BRIEFING PHASE 1.1
CONTEXT TO APPLICATIONS
KEY DESIGN CONSTRAINS
CONCEPT DESIGN PHASE 2.1
ANALYSING POTENTIAL PROBLEM …………………………………………………………………………………….
ANALYSING POTENTIAL SOLUTION ………………………………………………………………………………..…..
CONCEPT GENERATION ………………………………………………………………………………………………..
DETAIL DESIGN PHASE 3.1
FINAL REPORTING PHASE 4.1
1.0 BRIEFING PHASE 1.1 INTRODUCTION
The number of people living in the Melbourne CBD is expected to double in the next 20 years, placing more pressure on the city's road system and local courier deliveries. Melbourne's CBD population will double within 20 years; the expected number of residents in the City of Melbourne is estimated to be more than double from 76,000 to 158,000 by 2026. Potentially spilling thousands of extra cars and trucks on to city streets. Melbourne is well known for its major festivals and events and Due to this increase in population and congestion this may force Roads around the City of Melbourne to be closed off for these various reasons causing a major headache for local residents and company couriers. These are major reasons why the Melbourne City Council has decided to introduce a congestion toll to reduce the amount of car and truck traffic in the Melbourne CBD. Melbourniansâ€™ make around 13.5 million trips across the city each working day, more than 10 million of them by car. By 2031, that will become nearly 19 million trips, and almost 14 million will be by car. In conclusion this is why the Melbourne City Council has decided to introduce this congestion toll meaning local courier company businesses can expand their business in collection and cartage of bulky and heavy goods via cargo bicycles.
Reference: Drive 2009, http://www.drive.com.au/Editorial/ArticleDetail.aspx?ArticleId=59579
1.2 PROJECT BRIEF (Design guidelines) Melbourne City Council has decided to introduce a congestion toll to reduce the amount of car and truck traffic in the CBD in the vein of London and other European cities. This presents opportunities for bicycle courier companies to expand their business into the collection and cartage of bulky and heavy goods, but to take advantage of this ‘owner riders’ will need to upgrade their standard bicycles to bicycles that are capable of handling loads that otherwise would be difficult to carry on a standard bicycles. Due to the bulky and heavy goods the bicycle attachment will need to carry it require being strong and durable. Triangulation will be a major aspect of our project, this we help in the reduction of stress points and give the attachment a long life span. There are propose built cargo and bakfiet type bikes recumbents available on the market designed specifically for this, but they represent a significant investment that is out of reach for most ‘owner riders’. This means the cargo attachment we design will need to be quite cheap for users to buy and also easily maintainable, for example to make it from a cheap material like steel, which is also repairable if it was to have a fault over time would be a great idea. Therefore there is a need to design a load carrying extension product that can be retro fitted to existing commuter bikes, in particular the Brompton, Raleigh 20, and Dahon. 1.3 CONTEXT OF APPLICATION The most common situation for this bicycle attachment is in the Melbourne local CBD, the potential target users will be: • Local bicycle courier companies • Private, Small and medium enterprises • Cargo bicycle manufactures The bicycle attachments will be installed on three various bicycles, these are; Brompton, Raleigh 20, and Dahon: • Brompton is one of the most popular folding bikes in the UK. The folding Brompton has been manufactured since the 1960s. The frame of this bike can be folded less than 12 seconds and becomes just a little bit bigger than 16-inch wheel. It is designed for practical reason rather than performance. • The size of Dahon’s espresso is 26 inch after folded. Several Dahon bicycles use a patented single hinge frame design, whereby the handlebar folds down and the frame hinge swings to the left, leaving the handlebar inside. • The Releigh Twenty is not nearly as sophisticated a design as the Moulton, but there is a visual alike. While the Twenty lacks the Moulton's full suspension, it is cheap and rugged and fun to ride. The 20 inch wheels are easy to get tires for, and the tires hold up quite well. The Twenty superficially resembles many inexpensive European 20 inch folders of the era, but the frame and hinge are much more solid than most of these. This bicycle attachment will help in transporting goods from local suppliers to private, small and medium enterprises. Due to this congestion toll in the Melbourne CBD there will be an increase of bicycle couriers and a reduction in CBD traffic.
1.4 KEY DESIGN CONSTRAINS
• Fit to existing bicycle frames without making any alteration to the frame or its ride geometry. • Take a 20 inch (405) BMX type rear wheel and be designed to sit as an aftermarket product for specific bicycle types (Brompton, Raleigh 20, and Dahon) • Minimizing the cost of production • Consideration of safety standards for use of the bicycle attachment. • Maintain drive from the rear wheel. As a result of these design constraints, the following become invalid: • Alterations of the original bike frame. • Use of only one wheel. • Cannot exceed the width of the bicycle lane.
1.5 OPPORTUNITY AREAS The freight bike is one way to reduce the amount of car and truck traffic in Melbourne CBD, which is introduced by Melbourne city council. Today, there are various existing freight bike which have a low attention on the society. People prefer to use the car instead of the bike. The use of car and truck in order to deliver a package is more popular because of several reasons; including time and safety. The placement of car and truck delivery services with freight bike will help the society to gain awareness and acceptance on the benefit of freight bike. This opportunity will allow people who run the bike courier business to expand their market through delivering good. The freight bike will be able to increase the employment in the several ways: • Since the product will be locally manufactured, the number of employment will increase in Melbourne CBD by opening the work opportunities. •The number of the employment will increase, parallel to the number of the society who needs the delivery service each day. People’s need have to be parallel with the number of employment. •There is a possibility of great income through the courier services. As we know that bike needs more human power and human power is more valuable.
â€˘ Maintenance of the products will increase the number of employment. It will be a new workshop for freight bike which handle the maintenance of the product.
2.0 CONCEPT DESIGN PHASE The concept stage begins with the understanding of the existing freight bike itself, how people carry something, and the purpose of the product through brainstorming and mind mapping. The second stage will be covered the main keyword of the product. The criteria of the design will be formulated. Understanding the needs of the courier and the existing bike technology and design will be the first thing that we have to do to start the designing process. On this process, it consists of a large area of research on freight bike technologies; including the maximum load and the structure. These are very useful in resolving the structural technology which is the main course of the freight bike. The last stage will be talked about the place. As it is stated above, it will take place in Melbourne CBD. So, more understanding about the road in Melbourne have to be improved. It consists of how big is the road, the bike path, and the parking space which is a critical issue for the traffic of Melbourne CBD.
2.1 SCENARIO BUILDING The scenarios will be built considering the benefit and the function of the freight bike in Melbourne society especially in the CBD. It means that it consists of: Understanding the potential problem. Understanding how a freight bike might benefit. Understanding why a freight bike might benefit . Different scenarios will be built in order to gain the ideas and the development of concepts. .
2.2 ANALYZING POTENTIAL PROBLEMS •
Weather It is the courier’s responsibility to deliver goods safely until the final destination. The delivery must be in excellent condition. As Melbourne weather changes unpredictably, goods being delivered are more likely to get damaged.
