TABLE OF CONTENTS I INTRODUCTION 4 PROBLEM STATEMENT 4 DELIMITATION OF TOPIC 4 • Design methods 5 • Qualitative research 5 II THEORIES AND METHODS 5 • Value chain • Sustainable design methods: 5 1. No-waste fashion throughout history
2. Grading zero-waste 10 3. Innovative pattern cutting 10 4. Second hand fashion and upcycling
• Building a sustainable collection 12 III ANALYSIS – SOLUTION METHODS AND PROPOSALS
• About the company 15 • SWOT analysis 17 • Jacquemus’ inspiration 18 • Proposed solutions: 20 1. Zero-waste design 20 2. Analysis of qualitative research 23 3. The collection 23 • Prototypes and experiments 30 IV 1.2
CONCLUSION 40 PERSPECTIVES 40 BIBLIOGRAPHY AND LIST OF SOURCES APPENDICES – Separate file
In the consumerism obsessed world today the way of dressing and expressing yourself through clothing is an inevitable part for most of the people daily. Humans seem to have an on-going relationship with their outfits ever since humanity as such existed. Fashion tends to have various purposes - it can be a social activity of belonging to a crowd or just the opposite. It is a communication tool of self-expression and realisation.
Regarding the choices made of using specific design methods, the main subject is to work with the design development phase itself instead of focusing on the whole value chain.
With more and more fashion collections being showed every year and high street markets profiting like never before, it draws a troubling scenario for the future. Consumers are fed to buy more for less, stimulated by advertising which is impossible to avoid with the excessive use of social media. Even though customer’s mind could be educated in the long run, the designs offered in the market should fulfill this desire of beautiful, functional and innovative products manufactured in a sustainable way. For this project I have chosen to work with Jacquemus - a company that is still considered new in the industry, but rapidly growing both in its size and development. The purpose was to break down the stereotype of sustainable fashion seen as plain and dull. To challenge this decision I decided to work with a designer who embodies creativity and an extraordinary vision. It is a high fashion label that is original and artistic, but still wearable and functional. Since the attempt to communicate with the brand on a more direct level did not succeed, this is a case-based study and looks for solutions identified from an outside perspective. As a fashion student passionate about art and freedom of expression, with a goal to become an environmentally counscious designer in the future, I see Jacquemus as an exciting brand to base my research on.
PROBLEM STATEMENT Fashion industry as a whole is a mix of complicated processes and activities, which is probably why it has been so difficult to reorganise the existing fashion model and still is a challenge for the businesses. Since the awareness of issues is growing and new solutions are looked at, the question “can fashion ever really be sustainable” still remains. 1 This study will be highly practice-oriented and will focus on the designer’s viewpoint on developing a collection while solving sustainability related issues we are facing today. The aim is to seek answers during research and experimentation process while staying focused on the following problem statement :
These design methods and practices do not require to reinvent the whole design process the brand has been working with before, nor it asks for special technology and machinery to create a garment, for example, if we were talking about recycling fabrics into fibres. The methods are realistic enough to implement in an independent working studio that is still on their way of setting a definite image of itself.
Qualitative research. In search of a viewpoint from potential target group, a selected group of individuals residing in various cities of Europe were chosen to participate in an interview about sustainability issues in the fashion industry. Instead of making an anonymous survey where the subjects often are not familiar with the context and give vague answers, I decided to focus on people who have particular interest in fashion world, are somehow connected with the industry or work in a fashion related profession, since the target customer for the brand is commonly an innovator or an early adopter. It is important to analyse their standpoint and consumer behaviour in case the company would shift on a more sustainable model. The intention is to get validated answers through qualitative research that gives a clear understanding and insight into the opinions of potential customers. The particular brand – Jacquemus – is not mentioned in the interview since the aim is not to influence the participants in focusing only on the specific designer’s aesthetic, but instead learn about their opinion and thoughts on the problem in general.
THEORIES AND METHODS Value chain.
“How can an independent, upcoming fashion design label introduce design methods and practices to become more sustainable.”
In order to solve sustainability related issues we have to address the whole value chain as a whole beginning from the agricultural point of view of growing raw material to manufacturing the garments in factories and distributing further on to the clients. It is a holistic cycle that seeks new methods and strategies from educated people and innovators.
Significant part of the problems in fashion industry is waste generated by pre and post consumer. During the garment manufacturing process approximately 15% of the fabric goes to waste. To illustrate, from the average 400 billion square metres produced in one year, 60 billion square metres is the amount of leftover fabric.2 Since the aim is to work on the problem as a creative designer, the direct focus will be put on the beginning of design phase – where pattern cutting becomes an integral part of the product design. It will also consider the opinion of consumer’s perspective and analyse the possible achieved results.
Additionaly, the consumers today are more than ever in a need of trusting the companies in how they operate and produce their products with a certain level of transparency. “People want to make decisions about their purchases with a full understanding of the brands’ backstage policies and directions regarding the supply chain and value creation.” 3
DELIMITATION OF TOPIC Jacquemus’ target audience is primarily based in the Northern Hemisphere, mostly in Europe and North America. Since highest customer activity and interest in the band is observed among people living in the capital regions of Western and Northern Europe, the research is based on and designed for the European market.
My primary interest is to create a garment that includes the following steps: research of the brand, trend and historical research, developing moodboards, colour palette and colour story, planning of a collection, collection building, sketching by hand, choosing the fabrics and trimmings, technical drawings using CAD programs, pattern making, prototype sewing, making adjustments and corrections, fittings on the body and sewing a final garment. With the knowledge gained during the course and combining it with elective subjects such as draping, pattern making and sewing techniques, the aim is to work on a mini collection consisting of a few garments designed using sustainable working methods such as zero waste design and innovative pattern cutting.
A good example well known for their transparent business model is Honest By, based in Antwerp, Belgium. The fashion brand was launched in 2012 and is proudly named a pioneer of being the first 100% transparent company offering information about their supply chain and giving a full cost breakdown of their products from the smallest details to yarn and fabrics. However, when we talk about an already existing business and are looking for ways of shifting to more sustainable model, questions arise. Is it possible to use the same marketing approach including design aesthetic and language as those of a business-as-usual? Or does the brand need a fundamental paradigm shift in both internal and external communication to establish a new brand identity with alternative values and principles.4 5
The coordinator of the Textiles Environment Design (TED) project Rebeca Early argues that the biggest obstacles to sustainability are consumers, cost and the traditional structure of how businesses are run. In order to implement a new, sustainable design thinking and practice, she suggests to change the way different departments work and relate to each other by enhancing cross-department projects, pointing out that the innovation process does not end in design sector. 5 The ten sustainable design strategies for textile and fashion designers developed by TED gives an insight of how professionals in the industry can orientate in the complex issues that are subject to sustainability by offering realistic steps and methods simply to design “better”.6 1. Designers are advised to minimise waste by introducing zero-waste cutting and recycling, but it also suggests to question what is a desirable product in the eyes of a potential customer and how the waste can be reduced not only pre but also post consumer? 2. To design for recycling, upcycling, closed-loop systems and dissasembly. 3. To reduce chemical impacts by choosig appropriate process and material selection such as organically produced and natural materials or less harmful alternatives between dyes and mordants. 4. Design to save water and energy. This strategy is considered in the production phase when fabrics are dyed and printed, and also in the use phase to educate the customer by adding innovative and informative care labels, designing for low/no launder or using technical coatings to reduce washing. 5. Introducing technology to create more sustainable and clever textiles.
