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Liam DAVI 150426097 liam.davi@gmail.com

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CONTENTS

P 2.3 AT HOME IN THE CITY

2. 3. 1. STUDY TYPE ..................................................................................................................... 4 2. 3. 2. LEITH 2026 ............................................................................................................................ 15 2. 3. 3. DWELLING PLUS .................................................................................................................. 23 2. 3. 4. INHABIT ................................................................................................................................. 49

AP3 SEMESTER 2 DESIGN SUBMISSIONS 2. 4. ENGINEERING EXPERIENCE ................................................................................................ 53 2. 5. EXPLORING EXPERIENCE ..................................................................................................... 59 AP4 NON-DESIGN MODULE COURSEWORK ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY ............................................................................. 99 ARC2010 ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN ....................................................................................... 114 ARC2020 DISSERTATION STUDIES AND RESEARCH METHODS .................................... 116 ARC2020 ABOUT ARCHITECTURE .............................................................................................. 118

AP5 PROCESS AND REFLECT ................................................................................................................. 93

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P2.3.1.

STUDY

TYPE

By beginning with a study of a housing typology, we hope to explore and understand the variety of ways in which spaces for dwelling can be configured in order to facilitate not only the lifestyle of a particular household, but also the relationships between neighbours, their overlapping routines and encounters that begin to make up the social life of the city or neighbourhood in which they live. The typology studied here is of student housing in Durham, England, called Trevelyan College.

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Contents Contents

Site positioning

Site Positioning 4

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Spatial configuration

Spacial Configuration 8

Economy

Economy 10

Microcosm of a city

Microcosm of a City 12

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The situated in a site of five acres The college is situated in a sitecollege of five isacres among a parkland of trees and grass. The among a parkland of trees and grass. TheFeatures Natural buildings irregular was designed to buildings irregular outlineis was designed to outline The college situated in a site of five acres Natural dominate the sites natural features as little dominate the sites natural features asfeatures little among a parkland The college is situatedof in atrees site ofand five grass. The acres amongin a parkland of views treesresulting and as possible, in beautiful views as possible, resulting beautiful buildings irregular outline was designed to

of the

grass. The buildings’ irregular outline wasfrom designed to dominate the site’sfrom the college’s many the landscape landscape theof college’s many dominate the sites natural features as little natural features as little as possible, outwardly poised windows. resulting in beautiful viewsinof the outwardly poised windows. as possible, resulting beautiful views landscape from the college’s many outwardly poised of the landscape from windows. the college’s many

outwardly poised windows.

Relationship withRelationship Durham with Dur

college itself The college itself appearsThe quite isolated in appears quite is

this natural environment, perhap this natural environment, perhaps even Relationship with Durham

more so of due to its social concept more so due to itscollege social concept selfThe itself appears quite isolated in living. Features of the contained living. of the college thisFeatures natural contained environment, perhaps even

a and dining hall, games include a dining hall,sogames more dueinclude toroom, its social concept of self-room library,in addition to many library,in addition to many other public contained living. Features of the collegeother spaces common spaces and common perhaps include aareas. dining hall,and games room,areas. and This Relationship withThis Durham

The college itselfoffers appearslittle quiteinteraction isolated for studen offers little interaction students belibrary,in for addition to many other public

Site PosiSite Positioning tioning Site Positioning 4

SITE POSITIONING

in this natural environment, perhaps evenas more so due to itsthe social concept tween Durham as a town and the tween Durham a town and college. spaces and common areas. This perhaps of self-contained living. Features of the college include a dining hall, offers little interaction for students begames room, and a library, in addition totween many other public spaces anda and Arguably, this approach works we Arguably, this approach works well in Durham as a town the college. communal areas. This perhaps offers small-scale town like Durham, bu little interaction for students small-scale town like Durham, but abetween less Durham as a town and the college.

self-contained stylewell of living self-containedArguably, style of living would allow this approach works in a woul Arguably, this approach works well in

student to interact more in a vibr a small-scale small-scale town like Durham, but a but student to interact more in a vibrant city town like Durham, a less less self-contained style of living would

as more Newcastle. such as Newcastle. allow students tosuch interact in a would allow self-contained style of living vibrant city such as Newcastle.

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student to interact more in a vibrant city

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such as Newcastle.