Safety There is more risk involved with riding a bicycle than driving a car. Thus, bicycle accidents are more likely to result in fatal injury if the rider is not properly protected. Because bicycle is a non-motorized vehicle, accidents are more likely to happen when the rider loses control and balance, especially when carrying too much weight.
Speed Because bicycle is a human-powered vehicle, it really depends on physical strength of the rider. In terms of speed, bicycles are much slower than motorized vehicles. The weight also has big impact on how fast the bicycle runs. The more weight it carries, the harder it is to ride, and the slower the bicycle runs. On the other hand, no matter how heavy the weight is, the motorized vehicle could still run at fast and steady speed, to an extent.
Load space A bicycle has much less space to carry goods than a truck or trailer. Carrying large quantities of goods can be done by a truck all at once, whereas it has to be done in many trips using a bicycle. Thus, carrying goods using a bicycle is inefficient, as it takes more time and energy.
Road space Bicycles will give less freedom for other vehicles. There is more likely to cause traffic jam in the future.
2.3 ANALYSING POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS
The basket could be covered to keep the loads save from rain/wind. The frame’s material will be thoroughly selected to avoid rust.
• • •
Load and Road space
The materials and structures should be strong, in order to keep the riders safe. To keep the load in a good condition, the bicycle must be in balance The weight determines the speed of the bicycle. Therefore, light materials will be chosen to improve the speed of bicycle. The gears on the pedal will be modified to be smaller, yet stronger. The basket will be higher, so that large quantities of goods could be carried. It minimizes
In conclusion, there are three underlying concepts of manufacturing the bicycle, which are strength, light-weight, and quality of materials. The aim is to protect the rider and the good being delivered from danger. The basket will be placed in higher positioned than the bike in order to minimize road space used. The goods will be protected from rain and wind by covering the basket. In order to keep the rider in balance, the bicycle will be made of light materials, yet strong structure.
2.5 CONCEPT GENERATION
* Research will be developed through matrix photo, and precedents. The aim of research is to gain a better understanding of the ergonomic side of things. as the main focus of this stage is ergonomics. Hence, it will take into consideration the familiarity of the user with various existing interfaces. This includes the interface having minimal operation and being easy to comprehend. After this stage, a series of scenario will be developed to analyse the reasons why a cargo bike could be beneficial for people. In order to improve the ergonomic side, a questionnaire will be distributed to cyclists and couriers.
* The research will deepen our understanding, and will direct us to start with some rough concepts. The information and will continue to be referred to, and kept being refined until the concept is finalised. * Mock ups will be generated in order to get a 3D visualisation from the concepts. It will be developed further.
* The final concept will be developed into technical drawings using CAD, including all the details of the bicycleâ€™s components, and the specifications and measurements.
After the technical drawings are completed, a 1:4 scale model will be manufactured.
3.0 DETAIL DESIGN PHASE
The structure's feasibility and efficiency will be checked using mock-up and models. Some scale drawings will also be worked out to test the internal arrangement of the structure and other parts. Based on testing results, a certain concept will then be generated to produce the exterior look and feel of the product, which can be used for users to visualize the proposed design during the stage. Hence, the users can provide important feedback to improve the strengths and reduce the weaknesses of the structure and design, which lead us to the detailing phase. The following issues will be considered for detailing the final concept: • Safety- The design will focus on the material and features of the basket. * Maximum space- The design will concentrate on the efficiency of the freight bike. * Speed- In order to increase the speed of pedalling, gear is modified. The aim is to use smaller and faster gear so it's able to run faster, but still using strong structure. * Stability- The design will be focusing o the structure of the bike. • Weather proofing –The design will include detailing for proofing against rain, wind, and dust. • Affordable and easy to maintain. • Materials will be thoroughly selected and processed for easy manufacturing. • Standard ergonomics is specified for convenient access and safe. • Standard ergonomics is specified for convenient access and safe. • Interface detailing- This will give details on the mechanism, gearing, structures, basket, etc. * Aesthetic aspect.
3.1 MATERIAL CONSIDERATION Material is one of the main things in every bike. They are 2 things that affect the durability of the bike itself. First, the structure, how to build the frame so that it will be durable and strong. Second, the material, how to choose the right material so it will increase both the strength and the stability when people ride the bike. Riding a 2-wheel freight bike is a challenge. When people get a heavy load behind them, it is hard to keep the stability while they ride a bike. Moreover, if it is in front, it is hard to control the bike itself. So, in order to build a stable and strong bike, choosing the right material is a critical part. Below are the criteria of material: Cheap material, Light material, Strong material, Stable material, and Durable material The stiffness, weight, and strength of a bike frame depend on many factors, only some of which involve the material. The optimum frame design for one material will be different for another, because materials vary widely in strength, stiffness, and density (weight). The possible material that people usually use for bike manufacturing are:
* Chro-Moly (steel) Chro-moly is a fancy name for steel. Steel is heavy. But, steel is stiff. A frame made with chro-moly will usually have small tubes. To help reduce weight many steel frames have thin walled tubes. The thinner the tube walls are the less stiffness you'll have. If you're a heavy rider you'll want a thicker tube wall to support your weight.
Positives: Very Strong, Stiff Ride , Durable , Cheap Negatives: Heavy , Prone To Rusting
* Aluminum Aluminum is one of the most common frame materials because it is light and fairly affordable. Aluminum provides the rider with a very stiff ride. Aluminum frames have large diameter tubes that help improve strength and stiffness. This material is often used for unique frame shapes.
Positives: Light , Stiff , Inexpensive , Rust-Proof Negatives: Less Strength Than Steel , Can Break Under Heavy Use , Difficult To Repair , Thin Walled Tubes Dent Easy
* Carbon Fiber
Carbon fiber frames are very strong and stiff. They are made by braiding fibers of carbon and affixing them with a very strong glue (epoxy). These kind of frames allow for unique frame shapes because they can be molded to the proper shape much easier than metal alloys. Carbon fiber can crack so watch out for that.
Positives: Great Strength, Great Stiffness ,Very Light , No Rust Negatives: Expensive , Prone To Breakage
Titanium is one of the best materials for any frame. It combines a great balance of lightness, strength, durability, and stiffness. The best alloys of titanium are as strong as the best alloys of steel frames. For a stiffer titanium frame look for larger tubes. Titanium frames usually come in two alloys: - 3Al/2.5V alloy (3% aluminum / 2.5% vanadium) - 6Al/4V (6% aluminum / 4% vanadium)
The 6Al/4V is stronger but more expensive. Positives: * Super Light * Very Strong * Rust Proof * Great For Large Riders Negatives: * Very Expensive * Somewhat Flexible (compared to steel)
4.0 FINAL REPORTING PHASE 4.1 DELIVERABLES A set of deliverables will be presented at various stages of the bicycle attachment development. Phase one: Envisioning Research and Project Scope document • 9x9 photo matrix • Precedents ( other products or object/research) • Scenario and stories (Using comic life) Phase two: Design and technical resolution • Manufacturing drawing set A3: This is a full drawing transmittal and includes all parts, assembly and exploded view drawings, a bill of material, processes and finishes. This includes a 1:1 orthogonal layout. • Presentation illustrations • One 1:4 scale model of design Phase three: Re-visioning and reporting 1. Re-visioning: • 2x A2 exhibition posters: A2 poster one: is to include high quality renderings of several views of your re-visioned freight bike. A2 poster two: is to include technical details (Section views, cutaway views, materials and production information) and concept information. 2. Reporting: • Build on project scope document • 1xBound A3 Landscape • 1 x Compiled PDF saved as: FBMP_lastname - firstname.PDF. Use the following as a way of structuring the report: • Cover page • Course name • Project title • Student name and number. 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) 5.) 6.)