During history, in the Middle Ages there have been other samples of zero or less-waste garments which are cut from one piece and partly slit to create sleeves and opening for the head. The garment is folded, with the bodice to wrap around on the center back and to attach to a yoke seam from which the sleeves come out. A similar principle with a different method of cutting the fabric is used when the garment is constructed of rectangular pieces. The sleeves are cut separately but the fit is improved through the use of gussets. A gusset is a small piece of fabric in triangular or rhomboidal shape that is sewn between seems in areas of strain, such as where the arm joins the body or in the crotch seam. Gusset can not only improve fit and movement, but can add to the longevity of the garment. The examples of square-cut shirts where widely worn in Europe and America until 19th century when it was replaced by refining the construction of a shirt. Usage or curved cuts around the armholes and neck allowed to achieve a better fit on the body. 9
6. To use practices of the past and patterns from the natural world to develop new strategies for the future and explore biomimicry – innovations and solutions that take inspiration from the forms of nature. 7. To design for ethical production, support fair-trade and the rights of the workers. This strategy also advises to invest in traditional craft both from artisans locally and globally. 8. Design products of longevity in order to replace the need to consume. It addresses emotionally durable design and slow fashion. This strategy promotes the culture of DIY, co-design and collaborative consumption. It values products and design that become better with age. 9. To develop systems and public services – a concept of sharing and repairing the existing products instead of manufacturing new. It also suggests supporting the development or local communities.
2.1 Above: Traditional Japanese kimono pattern construction. Left: Designs in a French magzine inspired by the kimono, 1922.
10. The last strategy encourages the designers to become “Social Innovators” by communicating with their customers and society in general to improve their knowledge about sustainability related issues and the environmental impacts of textile products.7
Sustainable design methods. In order to understand the development of sustainable design thinking, we must look back in the history and examine the path of making clothes. From the fashion designer’s perspective there are several practices carried out during the design phase that can be adopted to become a more conscious designer.
No-waste fashion throughout history.
One of the most widely used term associated with sustainable fashion is zero-waste cutting. This practice of using the whole material in a garment can be dated back to prehistorical times when the animal skins were draped on the body. Later on with the development of woven fabric, the complete lenght of the cloth without any cutting was worn as a garment in ancient Greece. Another example is the Japanese traditional dress kimono that is constructed of a rectangular piece of cloth with the dimensions of 30-40 centimeters in width and up to 11 - 12 meters in length. The cloth is split in total of eight pieces with no fabric wasted in the cutting process. 8
While it is hard to determine where zero-waste cutting as a mindful act began, we can identify some of the first creators of less and no-waste clothing starting from early twentieth century onward. One such example is the tuta or overalls designed by Italian futurist artist Ernesto Michahelles, also known as Thayaht in 1919. He developed various versions of the tuta, including a two-piece garment both for men and women with the main body of the garment cut in one piece. Similarly to the square-cut shirts, the tuta is constructed of rectangular pieces with gussets inserted under the armholes and a triangular gusset in the crotch to achieve the fit. During the early 1920s Thayaht worked for a fashion innovator and Parisian couturier Madeleine Vionnet and both shared and interest in a design theory known as dynamic symmetry. This theory made connections between growth rates found in nature with proportioning system seen in classical Greek art. A dress design by Vionnet consists four rectangularly cut pieces on the straight grain while hanging on the bias. Here it is important to point out that cutting garments on the bias can result in more fabric waste, while cutting on the straight grain and letting the fabric to hang on the bias can provide the opposite – to eliminate waste. 10 Another influental figure was an architect, designer, writer, teacher and social historian Bernard Rudofsky who criticised the Western tradition of cutting fabric to make clothes, since to him it seemed a wasteful process both materially and philosophically calling it to be “anachronistic, irrational, impractical and harmful”. He gave lectures about the unsuitability of the contemporary dress with one of his lectures called “How can people expect to have good architecture when they wear such clothes?” . 11 His aim was to minimize waste of leftover fabric and additionally sewing to maintain affordability. The garments were composed of rectangular pieces and made to be adjustable so that one size fits all. In his book “Are Clothes Modern?” Rudofsky decribes what are the advantages of clothes made from primary geometric shapes. Rectangular shapes does not require complicated cutting and piecing and almost no sewing is needed. Most of the machine-work is eliminated which therefore reduces the cost. The clothes are flexible and adjustable and as a consequence extinguish the system of sizes which the author believes to be wasteful and expensive. Also, the clothing is more functional and abolish the distinction between formal and informall wardrobe.12 In 1944 Rudofsky curated an exhibition “Are Clothes Modern?” at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York where he included clothes designed by Claire McCardell as examples of zero-waste fashion design. During her student years McCardell studied Vionnet’s principles of cutting and constructing garments which she later applied in her own clothing designed for American massmarket.13
“These garments, made without cutting, are highly significant because they are not experimental but are mass-manufactured and successfully sold.” 14 - Bernard Rudofsky, “Are Clothes Modern?”, 1947. German artist and etnographer Marx Karl Tilke well-know for his work on researching oriental and historical costumes was also included in the exhibition. Tilke’s study and illustrations gave an understanding of the pattern construction in clothing apart from the Western dress. In the preface of his published work “Oriental Costumes, Their Designs and Colors” he writes:
2.3 The square-cut tuta by Thayaht, 1919.
“The reason why I begin my investigations with oriental costumes is because just these afford excellent material for studying the development of individual forms of garments. It is here that we can trace the gradual development of simple wraps to complicated combinations, or how original garments with only one button were developed by the addition of accessories and seams into new forms of dress.” 15 - Max Tilke, Berlin 1922. Generally speaking, all these scholars, writers, designers and even people from ancient times all shared the same idea – why to waste fabric during cutting when there has been put so much energy, time and effort into producing it in the first place. From growing the raw material on the field, harvesting it and spinning the fibres into yarns to weaving and knitting in a fabric. Sure, it may seem as an easy task in the time of technology, but it does not mean waste is acceptable. All the parties included – manufacturers, designers and consumers must tolerate the produced material and treat it with importance. 8
Grading zero-waste. Grading for zero-waste garments can be challenging since the sample size is usually designed depending on the width of the textile. Mostly the change in pattern size occur horizontally, in the width of the clothing – the the hip, chest and waist area. Therefore, alterations in size of the components can generate waste which does not need to happen. In order to solve the grading problem in zero-waste design there are few possible options. First, the garments could be designed as one size fits all and accordingly could be adjusted to any figure. These styles were described by fashion designer Yeohlee as “the ultimate efficiency”. However, the designs generally work only on loose and wrapped clothing. 16 Another option is to design each size separately ensuring that there is no waste left behind. The designs are made to look as close to the sample size as possible. Even though there could be slight differences in every size visually, without compromising the design, these are not coincidental differences and could be seen even more individual and as a positive addition to the design. Bringing out the most complimentary qualities of each size and figure the specially designed garments could be more appealing to the customer since the proporties are carefully thought over and does not look clumsy when scaled up, for example. Yet, this method may be seen as time-consuming, but is still supported by the authors Rissanen and Mcquillan reminding the fundamental aim of designing less but better. 17 In terms of taking the original sample size and keeping the marker configuration as it is, there are still possibilities to alter each size by using pleats, darts and gathers. This method works well when the garments are made of large pieces of fabric and can be shaped freely while retaining the outline of each pattern piece. These textile manipulations can control the fullness across sizes, for instance garments in larger sizes will have less pleats, while the smaller items - more. This technique works best when three sizes are produced, as distinguishing more sizes could become challenging. 18
Innovative pattern cutting. Looking further on to the beginning of 21st century when the awareness of climate change and global environmental issues arose, designers working in fashion started to think more about the way they design clothes and the footprint they leave behind. With fashion industry being the second most polluting business in the world, right after oil industry 19, many designers stepped on the side of designing for a better future in mind. To be more responsible with the resources starting from the very basis of the design phase, it opened up doors to think on a different creative level. Throughout time pattern cutting has been studied as a separate trade apart from fashion design in a highly technical and more constructive manner. Often the pattern cutter is not involved in a design process with the fashion designer and there is no direct communication happening between the two. In order to solve problems with the aim to eliminate waste and design a successful item, pattern cutter must be an integral part of the process from the basis of the idea. Also, the cutting itself can generate an idea and lead to a creative and functional outcome.20 Even though creative pattern making has been a focus area on historical fashion designers before, in the last two decades innovative pattern cutters and designers have explored new ways of making garments in non-traditional techniques. These methods prove that clothing does not necessarily need to be constructed following tailor’s guidelines and standardisation. Swedish fashion designer and pattern cutter Rickard Lindqvist points out that this method known to be a characteristic to Western dress has few “connections to the biodynamics of the body and it’s relation to the fabric”. (Lindqvist, personal correspondence, 2014 ) Lindgvist also studied the work of french designer Geneviève Sevin-Doering who believed that there is no need and it does not make sense to split the body on side seams or in the shoulders.21 Sevin-Doering was interested in historical pre-tailoring work methods, creating garments made of a single piece of fabric that is draped and wraped around the body.22
Substraction cutting is a method of cutting technique developed by Julian Roberts. It is an innovative approach of patternmaking where the construction of the garment is defined by substracting certain fabric sections and using the cuts, holes and gaps as a way to achieve the final shape of the clothing by making most out of the negative space. The outcome is a mixture of draped silhouette, falling on the body which allows the garment to be worn in multiple ways by
2.4 Left: Endurance shirt by Timo Rissanen, 2009. Above: Two sizes of the adopted Endurance shirt demonstrate that the change does not have to be drastic when redesigning a style for different fabric width.
playing around with the placement of cutout sections. Different shapes and styles can be achieved by twisting the fabric. The result of the shape is created by removal of fabric and not the other way around. Not only it creates space for the body but also guides the fabric to move around the body.23 This technique of building a garment in a non-traditional way also requires limited use of seams and therefore – less time and cost to produce an item. Even though substraction cutting is not considered entirely a zero-waste approach, it can be defined as a less-waste method, since the only leftover fabric comes from cutting the holes, making tunnels for the body to go through and the whole fabric is used to the maximum.
“... I want people to understand that pattern cutting is not all about cold geometry, computers and machines, but rather it is about a warm human being touching cloth, and exploring ideas using spatial measurements that are human, not abstract. ” 24 – Julian Roberts, 2010 Another notable name among innovative pattern cutters is Mark Liu with his signature garments put together like a jigsaw puzzle. But the designer’s approach goes the opposite direction from Robert’s highly experimental outcomes. Liu’s work involves science and mathematical principles that helped him to develop his tailored aesthetic without a single piece of fabric being wasted. Not only Mark Liu redesigned pattern cutting, but he also solved problems in traditional pattermaking when accuracy of fitting the garments on a body was concerned. By using technlogy and mathematics, the designer created a measurement system based on a 3D fitting algorithm instead of linear measurements. This new system could replace the conventional measurement charts and provide a more accurate fit for people with different body shapes.25 With development in technology, innovation in the way pattern makers and designers are constructing clothes could make a drastic change in the whole fashion industry and possibly resolve the challenge of produced waste entirely.
Second-hand fashion and upcycling. In the last decade second-hand clothing and upcycled fashion movement has been growing rapidly, especially among subcultures in fashion orientated capitals such as Stockholm, London, New York and other. The idea of sourcing the raw material in charity and thrift stores is an exciting process of searching attractive items that would be worthy of a second life. Second-hand and vintage clothing has become an important part of research and focus for many designers in the sustainable fashion sector. It reflects the concern of over-consumption of new clothes and instead focuses on the materials we already have to turn them into new and fashionable garments. However, the trend of up-cycling and selling second-hand and vintage fashion is still a niche activity and only a small proportion of the total amount of used clothes are turned into new garments. Since the affordability of fast-fashion in the latest styles offered by retailers like Primark and Walmart has grown, even people with low level of income has moved away from purchasing second-hand garments.26
Building a sustainable collection. Planning a sustainable collection involves a more careful selection of colours, materials and silhouettes since the designs require to be considered timeless and probably more classical in the overall aesthetic. Short-term trends wear out quickly and subsequently these garments are soon regarded out-of-fashion and are thrown away. High street markets offer the latest trends at such low prices that the customers often purchase items on impulse and emotion rather than a rational decision. The challenge is to design a product that is desirable enough to last in the closet longer than a typical one-season trendy purchase and still be considered a modern design after a while.