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Detail plan of a typical first floor study bedroom showing the public (blue) and private (red) spaces, and how they interact

with each other. Detail plan of a typical first floor stud Detail plan of a typical first floor stud bedroom showing the public (blue) bedroom showing Detail plan of a typical first floor the study public bedroom (blue) a private (red) spaces, showing the public (blue) and privateand (red) how they in spaces, and how they interact with each private (red) spaces, andother. how they in with each other. with each other.

Private Residential The building has been irregularly planned

Common Space The layout features rooms based around aim had been to create study bedrooms Private Residential Private Residential Private staircases. residential with individuality, a sense lightirregularly and The building hasof been planned The entrance hall is referred to in outline but with a close complex. The

The building has been irregularly

Common space The building has been irregularly planned planned in to outline but, complex. at aas closer ‘thelook, Cobbles’ although therooms cobbles were space, and overall the effort Common Space in outline but with afoster close The The layout features clustered is quite complex. The aim was to create staircases. The entrance hall is Common Space in outline but with a close complex. Thea around study with individuality, removed a recent modernisation. community. This created bybedrooms grouping The layout features aim is had been to create study bedroomsduring referred to as “the Cobbles”rooms althoughbased ar sense of light and space, and overall the cobbles were removedrooms during abased aro The layout features aim had been to create study bedrooms the effort to foster community. This is the rooms into small of hexagonal staircases. The entrance hall is refer with units individuality, a sense of light and recent modification. created by grouping the rooms into staircases. The entrance hall is referr with individuality, a sense of light and unitsthe of hexagonal shapes. as ‘the Cobbles’ although the cobble space, and small overall effort toshapes. foster as ‘the Cobbles’ although the cobble space, and overall the effort to foster removed during a recent modernisa community. This is created by grouping removed during a recent modernisa community. This is created by grouping the rooms into small units of hexagonal the rooms into small units of hexagonal shapes. shapes.

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Spatial Qualities The spatial qualities of Trevelyan College

Spatial Spatial Qualities Qualities

are unusual, and demonstrate both posiThe spatial The spatial qualities qualities of Trevelyan of Trevelyan College College tive and negative features Spatial in the overall deQualities are unusual, are unusual, and demonstrate and demonstrate both both posi- posiThe spatial qualities of Trevelyan sign. One feature of the plan is the shape College are features unusual, and demonstrate tive and tivenegative and negative features in thein overall the overall de- deboth positive negativechosen features of the many studyand bedrooms, sign. sign. One feature One feature of theofplan the is plan the isshape the shape in the overall design. One feature of specifically the to allow both flexibility in room planstudy is thebedrooms, shapechosen of the many of theofmany the many study bedrooms, chosen study bedrooms, chosen specifically arrangement in the overall plan, and anto specifically specifically to allow toflexibility allow both both flexibility flexibility in room in room allow in room arrangement impression ofoverall increased in each. in the plan,space and which give arrangement arrangement in theinoverall the overall plan, plan, and an and an an impression of increased space in In each addition, even the smallest details each. Inofaddition, even smallest impression impression of increased increased space space inthe each. in each. details were considered as the position were considered as the positions of washIn each In each addition, addition, even even the smallest the smallest details details of wash-basins, built-in storage and basin, built-in storage and window are varwindows, which shapes vary in each were were considered considered as theaspositions the positions of washof washdetails, combined with ied in eachroom. room.These These details, combined basin,basin, built-in built-in storage storage and window and window are varare the irregular shape of the rooms varand with the irregular shapeoutlooks of the rooms and their varying was applied ied inied each inwith each room. room. These These details, details, combined combined the aim of giving each of them an their varying outlooks was applied with the individual character. In practice though, with the withirregular the irregular shapeshape of theofrooms the rooms and and shapes of study bedrooms restrict aim the of giving each an individual charactheir their varying varying outlooks outlooks was applied was applied with with the furniture arrangement andthe varying ter. Infact, thesizes shape ofcause studyproblems bedrooms room and aim of aim giving of giving each each ancan individual an individual characcharacrivalry amongst restrict furniture arrangement andstudents. rooms ter. Infact, ter. Infact, the shape the shape of study of study bedrooms bedrooms vary in size. restrict restrict furniture furniture arrangement arrangement and rooms and rooms vary in vary size. in size.