Introduction Context Key constraints The proposed designs Next steps Reflections
4.2 TIMELINE (SCHEDULE)
Phase Briefing phase Research phase Concept phase Detailing phase Prototype phase Review and reporting
BICYCLE A bicycle is a pedal-driven, human-powered vehicle with two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century and now number about one billion worldwide. They are the principal means of transportation in many regions. They also provide a popular form of recreation, and have been adapted for such uses as children's toys, adult fitness, military and police applications, courier services, and competitive sports. The basic shape and configuration of a typical bicycle has changed little since the first chaindriven model was developed. Many details have been improved, especially since the advent of modern materials and computer-aided design. These have allowed for a proliferation of specialized designs for particular types of cycling. The bicycle has had a considerable effect on human society, in both the cultural and industrial realms. In its early years, bicycle construction drew on pre-existing technologies; more recently, bicycle technology has, in turn, contributed both to old and new areas. However bicycles have become a lot more important today as they have been a good sign to our pollution environment as many courier companies today are using bike to deliver goods from suppliers to small and large business enterprises.
REFERENCES: *http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bicycle : Friday 13 march 2009 *http://www.pertrans.com/graphics/dahon-speedp8-620.jpg : Friday 13 march 2009 *http://www.workcycles.com/workbike/bicycles/professional-worktrikes/workbike-classicopen-dutch-transport-bike.html : Friday 13 march 2009 *httpvelocio.files.wordpress.com200812bicycle_parts_labeled.jpg : Tuesday 10 march 2009
BROMPTON Brompton is one of the most popular folding bikes in the UK. The folding Brompton has been manufactured since the 1960s. The frame of this bike can be folded less than 12 seconds and becomes just a little bit bigger than 16 inch wheel. It is designed for practical reason rather than performance. The practical issues of this bike are: â€˘ Brompton is easily carried than conventional bikes.
It reduces the overall journey times. For instance, by carrying the bikes into public transport, such as train or bus. Because of its efficiency, Brompton bikes save parking spaces.
There are a few types of Brompton bikes, as follow: M TYPE
The advantage of the M-types is that the U shaped handlebars give an excellent control ride. It is considered to be the most popular type of Brompton. P TYPE
The P type is specifically designed for the touring cyclist, as the handlebars give more comfort on longer journey. There is a rear rack, which allows the rider to carry luggage. The handlebars also give a good manoeuvring control in traffic. S TYPE
S type is better in terms of performance, as it has more sporty looks. Beside, this type is the lightest among others. The grips are lower than the M type. The fold
The folded package is carried like a small suitcase, as itâ€™s equipped with frame as a handle. The purpose of folding the package itself is to protect the vulnerable parts of the bike, such as lights and cables. Besides, it is aimed for keeping the oily chains away from clothing. The part of the bikes can be pushed into the corner of the suitcase by using rollers. According to Brompton bicycles Ltd (2009), these are the procedures of folding and unfolding the bikes: Folding 1. Park the bike by swinging the rear wheel under the main frame - the Brompton will stand on its own, leaving both hands free 2. Unclamp and fold back the front wheel - the right hand pedal should be moved out of the way if necessary - and hook onto the rear frame 3. Unclamp and lower the handlebars and saddle, and stow the folding pedal; these items can be dealt with in any order after step 2
Unfolding 1. Raise and clamp the saddle and handlebar, and unfold the folding pedal; these items can be dealt with in any order, but they must be unfolded before moving on to step 2 2. Unfold and clamp front wheel; the bike is now parked 3. Lift up the rear end of the bike - a little flick is usually the most effective method - to swing the rear wheel out; the bike is ready to ride
REFERENCES: * Brompton Bicycles Ltd, 2009, viewed on 12 March 2009. http://www.brompton.co.uk/page.asp?p=3072 * Fuad-Luke, A. 2002, Eco design : The source book, Chronicle Books, United States. * Seaton, M, 2006, On Your Bike!, Black Dog, London.
TRAILER As human population keeps increasing, the need for movement continues to grow. This growing need triggers the invention of a carrier, such as trailer. Trailer is relatively effective for moving heavy goods in short or medium distance. The role of trailer in everyday life is reducing time & effort to help transporting goods. Due to the importance of trailer, trailers are commonly used for different purposes and functions. According to Hepner B.P (â€œDesign, Manufacture, and Assessment of tipping trailerâ€?), the three different types of trailers are: 1. Standard home trailer Despite of broad selection, standard home trailer is the lightest. Standard home trailer is a short flat tray with removable handle. Because of its simple design, the movement process is physically demanding and time-consuming. Loading and unloading trailer is done by hand. Hence, standard home trailer is more suitable for private use, such as transporting sand, cement or rubbish.
2. Tradesmen/Handyman trailer This type of trailer is designed for rough building sites or gardens. Tradesmen trailer come in various shape and size, which are effective for moving building or garden supplies. This king of trailer is safer and easier to use, as it is designed with a tray that can be lifted up, causing the materials to slide off into the ground. Because of the size, which is relatively bigger than standard home trailer, tradesmen trailers are more difficult to store.
3. Off-road trailer Off-road trailer is the strongest. It is commonly used to be driven over rough surface of the road, because of its resistant to vibration. It is equipped with strong tyres to resist puncturing. Off-road trailer has the same function and procedures as tradesmen trailer.
In designing and manufacturing trailers, the following considerations need to be taken into accounts: • Ability to carry reasonable volume of load. • Ability to transport goods off-road fully loaded. • To be competent in many areas and to move freely in all directions. • Equipped with a useful ramp to load and reload trailer In addition, a trailer also needs to comply with Victorian Roads regulations, such as licensing. A trailer also needs to tip with a force supplied by the tow vehicle in order to facilitate movement.
REFERENCES: * Abcar Trailers, Abcar Trailers, viewed on 12 March 2009. http://www.abcar.com.au/assets/cb780%20trailer_large.jpg * Bennet, N, 2002, Light Weight Compact Trailers. * Hepner, BP,2003, Design, Manufacture, and Assesment of a Tipping Trailer.
