台灣館,台灣 7 家畫廊參展 文建會與雄獅圖書公司共同出版《家庭美術館前輩美術家叢書》 1994

文建會編列一億元的經費,執行公共藝術示範案 台北市立美術館主辦「當代美術館的角色、功能與應用國際 學術研討會」 文建會策劃主辦「台北國際陶瓷博覽會」

1995

台北市立美術館召開首度的「典藏制度公聽會」 文建會召開會議,討論《國立文化資產保存研究中心組織條 例》草案 文建會第一個附屬單位「國立傳統藝術中心」籌備處成立

台北市立美術館正式開館 1984 1985 1986

「中華民國水墨藝術學會」成立 國立故宮博物院成立現代館 「南台灣新藝術風格畫會」成立 國立故宮博物院舉辦「當代藝術嘗試展」 「財團法人國家文化藝術基金會」成立

「第一屆畫廊博覽會」在福華沙龍舉行,由 15 家畫廊和雜誌社合辦 1997

台灣省立美術館(今國立台灣美術館)正式成立 1987

「公眾建築藝術基金會」由行政院核准成立

於國立歷史博物館舉行「第一屆亞太地區博物館館長會議」

台北市立美術館宣布籌設專室,定期陳列台灣前輩美術家畫作 1989

1998

「華山藝文特區」成立

「國立台灣藝術教育館」主編之《美育》月刊創刊 1999 2000

《中國美術全集》60 冊由錦繡出版公司在台出版

尊彩藝術中心應中國文化部邀請至中國北京參加「二十世紀 台北縣鶯歌陶瓷博物館開館 「台灣美術百年回顧學術研討會」由文建會主辦

申請立案,資深畫家楊三郎當選第一屆理事長 楊英風受全國學生聯盟委託製作「野百合花」大型雕塑,作

2001

為學生運動的精神象徵

2005

國立藝術學院關渡美術館開館 《台灣藝術經典大系》出版 「全省美展 」第六十屆展出後,宣告結束

「中華民國博物館學會」成立 「五月畫會紀念展」於龍門畫廊舉行

2007

國立成功大學博物館開館

《文化藝術發展條例草案》舉行首次公聽會

2008

台北市立美術館與上海雙年展、 廣州三年展首度串連合作

2010

藝術家出版《台灣美術全集》第一卷 Young ar tists were seeking to throw off the shackles of the system of the 60s. Taipei artists jointly launched the “Modern Artists Group” at Taipei Botanical Garden

在 60 年代的封閉體制下,青年畫家 們 為 突 破 時 代 枷 鎖, 台 北 畫 家 發 起 聯 合 組 織「 現 代 藝 術 家 聯 盟 」 於 臺 北植物園

1992

「台灣省立美術館」名銜變更為「國立台灣美術館」 中國油畫展」

雄獅圖書公司出版《一九九○台灣美術年鑑》,並於每年陸續出版 台陽美協以「中華民國台陽美術協會」為名,正式向內政部

1991

尊彩藝術中心開始出版台灣前輩畫家《藏寶圖》系列 「台中 20 號倉庫」開放

《台灣美術》月刊創刊 蕭瓊瑞〈戰後台灣美術文獻編年 1950-1970〉載於《炎黃藝術》

1990

尊彩藝術中心舉行「陳澄波與陳碧女紀念畫展」 《藝術教育法》三讀通過

國內第一本藝術學年刊《藝術學》創刊 1988

臺北武昌街明星咖啡屋

1996

At Taipei's Bright Star coffee shop on Wuchang street

李仲生與現代眼畫會 1983 Lee Chun-Shan with members of the “Modern Eyes Association” in 1983

1981. Internationally renowned ar tist Cai Wen-Ying visits Taiwan. Ar tists gathering at Printmakers Gallery. Back row from right to left: Hou Ping-Chi, Ku Yueh, He Zheng-Guang, Chu Wei-Bor, Lee Shi-Chi; back row from left to right: Hsiao Chin, Han Hsiang-Ning, Hsia Yan, Lee Chu-Yuan; front row from right to left: Chu Ko, Chen Cheng-Hsiung, Chen Chan-Hua, Tsai Wen-Ying, His De-Jin.

「中華民國畫廊博覽會」開展於台中

尊彩藝術中心展出「璀燦世紀—陳澄波與廖繼春雙個展」 行政院《文化創意產業發展法》發佈施行

2011

台南美術館籌備處決定館址於原台南警察署

2012

文化部成立 蕭瓊瑞《戰後台灣美術史》於《藝術家》雜誌連載

2014

陳澄波百二誕辰東亞巡迴大展開展 蕭瓊瑞策展「抽象.符碼.東方情—臺灣現代藝術巨匠大展」 於尊彩藝術中心展出

321


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

Chronology of the Development of Modern Art in Post-war Taiwan (1945-2014)

1945

“Taiwanese Cultural Association” was established

1961

“Chinese Ar tists Association” was established

1946

“Ar t Forum” was held by the Taiwanese Cultural Association

1964

“Modern Chinese Ink Painting Association” was established

“The 1st Taiwan Provincial Fine Ar ts Exhibition” was held at the

1965

National Palace Museum was moved to Waishuangxi and was opened to public

Taipei Zhongshan Hall

1966

The first “Modern Ar t Festival” was held in Taipei

1947

Teacher’s colleges in Taipei, Hsinchu and Tainan established ar t teachers training program

1948

Tai Yang Ar t Association held the first “Tai Yang Ar t Exhibition” “Exhibition of Artworks by Ching-Yun Art Society” was held in Taipei

1950

“Hwa-Wai Association” was established 1967

“Unshaped Exhibition“ was held at the Wen Hsing Gallery in Taipei 1971

Chinese Ar t Association under the Fine Ar ts Committee held its

“ROC Sculpting Society” was founded 1972

The first exhibition of the “Chang Liu Painting Society” was held

“Hsinchu Ar t Research Association” was established

1973

“Southeast Group” was founded

According to international practice, Art Festival was held on March 25th

“Oil Painting Society” was established 1974

“Modern Painting Exhibition” was held at the Taipei Zhongshan Hall

Gouache painters gathered at the Chang Liu Painting Society

Depar tment of Education

1975

“Ar tist” magazine was publicized

“Kaohsiung Ar t Research Association” was established

1977

Taiwan Provincial Museum and ROC Printmaking Education Association

“Tainan Ar t Research Association” was established 1953

“The 1st Modern Chinese Ar t Exhibition” was held

held the “Exhibition of Modern Prints by Chinese and Foreign Printmakers” 1978

“The Photographic Society of China” was established “Southern Taiwan Exhibition” was held in Kaohsiung

1979

1956

1957

“ROC Plastic Ar ts Education Association” was established 1980

“International Art Festival” was initiated by the Taipei city Mayor Lee Teng-Hui

National Museum of History and National Gallery of Art were opened

“Southern Ar tists’ Alliance” was formed

“Ton Fan Group” was founded

“Ar t Homecoming Movement” spread to central, southern and

Taiwanese modern art for the first time were exhibited at the “São

eastern par ts of the country

Paulo Ar t Biennial”

“Modern Ar t Society” submitted its application to the Ministry of

National Taiwan Museum of Fine Ar ts was founded

Interior for the third time

“Fifth Moon Group” was founded, the first exhibition was held at

Ping Tung Chung Cheng Museum of Ar ts was opened

the Taipei Zhongshan Hall 1958

“Prospect of the Provincial Exhibition of New Era Forum“ was held by the Lion Ar t Society

“Central Taiwan Ar t Association” was established Mouve members initiated the “Era Ar t Association”

“ROC Space Ar t Association” was established “Wu Ma Ar t Group” was founded

China Ar t Gallery was established 1954

“Taiwan Provincial Ar t Forum” was held by the Lion Ar t Society “ROC Oil Painting Association” was established

“Taiwan Provincial Student Ar t Exhibition” was organized by the 1952

“The 1st National Print Exhibition” was held

inaugural meeting at the Taipei Zhongshan Hall “Ar t Research Club” was opened on Hankou street in Taipei City 1951

“UP Exhibition” was held at the National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts

1981

“Council for Cultural Affairs” was established

The first “Ton Fan Group Exhibition” was held at the Taipei News Building

“ROC Watercolor Association” was established

Chinese American Cultural Association organized “Modern

“The 1st Asia-Pacific Ar t Education Conference” with speakers

Chinese and American Print Exhibition” which was held at the

from 15 countries par ticipating in it was held in Taipei

Taipei News Building

“Taiwan Provincial Plastic Ar t Society” was established

1959

“Chinese Modern Printmaking Association” was established

1960

“Modern Ar t Exhibition” was held at the Chinese Modern Ar t

“Chinese Modern Painting Society” was established

Centre and National Museum of History

“ Ta i p e i N e w A r t A l l i a n c e ” , “ K u i A r t A l l i a n c e ” , “ Ta i p e i

322

1982

Cultural Heritage Preser vation Act was legalized


CHRONOLOGY

1983

Contemporary Group”, “101 Modern Ar t Group”, “Modern Eyes

the Council for Cultural Affairs of Executive Yuan and published

Group”, “Ban Niao Ar t Group” were founded

by the Hsiung Shih Ar t Books Co., Ltd.

Vice President Hsieh Tung-Min proposed Environment and

1994

Council for Cultural Affairs set one hundred million dollars to

Sculpture Program

execute a public ar t model case

Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum was officially opened

Conference "The Role and Function of the Contemporar y Fine

1984

“ROC Ink Painting Ar t Association” was established

Ar ts Museums" was held by the Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum

1985

National Palace Museum established a branch to exhibit modern art

”Taipei International Exhibition of Ceramics” was held by the

1986

“Southern Taiwan New Painting Style Group” was founded

Council for Cultural Affairs

“Creating From Tradition: A Taste of Our Modern Ar ts” exhibition

“Public Hearing for Collection System” was held by the Taipei Fine Arts Museum Council for Cultural Affairs held a meeting to discuss the draft of

“The 1st Galler y Exhibition” was organized by 15 galleries and

Organizational Regulations of the Preservation of Cultural Assets

magazines and held at the Howard Salon

for the National Research Center

Taiwan Museum of Ar t (now National Taiwan Museum of Fine 1987

1995

was held at the National Palace Museum

1996

“National Center for Traditional Ar ts” was established by the

Ar ts) was established

Council for Cultural Affairs

“Public Buildings Arts Foundation” was established by the Executive Yuan

“National Culture and Ar ts Foundations” was established

“Study of the Arts”, the first journal on art studies in Taiwan, was publicized

1997

“Chen Cheng-Po and Chen Bih-Neu Memorial Exhibition” was

Taipei Fine Arts Museum announced a plan to set up a special exhibition

held at Liang Gallery

room, and regularly display paintings of the Taiwanese master artists

Arts Education Act was legalized after three readings

1988

“Journal of National Taiwan Museum of Fine Ar ts” was publicized

“The 1st Conference of Directors of National Museum in Asia-

1989

National Taiwan Ar ts Education Center publicized the “Journal of

Pacific” was held by the National Museum of History

Ar ts Education” Hsiao Chong-Ray, was published in the Yan Huang Art Journal

Huashan Creative Park was opened 1999 2000

Yingge Ceramics Museum was opened in New Taipei City

the Interior, and Yang San-Lang was appointed as the first chairman

“The Recollection of a Hundred Years of Taiwanese Ar t Academic

Yang Yu-Yu was commissioned by the National Students‘ Union

Symposium” was held by the Council for Cultural Affairs

to complete sculpture “Lily”, which became a spiritual symbol of

2001

Kuandu Museum of Fine Ar ts was opened

the student movement

2005

“The Prominent Categories of Taiwanese Ar t” was published “Taiwan Provincial Fine Ar ts Exhibition” was held for the last time

“Fifth Moon Group Memorial Exhibition” was held at the Lung

2007

National Cheng Kung University Museum was opened

Men Ar t Gallery

2008

Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum, Shanghai Biennale, and Guangzhou

Culture and Arts Development Bill had its first public hearing “Taiwan Fine Ar ts Series” was published by the Ar tist Publish Co.

Triennial worked in cooperation for the first time 2010

“Chen Cheng-Po and Liao Chi-Chun – Ar t Treasures Exhibition”

“Oriental Ar t and Modern Ar t Seminar” was held by the Taipei

was held at Liang Gallery

Fine Ar ts Museum

“Law for the Development of the Cultur al and Creative

“Taiwan Ar t Gallery Association” was established

Industries” came into force upon promulgation

Culture and Arts Reward Act was legalized

2011

“Taiwan 40 Years Ar t Development Seminar” was held by the National Taiwan Museum of Fine Ar ts 1993

“20th Century Chinese Oil Painting Exhibition“ was held at Liang Gallery

"Tai Yang Art Association" was officially registered at the Ministry of

“The Chinese Museum Association” was founded

1992

Taiwan Provincial Museum of Fines Ar ts was renamed to National Taiwan Museum of Fine Ar ts

“Annual of Ar ts in Taiwan” was published by the Hsiung Shih Ar t Books Co. Ltd.