2.5 Left and below: Subtraction cutting by Julian Roberts.
“The greatest discoveries require a leap of imagination. No one sees them coming because they are unimaginable at the time. But once someone makes that leap we all see the world in a different way.” - Dr. Mark Liu
Emotionally durable design is versatile and capable of alteration, it is easy to maintain and can be repaired with minimum knowledge and skill. These fashions tend to age gracefully and are even valued and treasured more after a certain period of time has passed. By making products that last and can bear up against the test of time, designers can reduce the never-ending need to consume. If we avoid the transient trend movement, but instead are focused on a slow-paced and more enriching design with sustained meaning and values behind – people will want to look after and keep the things they own for longer. It results in a more fulfilling and satisfying fashion space designed to think in a long-run. 27
“If you want people to change behaviour, the new thing needs to be more fulfilling, meaningful, fun and rewarding than the previous thing. Expecting people to ‘care’ is a risky approach.” – Jonathan Chapman Julian Roberts in his manifesto also shares a similar point of view. He believes if the customer witnesses how a garment is being constructed from the inside out, the person will be more involved in the process and therefore have greater respect towards clothes. This leads to awareness of garment quality and diminishes the need to excessive consumption. Also, people tend to be more willing to pay for last longing and valuable products.28 In the design phase of collection building, inspiration is the first catalyst to drive the collection in certain direction and visual aesthetic that will carry on the message, concept and overall idea expressed by the designer. It is crucial to be consistent and not drift away from the core elements and the initial purpose to keep the work coherent and understandable in the eyes of a receiver. Triangulation is not only a tool for finding insipration, but is also an idea generator and basis for building a story with a red thread throughout the whole idea. Choosing three different sources of inspiration that could come from any field of interest and brainstorming on keywords associated with these sources can lead to unexpected and exciting scenarios. This method further on can unfold the next steps by determining the choice of colours, materials and shapes used in the design process. Triangulation as a visual representation of moodboards and keywords can then be used to begin sketching process. When building a collection, it is important to plan ahead how many styles, in what qualities and what price range will be included. Three types of models for building the collection can be distinguished. The prism model mostly consists of core and mid products that are main part of the collection. Profile items are used less in this model and mostly are showpieces, however sometimes these items can generate more sales than expected. Basic items in this model cost less to be manufactured and are more simple in cut and style. These products often can be used as re-runners made in the same fabric, quality and design, only changing the colour from season to season. The hourglass model uses the opposite approach where the core products are no longer in the focus, instead the brand is focusing on producing high end profile goods that can be mixed with low-priced items. The core items are still part of the collection and mostly connect the high-end to the basic products. Commonly sustainable and eco-fashion is associated with dull shades and old fashioned designs making it not so appealing to innovators and early adopters. Interestingly enough the environment-friendly garments are typically seen as “uncool” and even put in a whole different category of fashion. The aim in the first place is to create fashion that would change this stigma by designing clothes that are just as sophisticated and fashion-forward without compromising style over sustainability.
ANALYSIS – INCLUDING METHODS AND PROPOSALS About the company. When designing for an already existing brand, it is essential to understand the core values and principles the company stands by. Analysing the key strategies and marketing methods can determine where the company is right now and what could be the possibilities for the future. Jacquemus was founded in 2009 by Simon Porte Jacquemus and since then has been growing rapidly with the brand beeing nominated twice for the LVMH Prize. He’s gained a reputation for his fun, deconstructed and fresh designs, that often have a surrealist feel presented in highly poetic shows.29 Jacquemus is a relatively new design label that offers womenswear for mostly young women between the ages of 20 – 35, however with the brand’s growing popularity and professionalism, in the last years the colllections have showed more mature and sophisticated designs that could also be of interest for middle aged or even older women. The main message Jacquemus stands by is more the playful attitude towards life and not exactly a specific age. It is a woman who is strong and independent but in the meantime is joyfull as a child. 30 “Jacquemus is not about nightlife and clubbing and things like that, it’s more about fruit and vegetables and rolling in the grass.” Now considered the new heavyweight of Paris estimated to reach over 5 million euros in sales in 2017, he is definitely a designer with a bright future ahead. Until now, more than 100 stockists worldwide offer designs by Jacquemus, including niche boutiques in Paris, from global e-commerce names such as Net-a-Porter, to major department stores like Dover Street Market and Selfridges. 31 The designer is well-known for not having a previous education in fashion design or alike, so it is only natural to see a development of a brand in a different path with unique approach regarding business side as well as the designing phase. The first collections looking sporty and minimalistic with extremely simple details according to Simon Porte Jacquemus were all part of cost-savings and a result of simply not having a large budget in the beginning. “The designer says he is obsessed with the price of his clothes and the first time a piece of his cost over 1000 euros, he asked the team to take another look at the fabrics and remeasure.” 32 To date, most of the designs still cost below 1000 euros with coats and jackets estimating between 700 – 900 euros, trousers around 500 euros, to dresses, skirts and shoes being around 400 euros. Most of the sales (around 90 %) comes from ready-to-wear while shoes and accessories amount to only 10 %. Often more complicated pieces like an oversized, deconstructed coat are the ones that sell best, although still the backbone of the business remains shirts and tops with the costs varying between 200 – 300 euros per piece. 33 “My strategy, to be clear, is to have a strong brand with a strong image, and a contemporary price point,” Porte Jacquemus explains. According to Laura Larbalestier, womenswear buying director at Browns in London, Jacquemus pieces sell extremely well, even better than other, more established brands in the industry, which shows that Jacquemus really understands their customers. 34 Whether it is intentional or not, but Jacquemus is using emotional selling proposition (ESP) as a tool to attract the potential customer by creating an emotional connection with. It is not really the clothes they want to have, it is more the feeling of a role, a character, like in a movie. Customers are drawn to the image and storytelling of the brand – a carefree world of love, joy and unconditional beauty. The whole business started out as a friends and family operation and still is, inviting like-minded individuals to collaborate and simply do things together. It was not planned or carefully tought over, it was more of an instinctive work as a collective. The team consists roughly of 25 employees all close to the designer on which Porte Jacquemus comments: “We don’t add employees – we add family’”. 35
SWOT analysis. To look at the company critically it is valuable to examine the existing strengths and weaknesses and consider opportunities and potential threats. SWOT analysis can give a brief overview of the existing situation and difficulties that could arise in the near future if new sustainable design strategies would be introduced.