Circulation

There are many corridors connecting these Circulation Circulation

Spatial ConfiguSpatial Spatial ration ConfiguConfiguration ration 8 8

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SPATIAL CONFIGURATION

unusual spaces together, each incredibly ThereThere are many are many corridors corridors connecting connecting thesethese narrow being barely 3ft wide and with no Circulation unusual unusual spaces spaces together, together, each each incredibly incredibly There areInmany corridors connecting outlook. addition, as the bedrooms and these unusual spaces together, each narrow narrow being being barely barely 3ft wide 3ft wide and with and no with no public are designed around the of themspaces incredibly narrow (barely outlook. outlook. In addition, In addition, asbedrooms the bedrooms 3ft wide) and withasnothe outlook. In and and plan’s outline a central network is created addition, asare thedesigned bedrooms andaround public public public spaces spaces are designed around the the spaces are designed around the plan’s for movement. This aspect due to the narplan’s plan’s outline a central anetwork central network network is created is created outline aoutline central is created row dimensionsThis andaspect lack of output for movement. due to thecreates for movement. for movement. This aspect This aspect due to due thetonarthe narof circulation spaces and anarrowness claustrophobic feel in addition to the outputand creates claustrophobic rowlack dimensions rowofdimensions lack andaof lack output of output creates creates feel in addition to the typical corridortypical corridor-like feel of student living. a claustrophobic a claustrophobic feel inhousing. feel addition in addition to theto the like feel of student 9 typical typical corridor-like corridor-like feel offeel student of student living.living. 9

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Economy

Commissioned and built in 1996

Economy

Economy

Commissioned built in 1996 320 fully catered students Commissioned andand built in 1996 320 catered students 320fully fully catered students 790 members 790 members

790 members Room sizes : 10.6m2 to 11.5m2 Room sizes: 10.6m² to 11.5m²

Concept Concept

Room sizes: 10.6m² to 11.5m²

Hexagon shaped blocks arranged Hexagon shaped blocks Concept arranged in an in an unusual form, resulting in unusual form, resulting in arranged most forms most forms containing unusual Hexagon shaped blocks inconan angles to optimise taining unusual angles to optimiselight. light. unusual form, resulting in most forms conIncreased space flexibility, taining unusual angles to and optimise light. Increased space and flexibility, varied varied outlook. outlook.

Economic grouping of rooms Increased space and flexibility, varied around staircases. Economic grouping of rooms around outlook. staircases.

Economic grouping of rooms around staircases.

Economy

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Economy

Economic Context

Economic Context

From 1963 onwards there was an increase

From 1963 onwards there was inEconomic the numberin of the university places an increase number ofto Context university places to beconsequently offered be offered nationally and From 1963 onwards there was an increase nationally and consequently universities were required to expand their universities were in the number ofrequired universitytoplaces to teaching and accommodation expand their teaching andfacilities. be offered nationally and consequently Trevelyan College is owned and for the accommodation facilities. Trevelyan College is ownedThe universities were required toand expand their most part run by the university. cost for the most part run by the was limited and so the architects took the deciteaching university. Theaccommodation cost was limitedfacilities. so sion to keep bedroom sizes to standard the architects took the decision to the Trevelyan College is owned and for keep bedroom sizes to standard and use bricks as the building material most part run by the building university. The cost and use bricks as the material. was limited so the architects took the deci11

sion to keep bedroom sizes to standard and use bricks as the building material

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ECONOMY

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Small-Scale City Trevelyan College was designed as a community in which students live and socialise.

Small-Scale BuiltCity as a small-scale city, students have

Trevelyan College was designed as a everything they need within close proximcommunity in which students live and socialise. Built as a small-scale city, ity, with services ranging students have everything they need from catering to within close proximity, services social areas,with accommodation and many ranging from catering to social areas, accommodation and manybe more. It a micro-city, having more. It could made could be made a micro-city, having studentsto committing to this hundredshundreds of studentsof committing this self-sustaining system. This type of system. This type of system system is self-sustaining extremely effective for the3 people targeted: students.

is extremely effective for the people targeted; students.

Microcosm of a City

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MICROCOSM OF A CITY

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Concept for a city

The concept of Trevelyan would be interesting to explore on a larger scale, perhaps as a neighbourhood of a city. Using thewould same segmenThe Theconcept conceptofofTrevelyan Trevelyan would be be interintertation and shapes, this residential esting at scale, perarea could be parts estingto toexplore explore atadivided alarger largerinto scale, perrepresented and explored through haps of city. hapsasasahexagons aneighbourhood neighbourhood of aahave city. aUsing Using - which each different sector of activity. In this way the thesame samesegmentation segmentationand and shapes, shapes, this this the area will have its own sub-divisions, allowing residents to have residential be into parts residentialarea areacould could bedivided divided into parts access to many services.