1991

Painting album “Treasure Map” was published by Liang Gallery Ar t Stock 20 Gallery was opened in Taichung

“Chinese Ar t Collections” was published by the Jin Xiu Press 1990

1998

“A Chronology of Postwar Taiwanese Ar t: 1950-1970”, written by

Preparatory Office of the Tainan Museum of Fine Ar ts conducted a project which includes the former Tainan Police Depar tment

2012

Ministry of Culture was established

Liang Gallery was established

“History of Fine Ar t in Postwar Taiwan”, written by Hsiao Chong-

“Environment and Art: Series of Books” was initiated by the Council for

Ray, was published in the series of magazine “Ar tist”

Culture Affairs of Executive Yuan and published by the Artist Publish Co.

2014

“Chen Cheng-Po’s 120th Birthday Anniversary Touring Exhibition” was held

“ROC Gallery Exhibition” was held in Taichung

“Abstract / Symbol / Oriental – Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of

“Asia Ar t Expo” was set up at the Taiwan Pavilion, 7 Taiwan

Modern Ar t” was held at Liang Gallery

galleries exhibited their works “Family Museum: Master Ar tists. Series of Books” was initiated by 323


文獻回顧

Literature Reviews


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

陳庭詩 CHEN Ting-Shih

Exhibition Catalogue

碩博士論文 2004

林靖文,《陳庭詩藝術之探討》,彰化:大葉大學造形藝術學系碩士

1967

2006

劉國勝,《鋼鐵架構-論陳庭詩鐵雕藝術》,台北:國立台灣藝術大

1990

游原一,《陳庭詩版畫作品研究-以抽象版畫為中心(1963-1999)》,

1991

Cheng Hsuing, Hsu. (Ed.). (1991). The Ar t of Chen Ting-Shih: Sequel. Taichung: Taichung City Cultural Center.

台南:國立臺南藝術大學藝術史學系藝術史與藝術評論碩士論文, 2011。

Chi Chih, Ho. (Ed.). (1990). The Ar t of Chen Ting-Shih. Taichung: Taichung City Cultural Center.

學造形藝術研究所碩士論文,2006。 2011

National Taiwan Ar ts Center Editorial Board (Ed.). (1967). Chen Ting-Shih. Taipei: National Taiwan Ar ts Center.

論文,2004。

1993

National Taiwan Museum of Fine Ar ts Editorial Board (Ed.). (1993). A Retrospective Exhibition of Chen Ting-Shih at 80. Taichung: National Taiwan Museum of Fine Ar ts.

藝評目錄 1970

李錫奇,〈黑色的撞擊者—陳庭詩〉,《幼獅文藝》,第 32 卷第 7 期,

1999

1983

戴維松 (Daniel Davidson) 著,羅青譯,〈天聾地啞論庭詩〉,《中國

2002

楚戈,〈我在—陳庭詩的作品如是說〉,《雄獅美術》,第 282 期,

2005

1999

of Fine Ar ts.

第 104 期,2002 年 10 月。 蕭瓊瑞,〈靜聽天籟.推移大塊—現代繪畫運動中的版畫家陳庭詩〉, 《典藏今藝術》,第 121 期,2002 年 10 月。 2003

陳淑鈴整理,〈大律希音陳庭詩紀念展座談會紀錄〉,《現代美術》,

2007

梅丁衍,〈陳庭詩木刻生涯拾遺〉,《藝術欣賞》,第三卷第五期,

第 106 期,2003 年 2 月。 2007 年 10 月。 畫冊目錄 陳庭詩,《陳庭詩版畫集》,台北:國立台灣藝術館,1967。 許政雄主編,《陳庭詩美術作品集》,台中:台中縣立文化中心, 1990。 1991

何啟志主編,《陳庭詩美術作品集續編》,台中:台中市立文化中心,

1993

台灣省立美術館編輯委員會策劃編輯,《陳庭詩八十回顧展》,台中:

1991。 台灣省立美術館(今國立台灣美術館),1993。 郭木生文教基金會,《陳庭詩鐵雕與現代詩對話》,台北:郭木生文 教基金會,1999。 2002

陳盈瑛執行編輯,《大律希音-陳庭詩紀念展(1915-2002)》,台北: 台北市美術館,2002。

2005

陳庭詩現代藝術基金會,《天問-陳庭詩藝術創作紀念展》,高雄: 高雄市立美術館,2005。

2008

李思賢執行編輯,《晝與夜:陳庭詩版畫中的天地觀》,台中:靜宜 大學藝術中心,2008。

2009

財團法人陳庭詩現代藝術基金會,《出巡Ⅱ-陳庭詩創作校園巡迴紀

2012

蔡昭儀主編,《滿庭詩意:陳庭詩逝世 10 週年紀念展》,台中:國

念展導手冊》,台中:財團法人陳庭詩現代藝術基金會,2009。 立台灣美術館,2012。

326

Zhao Yi ,Tsai (Ed.). (2012). Immersed In Grace: the 10th Anniversar y Memorial Exhibition of Chen Ting-Shih. Taichung: National Taiwan Museum

李美蓉,〈過去、現在、未來—淺論陳庭詩雕塑〉,《現代美術》,

1999

Ear th in the Chen Ting Shih Print-making. Taichung: Providence University. 2012

視窗》,第 40 期,2002 年 6 月。 作品〉,《現代美術》,第 104 期,2002 年 10 月。

1990

Ssu Hsien, Lee. (Ed.). (2008). Day and Night: The Concept of Heaven and

鐘俊雄,〈亙古的鄉愁 , 雋永的詩情—向陳庭詩先生致敬〉,《文化 林柏欣,〈從「心為形役」到「寓形宇內」論陳庭詩來臺之後的版畫

1967

2008

莊喆,〈人間長春樹—談陳庭詩的藝術創作〉,《典藏藝術》,第 84 期,1999 年 9 月。

2002

Ar ts.

鄭功賢,〈大律希音—陳庭詩縱橫現代藝術領域數十年〉,《典藏藝 術》,第 56 期,1997 年 5 月。

Chen Ting-Shih Modern Ar t Foundation (Ed.). (2005). Asking the heaven: Chen Ting-Shih Memorial Exhibition. Kaohsiung: Kaohsiung Museum of Fine

1994 年 8 月。 1997

Ying Yin, Chen. (Ed.). (2002). Chen Ting-Shih (1915-2002): Sound of Rarity. Taipei: Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum.

論壇》,第 16 卷第 12 期,1983 年 9 月。 1994

Kuo Mu-Sheng Foundation Editorial Board (Ed.). (1999). Chen Ting-Shih: Iron Eagle Dialogue With Modern Poetry. Taipei: Kuo Mu Sheng Foundation.

1970 年 7 月。


LITERATURE REVIEWS

楊英風 YANG Yu-Yu

Exhibition Catalogue

碩博士論文 2001

黃英添,《楊英風與朱銘藝術之比較研究》,屏東:屏東師範學院視

1991

2006

徐富騰,《楊英風「現代性」景觀雕塑探究》,台北:國立台灣藝術

1996

許惠敏,《龍鳳緣起—楊英風龍鳳系列之研究》,台南:國立成功大

1997

王心琪,《楊英風佛教雕塑作品研究》,台南:國立成功大學歷史學

1998

Hong Kong: Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Library.

吳靜汸,《圓的神話—楊英風雕塑造形之研究》,台北:國立台灣師 範大學美術學系研究所碩士論文,2010。

2000

Hsinchu: National Chiao Tung University & Yu-Yu Yang Ar t Research Center.

國立台灣師範大學美術學系研究所碩士論文,2010。

National Museum of Histor y Editorial Board (Ed.). (2000). Yu-Yu Yang

士論文,2010。

Special Exhibition: 1961-1977. Taipei: National Museum of History. 2005

Taipei Fine Ar t Museum Editorial Board (Ed.). (2005). Yu-Yu Yang. Taipei: Taipei Fine Ar t Museum.

陳香伶,《楊英風不鏽鋼龍鳳細料作品中天人合一思想之探究》,屏 東:國立屏東教育大學視覺藝術學系研究所碩士論文,2011。

2011

楚戈,〈與楊英風一夕談〉,《幼獅文藝》,第 25 卷第 5 期,1966

2013

Chong Ray, Hsiao (2011). Yu-Yu Yang Corpus Volume 1-30. Taipei: Ar tists Magazine.

藝評目錄 1966

Yu-Yu Yang Ar t Research Center Editorial Board (Ed.). (2000). The beginning.

王維妮,《楊英風景觀雕塑再認識—論公共藝術的精神性》,台北: 陳麗芬,《楊英風景觀雕塑研究》,宜蘭:佛光大學藝術學研究所碩 2011

Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Librar y Editorial Board (Ed.). (1998). Sculpturing time and space: Yu-Yu Yang from 1926 to 1997.

研究所碩士論文,2009。 2010

Hakone Open Air Museum (1997). Lifescape Sculpture of Yu-Yu Yang. Japan: Hakone Open Air Museum.

學歷史學系研究所碩士論文,2011。 2009

Yu-Yu Yang Lifescape Sculpture Museum Editorial Board (Ed.). (1996). The Sculpture of Yu-Yu Yang. Taipei: Yu-Yu Yang Lifescape Sculpture Museum.

大學造形藝術研究所碩士論文,2006。 2007

Hanar t Galler y Editorial Board (Ed.). (1991). Hanar t Galler y Yuyu Yang in stainless steel. Taipei: Hanar t Gallery.

覺藝術教育研究所碩士論文,2001。

年 11 月。 1991

黃玉雲,〈楊英風的雕塑歷程〉,《藝術家》,第 195 期,1991 年 8 月。

1998

黃才郎,〈具現文化面向和思想深度的藝術創作者—雕塑家楊英風先

Ching-Fen, Wu. (Ed.). (2013). Minds Collided: Yu-Yu Yang. Taipei: Yu-Yu Yang Ar t Education Foundation.

生〉,《文化生活》,第 1 卷第 3 期,1998。 2000

高燦榮,〈從楊英風作品「鳳凰來儀」談景觀雕塑〉,《藝術論衡》, 第 6 期,2000 年 12 月。

2004

江如海,〈陳夏雨、楊英風與戰後臺灣現代雕塑的起源〉,《現代美 術學報》,第 7 期,2004 年 5 月。

2005

蕭瓊瑞,〈巨峰巍峨-臺灣美術史上的楊英風〉,《藝術家》,第 364 期,2005 年 9 月。

2006

倪再沁,〈海納百川,大匠無隅:從臺灣雕塑的現代性進展兼論楊英 風、朱銘〉,《新活水》第 5 期,2006 年 3 月。

2007

蕭瓊瑞,〈臺灣近代雕塑的兩次典範轉移-以黃土水和楊英風為例〉, 《台灣美術》,第 68 期,2007 年 4 月。

2008

許峰旗、楊裕富,〈楊英風太魯閣系列與朱銘太極系列之雕塑作品創 作解析〉,《藝術研究學報》,第 1 卷第 2 期,2008 年 10 月。

2010

蕭瓊瑞,〈形象意象 / 意念 / 觀念-楊英風雕塑創作的四個時期〉,《雕 塑研究》,2010 年 3 月。

畫冊目錄 1991

《楊英風不鏽鋼雕塑》,台北:漢雅軒畫廊,1991。

1996

《呦呦楊英風景觀雕塑特展》,台北:楊英風美術館,1996。

1997

《呦呦楊英風展-大乘景觀雕塑》,日本:雕刻之森美術館,1997。

1998

《雕塑「東」「西」的時空-楊英風》,香港:香港科技大學圖書館,1998。

2000

楊英風藝術研究中心編輯,《楊英風「太初」回顧展 -1961》,新竹: 國立交通大學、楊英風藝術教育基金會,2000。 國立歷史博物館編輯委員會,《楊英風六一~七七創作特展》,台北: 國立歷史博物館,2000。