* Sierra 4x4 Trailers, High Quality, Rugged Off-Road Trailers, Made By Off-Roaders For OffRoaders, viewed on 12 March 2009. http://www.sierra4x4trailers.com/graphics/trailer1.gif * Trailer Custom, Heavy Duty Tradesman Trailers, last updated 2006, viewed on 12 March 2009. http://www.trailercustoms.com.au/images/tradesman-trailer-1.jpg
DAHON Dahon is an US company which produces folding bicycles since 1982. It is founded by a former physicist named David Hon. Dahon also owns some factories in foreign countries, such as Taiwan and Macau. The size of Dahon’s espresso is 26 inch after folded. Several Dahon bicycles use a patented single hinge frame design, whereby the handlebar folds down and the frame hinge swings to the left, leaving the handlebar inside. (Dahon, 2009). SOME OF THE BICYCLE TYPES: • Ciao! P8
* Glide P8
Design Philosophies There are some several underlying philosophies that are used in designing their bicycles, such as: * Re-inventing the Wheel Dahon Company believes that re-inventing the wheel could lead to a brilliant result of their bike, although the process itself may take a long time, * Built to Last Dahon company has a commitment to use high-quality components and materials which last longer in comparison to ordinary bicycles today which are in disposable category and donâ€™t last long. Its bicycle is predicted to last more than 15 years. The details like spokes, sealed hub, and bearings, are made from materials that will never rust. * Bikes for Everybody Dahon wants their bicycle to be accessible and affordable to anyone, anywhere in the world. Even though they aim to design high quality bikes, the bikes should be packed with value and affordable price so that they can make a real impact on society. * Light is Right The company is obsessed to make their bikes portable. Therefore, it should be light and strong. This philosophy has made Dahon bike as the lightest folding bike in the world.
There are some technologies that Dahon adopted to build the world's lightest folding bicycles: * Premium Frame Materials Dahon is always committed to use the best materials for the frame. All of Dahonâ€™s aluminum frames are made from custom drawn and double-butted Sonus 7005 aluminum tubing. Even steel frames are made from seamless 4130-chromoly steel that has been work-hardened in a special machining process. (Dahon, 2009) * Frame Design Frame design is crucial in building light frame for the bikes. Ordinary frames on the market are relatively strong, but also heavy, whereas a good frame should be strong, yet light. And many of the cheaper folding bikes are usually neither light nor strong. Our technology concentrates on our philosophy of making a strong but lightweight frame. These technologies include our Re-Barâ„˘ technology, Sonus tubing, PowerBulge technology, Embed bottom brackets, and WrapAround chainstays. * Frame Details - Butted tubing, CNC machined head tubes, forged hinges and drop-outs (Dahon, 2009) * Super-Oversize Seat Posts - We use custom 34 mm seat posts on all of our compact bikes. The larger diameter tubing lets us use thinner tubing while maintaining strength. (Dahon, 2009) * Careful selection of bike component Each potential component of the bike is weighed, tested, and ridden. Lighter tire casings, narrower and shorter chains, Kevlar cable housing, compact brake arms, Compact Drive chain rings and sprockets, aluminum spoke nipples - these are just some of the many ways we lighten our bikes. (Dahon, 2009) According to Dahon experts, the difference weight of each component is only a few grams. However, if each component is cut off by 5% weight and added up, it gives big impact on the overall weight of the bike. The final crucial part of building light bikes is proper testing equipment. Every frame and every component made is sent to our testing department. Testing lets us know how much of a safety margin we have and how far we can push the weight envelope. There are not much bike companies, which has their own in-house testing department. * Safety First The company is not only committed to build the lightest bike, but also the safest bike in the world. REFERENCES: *Dahon, 2009, Bikes, viewed on 12 March 2009. http://www.dahon.com
LONG JOHN DELIVERY BIKE Velorbis Long John was originally marketed on 1938, previously named Danish Long John. It is a hand-made delivery bike with an unusual long wheel base. It can carry approximately 100 kg loads, and a two riding seats at the back. The design of the bike requires a long structure for the wheel base, where a linkage is steering the front wheel. The amazing part of the bike is that the more loads it carries, the more stable the bike is. However, there are few disadvantages of long john bike, according to Long John (2008), such as: • • • •
One-wheeled trailers are scarcely wider than the towing bicycle, but are restricted to carrying loads of only up to about 30 kg Two-wheeled trailers can carry higher payloads, but can clip kerbs and overturn when cornering Restrict access to some cycle paths and gaps through congested traffic Difficult to keep under observation when in motion
Fitting the loads carrying extension to the front might be a good solution of those disadvantages. Long John is also great for carrying child because the custodian can look after the kids and the kids themselves get a great view of what is going on around.
REFERENCES: * Velorbis, 2008, The Long John Delivery Bike is Back!, updated on May 15, 2008, viewed on 12 March 2009. http://www.velorbis.com/press-room/corporate-news/The-Long-John-Delivery-bike-is-back.html * Long John, 2008, Die Long John Galerie, updated on October, 19, 2008, viewed on 12 March 2009. http://www.longjohn.org/galerie/galerie_en.html#34
THE RALEIGH TWENTY R20s built for the UK market had 20 x 1 3/8 inch (451) tyres on adult versions of the traditional British format E5J rim. The code E5J stood for Endrick (the rim profile) British size 5 (=20-inch) Juvenile. The wheels were slimmer and easier rolling (at least, on the average British road surface) than the semi-balloon tyres used on most other 20-inch wheel bikes sold in the UK. Many export R20s, however, had wider section 20 x 1.75 inch American format (406) tyres, which in those pre-BMX days were virtually unknown in the UK. The Twenty was not nearly as sophisticated a design as the Moulton, one of the famous bike in 60â€™s, but there was a visual alike. While the Twenty lacked the Moulton's full suspension, it was cheap and rugged and fun to ride. The 20 inch wheels were easy to get tires for, and the tires held up quite well. The Twenty superficially resembles many inexpensive European 20 inch folders of the era, but the frame and hinge are much more solid than most of these.
Bottom Bracket The bottom bracket threading on Raleigh Twentys is Raleigh's proprietary 26 tpi size. The shells are also rather wider than standard, approximately 76 mm. There are 3 options, If we want to upgrade a Raleigh Twenty for modern cotterless cranks: â€˘
Have the bottom bracket shell re-threaded to take an ISO standard 24 tpi bottom bracket. This works, but the threads are not terribly strong, because the diameter is the same, so
there will be some missing threads. (The shells are not thick enough to tap out to the larger Italian size.) Re-use the original 26 tpi cups with a long cotterless axle. "7" series bottom bracket axles are made to work with 73 mm "oversized" shells, and some of them can be made to work in the Raleigh cups. Use a cartridge bottom bracket with Phil Wood 26 tpi retaining rings. I'm told that it is possible to use Shimano UN72 bottom-bracket cartridges with the Phil Wood rings, if a Phil Wood bottom bracket is beyond your budget. Brakes The 406 mm wheel models came with long-reach Weinmann sidepull brake calipers; the 451 mm wheel models used Raleigh steel calipers like those used on full-sized Raleigh 3-speeds.
Handlebars There are two standard handlebar setups for Twentys: •
A one-piece bar unit, with bars similar to "all-rounders." These are reasonably light and stiff, and there is no great need to replace them unless you want to go to a totally different style of bar. A tall 3-speed type stem, with a sort of "high rise" bar. These offer fore-and-aft adjustability, but are heavier and less secure than the one-piece type.