Concept Concept for for aa City City

- represented - representedand andexplored exploredthrough through hexa-

Furthermore, the space created between these sectors/hexagons can serve as recreational areas such asFurthermore, parks, and open spaces thepublic space createdbetween between Furthermore, the space where the community couldcreated meet these sectors/hexagons can serveasas and socialise. However, eachcan sector these sectors/hexagons serve would have to be remodelled and recreational areas asparks, parks,and andopen open recreational areas adapted to its site. It such issuch the as concept of Trevelyan Collegethe rather public spaceswhere where communitycould could public the community than thespaces specific buildings/plans themselves could However, be used toeach meet and andthat socialise. However, eachsector sector meet socialise. accomplish this.

would have haveto tobe beremodelled remodelledand andadapted adapted would

gons gons- which - whicheach eachhave haveaadifferent different sector sector

its site. site. ItItisisthe theconcept conceptofofTrevelyan Trevelyan to its

activity.InInthis thisway waythe thearea area will will have have its ofofactivity.

rather rather than thanthe thespecific specificbuilding/plans building/plans

ownsub-divisions, sub-divisions,allowing allowing residents residents to own haveaccess accessto tomany many services services have

themselves themselvesthat thatcould couldbe beused usedtotoaccomaccomplish plish this. this.

Student Neighbourhood Student Neighbourhood a larger Trevelyan College couldHowever However it seems approach On a On larger scalescale Trevelyan College could it seems thatthat thisthis approach to to be duplicated to form a student neighstudent housing on a greater-scale, as a be duplicated toStudent form a student neighstudent housing on a greater-scale, as a Neighbourhood bourhood of the city. Each block of However microcosm of a city would not be the ideal On a part larger Trevelyan College this approach bourhood part of the scale city. Each block of microcosm itofseems a city that would not be the ideal could be duplicated to form a to student housing on a greater scale, buildings could remain segmented and one. Separate of blocks wouldn’t interact as student neighbourhood part of the asSeparate a microcosm city wouldinteract not buildings could remain segmented and one. blocksa wouldn’t as city. Each block of part buildings could be the ideal one. unnecessary Separate blocks act as a small community, of a bigger much, creating segmentation act as a small community, part a bigger creating unnecessary segmentation remain segmented andof acts as a small much, wouldn’t interact as much, creating scheme. It would beofespecially suited for across the neighbourhood. The concept of community, part a bigger scheme. It unnecessary segmentation across scheme.would It would be especially suited for across the neighbourhood. The be especially suited for students, the neighbourhood. The conceptconcept of students, having these blocks dispersed Trevelyan College as aaseries of hexagonal blocks dispersed around Trevelyan of Trevelyan College series students,having havingthese these blocks dispersed College as aas series of of hexagonal making lifelife as as a hexagonal blocks works on a around the theneighbourhood, neighbourhood, making blocks works better onbetter a small-scale, as it student easier and more pleasant. small scale, as it is in Durham. around the neighbourhood, making life as blocks works better on a small-scale, as it a student easier and more pleasant. is at Durham. a student easier and more pleasant. is at Durham.

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P2.3.2.

LEITH 2026 A NEIGHBOURHOOD PLAN This project is set in Leith, a neighbourhood of Edinburgh. We were asked to read and understand the complex neighbourhood, along with all its rhythms and particularities, and then to present an architectural/urban proposal for a specific neighbourhood in Leith. Working in groups, we therefore came up with an urban proposal for an open courtyard in Leith, where the community would be stimulated and social development would be the key.

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The Site:

Leith 2026

Group E Symposium Busy main road, with direct bus route into Edinburgh city center.

RHYTHMS OF THE CITY:

Social & Economic

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CULTURAL & INDUSTRIAL HISTORY OF LEITH

WAREHOUSE

BONDS

WHALING

LEITH 1940s

LEITH 1810s

HOUSING

SCHOOL

CHURCH

DRINKING

ASSEMBLY

POLICE

SOAP

CRAFT

WHISKY

Leith is a neighbourhood full of history, and a very specific one. Having been the home to soap making, breweries, housing the sailors, and many more, this has created a very interesting legacy. However it is the people who have also contributed to this legacy. The sense of community is very strong in Leith, with trade unions dating back as early as the 17th/18th centuries, which have strong similarities with the modern concept of a trade union. This is something that can be witnessed in the past and should be also witnessed in the future, therefore being a key point in this project.