2005

台北市立美術館編輯委員會,《楊英風》,台北:台北市立美術館, 2005。

2011

蕭瓊瑞總編,《楊英風全集 1-30 卷》,台北:藝術家出版社,2011。

2013

吳靜汸主編,《大器.遇合—楊英風展》,台北:財團法人楊英風藝 術教育基金會,2013。

327


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

朱為白 CHU Wei-Bor

楚戈 CHU Ko

碩博士論文

碩博士論文

2008

林清梅,《朱為白藝術之研究》,台北:國立台北教育大學藝術學系

2006

研究所碩士論文,2008。 2012

為例》,屏東:屏東教育大學視覺藝術學系研究所碩士論文,2006。

孫松清,《以白反芻:朱為白作品中藝術思維的意向轉化》,台南: 國立成功大學藝術研究所碩士論文,2012。

藝評目錄 1960

賴瑛瑛,〈樸素見真 靜觀自得-朱為白〉,《藝術家》,第 252 期,

1976

1996 年 5 月。 賴瑛瑛〈圓融美滿的美感實踐—訪朱為白談個人早期的創作〉,《現

2004

1991

美術》,第 248 期,1991 年 10 月。 Sturman, Peter C. 著,李慧淑譯,〈邁向「現代中國繪畫」之路—從藝

1998 年 7 月。

評人到藝術家的楚戈〉,《現代美術》,第 38 期,1991 年 10 月。

方美晶,〈抱樸守真—試探朱為白的藝術創作〉,《現代美術》,第

1992

余光中,〈腕底生大化—楚戈的藝術世界〉,《藝術家》,第 211 期,

劉梅琴,〈試論朱為白藝術的獨特性與時代感:融會西方現代抽象藝

1995

海非,〈就現代水墨畫問題對楚戈先生的幾個提問〉,《藝壇》,第

2003

劉國松,〈為五四補篇章—現代文人畫家楚戈〉,《藝術家》第 340 期,

1992 年 12 月。 316 期,1995 年 4 月。

術的造型形式與東方意象藝術的內蘊美感形式〉,《現代美術》,第 118 期,2005 年 2 月。 劉梅琴,〈論朱為白藝術的「簡樸之真」與「無色之美」的超越性創

2003 年 9 月。

作〉,《現代美術》,第 119 期,2005 年 4 月。

蕭瓊瑞,〈線條的行走—楚戈的人文造型〉,《台灣美術》,第 54 期,

商禽,〈詩—割裂:給朱為白〉,《聯合文學》,第 246 期,2005 年 4 月。 楚戈,〈迎接東方新世紀—朱為白新空間主義的禪道精神〉,《藝術

2003 年 10 月。 2007

家》,第 361 期,2005 年 6 月。 2011

方秀雲,〈文化底蘊下的初始記憶—朱為白、李錫奇、李重重、顧重 石瑞仁,〈「藝氣彼此相通、巧妙各自不同」的鼎足三家展〉,《藝

《藝術家》,第 387 期,2007 年 8 月。 周功鑫、趙玉明、蕭瓊瑞,〈楚戈紀念特輯〉,《文訊》,第 306 期,

2012

辛鬱,〈漫談楚戈—紀念他去世一年〉,《文訊》,第 317 期,2012

2011 年 4 月。

術家》,第 439 期,2011 年 12 月。 畫冊目錄

年 3 月。 畫冊目錄

方美晶編,《朱為白回顧展》,台北:台北市立美術館,2005。

1997

《朱為白八十創作展》,台中:月臨畫廊,2005。 2010 2012 2014

陳玉娟編,《福言|禪境:朱為白冊頁紙雕新貌展》,台中:月臨畫廊,2010。 《造空者》,台北:關渡美術館,2012。

1998

林木主編,《楚戈結情作品展》,台北:國立歷史博物館,1998。

2003

《人間漫步:楚戈 2003 創作大展作品集》,台北:國立國父紀念館,

2004

國立歷史博物館編輯委員會編輯,《繩之以藝:楚戈繩結藝術創作》,

2003。

鍾經新編,《春耕逸境.朱為白個展》,台中:大象藝術空間,2014。

Mei Jing, Fang. (Ed.). (2005). Chu Wei-Bor : A Retrospective. Taipei: Taipei

臺灣省立美術館編輯委員會編輯,《楚戈觀想結構畫展》,台中:台 灣省立美術館,1997。

Exhibition Catalogue 2005

蕭瓊瑞,〈從「人間漫步」到「滿園花開」—楚戈的藝術思維與成就〉,

2011

光的「虛實之涵」〉,《藝術家》,第 435 期,2011 年 8 月。

2005

李慧淑,〈逍遙遊—出入於無何有之鄉.廣漠之野的楚戈〉,《雄獅

秦雅君,〈繁華落盡見真淳—朱為白〉,《典藏生活》,第 70 期,

112 期,2004 年 3 月。 2005

趙妍如〈龍與中國美術的關係—楚戈一席談〉,《藝術家》,第 9 期, 1976 年 2 月。

代美術》,第 67 期,1996 年 8 月。 1998

辛鬱,〈藝術表現的兩極—評李錫奇楚戈聯合畫展〉,《幼獅文藝》, 第 32 卷第 2 期,1960 年 2 月。

藝評目錄 1996

陳怡文,《當代藝術研究—以楚戈、董陽孜、索薇馮克蕾、昆特于克

台北:國立歷史博物館,2004。 2007

《足跡:楚戈藝術展》,台南:國立成功大學藝術中心,2007。

Fine Ar t Museum.

2010

Moon Gallery Editorial Board (Ed.). (2005). Exhibition of Chu Wei-Bor 80.

Exhibition Catalogue

Taichung: Moon Gallery.

1997

Yu Juan, Chen. (Ed.). (2010). Blessing Words and Zen Environment. Taichung:

Contemplating structure: An exhibition of recent painting by Chu Ko.

Moon Gallery. 2012

Kuandu Museum of Fine Ar ts Editorial Board (Ed.). (2012). Sunyata - Chu

Taichung: Nation Taiwan Museum of Fine Ar ts. 1998

Wei-Bor Solo Exhibition. Taipei: Kuandu Museum of Fine Ar ts. 2014

Jing Xin, Zhong. (Ed.). (2014). Tilling a Spring Paradise: Chu Wei-Bor Solo

National Taiwan Museum of Fine Ar ts Editorial Board (Ed.). (1997).

Mu, Lin. (Ed.). (1998). Exhibition for Chuko’s Ties ofaffection. Taipei: National Museum of History.

2003

Exhibition. Taichung: Da Xiang Ar t Space.

National Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall Editorial Board (Ed.). (2003). Sauntering Through the Human World: An Exhibit of Works by Chu Ko. Taipei: National Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall.

2004

National Museum of History Editorial Board (Ed.). (2004). Braid it in Ar t: the Rope Twisting Ar t by Chu Ko. Taipei: National Museum of History.

2007

National Cheng Kung University Ar t Center Editorial Board (Ed.). (2007). Footprints: Chu Ko Ar t Exhibition. Tainan: National Cheng Kung University Ar t Center.

328


LITERATURE REVIEWS

吳昊 WU Hao

李重重 LEE Chung-Chung

藝評目錄

藝評目錄

1997

魏蔓,〈吳昊的瑰麗跨越時代〉,《中央綜合月刊》,第 30 卷第 1 期,

1967

于還素,〈李重重的國畫〉,1967 年。

1997 年 1 月。

1975

尉天驄,〈重重山水無盡頭〉,1975 年。

陳珮瑩,〈吳昊的繪畫世界〉,《講義》,第 123 期,1997 年 6 月。

1981

蔡文恂,〈律動的生命—吳昊先生的油畫〉,《中國語文》,第 81 卷第 2 期,1997 年 8 月。 1998

1999

管執中,〈李重重的水墨畫〉,《四海藝都》1981 年。

林芬如,〈吳昊穿梭瑰麗的記憶〉,《拾穗》,第 561 期,1998 年 1 月。

1983

沈秋萍,〈名家名匾:吳昊—創造自己的環境〉,《講義》,第 135 期,

1989

〈李重重的現代水墨〉,《幼獅文藝》,第 424 期,1989 年 4 月。

1998 年 6 月。

1991

張元茜,〈重重山水自然渾成—李重重在現代水墨畫中開創自己的天 空〉,《勝利之光》,1991 年 2 月號。

第 276 期,1999 年 3 月。

沈臨彬,〈李重重水墨印象 - 重重畫展手記〉,《京華藝術中心畫展 介紹》,1991 年。

華人藝術雜誌》,第 11 期,1999 年 8 月。

1997

王玨,〈 陌上 花間蝴蝶飛 — 畫家吳昊 〉,《藝 術家》,第 331 期,

1999

2002 年 12 月。 2003

黃茜芳,〈吳昊—從版畫再出發〉,《藝術家》,第 336 期,2003 年 陳長華,〈花開在深沉的夢裡—讀吳昊的畫〉,《藝術家》,第 370 期,

2004 2006

2008 2009

蕭瓊瑞,〈李重重—水墨畫集 1990-2005(序)〉,2006 年。 張秀珍,〈圖解眾生相—專訪藝術家李重重〉,《聯合文學》,第

2009

劉益昌、高業榮、傅朝卿、蕭瓊瑞合著,〈台灣美術史綱〉,《藝術

2010

陳寬育,〈蒼勁婉約與極簡動感—李重重與耿晧剛的繪畫創作〉,《藝

2011

方秀雲,〈文化底蘊下的初始記憶—朱為白、李錫奇、李重重、顧重

281 期,2008 年 3 月。

黃小燕,〈輝亮閃耀著燦爛—吳昊的做品〉,《藝術家》,第 404 期, 2009 年 1 月。

姜捷,〈李重重的戲墨變奏曲〉,《勝利之光》,2006 年 4 月號。

2008

倪婉萍,〈花開有聲—吳昊個展〉,《藝術家》,第 392 期,2008 年 1 月。

黃寶萍,〈李重重—舉重若輕的水墨心象〉,《藝術家》,第 348 期,

焦士太,〈李重重—台灣現代水墨畫的圖騰〉,2006 年 2 月。

簡丹,〈一直盛開著的花朵—閱讀吳昊作品〉,《藝術家》,第 380 期, 2007 年 1 月。

國際,〈墨的驚歎號—李重重現代水墨畫展 : 山水.人物.花鳥〉,《藝

2004 年 5 月。

2006 年 3 月。 2007

名冠,〈李明倫.李重重雙個展〉,《藝術家》,第 268 期,1997 年 9 月。 術家》,第 295 期,1999 年 12 月。

5 月。 2006

洪叔華〈心靈自由 , 往來自得—訪李重重〉,《仕女雜誌》,1983 年 8 月。

陳樹升,〈藝術探索—生活藝術家吳昊的繪畫天地〉,《明道文藝》, 胡永芬,〈堅持自我的一支彩筆—吳昊其人及其創作風格〉,《新朝

2002

陳祖彥,〈父與女—李金玉和李重重畫展〉,《幼獅文藝》,第 329 期, 1981 年 4 月。

家》,2009 年。 術家》,第 425 期,2010 年 10 月。

畫冊目錄 1988 1994

歐怡君、蔡愉珊編輯,《吳昊 1988 = Oil Paintings by Wu Hao》,台北:

光的「虛實之涵」〉,《藝術家》,第 435 期,2011 年 8 月。

龍門畫廊,1988。

藝週刊編輯部,〈詠絮佳人.在水一方—空靈蒼婉李重重 〉,《藝週

1997

刊電子雜誌》,第 104 期,2011 年。

台北市立美術館展覽組編輯,《吳昊四十年創作展》,台北:台北市 立美術館,1994。

2012

陶文岳,〈墨象的誘惑—李重重的現代水墨世界〉,《The Ar t Works / 境墨 李重重七十水墨畫集》,2012 年。

台灣省立美術館編輯委員編輯,《吳昊的繪畫歷程展》,台中:台灣 省立美術館,1997。

1999

黃宗宏編輯,《吳昊》,台北:帝門藝術中心,1999。

畫冊目錄

2013

曲德義編輯,《吳昊版畫作品展》,台北:國立台北藝術大學,2013。

2006 2009

Exhibition Catalogue 1988

Yi Jun, Ou and Yu Shan, Tsai. (Eds.). (1998). Oil Paintings by Wu Hao. Taipei: Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum. (Ed.). (1994). Wu Hao four decades Creation

2012

National Taiwan Museum. (Ed.). (1997). Wu Hao's Paintings Journey.

耿晧剛主編,《The Ar t Works / 境墨 李重重七十水墨畫集》,台灣, 薪傳文化基金會,2012。

2013

Exhibition. Taipei: Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum. 1997

台北市立美術館編輯委員會編輯,《開顯與時變—創新水墨藝術展》, 台北,台北市立美術館,2009。

Lung Men Gallery. 1994

李重重著,《李重重—水墨畫集 1990-2005》,台北:李重重,2006。

雷逸婷編輯,《台灣現當代女性藝術五部曲 1930-1983》,台北,台 北市立美術館,2013。

2014

陳慧君總編,《山水現象—李重重畫集》,台北:赤粒藝術,2014。

Taichung: Taiwan Provincial Museum. 1999

Huang Zong, Hong. (Ed.). (1999). Wu Hao. Taipei: Dimension Ar t Center.

Exhibition Catalogue

2013

Teh-I, Chu (Ed.). (2013). Wu Hao Print Works Exhibition. Taipei: Taipei

2006

National University of the Ar ts.

2009

Chung Chung, Lee. (2006). 1990-2005: Lee Chung-Chung. Taipei: Lee Chung-Chung. Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum Editorial Board (Ed.). (2009). Open Flexibility: Innovative Contemporary Ink Ar t. Taipei: Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum.

2012

Hao-Kang, Keng. (Ed.). (2012). Lee Chung-Chung: The Ar t Works. Taipei: Ou Wang Cultural Foundation.

2013

Yi Ting, Lei. (Ed.). (2013). Women Adventurers: Five Eras of Taiwanese Ar t, 1930-1983. Taipei: Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum.

2014

Hui Jun, Chen. (Ed.). (2014). Landscape Impressions – The Paintings of Lee Chung-Chung. Taipei: Red Gold Fine Ar t.