“Jacquemus is not about nightlife and clubbing and things like that, it’s more about fruit and vegetables and rolling in the grass.” - Simon Porte Jacquemus
As one of the most significant strengths portrayed by Jacquemus is their individualistic approach and handwriting in doing their business – from marketing and advertising perspective, to showing their designs directly on the catwalk. The company has a strong brand identity and it can be easily identified and distinguished for their designs. According to Business of Fashion, Jacquemus is a fast-growing business that is expected to generate more and more sales by each upcoming collection. When we look at the weaknesses, the company is still new and not stable enough which can draw upon competitors easily. On the other hand, with the fast-paced increasing popularity and interest in the brand there are many opportunities to grow. The range of collection pieces available on the market could be expanded with a wider selection of clothes and accessories offered. Since the demand is clearly increasing, Jacquemus can produce more without being concerned of unsold products that never leave the stock. Additionally, the brand can experiment with creativity and is not limited in terms of design. The consumer relationship with the brand is beyond the exact look of a dress, it varies from time to time, but the customer is still devoted to the designer’s vision and what Jacquemus offer. It gives a freedom of expression to the designer without the fear of loosing its audience. If we talk about opportunities from the sustainability perspective, there are a few points to consider. Focusing on no-waste pattern cutting methods could benefit in cost savings. An added value of a conscious design technique could attract another target group and once again draw interest to the brand. Being at a treshhold of change in the harmful fashion industry, bringing awareness to these issues by changing to a more thoughtful brand image could result in a chain reaction and simply do better for the future, for all of us. However, the practice of fully sustainable businesses is still new and unexplored which can also lead to threats. The new brand image can be confusing to the target group and not be viewed as intended. The new methods could change the buying habits among customers. The company would need more knowledge and probably newly skilled professionals to implement more advanced design methods over time. Naturally, opportunities regarding sustainability, discussed by this study, would be a step forward to responsible actions. However, when the change has to happen beyond the studio space and all parties including the manufacturers and distributors must be involved, the operation can become too complicated. For brands to become fully sustainable when the previous actions have not corresponded to a sustainable design thinking before, without doubt is a complex set of implementations. On the bright side, for a relatively small brand – a curator of its own product - the change is more likely to be accomplished, especially when we look from the design and pattern cutting phase that is the first driving force towards exact look of a garment. By each year plenty of manfuacturers around the world are devoted to shift on a new production model and offer materials made of recycled plastic, fishing nets or other waste. For these businesses consumer waste is the raw material of making yarn and turn it into new textile fabrics and materials. One such example is Aquafil Group - a leading manufacturer in Europe offering fabric for mostly sportswear, swimwear and underwear made of regenarated nylon waste.36 There are many suppliers across Europe from countries such as Turkey, Portugal, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, France, Netherlands and others offering organic cotton, linen and wool. Many leather manufacturers offer to purchase leather offcuts which could be used to design accessories. So, the problem is not really in finding a sustainable supplier, the initiative has to come from the fashion brand itself.
Jacquemus’ inspiration. Jacquemus draws his inspiration from French culture and the people. Whether it is a young girl from the outskirts of Paris or a woman from south of France, it is a strong character with a story behind. One of his main sources of inspiration and a muse is his own mother who passed away when the designer was 18 years old. The following year, in 2009, the label was launched under his mother’s maiden name - Jacquemus. 37 He is truly in love with his country, coming from Mallemort, a small village in southern France, Simon Porte Jacquemus is a kid in love with nature and the countryside. In the interview for Vogue with Kristin Anderson, the designer says: “I was a really free kid. If I wanted to wear my mother’s clothes to school, I was able to do it. I was making a skirt for my mother at [age] 8, and she was wearing it. I was really free to express myself—I had no limits. We were not hippies, we were from the countryside in nowhereland, but it was a very, very free family, which has really helped me today.” 38 Childhood has definitely shaped the way Porte Jacquemus designs his clothes today - often characterised as playful, free-spirited with asymmetrical and oversized “stiff” silhouettes. Fashion critic Susanna Lau desbribed his creations as unstuffy bit of fresh air (in the Paris fashion schedule).39 But it is not only the clothes designed as from a child’s perspective, it’s also in the casting and advertising campaigns where we see this unusual approach. Simon cast his 10 year old cousin Jean to appear in the Spring-Summer 2016 show and also in his Resort 2016 lookbook. For another advertising campaign he used a roughly cut-out picture of himself as a child and two other members from the Jacquemus team, pointing out that they do not need to show clothes and overly beautified campaign shoots to deliver the message of the brand, it is more about the phylosophy behind it.
“At Jacquemus, we are kids. It’s always about something very naive, so I was obsessed [with the idea of] having an image from my friends in this campaign.” - Simon Porte Jacquemus Simon describes his work as instinctive and believes that people no longer wish to see “any more beautifulness in a beautiful place”. To him it is no longer corresponding to the way we live today.40
3.2 3.1 Simon Porte Jacquemus himself as a child in his AW16 campaign.
Proposed solutions. Since fashion industry is slowly coming to the point of change globally or at least recognising the problem, hopefully we will see more actions taken to face the issues towards a more sustainable future. This study suggests solutions for mid-sized, independent and emerging fashion design label such as Jacquemus to become more alert in terms of the way their garments are produced. More specifically, the solution is directed to the beginning of design phase and cutting of the fabric while eliminating waste. This activity could be the first stepping stone of becoming a conscious and responsible designer while having cost savings and easy implementation.
Zero-waste design. My primary focus is on offering methods of cutting garments without a single piece of fabric wasted. To come to such solution an essential part of research was experimentation phase. Cutting of fabric in zero-waste fashion can become an influencial starting point of developing a style. Pictures on the following pages demonstrate experiments of square-cut fabric pieces draped on a small wooden mannequin. Variations of rectangular pieces can further on be shaped by using fabric manipulation to achieve different results. From historical research, the kimono and simple square shaped garments were a typical method of sewing garments, especially in the East. I wanted to explore this technique of pattern cutting further. While the basis of these garment pieces is very simple and does not give much to work on with constructing them together, I decided to work on the shape by putting in darts, pleats and gathers to achieve a different look. Even with a large rectangular fabric it is possible to shape the garment into various forms - from a sculptural, sophisticated looks to more drapey and loose silhouettes. Of course, the choice of material and composition of the fabric plays an important role, whether it is a stiff, woven fabric or knitted jersey â€“ the designer must be capable of handling the fabric and knowing itâ€™s properties to be able to achieve the desired result. The proposal for Jacquemus is a line of garments designed with no-waste or less waste produced in the process. These designs could be part of a capsule collection showed in-between the usual collections, or could be included in the main collection and introduced as zero-waste garments. From a business perspective, it would be safer to introduce the sustainable line gradually by first examining the reaction of the target customer and whether the newly presented designs could generate the same level of sales as before or even greater. However, as long as the designs are true to the designerâ€™s unique aesthetic and do not compromise on creativity, there should be no drawbacks concerning no-waste garments.
Experimentation with square-cut fabric pieces draped on a dummy.