Both types of stem are secured by an "L" handled binder at the top of the fork steerer, rather than using a traditional expander/wedge system. The stems have a stiff wire loop running out of the bottom, which attaches to the brake center bolt, and prevents the stem from being set too high for safety. Wheels The stock wheels on U.S. models are either 406 mm (20 x 1.75) or 451 mm (20 x 1 3/8). Generally the folding models came with the 406 size. It is also the size used for BMX bikes. Good rims and tires are available in both sizes, though the selection is much better for the more common 406 mm size. The stock steel rims are very heavy and don't do not give us a right braking. The most valuable upgrade to these bikes is to replace the rims with lightweight aluminum ones, and to install better tires.
Frame Unlike many similar-looking 20" wheel folding bikes, the Raleigh Twenty has a nice stiff frame, and can handle quite well even with heavy riders at high speeds. The hinge is very sturdy and trustworthy. In fact, the bike can be ridden with without the hinge "L" bolt being installed! The hinge bolt is a 3/8" x 20 TPI, a relatively common bolt thread in the U.S. Twentys are designed to take a 1 1/8" seat post, and come with a heavy steel one, which may not be long enough for taller riders. For men who have long-legged, they used to have to extend the stock seatpost by attaching a smaller seatpost to the top of it. But now, it is already solved. It is mountain bikes, and "oversized" designs which suitable modern aluminum seatposts are available from stock in the 28.6 mm diameter. The rear triangle is made typical of those made for Sturmey-Archer gear hubs, 114 mm spacing, with 8 mm axle slots. If we want to upgrade the gearing we will likely need to respace the frame and file dropouts to accept a fatter axle. All we have to do is do all of the filing on the bottom of the slot, so we won't mess up the alignment of the frame. Fork The stock fork is not very good quality, but serviceable. It has narrow spacing for a Raleigh proprietary hub, narrower and with a skinnier axle than most modern hubs. The stock Raleigh front hubs are actually pretty decent, but if you want to upgrade to a more modern hub, you will need to spread the fork blades to the now-standard 100 mm spacing, and file the axle slots to fit a 9 mm axle. Headset The stock Raleigh Twenty headset uses the same bottom section as other Nottingham 3speeds, with 25 5/32" balls, but the upper headset uses a nylon bushing. The extra friction of this bushing, plus the geometry of the stock fork generally make it impossible to ride a stock Twenty no-hands. REFERENCES *Tony Hadland’s Page, 1998, ‘The Raleigh Twenty range’, updated 1998, viewed 12 March 2009 http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~hadland/twenty.htm *Sheldon Brown’s Page, 1999, ‘Sheldon Brown’s Raleigh Twenty Page’, Update April 1999, viewed 12 March 2009 http://www.sheldonbrown.com/raleigh-twenty.html
*Raleigh Rotorua, 2009, ‘Raleigh 20 Club’, Update 2009, viewed 12 March 2009 http://www.raleigh20.co.nz/
BIKE ADVERTISING Mobile billboards are a concept that allow you to put your message where it counts - right in front of the people you want to have as customers The BikeBanner has been developed for bicycle wheels with a diameter by 26 and 28 inches. This registered advertising model is made from synthetic material and both sides can be printed in various colours. Advertising with the BikeBanner is a onetime investment. The quality of the BikeBanner remains for several years. Because of this it’s possible to advertise for several years at relatively low costs. The renting of precious advertisement space becomes superfluous, because the bicycle functions as a bearer of the media-expression. The advertising wheel can also be a striking addition on your traditional advertising-expressions. • • • • •
Easy to affirm Striking and Original Printable in various colours Vandal-proof because of the sustainability of the material Harmlessly for the environment because of the type of material
Mobile billboards are a concept that allow you to put your message where it counts - right in front of the people you want to have as customers Mobility mobile advertising is anytime/anywhere exposure numerous locations at no extra cost demographic specific out of home medium reaches commuters and pedestrians. REFERENCES *Mariner Blue, 2009, ‘Raleigh 20 Club’, Update 2009, viewed 12 March 2009 http://advertising-promotion.marinerblue.com/ *Bikemedia,2009,’The Bike Banner’, Update 2009, viewed 12 March 20093 http://advertising-promotion.marinerblue.com/
BIKE BASKET Most Cyclist find that they need a basket in their bike. But it is not easy to choose which one is the better one for their bike, just like other accessories. It is usually best to get the smallest and the lightest carrier-or combination of carriers- you can get with. There are several things that we have to think before we choose the carriers. Getting the carrier fit to your bike is important. Make sure that the size of the basket is right for the wheel or a handle bar if it is a front carrier. Make sure that the basket doesnâ€™t damage the bike or interfere its operation. Any carrier that is supported directly to the axle of the wheel can damage the axle threads. If we put a heavy load in an unsupported front basket can also damage the break cable. On dropped handle bar will limit the your hand position If we do the heavy load, balance the bike from front to the back and from side to side with saddle baskets. Avoid the sharp turn. There are several types of basket that we can choose Narrow Spring clip carrier: It is the best all-round carriers. But their use is limited to regular shaped, not easily crush an object such as book, briefcase, boxes, etc. For this type of carrier, we need a strap to hold things securely Wire Saddle Basket: It can carry a lot of things inside. It is also stable in low position. But they are heavy and bulky. It can interfere pedalling and make it difficult if we want to change the back wheel. Woven Front Basket: Small, easy to attach in our bike. But, it only good for very light loads. Wire Front Basket: Can be attach securely, well supported, and can carry heavy load. But, if there is a heavy load in the basket, it will be difficult to turn the steering. Small seat-attached bags: Also called touring bags. One of the weakness is capacity. The capacity is very limited even for casual riding.
REFERENCES *Tahoe Mountain Sport, 2009, ‘Bike Basket’, Update 2009, viewed 12 March 2009 http://tahoemountainsports.com/store/bike-baskets.shtml *Earnest, D. 1973, ‘The Backpocket bicycle book’, Warner Paperback Library, New York
MOTORCYCLE BACK TOP CASE Like the bike, Motorcycle has a case which is attached in the back of it. Advantage of top case: Quality motorcycle luggage with attractive styling and real storage efficiencies no matter the size. Mounting kits are lightweight and modular, extremely easy to use and provide a stylish look to any motorcycle. Cases are easily mounted and dismounted, locks and latches work very well - everything is a one-hand operation. SHAD Motorcycle Top Case
SHAD mounting system is unique. SHAD racks and cases are not compatible with any other brands. Precision moulded and extremely well finished, each top case is attractively styled while still providing optimum storage efficiency. All components are top notch everything fits together precisely and everything works smoothly. The colours of the various pieces complement each other and form an Each kit comes with three components. The steel bottom plate for mounting to the motorcycle, a stylish plastic cover plate that is gets secured to the bottom plate and, the top case itself.