329


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

劉國松 LIU Kuo-Sung

碩博士論文 2002

林英喬,《劉國松、鄭善禧、何懷碩山水畫風格之比較研究》,屏東: 屏東師範學院視覺藝術教育研究所碩士論文,2002。

2008

1999 年 11 月。 2002

黃海鳴,〈劉國松新傳統水墨畫創作另探─從再現系統中隔離與不透

郭旻喬,《臺灣現代繪畫中禪意之研究─以劉國松、蕭勤、莊喆、霍

明界面兩端存在對話的觀點出發〉,《典藏今藝術》,第 115 期,

剛作品為例》,宜蘭:佛光大學,2008。

2002 年 4 月。 秦雅君,〈為中國美術現代化開路的藝術家─記宇宙心印 -- 劉國松

藝評目錄 1965

七十回顧展〉,《典藏今藝術》,第 115 期,2002 年 4 月。 莊喆,〈這一代與上一代─論劉國松,和他的背景〉,《文星》,第

王嘉驥,〈對我來─論劉國松 1961 年回歸水墨山水之路〉,《典藏

15 卷第 6 期,1965 年 4 月。

今藝術》,第 121 期,2002 年 10 月。

孫旗,〈一個敢於獨立思考的新傳統─評劉國松著「中國現代畫的 1973

2006

藝術》,第 160 期,2006 年 1 月。

余光中,〈雲開見月─初論劉國松的藝術〉,《幼獅文藝》,第 38

石瑞仁,〈從「太空漫步」的宇宙奇觀,返航「遊山玩水」的自然詩

卷第 3 期,1973 年,9 月。 1990

蘇立文,〈劉國松的藝術〉,《藝術家》,第 178 期,1990 年 3 月。

境─評劉國松及其桃園個展〉,《藝術家》,第 370 期,2006 年 3 月。 2007

郎紹君,〈探索傳統與現代的契合─劉國松繪畫的印像〉,《現代美 術》,第 29 期,1990 年 4 月。 《現代美術》,第 29 期,1990 年 4 月。

2008 年 2 月。 2010

張俐璇,〈向「傳統」借火:一九六○年代臺灣「現代」詩畫的遇合 ─以劉國松、余光中為論述核心〉,《人文與社會研究學報》,第 44

《雄獅美術》,第 230 期,1990 年 4 月。

卷第 2 期,2010 年 2 月。

徐小虎著;李君毅譯,〈二千年以後的中國繪畫─劉國松的發現 下〉,

李思賢,〈雪網山痕皆自然─劉國松千禧階段的藝術美學〉,《藝術

《雄獅美術》,第 231 期,1990 年 5 月。

家》,第 426 期,2010 年 11 月。 2011

第 30 期,1990 年 6 月。

蕭瓊瑞,〈劉國松現代水墨中的傳統精神〉,《現代美術》,第 156 期, 2011 年 6 月。

余光中,〈造化弄人 , 我弄造化─論劉國松的玄學山水〉,《二十一

Clarissa Von Spee 著;王月琴譯,〈宇宙新視野─劉國松挑戰中國水墨

世紀》,第 13 期,1992 年 10 月。

畫〉,《典藏今藝術》,第 230 期,2011 年 11 月。

吳貫中,〈造化弄人 , 我弄造化─論劉國松的玄學山水〉,《藝術家》,

2012

第 209 期,1992 年 10 月。

張孟起,〈一個東西南北人─現代水墨畫家劉國松的藝術足跡〉,《典 藏今藝術》,第 234 期,2012 年 3 月。

黃朝湖,〈劉國松創新水墨畫的成就〉,《台灣美術》,第 18 期,

李君毅,〈一個東西南北人─劉國松六十年的藝術探索〉,《藝術家》,

1992 年 10 月。

第 442 期,2012 年 3 月。

漢寶德,〈求新、求異、求變─為傳統易容的劉國松〉,《台灣美術》,

賈方舟,〈現代水墨的先行者─劉國松藝術散論〉,《典藏今藝術》,

第 18 期,1992 年 10 月。

第 235 期,2012 年 4 月。

辛炎,〈惰性的創新─劉國松與蕭勤〉,《藝壇》,第 296 期,1992

薛永年,〈一個東西南北人─劉國松 80 回顧展序〉,《藝術家》,

年 11 月。 余 光 中,〈Nature Proposes, Ar t Disposes-The Metaphysical Landscape

第 444 期,2012 年 5 月。 2013

李振明,〈劉國松現代水墨的在地認同〉,《藝術家》,第 457 期,

2014

林香琴,〈不破不立─劉國松現代水墨之路〉,《美育》,第 198 期,

of Liu Kuo-sung〉,《中山人文學報》,第 1 期,1993 年 4 月。 賈方舟,〈走向現代之路─從大陸看劉國松〉,《典藏藝術》,第 10

2013 年 6 月。

期,1993 年 7 月。 1996

范迪安,〈劉國松.從外太空挑戰傳統〉,《典藏今藝術》,第 185 期,

徐小虎著;李君毅譯,〈二千年以後的中國繪畫─劉國松的發現 上〉,

王素峰,〈現實中的超現實─劉國松的兩極化世界〉,《現代美術》,

1993

張孟起,〈繪畫一甲子─劉國松在北京故宮武英殿展出〉,《藝術家》, 第 385 期,2007 年 6 月。

2008

尉天驄,〈五〇年代臺灣文學藝術的現代主義─兼論劉國松的畫〉,

1992

余光中,〈造化弄人,我弄造化─論劉國松的玄學山水〉,《典藏今

路」,《文星》,第 16 卷第 2 期,1965 年 6 月。

2014 年 3 月。

蕭瓊瑞,〈古典風格的現代詮釋─論劉國松的水墨藝術〉,《藝術家》, 第 254 期,1996 年 7 月。

畫冊目錄

周韶華,〈傳統與創新─談劉國松對中國水墨畫變革的意義〉,《典

1990

石瑞仁總編輯,《劉國松畫展》,台北:台北市立美術館,1990。

藏藝術》,第 46 期,1996 年 7 月。

1992

臺灣省立美術館編輯委員會編輯,《劉國松六十回顧展》,台中:台

皮道堅,〈現代水墨畫史中的劉國松〉,《雄獅美術》,第 305 期, 1996 年 7 月。

灣省立美術館,1992。 1999

《宇宙即我心:劉國松近作展》,台北:國立國父紀念館,1999。

101 期,1996 年 8 月。

2000

《水墨正典:劉國松作品集》,桃園:中央大學藝文中心,2000。

1997

漢寶德,〈自我超越的劉國松〉,《藝術家》,第 263 期,1997 年 4 月。

2002

1998

羅聖,〈劉國松大師的創生畫境〉,《中國美術》,第 66 期,1998

蕭瓊瑞,〈劉國松(1932-)〉,《中國巨匠美術週刊》,中國系列第

1999

陳春霖編輯,《宇宙心印:劉國松七十回顧展》,台北:中華文化基 金會,2002。

年 7 月。

2003

《造化心源:劉國松現代水墨畫集》,台中:台中市文化局,2003。

林 柏 欣,〈 從 對 話 到 獨 白 下 的 傳 統 〉,《 台 灣 美 術 》, 第 42 期,

2004

《劉國松的宇宙》,香港:香港藝術館,2004。

1998 年 10 月。

2005

林木,〈來自非筆繪畫的挑戰─論劉國松的民族繪畫創新探索〉,《藝 術家》,第 292 期,1999 年 9 月。

330

《劉國松現代水墨畫展》,新竹:交大思源基金會,1999。

正因文化編輯部編輯,《現代的沖擊:劉國松畫集》,台北:正因文化, 2005。

2007

江梅香總編輯,《劉國松繪畫一甲子》,桃園:長流美術館,2007。

趙慶華,〈「現代水墨」才是真正的「臺灣本土繪畫」─「五月」老

張至敏、黃瓊徵、賴明雪編輯,《宇宙心印:劉國松回顧展》,桃園:

將劉國松建立二十世紀中國繪畫新傳統〉,《新觀念》,第 133 期,

長流美術館,2007。


LITERATURE REVIEWS

2008

《突兀.夢幻.蛻變 : 劉國松畫集》,台北:首都藝術,2008。

2009

《宇宙心印 : 劉國松繪畫一甲子》,台北:國立國父紀念館,2009。 徐婉禎,湯景光執行編輯,《宇宙即我心 : 劉國松》,台北:國立國 父紀念館,2009。

2010

邱麗卿編輯 ; 賴凱文翻譯,《白駒過隙.山動水行 : 從劉國松到新媒體 藝術》,台北:台北市立美術館,2010。

2012

《一個東西南北人 : 劉國松 80 回顧展》,台中:國立台灣美術館,2012。

2013

《傳功一甲子 : 劉國松現代水墨創作展》,台北:中華文化總會,2013。

Exhibition Catalogue 1990

Rui Ren, Shih. (Ed.). (1990). Painting by Liu Kuo-Sung. Taipei: Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum.

1992

National Taiwan Museum of Fine Ar ts Editorial Board (Ed.). (1992). The Retrospective of 60 year old Liu Kuo-Sung. Taichung: National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts.

1998

National Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall Editorial Board (Ed.). (1998). Universe in My Mind: Recently Works by Liu Kuo-Sung. Taipei: National Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall.

1999

Spring Foundation of NCTU Editorial Board (Ed.). (1999). Liu Kuo-Sung: Modern Ink Painting Exhibition. Hsinchu: Spring Foundation of NCTU.

2000

National Central University Ar t Center Editorial Board (Ed.). (2000). The Exemplary Figure in Ink Painting: The Ar t of Liu Kuo-Sung. Taoyuan: National Central University Art Center.

2002

Chun-Lin, Chen. (Ed.). (2002). The Universe in the Mind: A Retrospective of Liu Kuo-Sung. Taipei: Chinese Culture Foundation.

2003

Taichung City Cultural Center Editorial Board (Ed.). (2003). Mind, Reflection, Transformation: Liu Kuo-Sung's Modern Ink Paintings. Taichung: Taichung City Cultural Center.

2004

Hong Kong Museum of Ar t Editorial Board (Ed.). (2004). Liu Kuo-Sung: A Universe of His Own. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Museum of Art.

2005

Cheng Yin Culture Editorial Board (Ed.). (2005). Modern Impact: Liu Kuo-Sung. Taipei: Cheng Yin Culture.

2007

Mei-Siang, Jiang. (Ed.). (2007). Liu Kuo-Sung 60 Years of Painting. Taoyuan: Chan Liu Art Museum.

2008

Zhi-Min Zhang, Qiong-Zheng Huang, & Ming-Xue, Lai. (Eds.). (2008). The Universe in the Mind: A Retrospective of Liu Kuo-Sung.

2009

National Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall Editorial Board (Ed.). (2009). The Universe in the Mind: Master Liu Kuo-Sung Painting 60 Years Retrospective Exhibition. Taipei: National Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall.

2010

Li Ching, Chiu. (Ed.). (2010). Time Unfrozen: From Liu Kuo-Sung to New Media Art. Taipei: Taipei Fine Arts Museum.

2012

National Taiwan Museum of Fine Ar ts Editorial Board (Ed.). (2012). A Man of East, West, South and Nor th: Liu Kuo-Sung 80th Bir thday Retrospective Exhibition. Taichung: Nation Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts.

2013

Du, Yang. (Ed.). (2013). Sixty Years of Knowledge: An Exhibition of Modern Ink Paintings by Liu Kuo-Sung. Taipei: The General Association of Chinese Culture.

331


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

夏陽 HSIA Yan

碩博士論文 2004

畫冊目錄 呂潔雯,《相遇異文化─夏陽紐約時期照相寫實繪畫之研究》,台北:

1989

夏陽,《夏陽》,台北:誠品畫廊,1989。

國立台灣師範大學美術研究所,2004。

1992

劉秋燕,《夏陽》,台中:李朝明,1992。

1994

林平總,《 夏陽 : 創 作四 十年回 顧展 》, 台 北: 臺 北 市 立美 術館, 1994。

藝評目錄 1980 1983

林秀英,〈衣帶漸寬終不悔—訪夏陽〉,《綜合月刊》,第 139 期,

1999

台中:台灣省立美術館,1999。

謝里法,〈黑色的太陽:憶與夏陽的一段交往〉,《雄獅美術》,第

林 世 榮、 洪 麗 雪,《 夏 陽 的 西 洋 名 畫 》, 台 北: 帝 門 藝 術 中 心,

149 期,1983 年 7 月。 1993

1999。

袁輝賢,〈夏陽:畫壇黑色的太陽〉,《拾穗》,第 508 期,1993 年 8 月。

2002

陳文芬,《夏陽》,台北:聯合文學出版,2002。

〈楊識宏、韓湘寧、夏陽、姚慶章在紐約〉,《臺灣畫》,第 7 期,

2006

夏祖湘,《夏陽 =Hsia Yan》,台北:誠品畫廊,2006。

1993 年 9 月。 1994

夏陽《夏陽 =Xia Yang》,上海:上海書局,2006。

王嘉冀,〈尋找失去的中國—閱讀夏陽的畫作〉,《當代》,第 96 期,

Exhibition Catalogue

1994 年 4 月。

1989

Hsia Yan (1989). Hsia Yan. Taipei: Eslite Gallery.