Analysis of qualitative research. To better understand the viewpoint of a target customer on products designed in a sustainable way, a qualitative research was carried out in a form of interviews. Different individuals who either portray a potential Jacquemus customer or are simply interested in the aesthetic, were asked to ellaborate on questions regarding sustainability issues in general and their purchasing habits. This research showed the awareness of the environmental issues among the participants and understanding of the problem globally. However, even though all of them agreed a change has to happen in the fashion industry, there was still lack of belief it will happen soon, often mentioning the huge challenge and complexity the companies will have to face. Interestingly enough, the participants still see themselves, the consumers, as part of the problem why fast-fashion is striving. Among the reasons mainly is the financial factor – the sustainable designs are more expensive than conventional clothing. Positively enough they believe education could influence the consumerism and change the perspective on clothing if people knew how garments are actually manufactured or knew basic facts about what is happening behind the scenes of large businesses. When asked how the participants would see it “if a brand they liked would introduce a more sustainable design line” the participants mentioned the importance of both creativity and uniqueness in design and also storytelling to make them see it is a positive change. Overall, the respondents would support sustainable business methods by pointing out the good cause and reasons for such actions to be seen responsible towards the environment. When asked if the respondents knew how much of the fabric fashion industry wastes in production, most individuals commented they are not surprised at all, which demonstrates the level of awareness of the issue in general. To summarize the opinions, it is clear to say people are ready for a change and they simply need a positive stimulus and a successful example to begin with. Some respondents even mentioned that they would be willing to pay more for such goods or would support sustainable design more if they had higher income. While others pointed out lack of diversity in sustainable fashion now and not enough uniqueness and creativity design-wise. Since Jacquemus designs can also be viewed as fashion-forward pieces that influence the innovators, early adopters following early and late majority, this example coming from a company with such characteristics could be a catalyst to accelerate subsequent change both among other brands and competitors and also the consumers. As long as the designs made using no-waste technique can deliver the same strong and unique look Jacquemus represents, the challenge can be called a success.
The collection. The first sustainable no-waste mini collection consists of seven pieces in limited edition, designed for Spring / Summer 2018. The clothes are designed as timeless pieces, that are somewhat classical but with a modern twist, which could be described as already a step forward to slow fashion as well. The collection consists of a coat, a top and a blouse / shirt, pants and skirt, a dress and a cape. The garments are arranged in a prism model with the core of the products being pants, blouse and the cape; the basic products are skirt and top; the profile pieces are the coat and the dress. The price range for these pieces is kept at the same level as the usual designs so that the customer would not feel discouraged to purchase these items or see them as something “different”. The no-waste factor is used as an added value without forcing it onto the target audience. However, since the garments are produced in a limited edition, the designs will be seen as something special and attract the customer to purchase these first. 3.4 Experimentation with fabric manipulation using pleats, darts and gathers. 22
One of the inspiration sources for this collection comes from the traditional women’s costume of Brittany, a region in north-west of France. The Breton dress consists of pleats and gathers with smaller trimmings such as ribbons and lace in the details. The most characteristic item of the costume is the impressive headpiece embellished in rich lace ornaments combined with a satin band. 23
Photographs taken by Charles Freger capture the sophisticated costumes beautifully and was a key influence in design. Apart from the decorative applications, the collection draws inspiration from modernist architecture and simplicity in its construction. Taken the golden section as a guide to begin with, some of the garments are designed using simple square-cut fabric pieces and used as canvas for further development. In modernist architecture form follows function and â€œless is moreâ€? are the ultimate expressions associated with the movement. At the time they represented futuristic ideas of creating space without excessive decorations. However, in traditional pattern cutting it is often the opposite and requires unnecessary complication that results in large amounts of waste. Here the intention was to demonstrate the possibility of creating styles that are simple in the construction but does not necessarily mean flat and plain. Influences on the garment design can also be seen in the use of sculptural shape from modernist architecture.
Right: Colour story showing shades of blue, pink and lilac used in the collection. Below: Triangulation method shows three insipration sources - The Breton Dress, Film Classics and Modernist Architecture
Considering Simon-Porte Jacquemus’ interest in cinema classics from the second half of 20th century, films like “Pierrot Le Fou” and “Singin’ In The Rain” are a fun addition to the main sources of inspiration and adds playfulness and colour to the designed pieces. In the triangulation method used we can see the choices made regarding use of material which is influenced by mostly the Breton dress but also considers inspiration from the cinema. Use of accent colour is primary inspired by the cult classics as well. Details and trimmings in the garments are a clear visualisation from the Breton costume, whereas the simple shapes and lines come from modernism in architecture and design. The moodboards represent the key figures told in a visual language to base the concept on. The pictures depict a feminine and gentle yet a strong story, with slight mystery and playfulness behind. Colours vary from shades of light pink, lilac and lavender to accents of primary blue and red. To balance the vivid tones, crisp whites dominate both in the garments and trimmings of the collection. The materials include woven fabrics in 100% organic cotton and linen. Cotton fabrics differ in various thickness from lighter materials in cotton sateen, poplin and cotton jersey to more heavy and rough cotton canvas. Accessories are made using leather offcuts.
...feminine and gentle yet strong and mysterious
The garments are divided in three sizes of extra small/small, small/medium and medium/large. The collection mostly consists of either wrapped, loose or adjustable styles that can be altered for a specific body shape and therefore does not require great differences in initial sizes. Additionally, each size slightly differs in the design to achieve a better look on individual body shape, yet does not compromise on the overall aesthetic. The original marker configuration from the sample size is retained and does not change across sizes. As the components of each garment consist of large straight-cut shapes, the size differences are achieved by fabric manipulation. Darts, tucks and pleats are either added or removed to alternate the fit. This method also shows that in order to achieve interesting, unusual and exciting results, the construction of the garment components does not require to be overly complicated. The outcome of the designs lies in the creativity and technique of handling the fabric. Puffy, sculptural sleeves, wide shoulders and narrow waistlines are dominant characteristics of the collection. The overall looks are balanced in the silhouette where one part of the body is 26 exaggerated - the other is fitted.
Above: Overall moodboard. Below: Sketches and materials for the mini collection.
The aesthetic is inspired by 20’s, 60’s and 80’s fashion mixed with traditional folk wear in the shape of the garments. The combination of pleats, ruffles and sections of simple, minimalistic construction details portray an elegant and modern look yet casual enough to wear daily.
Above: Design sketches and details. Right: Collage showing the details of the design - puffy sleeves and use of drawstring.
Prototypes and experiments. The first dogma set by this study was to work with a single piece of rectangular fabric, without cutting it in separate pieces. The fabric could be slit in specific areas to allow movement and space for experimentation. The difference in shape is achieved by using drawstring to pull the cloth together around waist or above chest. Gathers and pleats can manipulate with the fullness of the garment or add sculptural detailing. To acquire more fitted silhouette darts can be inserted. Trimmings such as elastic straps are used either on the outside - as a support element and visual detail on the back, or inside the garments - to create gathers yet allow the flexibility to move. As one of the intended sample garment from the mini collection is to be a white dress in woven cotton, pictures on the right test the possible results for a desirable look. An alternative experiment was carried out by following another dogma. Here the fabric dimensions are 98 cm in width and 240 cm in length. The cloth was cut in separate pieces and generally is inspired by the kimono pattern with large rectangular sleeves and the same square cut shape for both front and back. Other rectangular components include cuffs, belts and side sections. To achieve the desired look of a garment with expressive form and detail - the oversized shapes are pulled together with pleats and gathers. The result is far away from the initial kimono cut and demonstrates the variety in shaping a simple cut garment to extraordinary and artistic showpiece. The garments are made to be either onesize-fits-all or loose enough to adjust for three different sizes. More structured items, such as the jacket would require a different width of the initial fabric to allow variety in sizes. Photos on the following pages demonstrate the process of fabric manipulation on the dummy and variations of styles and details as a starting point for developing a zero-waste mini collection.