One appreciated feature of the patented Press Lock system allows the top case to be locked on and the lid closed but still unlocked. If something needs to be added or retrieved it can be done by pressing the latch with one hand and lifting the lid - no key required and no need to operate the full latch mechanism. The flush fitting handle can be left unlocked and popped out at any time much like a suitcase handle. This is very useful, especially if the trunk is being taken on and off frequently and it
provides a very secure means of holding the case - mounted, dismounted or in-between. There are 3 different size for this top case: SH-40 Cargo (CA) Medium Capacity Top Case is a medium capacity top case, the SHAD SH40 measures 42.5 x 49.2 x 29.6 cm or 16.7 x 19.3 x 11.6 in (L x W x H) and weighs five pounds. It holds a large full face helmet and a smaller Jet-style helmet. SH-45 Large Capacity Top Case is a large capacity category, the SH-45 has a distinctive sloped lid that sets it apart from its SHAD relatives and other brand counterparts. Measuring 16.1 x 22.2 x 12.3 or 6.33 x 8.74 x 4.84 (L x W x H) inches, it tips the scales at just over five pounds. This case uses the Press Lock system and can be equipped with an optional backrest. Based on its trim size and storage abilities. This case will be heavily used for commuting and travel duties on all three of the motorcycles now fitted with the standard bottom plates. SH-46 Large Capacity Top Case is another large capacity top case the SH46 has a classic shape with the flattened lid profile that I like so much. Measuring 42 x 58 x 31 cm or 16.5 x 22.8 x 12.2 in (L x W x H) it weighs just under six pounds. While it won’t quite hold both Arai XD helmets, it does hold one of them, along with all related riding gear. It will hold two standard full face helmets, like the two Blutek helmets, with some stuff space left over. SH-50 (Very) Large Capacity Top Case is the biggest. A relatively new offering, the SH50 kit is in a league of its own, much like the GIVI Maxima 52 litre case. Top cases over 50 litres tend to be and for this reason they need to obviously built to an even higher cases. It has its own unique and cover plate is thicker as well.
treated as ‘kitchen-sink’ carriers be (extra) strong. The SH50 is standard than the other three heavier bottom plate and the
Considerably larger than any of the other three cases this unit measures 46 x 60 x 32 cm or 18.1 x 23.6 x 12.5 in (L x W x H) with 6.5 pounds weight. REFERENCES *Binetto, 2009, ‘SHAD- Motorcases’, Update 2009, viewed 12 March 2009 http://www.binetto.com/SHAD-Motorcases/ *Web Bike World, 2009, ‘SHAD Motorcycle Luggage’, Update 2009, viewed 12 March 2009 http://www.webbikeworld.com/motorcycle-luggage/shad-luggage/
BAKFIETSEN Dutch Bakfietsen is a specific type of cargo bike that was invented in the mid 1900 to 1970s. Bakfietsen was a vehicle of choice for squatters to move their worldly possessions from one place to another. This cargo bike is still in common usage in cities like Amsterdam today, for carrying loads of every possible description. “Dutch families with two or more children quickly have a problem when they do the errands by bicycle in the city. Heavy bags on the handlebar, one child seated in front and another behind results in unsafe situations. The Bakfietsen offers a solution. A transport bicycle that's user friendly and ensures absolute cycling pleasure. The Cargo bike has a low instep and the centre of gravity is close to the ground. The Cargo bike is extremely maneuverable, convenient and light steering. The kids sit in a tough wooden box in front of the rider and are held securely with three-point harnesses.” (Bakfiets.nl) The Bakfietsen is constantly being re-engineered. The traditional Bakfietsen were hard to maneuver. The bike had no gears and when more items were placed in the loading area it was harder to turn the cargo bike because it felt like the entire load was on the handlebars. The modern Bakfietsen are a lot easier to use. Majority now have gears, front and rear wheel breaks. The later models of this cargo bike also have there cargo a lot closer to the ground. This makes the centre of gravity very low, making the Bakfiestsen more stable. There a several modern models of the Bakfietsen, these are: • Pick-up
Cargo Bike Long
Cargo Trike L
REFERENCES *My Cargo Bike, 2008. Viewed on the 14th of March 2009. http://www.mycargobike.com/cargobike/history.htm *International Federation of Bike Messenger Association, 2007. Viewed on the 14th of March 2009. http://www.messengers.org/resources/history/cargo.html
*Bakfiets.nl, 2005. Viewed on the 15th of March 2009. http://www.bakfiets.nl/
HORSE AND CARRIAGE Horse and Carriage was the first form transport in the middle ages and was used for many centuries to come, until it automotive vehicle came along. Horses were used to pulled carts, stagecoaches, covered wagons, and delivery vans. They hauled water tanks, men, and hoses to fires and for a time sped pony express riders to their destinations. New designs of carriages began to arise as the centuries went by “closed carriages began to be more widely used by the upper classes in the 16th century, and better sprung vehicles were developed in the 17th century.” (Slider Encyclopedia) Even though these carts, stagecoaches, covered wagons, delivery vans, and the ones listed below are just a bunch of the carriages that exist. These carriage designs will still greatly inform our group in ways of approaching the design of our freight bike.
Below are some more commonly know types of horse-drawn carriages that exist: • • • •
Fiaker (carried tourists around Vienna). Coupé Victoria Brougham
• • • • • • • • • •
Landau and Landaulet Cabriolet Phaeton Limousine Calèche or Calash Berline Diligence Britzska Surrey, and Barouche
Other types are: • Droshky: An open four-wheeled carriage, formerly used in Russia and Poland. • Fiacre: A small hackney carriage, named after the Hôtel de Saint Fiacre in Paris. • Gharry or Gharri: Used primarily in Egypt and India, often as a cab. • Tonga: A light two-wheeled carriage. REFERENCES *Slider Encyclopedia, 2008. Viewed on the 14th of March 2009. http://enc.slider.com/Enc/Carriage *Chevron Corporation, 1997-2009. Viewed on the 14th of March 2009. http://www.chevroncars.com/learn/cars/history-horse-cars *Wikipedia, last modified on 13 November 2008. Viewed on the 14th on March 2009. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horse_and_buggy
DELIVERY (MOTOR) BIKES Postal Delivery Bikes •
Postal Bicycle Postal Bicycles and Tricycles were first trailed between 1883 and 1895 for postal deliveries. In 1896 Post office bicycles were officially introduced and 100 were bought straight away. In 1929 more modifications were made to the bike, just as adding gears, mudflaps, mirrors and a plastic container and the front to carry more mail.
Postal Motorcycle The idea of having electric motor postal bicycles came along after mailing loads got heavier, this made it harder for delivers to pull the bikes with such loads up hills. From 1919 the use of motorcycles to deliver the post was the norm, we are still using this method today. Now slowly the introduction of mopeds to postal delivery is being introduced.
Brazilian Delivery Bike The bikes in Brazil are all very rugged but and can carry huge loads. They are often seen within the busy city. This type of transportation of goods prevents the courier from being stuck in heavy vehicle congestion, and is able to maneuver themselves through the city a lot easier. “Most of them have front baskets supported by automobile springs. The small front wheel underneath the front basket helps with road friction and stability.” They also have a kickstand, which allows the rider to pull over and place his bike in on spot without losing his load.