曾四遊,〈冬日的夏陽 [ 記畫家夏陽 ]〉,《現代美術》,第 53 期,

1992

Qiu Yan, Liu. (Ed.). (1992). Hsia Yan. Taichung: Chao Ming, Lee.

1994 年 4 月。

1994

Ping Zong, Lin (1994). Yan Hsia : Continuation and Rejuvenation. Taipei: Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum.

林銓居,〈去國三十年 , 響馬歸故里—與夏陽細數平生〉,《典藏藝 術》,第 20 期,1994 年 5 月。

1999

National Taiwan Museum of Fine Ar ts.

術家》,第 228 期,1994 年 5 月。

Shi Rong, Lin & Li Xue, Hong (Eds.). (1999). Hsia Yan’s Western paintings. Taipei: Dimensions.

年 7 月。

2002

Wun Fen, Cheng. (2002). Hsia Yan. Taipei: Linking Publishing.

胡 永 芬,〈 評 夏 陽 個 展 — 獅 子 啣 劍 〉,《 炎 黃 藝 術 》, 第 68 期,

2006

Eslite Gallery (2006). Hsia Yan. Taipei: Eslite Gallery.

1995 年 6 月。 典藏藝術雜誌編輯部,〈夏陽、吳昊在 AP 版畫工作室展身手〉,《典 藏藝術》,第 56 期,1995 年 5 月。 1996

胡永芬,〈不再漂浪的遊子—夏陽的藝術創作及收藏概況〉,《典藏 藝術》,第 251 期,1996 年 4 月。

1997

魏淑娟,〈夏陽風格的豐盈與苦痛〉,《中央綜合月刊》,第 30 卷 第 5 期,1997 年 5 月。

1998

秦雅君,〈精神自由至上—夏陽〉,《典藏藝術》,第 72 期,1998

1999

〈夏陽、郭振昌、楊茂林、黃進河、侯俊明、邵婷如、吳松明神話作品

年 9 月。 相關聯展〉,《新朝華人藝術雜誌》,第 5 期,1999 年 2 月。 帝門藝術中心,〈夏陽的西洋名畫〉,《藝術家》,第 288 期,1999 年 5 月。 王 庭 玫,〈 夏 陽: 東 方 與 西 方 的 交 融 〉,《 藝 術 家 》, 第 289 期, 1999 年 6 月。 〈適情隨意,再創新猶—夏陽九九年個展於帝門登場〉,《典藏藝 術》,第 81 期,1999 年 6 月。 2000

郭冠英,〈夏日之陽亙古熱 , 跨越藝術驚濤浪—今年國家文化藝術基 金會文藝獎得主夏陽專訪〉,《藝術家》,第 304 期,2000 年 9 月。 誠品,〈夏陽個展〉,《藝術家》,第 306 期,2000 年 11 月。 江衍疇,〈金胎銀鍱釋畫魂—談夏陽的金屬片雕〉,《典藏今藝術》, 第 99 期,2000 年 12 月。

2001

蔡文婷,〈為了藝術,漂泊一生—夏陽和他的「毛毛人」〉,《台灣 光華雜誌》,2001 年 1 月。 謝佩霓,〈Glorious as the Mid-summer Sun--Hsia Yang and His Ar t 〉, 《The Chinese Pen》,第 115 期,2001 年 3 月。 江衍疇,〈Gold Plates and Silver Disks that Interpret Soul of Painting— Hsia Yang's Metallic Sculptures〉,《The Chinese Pen》, 第 115 期, 2001 年 3 月。

2003

誠品畫廊,〈夏陽個展〉,《藝術家》,第 343 期,2003 年 12 月。 陳 文芳,〈 與 夏陽在上 海的 漫談〉,《典藏今 藝術》,第 135 期, 2003 年 12 月。

2004

332

Hsia Yan (1999). Retrospective of Hsia Yan from 1954 to 1998. Taichung:

葉玉靜,〈每個時代都有自己的東方—夏陽藝術的時代表徵〉,《藝 張心龍,〈永遠屬於中國的夏陽〉,《雄獅美術》,第 281 期,1994 1995

夏祖湘,《夏陽回顧展 = Retrospective of Hsia Yan from 1954 to 1998》,

1980 年 6 月。

黃茜芳,〈夏陽憂患孕育智慧〉,《藝術家》,第 345 期,2004 年 2 月。

Hsia Yan (2006). Xia Yang. Shanghai: Shanghai Bookstore


LITERATURE REVIEWS

霍剛 HO Kan

莊喆 CHUANG Che

碩博士論文

碩博士論文

2008

郭旻喬,《臺灣現代繪畫中禪意之研究—以劉國松、蕭勤、莊喆、霍

2008

剛作品為例》,宜蘭:佛光大學藝術學研究所,2008。

郭旻喬,《台灣現代繪畫中禪意之研究—以劉國松、蕭勤、莊喆、霍 剛作品為例》,宜蘭:佛光大學藝術學研究所碩士論文,2008。

藝評目錄 1961

余光中,〈五月畫展〉,《文星雜誌》,第 44 期,1961。

程文宗,〈在米蘭訪霍剛 : 歡迎霍剛回國舉行畫展〉,《藝術家》,

1962

余光中,〈樸素的五月—現代繪畫赴美預展觀後〉,《文星雜誌》,

第 125 期,1985 年 10 月。

1970

藝評目錄 1985 1993

熊宜敬,〈自由•沒有包袱•才有藝術—與豪邁的霍剛隨興而談〉,《典 藏藝術》,第 7 期,1993 年 4 月。

1994

劉永仁,〈斬斷寂寞枷鎖•廻旋藝術蒼穹—「米蘭一劍」霍剛的創作

獅美術》,第 23 期 1970 年 9 月。 1971

生活〉,《典藏藝術》,第 7 期,1994 年 4 月。 1997 1998

李逸塵,〈不斷向前的響馬—霍剛的藝術堅持與創作理念〉,《典藏

第 63 期,1980。

田 芳 麗,〈 生 之 無 窮 意 象 — 米 蘭 訪 霍 剛 〉,《 雅 砌 》, 第 96 期,

程延平,〈看哪!豐厚蒼潤的大地—試述莊喆二十年的心路歷程〉, 《雄獅美術》,第 114 期,1980。 《向第三條路試探》,《雄獅美術》,第 114 期,1980。

羅門,〈以色面造型建構人類美的視覺聖地—給「東方的結構主義」 1982

〈莊喆及陳庭詩—兩位尋求突破的中國畫家〉,《香港藝術中心雜誌》,

1984

李鑄晉,〈開拓中國現代化的新領域—記得莊喆畫的發展〉,《雄獅

曾長生,〈霍剛的詩意空間〉,《藝術家》,第 345 期,2004 年 2 月。 許美玲,〈霍剛「無題」〉,《現代美術》,第 114 期,2004 年 6 月。

6 月號,1982。

蔣培華,〈再訪米蘭的霍剛〉,《新觀念》,第 198 期,2004 年 10 月。 2009

美術》,第 65 期,1984。

劉永仁,〈符號構築理想空間與秩序〉,《新地文學》,第 9 期,

1986

2009 年 9 月。

1991

程文宗,〈在米蘭訪霍剛〉,《新地文學》,第 9 期,2009 年 9 月。 文學》,第 9 期,2009 年 9 月

《從現代的繪畫性看中國傳統畫》,《藝術家》,第 133 期,1986。 陳培英,〈莊喆的抽象畫觀〉,《拾穗雜誌》,1991 年 4 月。 蕭瓊瑞,〈五月與東方—中國美術現代運動在戰後台灣之發展 19451970〉,《東大出版》,1991。

郭楓,〈東方美學的剛性抽象建構—論霍剛的人品與畫藝〉,《新地 2011

吳翰書,〈從中國現代山水畫的數種觀念看莊喆的繪畫〉,《藝術家》,

藝術》,第 56 期,1997 年 5 月。

大畫家:霍剛〉,《新觀念》,第 161 期,2001 年 12 月。 2004

高歌,〈大地常在—莊喆近作的一個文學性看法〉,《雄獅美術》, 第 11 期,1971。

1980

1998 年 1 月。 2001

第 56 期,1962。 李鑄晉,〈捲入世界抽象畫的浪潮─談莊喆近年畫風的嬗變〉,《雄

畫冊目錄

蕭瓊瑞,〈寂寞的詩情—霍剛的精神性繪畫〉,《藝術家》,第 432 期,

1986

2011 年 5 月。

1990

《五月畫會之興起及其社會背景》,台北:臺北市立美術館,1986。 李鑄晉,《捲入世界抽象畫的浪潮—談莊喆的近作》,台北:龍門畫廊, 1990。 郭繼生,《台灣當代繪畫文選 1945-1990》,台北:雄獅圖書股份有

畫冊目錄 1985

劉利玲主編《霍剛畫展》,台中:環亞世界國際集團,1985。

1990

《霍剛個展》,台北:誠品畫廊,1990。

1993

《霍剛》,台北:誠品畫廊,1993。

1994

《霍剛畫展》,台中:臺灣省立美術館,1994。

1999

林世榮編輯《霍剛的歷程》,台北:帝門藝術中心,2009。

2009

鍾經新《霍剛》,台中:大象藝術空間,2009。

2012

鍾經新《霍剛八十.素描展》,台中:大象藝術空間,2012。

限公司,1990。 1991 1998

1985

游麗珠與林芬如,《莊喆九十年代畫的新方向》,臺北:龍門畫廊出版, 1998。

1999

莊喆、馬浩、陳怡瑄主編,《莊喆 . 馬浩雙展:生命的讚頌》,臺北: 長谷集團積禪 50 藝術空間,1999。

2005 Exhibition Catalogue

蕭瓊瑞,《略論有關五月,東方之研究》,東方、五月畫會 35 週年展, 臺北:時代畫廊出版,1991。

2007

Lee Ling, Liu. (ed.). (1985). Oil Paintings by Ho-Kan. Taichung: Asiaworld Ar t

《主題 . 原象 : 莊喆》,台北:國立歷史博物館,2005。 郭繼生,《莊喆:領深道遠:2007 北京中國美術館個展》,台北:亞 洲藝術中心,2007。

Gallery. 1990

Eslite Gallery (1990). Ho-Kan Solo Exhibition. Taipei: Eslite Gallery.

Exhibition Catalogue

1992

Lattuada Studio (1992). Ho-Kan. Milano: Lattuada Studio.

1998

1993

Eslite Gallery (1993). Ho-Kan. Taipei: Eslite Gallery.

1994

National Taiwan Museum of Fine Ar ts (1994). Solo exhibitions of Ho-Kan.

in the 90s. Taipei: Lung Men Ar t Gallery 1999

Taichung: National Taiwan Museum of Fine Ar ts 1999

Shi Rong, Ling. (ed.). (1999). Ho-Kan : Retrospective. Taipei: Dimensions.

2009

Jing Sin, Jhong (2009). Ho-Kan. Taichung: Da Xiang Ar t Space.

2012

Jing Sin, Jhong (1999). Age 80. Ho Kan's Drawing Exhibition. Taichung: Da Xiang Ar t Space.

Yu Li Chu, Lin Fen Ru Editorial Board (Eds.) (1998). Chuang Che paintings Zhe Zhuang, Yixuan Chen, Hao Ma Editorial Board (Eds.) (1999). Chuang Chu, Ma Hao : An apotheosis to life. Taipei: Ar t Link ART

2005

National Museum of Histor y Editorial Board (Ed.) (2005). Theme primal form : An exhibition of Chuang Che's painting. Taipei: National Museum of History.

2007

Guo Jisheng Editorial Board (Ed.) (2007). Chuang Che: Deep Ridge. Remote Way: Solo Exhibition in National Ar t Museum of China. Taipei: Asia Ar t Center

333


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

陳正雄 CHEN Cheng-Hsiung

藝評目錄 1974

顧重光,〈躍動與和諧(陳正雄的畫)〉,《幼獅文藝》,第 40 卷

1994

第 5 期,1974 年 11 月。 1984

Gallery, Shanghai: Shanghai Ar t Museum.