Zero-waste design experimentation I 3.12
Zero-waste design experimentation I Dress prototype - design process
Zero-waste design experimentation I Dress prototype - design process and details 34
Zero-waste design experimentation II Jacket prototype - design process 36
Zero-waste design experimentation II Jacket prototype - design process and details 38
CONCLUSION To me Jacquemus is a truly honest and personal brand, that gains all the success and exposure by being extremely creative and self-expressive in every decision it makes, without having any limitations. The company has not been sponsored by well-known cooperations, nor put in the limelight because of business connections. Simon Porte Jacquemus built his business basically from nothing just by being himself and truly believing in the future of Jacquemus. It is a great inspiration to see such incredibly creative and fearless peronality still being recognised in today’s world where criticism and corruption prevails. From analytical point of view and research in the design label, Jacquemus is still a new business in development. With exponentially growing recognition in the last years the company may be busy enough maintaining its current success and settling on steady ground before moving forward. While it may be too soon to introduce a new design strategy, still the action towards zero-waste production remains an opportunity for the future. Jacquemus has the possibility to attract the new generation of thinking differently and changing their consumerism habits by being a fresh and young design label that is still cool, fashionable but thinks in a sustainable way.
BIBLIOGRAPHY References 1 Sandy Black. The Sustainable Fashion Handbook. 1st edition, London, Thames & Hudson, 2013; 8. 2 Timo Rissanen, Holly Mcquillan. Zero Waste Fashion Design. London/New York. Fairchild Books. 2016;10. 3 Garbonaro and Goldsmith, edited by Kate Fletcher and Mathilda Tham. Routledge Hanbook of Sustainability and Fashion. 1st edition, New York, Routledge, 2015; 161. 4 Garbonaro and Goldsmith, edited by Kate Fletcher and Mathilda Tham. Routledge Hanbook of Sustainability and Fashion. 1st edition, New York, Routledge, chapter 2015; 163. 5 Sandy Black. The Sustainable Fashion Handbook. 1st edition, London, Thames & Hudson, 2013; 86. 6 TED’S Ten Aims. TED Research, http://www.tedresearch.net/teds-ten-aims/ (Accessed May 10, 2017) 7 Sandy Black. The Sustainable Fashion Handbook. 1st edition, London, Thames & Hudson, 2013; 86. 8 Timo Rissanen, Holly Mcquillan. Zero Waste Fashion Design. London/New York. Fairchild Books. 2016;12-14. 9 Timo Rissanen, Holly Mcquillan. Zero Waste Fashion Design. London/New York. Fairchild Books. 2016;12-14.
10 Timo Rissanen, Holly Mcquillan. Zero Waste Fashion Design. London/New York. Fairchild Books. 2016; 18-21.
The benefits of described solutions could be the first steps towards a more sustainable design practice. Once a positive change is implemented and the desired target is reached successfully, further actions would only come naturally. Firstly, no-waste garments could gradually replace the existing items made using conventional pattern cutting method. Respectively, it is quite naive to believe the company could use only simple shaped and square cut patterns in a long run, so development in achieving more complex and advanced pattern components is inevitable. With skillfull planning, the pattern parts could be arranged in a puzzle-like technique for optimal fabric utilization, sometimes combining more than one style to maximize the efficiency. With progress in technological development this method could easily be replaced by computer aided software and definitely save time in managing layout plans for the patterns.
11 Bernard Rudofsky. Wikipedia, edited: March 06, 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernard_Rudofsky
Furthermore, the company could work with sustainable manufacturers located in Europe to avoid cheap factory work and mistreatment of employees overseas. Supporting ethical production not only helps moraly, but pushes the irresponsible manufacturers to revise their regular working methods. Thus, local production allows for better supervision on the working methods of produced textiles, as well as transparency and fair-trade provided by environmentally responsible manufacturers.
16 Timo Rissanen, Holly Mcquillan. Zero Waste Fashion Design. London/New York. Fairchild Books. 2016;161.
Between the big steps towards eco-friendly business, smaller changes can also be adopted. It is generally easy switching to recycled, biodegradable or otherwise harmless packaging. Tags, labels and other similar details that come along with the garments could also be produced from reused materials. By shifting to sustainable operations in each step of the value chain, the change will not only be seen among the direct users and businesses involved, but something way bigger than all of it combined – the natural world that we must preserve while it is not too late. I do believe in a better future and I hope this study will serve as an inspiration for mindful actions.
12 Bernard Rudofsky. Are Clothes Modern? An Essay on Contemporary Apparel. P.Theobold, 1947;200. MoMA, Exhibitions and Events, 2017. https://www.moma.org/calendar/exhibitions/3159?locale=en (Accessed May 12, 2017) 13 Timo Rissanen, Holly Mcquillan. Zero Waste Fashion Design. London/New York. Fairchild Books. 2016;21. 14 Bernard Rudofsky. Are Clothes Modern? An Essay on Contemporary Apparel. P.Theobold, 1947;200. MoMA, Exhibitions and Events, 2017. https://www.moma.org/calendar/exhibitions/3159?locale=en (Accessed May 12, 2017) 15 Max Tilke. Oriental Costumes, Their Designs and Colors. http://www.indiana.edu/~librcsd/etext/tilke/preface.html (Accessed May 12, 2017)
17 Timo Rissanen, Holly Mcquillan. Zero Waste Fashion Design. London/New York. Fairchild Books. 2016;161. 18 Timo Rissanen, Holly Mcquillan. Zero Waste Fashion Design. London/New York. Fairchild Books. 2016;161. 19 Heidy Rehman. Shocking Environmental Implications of Fashion. August 16, 1016. http://www.huffingtonpost. co.uk/heidy-rehman/shocking-environmental-fast-fashion_b_8009850.html (Accessed May 23, 2017) 20 Timo Rissanen, Holly Mcquillan. Zero Waste Fashion Design. London/New York. Fairchild Books. 2016;43. 21 Timo Rissanen, Holly Mcquillan. Zero Waste Fashion Design. London/New York. Fairchild Books. 2016;60. 22 Motive Part I. Cutting at Geneviève Sevin-Doering. Atacac, 2017. http://atacac.com/book/chapter1-5.php 23 Julian Roberts. Free Cutting. 2010;48. http://www.julianand.com/ (Accessed May 19, 2017) 24 Julian Roberts. Free Cutting. 2010;88. http://www.julianand.com/ (Accessed May 19, 2017) 25 Dr. Mark Liu. Blog. A Leap of Imagination... 2016. http://www.drmarkliu.com/journal-1/ (Accessed May 15, 2017) 26 Amanda Ericsson and Andrew Brooks edited by Kate Fletcher and Mathilda Tham. Routledge Hanbook of Sustainability and Fashion. 1st edition, New York, Routledge, 2015; 92. 27 Jonathan Chapman edited by Kate Fletcher and Mathilda Tham. Routledge Hanbook of Sustainability and Fashion. 1st edition, New York, Routledge, chapter 2015; 79-80. 28 Julian Roberts. Free Cutting. 2010; 88. http://www.julianand.com/ (Accessed May 19, 2017) 29 Ted Stansfield. Getting surreal in the south of France with Jacquemus. Dazed, 2016. http://www.dazeddigital.com/ fashion/article/31861/1/getting-surreal-in-the-south-of-france-with-jacquemus (Accessed May 10, 2017)
Visuals 30 Ted Stansfield. Getting surreal in the south of France with Jacquemus. Dazed, 2016. http://www.dazeddigital.com/ fashion/article/31861/1/getting-surreal-in-the-south-of-france-with-jacquemus (Accessed May 10, 2017) 31 Daniel Björk. Jacquemus: Bigger Than You Think. Business of Fashion, September 27, 2016. https://www.businessoffashion.com/articles/intelligence/jacquemus-bigger-than-you-think (Accessed May 8, 2017)
1.1 Front page - Photo by Liana Paberza, 2017. 1.2 Collage. Source of the components - http://www. pinterest.com/ (Accessed May 26, 2017)
32 Daniel Björk. Jacquemus: Bigger Than You Think. Business of Fashion, September 27, 2016. https://www.businessoffashion.com/articles/intelligence/jacquemus-bigger-than-you-think (Accessed May 8, 2017)