Ice Cream Delivery Bike Ice Cream Tricycles have been the industry standard since the beginning of the 20th century. This bicycles are for the local street vendor and corporate client. It is very common to see these human power ice cream transportation around Melbourne CBD during a hot summers day. These cycles are super durable and naturally require no fuel, emit no fumes and are fun to ride. The bike also consists of a thickly insulated box, which is airtight. A dry ice shelf is located inside the cabinet for convenient loading of dry ice. A handy exterior compartment is standard for storing napkins or other items. Using dry ice, these vehicles are ideal for vending pre-packaged novelty ice cream. These Ice Cream bicycles can hold up to 50 dozen frozen ice-creams. Delivery Scooter – Zennco (This is only one of many models of delivery scooter/mopeds) This 50cc purpose built specialist delivery bike, with large loading box giving 150L of load space. It has fair powerful engine, and is designed to ensure maximum space and safety for the rider and product. This type of moped is quite often used within Melbourne for such deliveries as Pizza and
other fast food store. In Japan they have also used these moped to deliver K.F.C. to their customers. Danish Delivery Bicycle Long John Delivery bike is a Danish style delivery bicycle, it is a “hand-made transport beauty that can carry up to 100 kg loads, yet still with excellent riding capabilities. This is the perfect inner-city delivery bicycle. The Long John bicycle is a transport bike with an extraordinary long-wheel base that can carry a huge load, but can still squeeze through traffic with ease. In order to carry considerably more loads on a 2wheeler bicycle, the design and ergonomics require a long-wheel base structure where the front wheel is steered via a linkage. Bicycles such as the Long John have the carrier extremely low, making them very stable with large loads.” (Velorbis) REFERENCES *Instructables, last updated 2009. Viewed on 15th of March 2009. http://www.instructables.com/id/SLJPDYCFI9N7T24/ *Zennco. Viewed on the 15th of March 2009. http://www.deliverybikes.co.uk/Caddy50.htm *Velorbis – Danish Design, 2008. Viewed on the 15th of March 2009. http://www.velorbis.co.uk/ *Industrial Bikes, est. 1935. Viewed on the 15th of March 2009. http://www.industrialbicycles.com/v-ict.htm *The British Postal Museum and Archive, 2005. Viewed on the 15th of March 2009. http://postalheritage.org.uk/history/downloads/BPMA_Info_Sheet_Bicycles_web.pdf
TROLLEYS There a plenty of different types of hand trolleys on the market. Some of these are: •
General Purpose “General purpose hand trolleys suitable for use on both rough and smooth surfaces. Strong steel frame with tough welded toe plate.”
Aluminum “An extremely useful lightweight hand trolley which folds down to a convenient size for easy storage or transport in the boot of a car or small van.”
Stair Climbing “Very practical hand trolleys that easily climb stairs, kerbs, doorsteps and similar obstacles.”
Ruxxac-Carts “This German legend carries an incredible 125kg which is more than 25 times its own weight of 4.5kg yet it can be folded down in less than 5 seconds to a thickness of 55mm to slip into a car boot. The elasticised strap fixing system "Spannfix" will safely secure any suitable load on the anti-slip platform.”
Dual Foot Plate “For use with widely varying load sizes. The second larger footplate folds up when not needed for large loads to improve maneuverability.”
Folding “A delightfully convenient hand trolley of lightweight aluminum construction with protective corner covers. Both platform and handle are extendable with locking devices and the handle also folds down. This hand trolley has two fixed wheels and two swivel casters.”
Dual Purpose “A unique combination of truck and hand trolley makes this model extremely versatile with varying load sizes. Particularly popular for carrying "white" goods, e.g. fridges, cookers etc. at a 45 degree angle.”
REFERENCES *Hand Trolleys - The widest range of quality hand trolleys on the UK web, 2002. Viewed on the 15th of March 2009. http://www.hand-trolleys.co.uk/
MINI VELO Bike Hugger mentions the popularity of small mini velo bicycles in Japan. These are small wheeled bicycles that may or may not be folders. They include some of the folding bicycles we're familiar with in the U.S. and Europe, but there are many bicycles such as the Bianchi Novita shown here that are made exlusively for the Japanese market. You can see the whole catalog of mini velo Bianchi bicycles at Bianchi's Japan distributor.
This mini velo is all about carbon. The first time you see a photo of this bike, you might be tempted to assume that the frame was adapted from a BMX bike or something because of the really tall steerer. The details of the frame suggest that the bike was intended solely for this application.
This particular bike is a hot-rod version of the Handybike, which is re-branded by several companies for sale in Japan and other parts of Asia. As easy as it would be to just dismiss this item as a silly fad, you can tell the guy takes this thing pretty seriously.
This is a â€œmini veloâ€? type bike from Roppongi neighborhood of Tokyo. In Japan, Mini velo bikes include anything with small wheels, including Moultons, Bike Fridays, and a whole host of Japan only bikes, but not exclusively folding bikes.
The 2005 BikeTrophy The BikeTrophy Jury awarded CYCLEUROPE/GITANE's model "Mini Velo Luxe" the City Bike of the Year. Low frame, Automatic lighting, Automatic gear levers Shimano Nexus 3D, Removable shopping basket, Removable bag, Reflecting tyres.
REFERENCES *http://bikehugger.com/tag/mini%20velo *http://bikehugger.com/tag/mini%20velo *http://www.cycleurope.com/ce_hl_biketrophy.asp *http://www.cyclelicio.us/2007/06/japan-mini-velo.html
MOULTON BIKE The Moulton Bicycle is the original full suspension, separable, small wheeled, high performance bicycle. World renowned for speed, efficiency, durability and comfort. Expertly engineered for over 50 years and handcrafted in England, these bicycles are the world's most efficient form of transport - designed for universal use, real performance and comfort. (moulton bike, 2009)
Features The Moulton bicycle is a unique design with many features that set it apart from other bicycles. Back in the 1950s, Alex Moulton defined the key features of the Moulton bicycle - small wheels, suspension, stiff unisex frame, adaptability to suit intended use, and innovation in design, engineering and manufacture. Today, these principles still hold true, but the resulting bicycle is improved in every way - lighter, stiffer, faster and more comfortable, as well as easier to transport by road, rail or air. (moulton bike, 2009)
Small Wheels Small wheels with high pressure tyres have been integral to the Moulton design from the beginning. The combination of the lower rolling resistance of high pressure tyres and the lower aerodynamic drag of small wheels, allows the bicycle to go faster with less effort. In contrast to large bicycle wheels, the smaller Moulton wheels are immensely strong. Their lower moment of inertia allows faster acceleration and more responsive steering. Smaller
wheels also reduce the overall length of the bicycle, making it compact and easier to transport. (moulton bike, 2009)
Unique Suspension In order to accommodate the hard ride of the ultra-rigid frame, strong wheels and high pressure tyres, full suspension has been a mandatory feature of all Moulton bicycles. This coupling of advanced suspension and small wheels provides superior comfort and road holding. Moulton bicycle suspension has been continually developed for over 40 years, constantly refined to maximise rider comfort and efficiency. The Hydrolastic速 suspension on the New Series Moultons features a rubber spring with adjustable fluid damping. The Flexitor速 front suspension system utilizes rubber in torsion, eliminating lubrication, wear, and 'stiction.' This provides unparalleled shock isolation and a uniquely silky ride. (moulton bike, 2009)
Stiff Space Frame As with other vehicles, bicycle frame stiffness is a key element of performance. Lateral rigidity is vital, as any of the rider's energy spent flexing a frame is lost. A stiff frame also ensures accurate wheel tracking for secure road holding and cornering stability. The unique Moulton space frame, a highly engineered lattice of small diameter tubes, is far stiffer than a conventional diamond frame. This frame architecture fits riders of all sizes and the
low step-through allows the bike to be mounted with ease by both sexes. The low weight and high stiffness of the Moulton frame produces a ride that is lively and amazingly efficient. (moulton bike, 2009)
Separable and Adaptable All Moulton bicycles are inherently more compact and most feature separable frames for storage or transport. This separability introduces no compromises other than a little extra weight; there is no loss of stiffness or ride quality. When disassembled, the two halves of a Moulton fit easily in the boot of a car or travel case. The New Series Moultons separate further into five parts for even more compact stowage and airline transport. The design of the Moulton and its accessories is such that the same bicycle can be used for laden touring, performance cycling or urban use - dressed for travel or stripped for action as required. (moulton bike, 2009)
High-Quality Construction The Moulton's frame and forks are hand-brazed in the UK by our small team of highly skilled craftsmen. Its unique construction demands special jigs and fixtures designed and made inhouse, as are the Moulton suspension systems and other Moulton parts.