孫旗,〈生命交響樂的抽象畫—談陳正雄個展〉,《雄獅美術》,第 166 期,1984 年 12 月。

1986

龐靜平,〈陳正雄的抽象歡歌〉,《藝術家》,第 139 期,1986 年 12 月。

1992

王秀雄,〈將生命和世界燃燒成色彩的抽象畫家—評釋陳正雄四十週 年回顧展抽象藝術〉,《藝術家》,第 210 期,1992 年 11 月。

2003

1993

History. 2004

索 葛,〈 駕 馭 色 彩 的 指 揮 家 — 陳 正 雄 〉,《 新 觀 念 》, 第 61 期, 1993 年 11 月。 2000

王鴻佑,〈用藝術「定位臺灣.放眼大陸.宏觀世界」 臺灣抽象藝術 的先驅—陳正雄〉,《新觀念》,第 142 期,2000 年 8 月。 蕭瓊瑞,〈介面新視野 2000 年「今日大師與新秀展」台灣參展作品〉, 《藝術家》,第 305 期,2000 年 10 月。

2002

羅門,〈輕快與明麗的春之舞—給抽象大畫家陳正雄〉,《新觀念》, 第 175 期,2002 年 10 月。

2003

Lamber t, Jean Clarence 著;簡良材譯,〈陳正雄:繪畫,詩歌,愛情〉, 《典藏》,第 128 期,2003 年 5 月。 蕭瓊瑞,〈文化基因重組—陳正雄的藝術成就〉,《藝術家》,第 336 期,2003 年 5 月。 邵大箴,〈把喜悅和歡樂獻給大眾—陳正雄的抽象繪畫〉,《典藏今 藝術》,第 131 期,2003 年 8 月。

2004 2014

曾長生,〈陳正雄的異質抽象探索〉,《文化生活》,第 37 期,2004 年 7 月。 蕭瓊瑞,〈生命與文化的謳歌—陳正雄的藝術創作與成就〉,《藝術 家》,第 470 期,2014 年 7 月。

畫冊目錄 1969

《陳正雄畫冊》,台北:國立台灣藝術館,1969。

1988

《陳正雄回顧展》,美國:美國東西文化中心,1988。

1991

《陳正雄畫冊》,台北:協和藝術文化基金會,1991。

1992

台灣省立美術館編輯委員會策劃編輯,《陳正雄四十年回顧展:1958-

1994

《陳正雄抽象畫巡回展》,北京:北京中國美術館;上海:上海美術館,1994。

1992》,台中:台灣省立美術館,1992。 2003

國立歷史博物館編輯委員會編輯,《陳正雄繪畫 50 年回顧展》,台北: 國立歷史博物館,2003。

2004

《陳正雄巡迴畫展:顛覆與重建》,台北:台灣創價學會,2004。

2009

《陳正雄回顧展:1976-2006》,紐約:雀兒喜當代美術館,2009。

2014

《陳正雄回顧展:1953-2013》,台北:臺北市立美術館,2014。

Exhibition Catalogue 1969

National Taiwan Ar ts Center Editorial Board (Ed.). (1969). Cheng-Hsiung Chen: Paintings by Contemporar y Chinese Ar tist. Taipei: National Taiwan Ar ts Center.

1988

East-West Center Editorial Board (Ed.). (1988). Rober t Cheng-Hsiung Chen: A Retrospective: 1964-1988. Hawaii: East–West Center.

1991

Shie Ho Ar t Education Foundation Editorial Board (Ed.). (1991). 19871991: Rober t Cheng-Hsiung Chen. Taipei: Shie Ho Ar t Education Foundation.

1992

National Taiwan Museum of Fine Ar ts Editorial Board (Ed.). (1992). Rober t Cheng-Hsiung Chen a retrospective: 1958-1992. Taichung: Nation Taiwan Museum of Fine Ar ts.

334

Taiwan Soka Association Editorial Board (Ed.). (2004). Chen Cheng-Hsiung Traveling Exhibition. Taipei: Taiwan Soka Association.

2009

Chelsea Ar t Museum Editorial Board (Ed.). (2009). Chen Cheng-Hsiung A Retrospective: 1976-2006. New York: Chelsea Ar t Museum.

王哲雄,〈用色彩展現生命喜悅的抽象畫家—陳正雄〉,《現代美術》, 第 50 期,1993 年 10 月。

National Museum of Histor y Editorial Board (Ed.). (2003). Chen ChengHsiung a 50 year Retrospective: 1952-2002. Taipei: National Museum of

顧世勇,〈沛然躍動的潛意識—看陳正雄的抽象繪畫〉,《台灣美術 月刊》,第 5 卷,第 2 期,1992 年 10 月。

China Ar t Gallery & Shanghai Ar t Museum Editorial Board (Eds.). (1994). Rober t Cheng-Hsiung Chen, A Retrospective: 1964-1994. Beijing: China Ar t

2014

Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum Editorial Board (Ed.). (2014). Chen Cheng-Hsiung A Retrospective: 1953-2013. Taipei: Taipei Fine Ar t Museum.


LITERATURE REVIEWS

蕭勤 HSIAO Chin

Exhibition Catalogue

碩博士論文 2005

謝明憲,《靜觀蕭勤抽象藝術》,嘉義:南華大學哲學研究所碩士論文,2005。

1962

Lao-Tzu (Ed.). (1962). Tao. Milan: Edition East 128.

2007

德卡,《蕭勤和拉查 (Raza) 的繪畫比較研究》,台南:國立成功大學

1963

Leonhard, Kur t (Ed.). (1963). Hsiao Chin. Milano: Edition Grafica Uno.

藝術研究所碩士論文,2007。

1976

Schönenberger, G. & Albuzzi, E. (Eds.). (1976). Hsiao. Taipei: Edition Lion Books Co.

藝評目錄 1965

Serravalli, L. (Ed.). (1976). Cinque Serigrafie di Hsiao. Jesi: Edition Ar te

黃朝湖,〈為中國現代藝術辯護〉,《台北文星》,1965 年 7 月。

Nuova Oggi.

霍剛,〈這一代的傑出人物:PUNTO 國際藝術運動創始人之一蕭勤〉, 《這一代》,雙月刊第 2 期,1965 年 12 月。 1983 1973

施學溫,〈蕭勤和他的藝術〉,《雄獅美術》,第 28 期,1973 年 6 月。

1973

阮義忠,〈蕭勤的二元世界〉,《雄獅美術》,第 28 期,1973 年 6 月。

1976

吳昊,〈風格的誕生〉,《藝術家》,第 17 期,1976 年 10 月。

1985

Promotion of Chinese Culture. 1987

林淑 珍,〈以 作品印證心 象的 蕭勤〉,《 雄 獅美 術》,第 236 期,

1981 1988 1989

朱嘉驊,〈對中國藝術「現代化」遠景的再思,在義大利訪問蕭勤〉,

Dimensions Ar t Center (Ed.). (2000). Hsiao Chin: Overseas Collections. Taipei: edition Dimensions Ar t Center.

2005

Hsiao, Chin & Yu-Qing, Hu (Eds.). (2005). Hsiao Chin 1954-2004/ A Journey back to the Source. Guangdong: Guangdong Museum of Ar t

葉維廉,〈從凝與散到空無的冥思,蕭勤畫風的追跡〉,《藝術家》, 第 163 期,1988 年 12 月。

Hunter, Sam & Huang, Hai-Ming (Eds.). (1997). Hsiao Chin: Gathering Force. Taipei: Dimensions Ar t Center.

2000

〈從東方與五月話會二十五週年,談台灣現代繪畫的啓蒙與發展〉, 《藝術家》,第 73 期,1981 年。

Yip, Wai-Lim & Hsiao, Chong-Ray (Eds.). (1995). Hsiao Chin: the Odyssey 1953-1994. Taipei: Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum.

1997

1980 年 10 月。 李瑞爽,〈蕭勤與畫禪〉,《藝術家》,第 59 期,1980 年 4 月。

Gaudet, M. & Ku, Shih-Yong (Eds.). (1993). A Taoist Way to Color. Hong Kong: Alisan Fine Ar ts Ltd.

1995

方丹,〈訪蕭勤談現代畫〉,《香港明報月刊》,第 156 期,1978 年 12 月。 1980

Salvatore-Schiffer, D., Chen, Y. & Ku, Shih-Yong (Eds.). (1992). Hsiao Chin 1959-1992. Taichung: Taiwan Museum of Ar t.

1993

黃玉珊,〈中國當代繪畫的前途〉,《藝術家》,第 40 期,1978 年 9 月。 栩栩,〈蕭勤與畫禪〉,《藝術家》,第 41 期,1978 年 10 月。

Hsiao, Chin & Lao-Tzu (Eds.). (1987). Hsiao Chin. Copenhagen: BOA Tryk + Reklame Edition.

1992

1978 年 7 月。 〈從東方畫會談起〉,《雄獅美術》,第 91 期,1978 年。

Ling, N. T., Cheung, K. H., Hsiao, C. & Yip, W. (Eds.). (1985). Hsiao Chin: A Neo-Taoist approach to painting. Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Institute for

〈寫在蕭勤在台首次個展之前〉,《雄獅美術》,第 84 期,1978 年 2 月。 何政廣,〈旅居海外的中國畫家專訪之八〉,《藝術家》,第 38 期,

Maurizi, Elverio (Ed.). (1979). Hsiao Chin: La Poesia del Tao. Macerata: Edition Coopedit.

戴維松 (Daniel Davidson) 著;羅青譯,〈天聾地啞論庭詩〉,《中國 論壇》,第 16 卷第 12 期,1983 年 9 月。

1978

1979

2010

Hsiao, C ., Hsieh, P. B. & Tagliaferri, Aldo (Eds.). (2010). Infinity of Chi: Retrospective of Hsiao Chin. Kaohsiung: Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Ar ts.

《雄獅美術》,1989 年 4 月。 丹尼哀.沙爾代文來.希樂,〈蕭勤:符號之超越〉,《藝術家》, 第 172 期,1989 年 9 月。 1991

古月著,〈誘惑者,當代藝術家側寫〉,《台北大村出版社》,1991 年。

2005

謝佩霓,〈另類蕭勤〉,《時報文化》,2005 年 10 月。

畫冊目錄 1962

老子,《道》,米蘭:東 128 出版社,1962。

1963

萊翁哈特,《蕭勤》,米蘭:版畫一社出版,1963。

1976

苟能伯格及阿爾不濟,《蕭》,台北:雄獅出版社,1976。 賽拉伐里,《五張蕭之絹印版畫》,也西今日新藝術出版社,1976。

1979

毛里濟,《蕭勤:道之師》,馬皆拉塔:柯拜底特出版社,1979。 比費.簫迪利及李瑞爽,《蕭》,米蘭:凡尼莎出版社,1979。

1985

張景熊、林年同、蕭勤及葉維廉,《蕭勤之新道畫》,香港:香港中 華文化促進中心,1985。

1987

蕭勤及老子文,《蕭勤》,哥本哈根:BOA 出版社,1987。

1988

沙爾瓦多.希弗,《晝與夜:陳庭詩版畫中的天地觀》,米蘭:馬卓 塔出版社,1988。

1992

《蕭勤回顧展》,台中:台灣省立美術館,1992。

1993

各代忒及顧世勇,《走往色彩的道之路》,香港:藝倡畫廊,1993。

1995

蕭瓊瑞與葉維廉,《蕭勤的歷程》,台北:台北市立美術館,1995。

1997

《蕭勤:聚合能量》,台北:帝門藝術中心,1997。

2000

陳栗茜編輯,《蕭勤的海外遺珍》,台北:帝門藝術中心,2000。

2005

蕭勤 ; 胡宇清編輯,《蕭勤 1954-2004 歸源之旅》,廣州:廣州美術館,2005。

2010

吳慧芳編輯 ; 陳美智 , 卓群翻譯 , 謝明學翻譯,《大炁之境 : 向大師致 敬系列 : 蕭勤 75 回顧展》,高雄:高雄市立美術館,2010。

335


Abstract / Symbol / Oriental Exhibition of Taiwan’s Masters of Modern Art

廖修平 LIAO Shiou-Ping

王秀雄,〈臺灣現代版畫的推動者—廖修平的符號系列版畫〉,《典 藏今藝術》,第 407 期,2009 年 4 月。 蕭瓊瑞,〈繽紛中的寂寞.典麗中的素樸—記廖修平的藝術與貢獻〉, 《藝術家》,第 408 期,2009 年 5 月。 2011

曲培淳,〈廖修平—跨越東方與西方的藝術橋梁〉,《藝術家》,第 430 期,2011 年年 3 月。 曾長生,〈門裡門外—探廖修平的造形思維演化〉,《藝術家》,第

碩博士論文 1998

438 期,2011 年 11 月。 蔡嘉文,《廖修平「門」系列作品中的民俗題材》,台北:國立台灣

石瑞仁,〈「藝氣彼此相通、巧妙各自不同」的鼎足三家展〉,《藝

師範大學美術研究所碩士論文,1998。 2001

鄭自修,《廖修平「季節之虹與雅敘」》,台北:台北市立師範學院

術家》,第 439 期,2011 年 12 月。 2013

視覺藝術研究所碩士論文,2001。 藝評目錄 1973 1976

畫冊目錄 廖雪芳,〈認識版畫、廖修平一席談〉,《雄獅美術》,第 29 期,

1972

《廖修平版畫集》,台北:國立歷史博物館,1972。

1973 年 7 月。

1989

《廖修平藝術作品集》,台北:台北市立美術館,1989。

雷田,〈廖修平的版畫世界—埋在沙漠裡的青春〉,《藝術家》,第

1992

13 期,1976 年 6 月。 1982

1989

王秀雄,〈入世,然後出世:廖修平的藝術歷程〉,《雄獅美術》,

1998

《廖修平作品集》,巴黎:巴黎國際藝術中心,1998。

第 137 期,1982 年 7 月。

1999

《廖修平的藝術回顧展》,香港:香港藝術中心,1999。

沈德傳,〈推廣全民美術教育的途徑:王秀雄、傅申、廖修平三人對

2000

台北市立美術館展覽組編輯,《門戶之「鑑」:廖修平的符號藝術》, 台北:台北市立美術館,2000。

陳良,〈木頭人的寓言:談廖修平的油畫個展〉,《聯合月刊》,第

2001

《版畫師傅 : 廖修平作品回顧展》,台北:國立歷史博物館,2001。

48 期,1985 年 7 月。

2007

《廖修平:符號人生.夢境系列》,台北:國立國父紀念館,2007。

王哲雄,〈論廖修平繪畫藝術的象徵性語言〉,《現代美術》,第 84

2009

《廖修平—版畫油畫.福華人生》,台北:財團法人沈春池文教基金會,2009。

期,1989 年 9 月。

正因文化編輯部編輯,《臺灣現代版畫播種者 : 廖修平個展》,台北:

呂清夫,〈從廖修平的版畫播種看後現代藝術移植的問題〉,《聯合 1992

台灣省立美術館編輯委員會策劃編輯,《廖修平的藝術》,台中:台 灣省立美術館,1992。

談〉,《雄獅美術》,第 138 期,1982 年 8 月。 1985

蕭瓊瑞,〈跨域.典範—廖修平的真實與虛擬〉,《藝術家》,第 461 期,2013 年 10 月。

台灣創價學會,2009。

文學》,第 56 期,1989 年 6 月。

2010

黃正綱主編,《廖修平:臺灣現代版畫的推動者》,台北:香柏樹文化,2010。

李鑄晉,〈從臺灣走向世界—記廖修平的藝術發展〉,《藝術家》,

2012

《界面.印痕:廖修平與臺灣現代版畫之發展》,台中:國立台灣美術

2013

《跨域.典範:廖修平的真實與虛擬》,台北:中華文化總會,2013。

第 204 期,1992 年 5 月。 林昌德,〈跨越人生與自然的東方彩虹—廖修平的藝術與貢獻〉,《藝

館,2012。

術家》,第 205 期,1992 年 8 月。 王秀雄,〈寧靜致遠,入世而後出世評釋廖修平的藝術歷程〉,《台

Exhibition Catalogue

灣美術》,第 17 期,1992 年 7 月。

1972

1993

林耀堂,〈廖修平談畫與生活〉,《臺灣畫》,第 7 期,1993 年 9 月。

1996

呂清夫,〈紛紅駭綠外一章—廖修平的近況與近作〉,《雄獅美術》,

Shiou-Ping Liao. Taipei: National Museum of History. 1989

第 303 期,1996 年 5 月。 1999

蔡嘉文,〈廖修平赴日(1962)前繪畫風格探析〉,《臺灣人文》,

石瑞仁,〈門戶之「鑑 」—解讀廖修平的符號藝術〉,《現代美術》, 李宜修,〈制心一處—廖修平作品中對母體文化的堅持〉,《典藏今 陳宜君,〈開啟國際版畫新紀元—廖修平談「中華民國國際版畫及素 李宜修,〈道藝一體—廖修平藝術創作的實踐〉,《藝術觀點》,第 曾長生,〈從現象學探廖修平的現代主義—生活系列與夢境手系列的

by Liao Shiou-Ping. Taipei: Sheen Chuen-Chi Cultural & Educational Foundation.

曾長生,〈廖修平.夢境與生活的平衡構成〉,《典藏今藝術》,第

Cheng Yin Culture Editorial Board (Ed.). (2009). A Pioneer of Taiwanese Modern Print : Selected Works of Liao Shiou-ping. Taipei: Taiwan Soka Association. 2010

活符號」系列與夢境」系列的藝術意涵〉,《藝術家》,第 385 期, 2007 年 6 月。

Nation Taiwan Museum of Fine Ar ts Editor ial Board (Ed.). (2012). Interface.Imprint: Shiou-Ping Liao and the Development of Modern

《造形藝術學刊》, 2007 年 12 月。 曾長生,〈從符號人生到無語問天—探廖修平的心靈對話〉,《藝術

Cheng Kang , Huang (Ed.). (2010). Liao Shiou-Ping: A Key Figure in the Development of modern Taiwanese print-making. Taipei: Cedars Culture.

2012

曾長生,〈構成主義的東方詮釋者—探廖修平幾何造形的深層結構〉,

Printmaking in Taiwan. Taichung: Nation Taiwan Museum of Fine Ar ts. 2013

The General Association Of Chinese Culture Editorial Board (Ed.). (2013).

家》,第 394 期, 2008 年 3 月。

Cross-domain Paradigms: the Real and Vir tual Imagery of Shiou-P ing Liao.

瀨木慎一著;黃姍姍譯,〈廖修平—莊重意象的傳達〉,《典藏今藝

Taipei: The General Association Of Chinese Culture.

術》,第 199 期,2009 年 4 月。

336

Sheen Chuen-Chi Cultural & Educational Foundation (Ed.). (2009). Art works

深層結構〉,《國父紀念館館刊》,第 19 期,2007 年 5 月。

王秀雄,〈「傳統與現代」、「吉祥與悲情」的並立表達—廖修平的「生

2009

National Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall Editorial Board (Ed.). (2007). Liao ShiouPing: Symbols of Life, Dream Series. Taipei: National Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hall.

2009

177 期,2007 年 6 月。

2008

National Museum of History Editorial Board (Ed.). (2001). Master of Printmaking : A Retrospective of Liao Shiou-Ping’s works. Taipei: National Museum of History.

2007

22 期,2004 年 4 月。 2007

Nation Taiwan Museum of Fine Ar ts Editorial Board (Ed.). (2000). The Ar t of Shiou-Ping Liao, 1959-1992. Taichung: Nation Taiwan Museum of Fine Ar ts.

2001

描雙年展」興革〉,《典藏今藝術》,第 127 期,2003 年 4 月。 2004

Hong Kong Ar ts Centre Editorial Board (Ed.). (1999). The Ar t of Liao ShiouPing: A Retrospective, 1966-1999. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Ar ts Centre.

2000

藝術》,第 111 期,2001 年 12 月。 2003

International Ar t Center of Paris Editorial Board (Ed.). The Ar t of Shiou-Ping Liao (1998). Paris: International Ar t Center of Paris.

1999

第 305 期,2000 年 10 月。 2001

Nation Taiwan Museum of Fine Ar ts Editorial Board (Ed.). (1992). The ar t of Shiou-Ping Liao, 1959-1992. Taichung: Nation Taiwan Museum of Fine Ar ts.

1998

1999 年 8 月。 2000

Taipei Fine Ar ts Museum Editorial Board (Ed.). (1989). The Ar t of Shiou-Ping Liao, 1962-1989. Taipei: Taipei Fine Ar t Museum.

1992

第 3 期,1999 年 6 月。 張 昭 卿,〈 廖 修 平 與 台 灣 現 代 版 畫 〉,《 現 代 美 術 》, 第 85 期,

National Museum of Histor y Editorial Board (Ed.). (1972). The Prints of


LITERATURE REVIEWS

李錫奇 LEE Shi-Chi

2004

曾長生,〈解構與統合—探李錫奇現代水墨畫的深層結構〉,《典藏 今藝術》,第 142 期,2004 年 7 月。

2005

白靈,〈詩的文藝—金門的骰子理論 : 李錫奇「戰爭賭和平」〉,《幼 獅文藝》,第 616 期,2005 年 4 月。 蕭瓊瑞,〈呼喚眾神復活的變調鳥 李錫奇的藝術創作〉,《典藏今藝 術》,第 155 期,2005 年 8 月。

2006 碩博士論文 2008

雜誌》,第 146 期,2006 年 3 月。 趙麗嫻,《李錫奇藝術創作之研究》,台北:國立台灣師範大學美術

李斐瑩,〈「七十.本位.李錫奇」個展前訪問李錫奇〉,《藝術家》,

學系在職進修碩士班論文,2008。 藝評目錄 1967

萬篇,〈李錫奇的畫.蘭雨詩畫展〉,《幼獅文藝》,第 26 卷第 6 期,

楊識宏,〈實驗與觀念的辨證—試析李錫奇的藝術創造類型〉,《藝 術家》,第 401 期,2008 年 10 月。

2010

楚戈,〈書法的時間意識—畫家李錫奇回歸了〉,《雄獅美術》,第 39 期,1974 年 5 月。

黃義雄,〈浮生.本位.東方情—李錫奇首都藝術中心個展〉,《藝 術家》,第 391 期,2007 年 12 月。

2008

辛鬱,〈藝術表現的兩極—評李錫奇楚戈聯合畫展〉,《幼獅文藝》, 第 32 卷第 2 期,1970 年 2 月。

1974

第 371 期,2006 年 4 月。 2007

1967 年 6 月。 1970

楊世膺〈「奇」巧大易—李錫奇的「七巧藝術」拼盤〉,《創世紀詩

王以亮,〈本位.淬鋒—抽象與詩性的盡致:李錫奇作品之探究〉,《藝 術家》,第 418 期,2010 年 3 月。

2011

陶文岳,〈大音希聲—李錫奇的創作世界〉,《藝術家》,第 435 期,

1977

羅燕,〈第二度抽象—以傳統書法藝術為基礎的現代版畫家—李錫 奇〉,《中華文化復興月刊》,第 10 卷第 7 期,1977 年 7 月。

蕭瓊瑞,〈穿越輕重之間—李錫奇的大書法、漆畫與水墨系列〉,《藝

1984

杜十三,〈生命的感動:論李錫奇的創作歷程〉,《聯合月刊》,第

術家》,第 435 期,2011 年 8 月。

35 期,1984 年 6 月。

方秀雲,〈文化底蘊下的初始記憶—朱為白、李錫奇、李重重、顧重

1986 1990

2011 年 8 月。

杜十三,〈起承轉折的藝術 : 論李錫奇的創作歷程與其新作「頓悟」

光的「虛實之涵」〉,《藝術家》,第 435 期,2011 年 8 月。

系列〉,《藝術家》,第 137 期,1986 年 10 月。

石瑞仁,〈「藝氣彼此相通、巧妙各自不同」的鼎足三家展〉,《藝

李鑄晉,〈書法的繪畫化—記李錫奇的藝術歷程〉,《雄獅美術》, 第 228 期,1990 年 2 月。

術家》,第 439 期,2011 年 12 月。 2013

第 453 期,2013 年 2 月。

1990 年 2 月。

黃義雄整理,〈遊藝一甲子.揮灑六十年一李錫奇與臺灣現代藝術發

楊識宏,〈飛躍閃爍於抽象穹蒼中—試析李錫奇繪畫的深層結構〉, 《藝術家》,第 177 期,1990 年 2 月。 1991 1992 1994

展歷程座談〉,《藝術家》,第 455 期,2013 年 4 月。 2014

劉登翰,〈向時間的歷史深度延伸—談李錫奇「遠古的記憶」新作〉, 《藝術家》,第 195 期,1991 年 8 月。

畫冊目錄

劉登翰,〈藝術創新與通變—評李錫奇九二新作「記憶的傳說」系

1986

列〉,《藝術家》,第 209 期,1992 年 10 月。

1996

李玉玲總編輯,《李錫奇創作歷程展》,台北:台北市立美術館,1996。

賴瑛瑛,〈複合美術訪談錄 II:跨越繪畫與非繪畫間的鴻溝—訪李錫

1997

《回音之旅—李錫奇創作評論集》,台北:財團法人賢志文教基金會,1997。

奇談複合美術六 O 年代的源起及沉寂〉,《現代美術》,第 55 期,

2001

《歷史.本位.李錫奇—李錫奇創作歷程學術研討會》,台北:財團法人

杜十三,〈起承轉合三十年—評李錫奇創作歷程〉,《現代美術》, 賴瑛瑛,〈畫壇變調鳥—李錫奇〉,《藝術家》,第 205 期,1996 年 3 月。

2006

徐文達總編輯,《本位淬鋒—李錫奇》,苗栗:苗栗縣政府國際文化 觀光局,2010。

《藝術家》,第 251 期,1996 年 4 月。

2013

盧天炎,〈揭舉形式張力的衝鋒者—李錫奇在現代本位中的投射〉,

Exhibition Catalogue

《雄獅美術》,第 302 期,1996 年 4 月。

1986

1998

蕭瓊瑞,〈李錫奇的「再本位」系列〉,《藝術家》,第 281 期,1998 年 10 月。

2000

石瑞仁,〈感性的吸收,知性的轉化,直覺的創造—談李錫奇及其近 劉登翰,〈傳統本位的現代變奏—兼論金門歷史文化對李錫奇現代繪

National Museum of History Editorial Board (Ed.). (2012). Ten Aspects of Museum of History.

2006

尉天驄,〈看李錫奇的「浮生十帖」〉,《藝術家》,第 332 期,2003 年 1 月。

Ceng Yi-Shi (Ed.) (2006). 70. Orientation. Lee Shi-Chi: Modern Ar t in Taiwan Through the Past 50 Years.