2.1 Timo Rissanen, Holly Mcquillan. Zero Waste Fashion Design. London/New York. Fairchild Books. 2016;13.
33 Daniel Björk. Jacquemus: Bigger Than You Think. Business of Fashion, September 27, 2016. https://www.businessoffashion.com/articles/intelligence/jacquemus-bigger-than-you-think (Accessed May 8, 2017)
2.3 Timo Rissanen, Holly Mcquillan. Zero Waste Fashion Design. London/New York. Fairchild Books. 2016;18.
34 Daniel Björk. Jacquemus: Bigger Than You Think. Business of Fashion, September 27, 2016. https://www.businessoffashion.com/articles/intelligence/jacquemus-bigger-than-you-think (Accessed May 8, 2017) 35 Kenya Hunt. How Simon Porte Jacquemus became fashion’s breakout hit of SS’17. Elle, December 01, 2016. http://www.elleuk.com/fashion/longform/a32882/simon-porte-jacquemus/ (Accessed May 12, 2017) 36 Aquafil Global. Yarn for Garments. 2017. http://www.aquafil.com/business-divisions/textile-yarn/ (Accessed May 20, 2017) 37 Daniel Björk. Jacquemus: Bigger Than You Think. Business of Fashion, September 27, 2016. https://www.businessoffashion.com/articles/intelligence/jacquemus-bigger-than-you-think (Accessed May 8, 2017) 38 Kristin Anderson. Just Kids: Why Simon Porte Jacquemus Doesn’t Need Clothes to Advertise His Namesake Brand. January 29, 2016. http://www.vogue.com/article/jacquemus-fall-2016-campaign-interview (Accessed May 7, 2017) 39 Business of Fashion. Simon Porte Jacquemus. 2017. https://www.businessoffashion.com/community/people/simon-porte-jacquemus (Accessed May 8, 2017) 40 Kristin Anderson. Just Kids: Why Simon Porte Jacquemus Doesn’t Need Clothes to Advertise His Namesake Brand. January 29, 2016. http://www.vogue.com/article/jacquemus-fall-2016-campaign-interview (Accessed May 7, 2017)
2.2 Gallica BnF - Digital library. http://gallica.bnf.fr (Accessed May 18, 2017)
2.4 Timo Rissanen, Holly Mcquillan. Zero Waste Fashion Design. London/New York. Fairchild Books. 2016;162. 2.5 Julian Roberts. Free Cutting. 2010;74. http://www.julianand.com/ (Accessed May 19, 2017). 2.5 Julian Roberts. Free Cutting. 2010;51. http://www.julianand.com/ (Accessed May 19, 2017). 3.1 Simon Porte Jacquemus. Jacquemus AW 16 campaign. http://www.dazeddigital.com/fashion/article/29666/1/jacquemus-uses-childhoood-picture-of-himself-for-ss16-ad (Accessed May 7, 2017) 3.2 Collage. Source of the components - http://www. jacquemus.com/ ; http://www. pinterest.com/ (Accessed May 15, 2017) 3.3 Liana Paberza. Zero-Waste Experimentation. Copenhagen, 2017. 3.4 Liana Paberza. Zero-Waste Experimentation. Copenhagen, 2017. 3.5 Triangulation method - collages. 1. Breton dress collage: Charles Freger. http://www.charlesfreger.com/ ; http:// www. pinterest.com/ ; 2. Film collage: Movie stills from “Pierrot Le Fou'' and “Singin’ In The Rain’’ ; 3. Architecture collage - http://www. pinterest.com/ (Accessed May 20, 2017) 3.6 Colour story - collages. 1. Shades of blue: Charles Freger. http://www.charlesfreger.com/ ; Ruth Van Beek. http:// www.ruthvanbeek.com/ ; David Luraschi. https://www.instagram.com/davidluraschi/ 2. Shades of pink and red: Movie stills from “Pierrot Le Fou’’ and “Singin’ In The Rain’’ ; Liana Paberza. Riga, 2017 (photo with a hand) ; Ruth Van Beek. http://www.ruthvanbeek.com/ (Accessed May 23, 2017) 3.7 Collage. Source of the components - http://www. pinterest.com/ (Accessed May 17, 2017) 3.8 Collage. Le Corbusier. Hotel in Marseille, 1954. https://www.flickr.com/photos/modern_fred/2578459921/in/album-72157605213432723/ ; Movie still from “Pierrot Le Fou’’ ; Traditional Breton costume, source: http://www. pinterest.com/ (Accessed May 25, 2017) 3.9 Sketches by Liana Paberza, 2017. Fabric samples from personal archive. 3.10 Sketches by Liana Paberza, 2017. 3.11 Collage. Source of the components - http://www. pinterest.com/ (Accessed May 26, 2017) 3.12 Photos and sketches by Liana Paberza, 2017. 3.13 Photos and sketches by Liana Paberza, 2017. 3.14 Photos and sketches by Liana Paberza, 2017. 3.15 Photos and sketches by Liana Paberza, 2017. 3.15 Photos and illustrations by Liana Paberza, 2017. 3.16 Photos and sketches by Liana Paberza, 2017.
Final AP Degree Project KEA Sustainable Fashion sustainability, sustainable fashion, zero waste fashion