Moulton frames are designed to last, with many bicycles having been ridden for over 50 000 miles. The high level of workmanship, together with fatigue reducing suspension, ensure that the bicycles maintain their performance and value for many years. (moulton bike, 2009) REFERENCES: Moulton bike, 2009, Moulton Bike, viewed on 18 March 2009. http://www.moultonbicycles.co.uk/
WHEELCHAIR A wheelchair is a type of chair that is attached to a frame and is mounted on wheels. This device is used for the mobility of sick, injured or handicapped people, which mean they need to be structured well for best performance. When you use a wheelchair, it is very important to know its limitations in terms of its capability to avoid accidents. Although there is allot of types of different wheelchairs. Two basic wheels and are used often are the Manual Wheelchairs, Sport Wheelchairs and also an electric wheelchairs which can cost up to $ 30,000. However most of the manual wheel chairs are often made out of light and cheap material. The reason for this is because it is suitable for the prices in the market and suitable for disabled consumers to buy it. Also maintenance of the actual wheelchair is very important as it is very likely to break or a part might fall apart therefore parts for this particular product has to be made and sold at a cheap price. Manual Wheelchairs This type of wheelchair is normally powered or propelled by the user by pushing the hand rims. The hand rims are round tubular bars that are outside the wheels. It also has handles at the back if you have someone to push it. This type of wheelchair is lightweight, easy to maintain and less expensive.
Sport Wheelchairs Sport wheelchairs are designed for sports. They are often lightweight but very stable. The most common type of sport wheelchairs used is for basketball and for marathon.
REFERNCE: *http://ezinearticles.com/?Information-on-Wheelchairs---Different-Types&id=528227 Monday 9 march 2009 *http://www.1800wheelchair.com/siteimages/large/colours_hammer1.jpg : Monday 9 march 2009 *http://www.jsbhealthcare.com/shop/images/Imported%20Wheelchair.jpg : Monday 9 march 2009
SADDLE BAG Ortlieb Saddle Bag Large A must for the mountain biker and road biker: Waterproof saddlebag with roll closure. Size L offers enough space for food as well as the gear and accessories needed on a day tour. It almost entirely replaces a small daypack. The two D-rings on the roll closure make the saddlebag easy to lock or fix. A reflector and the ability to mount an additional rear light are further features of these small but fine bags. Also, the saddlebag has the positive side effect of a
mudguard. Fitted under the saddle, the mounting makes the saddlebag easy to attach or remove. Simply slide on, click in and fasten the Velcro strip to the seat post for stability. Available accessories: strap set for mounting on coil spring saddles, additional mounting sets for use on a second bike
Theses bags although have to be waterproof from the rain and they have to be made out of a strong fabric material that absorbs the water from getting in. Also this material should be able to carry a heavy amount of papers maybe up to 30 – 40 kg of papers.
REFERNCE: *http://veronadailyphoto.blogspot.com/2009/03/bicycles-postmans-bike.html Thursday 12 march 2009
HENERY WORKCYCLE Classic Dutch Transport Trike (Medium size) A smaller version of our classic, old-fashioned Dutch "bakfiets", still hand-made. Extremely robust and simply charming. Axle-pivot steering for safe, easy handling. Great either for promotion or really heavy work. Standard with the open box or custom-built to your needs. UsesHeavy load hauling, industrial internal transport, promotion/delivery, rentals. Load capacity400kg, box 120x75cm Key specs• •
Massive 26" transporter wheels. Single-speed with fixed gear (pedals backwards too)
• • • •
Giant, hand operated drum brake Solid mahogany cargo box on leaf springs Sealed industrial bearings throughout Motorcycle drive chain and steel chain cover
Graphics Custom build-up for your business needs
REFERENCES: *http://www.cyclelink.com.au/category1018_1.htm : Tuesday 10 march 2009
MUNDO CARGO BICYCLE The Mundo Cargo Bike is designed to promote affordable, scalable transportation for cargo and people. It works fantastically to carry tools, sport equipment, running errands around town, or hauling a set of speakers that you need to bring to a concert venue. It's a bike purposely designed and built for anyone, anywhere. Key features include: • • • • • •
Large, integrated cargo platforms for easy loading Reinforced dropouts for cargo or passenger transport High tensile steel frame Reinforced 48-spoke rear wheel, cargo-strength hub and axle Scalable frame with low top tube for riders of different sizes Room to transport passengers
Technology The Mundo Cargo Bike comes in 3 models: 1-speed, 6-speed and 3x6-speed (18-speed): • The Mundo 1-speed is the entry-level model ideally suited for flat to mildly rolling terrain with low maintenance features. • The Mundo 6-speed is the mid of the line, perfect for flat or medium hilly areas. • The Mundo 18-speed offers the most advantages for hilly terrain and heavier cargo hauling. Dimensions Bicycle size: One size fits all Wheels: 26 Inches Length: 210 cm (6.9ft) Cargo capacity: volume 1.05 m3 (33.3cft) | weight 200 kilos (440lbs) Carrier size: length 80 cm (2ft 7") width 22 cm (8.7") Side loaders: 54 cm (1ft 9") 15cm (5.9")
REFERENCES: *Yuba, 2006. Viewed on the 20th of March 2009. http://www.yubaride.com/utility-bicycles-models.html *Cargo Bike New Zealand. Viewed on the 20th of March 2009. http://xtracycler.googlepages.com/
GROUP 2 S3197612 S3159066 S3180659 S3197026
Daniel Lipinski Diana Sari Dewi Felix Sidharta Mina Matta
PHOTO MATRIX 2 track, path, and parking
GROUP 2 Daniel Lipinski S3197612 Diana Sari Dewi S3159066 Felix Sidharta S3180659 Mina Matta S3197026