2010

第 332 期,2003 年 1 月。 石瑞仁,〈從視覺圖象的七巧組合到人生歷程的八卦演易—李錫奇的

Hsien Chi Foundation (2001). Histor y. Origin. Lee Shi-Chi: The Academic

My Ar tistic Life: Transformation, Variation and Lee Shi-Chi. Taipei: National

陳淑鈴,〈關於巴西聖保羅雙年展的二、三事—訪李錫奇談臺灣參展

楚戈,〈「浮生十帖」的變易哲學—李錫奇畫展記事〉,《藝術家》,

Hsien Chi Foundation (1997). Echo Tour – Commentaries on the works by

Seminar of Lee Shi-Chi’s Creation Prospect. Taipei: Hsien Chi Foundation. 2002

第 320 期,2002 年 1 月。 憶往〉,《現代美術》,第 100 期,2002 年 2 月。

Lee Yuh-Ling (Ed.). (1996). The Odyssey of Lee Shi-Chi. Taipei: Taipei Fine

Lee Shi-Chi. Taipei: Hsien Chi Foundation. 2001

展切面〉,《藝術家》,第 318 期,2001 年 11 月。 楚戈,〈從偶然到必然—李錫奇在水墨中創造了一片天〉,《藝術家》,

Huan Ya Ar t Center (1986). Acrylic Spray Paintings, Prints, and Pottery by

Ar ts Museum. 1997

畫的影響〉,《藝術家》,第 317 期,2001 年 10 月。 蕭瓊瑞,〈李錫奇與臺灣美術的畫廊時代—八0年代臺灣現代藝術發

《游藝志道—李錫奇的藝術世界》,台東縣政府、國立台灣藝術大學,2013。

Lee Shi-Chi. Taipei: Huan Ya Ar t Center. 1996

作〉,《藝術家》,第 301 期,2000 年 6 月。

2003

曾一士總編輯,《七十.本位.李錫奇—走過台灣現代藝術 50 年》, 台北:國立國父紀念館,2006。

2010

袁和平,〈鐵肩擔道義 妙手繪春秋—記兩岸文化交流中的李錫奇〉,

2002

國立歷史博物館編輯委,《李錫奇 1992–2002 浮生十帖 錯位.變置. 李錫奇》,台北:國立歷史博物館,2002。

盧天炎,〈「直見心性」與「東方靈動」的感知—蕭勤和李錫奇的抽 象指向〉,《典藏藝術》,第 42 期,1996 年 3 月。

《李錫奇壓克力噴畫、版畫、陶繪展》,台北:環亞藝術中心,1986。

賢志文教基金會,2001。 2002

第 64 期,1996 年 2 月。

2001

蕭瓊瑞,〈巨匠圍爐—李錫奇藝文交友錄〉,《藝術家》,第 464 期, 2014 年 1 月。

1994 年 8 月。 1996

曾長生,〈本位與變易—探李錫奇的跨文化現代性〉,《藝術家》,

王燕玲,〈將心中的話畫出來—訪李錫奇先生〉,《文訊》,第 52 期,

Xu Wen-Da (Ed.). (2010). Oriental. The Elegance of Han Dynasty – Lee ShiChi. Miaoli: Miaoli County International Culture and Tourism Bureau.

2013

Taitung County Government & National Taiwan University of Ar ts (2013).

「浮生十帖」展〉,《典藏今藝術》,第 125 期,2003 年 2 月。

Immersed in Ar t – Lee Shi-Chi’s Creative Horizons. Taipei: National Taiwan

李維菁,〈李錫奇—畫壇的變調鳥〉,《藝術家》,第 347 期,2003 年 4 月。

University of Ar ts.

337


CATALOG

陳庭詩

楊英風

CHEN Ting-Shih

YANG Yu-Yu

驚夢 Waking Dreams 1988 Iron 86×53×152cm

p.58

夢之塔 Tower of Dreams 1972 Bronze 182×25×47cm

p.78 飲食男女 Eat Drink Man Woman 1979 Iron 67×51×174cm

p.59

山水 Scenery 1969 Bronze 25.5×96×22cm

p.79 Work No.473 1999 Iron

太極 ( 二 )

58×16×74cm

Source of Life

p.60

1972 Bronze 65×97×50cm

p.80 晝與夜 #11 Day&Night#11 1972 Woodblock print on paper 93x93cm

p.61 神采飛揚 窺

Phoenix Rising

Deeping

1981 Bronze

1968 Woodblock print on paper

74×87.5×27.5cm

90×184cm

p.81

p.62

338

蟄 #11

天地星緣

Hibernating#11

Cosmic Encounter

1969 Woodblock print on paper

1987 Stainless steel

120×180cm

77×120×72cm

p.63

p.83


朱為白 CHU Wei-Bor

智慧種子

The Wisdom Seeds

On the Move

1998 Linen

1991 Cotton, linen

108×80cm

91.5×168cm

p.98

p.104-105

秋 Autumn 1981 Linen

楚戈

81.5×66.5cm

CHU Ko

p.99

原初的結構

Droplet

Primal Structure

1991 Cotton

1997 Acrylic and ink on canvas

185×65cm

150×153cm

p.100

p.120

突出

吾道一以貫之

Eminence

In the Way I Follow

1986 Cotton, linen, resine

1997 Acrylic and ink on canvas

55.5×133cm

144×187cm

p.101

p.121

網路

垂象

Network No.3

In Suspence

1996 Cotton

2004 Knot

46×37.5cm

150×200cm

p.102

p.122

黑洞 1

結繩的記憶

Black Hole No.1

Memory of Tying the Rope

1987 Cotton

2001 Bronze

162×130cm

51×33×40cm

p.103

p.123 339


CATALOG

吳昊 WU Hao

蝴蝶與女孩

太陽圖之 21

Butterfly and Girl

Sunmap No. 21

1995 Oil on linen

2011 Ink on paper

62×62cm (19S)

82.7×72.8cm

p.136

p.153

紅花朵朵

日上綠樹頭

Red Flowers

Behind a Green Tree the Sun Climbs

2008 Oil on linen

2006 Ink on paper

81×81cm (33S)

89.5×57.5cm

p.137

p.154

鼓舞 The Youth of Dance 2008 Oil on linen 130×194cm (120F)

日落的印象之九

p.138

Impression of Sunset 9 1972 Ink on paper 185.5×46.2cm

p.155 菊花朵朵開 Chrysanthemum in Bloom 2011 Oil on linen 73×91cm (30F)

p.139

夏陽 HSIA Yan

劉國松 LIU Kuo-Sung

340

日落紅湖白(二)

太子爺

White All Over When Sunset II

Tai Tzu Yei

1969 Ink on paper

1990 Acrylic on canvas

55×86cm

183×112cm(102 號)

p.152

p.170


獅子啣劍 No.10

開展之 5

Sword in Lion's Mouth No.10

Development 5

1992 Acrylic on canvas

2009 Oil on canvas

170×170cm (145S)

98×130cm (60F)

p.171

p.191

若禽

源起之 21

The Bird

Origin 21

2007 Brass sheet

2006 Oil on canvas

300×150×120cm

111×193cm (120P)

p.173

p.192-193

承合 6 Continuity 6

霍剛

Oil on canvas

HO Kan

50×50cm (13S)

p.194

承合 1 Continuity 1 Oil on canvas 200×122cm(122 號)

p.188

開展之 31 Development 31 2009 Oil on canvas 70×70cm (25S)

p.194

承合 5

源起之 1

Continuity 5

Origin 1

Oil on canvas

2006 Oil on canvas

200×82cm(82 號)

60×72cm(22 號)

p.189

p.195

承合 3-1, 3-2

源起之 2

Continuity 3-1, 3-2

Origin 2

Oil on canvas

2006 Oil on canvas

107×200cm×2 (214 號)

60×72cm(22 號)

p.190

p.195 341


CATALOG

莊喆 CHUANG Che

Above & Beyond

霧台山區 Budai Village

1994 Oil on canvas

1987 Acrylic on canvas

168×168cm (150F)

111×145 (80F)

p.208

p.229

交會 Intersection 2000 Oil and acrylic on canvas 127×168cm (100F)

楓紅

p.209

Maples 2012 Acrylic on canvas 72.5×60.5 (20F)

p.230 獨立蒼茫 Stand Alone on the World 2008 Acrylic on canvas 171.5×346cm (150F×2)

p.210-211

石蒼雲燦 Green Rock and

洞見系列之三

Splendid Cloud

In Sight Series III

2010 Acrylic on canvas

1999 Acrylic on canvas

127×336cm (100F×2)

72.5×53 (20P)

p.212-213

p.231

春天裡的春天系列之四 Spring Within Spring Series IV

陳正雄

1998 Acrylic on canvas

CHEN Cheng-Hsiung

97×145.5 (80P)

342

p.232

夜森林之夢

酒之夢鄉系列之四

The Dream of Forest at Night

Dreamland of Wine Series IV

1988 Acrylic on canvas

2003 Acrylic on canvas

72.5×91 (30F)

100×192 (120M)

p.228

p.234-235


廖修平 LIAO Shiou-Ping

中秋夜

生活 ( 二 )

Mid-Autumn Festival

Life (2)

1988 Acrylic on canvas

1974 Acrylic and gold leaf on wood

直徑 40cm(6 號)

122×122cm

p.233

p.264

雙福一二三 色面之疊景 Multi-layered Color-fields 1994 Mixed media 直徑 50cm(10 號)

Double Wealth ⅠⅡⅢ 2008 Silkscreen 87×150cm

p.265

p.233

希望之門 Gate of New Hope 2007 Acrylic and gold leaf on canvas 194×500cm

p.266-267

蕭勤 HSIAO Chin

迎福門 ( 一 ) Gate of Prosperity Ⅰ 2010 Acrylic and gold leaf on canvas

偉大的熱情

162×422cm

La Grand Passione

p.268-269

2008 Acrylic on canvas 200×600cm (200S×3)

p.248-249 富臨門 ( 四 ) Gate of Wealth Ⅳ 2014 Oil, acrylic and Gold leaf on canvas 122×366cm

p.270-271

神光

節慶之柱 ( 四 )

La Luce Divina

Column of Festivity ( Ⅳ )

2008 Acrylic on canvas

2013 Stainless steel

300×150cm(225 號)

185×70×70cm

p.251

p.273 343


李錫奇 LEE Shi-Chi

漢采本位 2014-11 風起、水湧 0965

The Elegance of Han Dynasty

Rising Wind, Surging Water

Oriental 2014-11

2009 Mixed media

2014 Lacquer, mixed media

120×200cm(120 號)

120×120cm(72 號)

p.286-287

p.293

漢采本位 2014-12 本位淬鋒 2012-1

The Elegance of Han Dynasty

Root Refinement 2012-1

Oriental 2014-12

2012 Mixed media

2014 Lacquer, mixed media

120×320cm(192 號)

120×120cm(72 號)

p.288-289

p.293

漢采本位 2014-8 The Elegance of Han Dynasty Oriental 2014-8 2014 Mixed media

李重重

100×460cm(230 號)

LEE Chung-Chung

p.290-291

漢采本位 2014-9 The Elegance of Han Dynasty

白露

Oriental 2014-9

White Dew

2014 Lacquer, mixed media

2013 Ink and color on paper

120×120cm(72 號)

69×69cm(5.3 才)

p.292

p.310

漢采本位 2014-10

344

The Elegance of Han Dynasty

春臨

Oriental 2014-10

Spring's Arrival

2014 Lacquer, mixed media

2013 Ink and color on paper

120×120cm(72 號)

69×69cm(5.3 才)

p.292

p.311


傾聽大地之聲二 Perceiving Cries of Nature 2 2013 Ink and color on paper 90×90cm(9 才)

p.312

山影凍 Frozen Mountain Shadows 2014 Ink and color on paper 90×90cm(9 才)

p.313

雲與山的相遇 Cloud Encounters Mountain 2014 Ink on paper 91×120cm(12 才)

p.314

景 View 2003 Ink and color on paper 212×255cm(60 才)

p.315

345


發行人

余彥良

出版者

尊彩國際藝術有限公司

策劃設計

尊彩藝術中心

印刷

日動藝術印刷有限公司

出版

2014年10月初版

ISBN

978-986-90108-6-3

Executive Director

YU Yen-Liang

Publisher

Liang Gallery Co., Ltd

Editor

Liang Gallery

Printing

Jih-Tung Art Pringting Co., Ltd.

Publishing Date

First Edition, October, 2014

ISBN

978-986-90108-6-3

特別感謝

月臨畫廊

亞洲藝術中心

楊英風美術館

財團法人山藝術文教基金會

財團法人陳庭詩現代藝術基金會 財團法人楚戈文化藝術基金會 財團法人蕭勤國際文化藝術基金會 誠品畫廊 Special Thanks to

Moon Gallery Asia Art Center YuYu Yang Museum Mountain Art Foundation Chen Ting-Shih Modern Art Foundation Chu Ko Culture and Arts Foundation Hsiao Chin Foundation Eslite Gallery

T +886-2-2797-1100 F +886-2-2656-0033 lianggallery@gmail.com

台北市11492內湖區瑞光路366號 No.366, Ruiguang Rd., Neihu District, Taipei 11492, Taiwan 開放時間 Gallery Hours 11:00am~6:00pm 週一公休 Closed on Monday


抽象.符碼.東方情—臺灣現代藝術巨匠大展  

尊彩藝術中心 Liang Gallery 2014

抽象.符碼.東方情—臺灣現代藝術巨匠大展  

尊彩藝術中心 Liang Gallery 2014

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