1800s INDUSTRIES OF LEITH

LEITH HISTORY TRAIL - PROPOSAL

A SERIES OF WOODEN BOARDS DESCRIBING THE HISTORY OF KEY HISTORICAL BUILDINGS

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Being made up of mostly housing and businesses, this neighbourhood contains mainly active middle-aged people, but with a growing amount of young people. When visiting the site, we mainly noticed the high presence of people in the streets either walking to and from their workplace, or just wandering. This is therefore the context in which our group was to explore and design a scheme in this open courtyard within Leith.

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Leith 2026 Proposal After having explored the neighbourhood and analysed the patterns within Leith, we as a group decided that this site should be developed into a social space where interaction between the different inhabitants and communities within Leith could meet and discover each other. Being in an urban courtyard somewhat shielded from the hurry of the main streets, we decided to create a social walkway. The community will be able to access it from the 2 main entrances and to then freely wander around this open space. However, as Leith has such a specific climate which needs to be seriously taken into consideration, we decided to create this covered walkway which would allow the inhabitants to use the space at any time of year. One of the problems in a country like Scotland is that, during the winter months, social interaction isn’t really encouraged or possible, and the streets and common spaces are used solely as a space for movement, to get from one point to the other. This scheme will therefore encourage social interaction not in the summer but also in the winter, contributing to the social development of Leith. The old church, which is now full of empty rented space, would then be reconverted into a community centre with a cafe opening up onto the new social urban courtyard, where wanderers could rest, socialise and escape the cold .

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This space would be run and owned by the residents of the community. In that way, social integration of different communities would be enhanced, and it would encourage the spirit of community in Leith to carry on.

As the historical legacy of Leith feels very important, a history trail would be created where the population could discover the neighbourhood’s buildings’ history even if the original ones aren’t there anymore. In addition to maintaining this cultural knowledge, this would enhance social discovery and development, thus linking communities together through a common history.

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1:200 model of the neighbourhood, with the proposal added in site. 1: Cafe opening up onto the courtyard 2: Old church reconverted in a community centre 3: Covered walkway going through the courtyard 4: Grass quad 5: Allotments

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A

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Student housing constitutes a very specific kind of architecture, for a quite specific audience. As the students only spend one or two years there, it should be the pedestal for architecture of renewal but, ironically, architects tend to make these designs very generic and very bland, resulting in an architecture of negative durability and self-sustained downfall. I therefore made it my aim to distance myself from this cold and somewhat simple approach and to design a building that feels welcoming and that follows the concept of home, not of house. In order to create this “student home”, I used the dwelling + as the heart of the scheme, linking two age groups physically but also conceptually – through knowledge and leisure. It is this feeling of interaction that I imagine the audience - students - would appreciate best and therefore feel enhanced in and by the architecture. By removing corridors, students would therefore step directly from the private to the public (with occasional small buffer zones), as one would do in his family home; hence creating a deeper sense of community – which is what living with students is practically solely about. As Leith develops socially at a macro level through schemes such as Leith 2026, it would also develop on this micro level. Although student housing might seem easy to design as a template for new students each year, one should not forget one of the key principles of architecture – to make a home. One the main design concepts I followed through this project was trying to relate the ideas behind this building to global architecture concepts, trying to take into account the macro-effect the building would have. I believe that architecture must be driven by these larger ideas and reinforced by this will to design and build in an interconnected and ever-growing world.

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P.2.3.3. DWELLING PLUS Design a building(s) to accommodate 25-35 bed spaces for student living. Include at least 2 different types of user/accommodation arrangements. The accommodation could include graduate and postgraduate space, but there should be a connection to student life. PLUS Include another more public/non-residential use. Dwelling plus space - this should be a public fronting use that also allows for gathering of everyone living in the development.

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The site is in close proximity to the coast, which gives the location a very specific climate (relatively strong winds, cold climate). It is located in an inner courtyard formed by surrounding buildings, with an entrance on each side. My design therefore had to respond to this somewhat enclosed site, with no public fronting onto the street.

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Building Inner urban courtyard Outside urban area

Concept Separating the building into 3 parts.

Having to design a building for 30 to 35 people, the concept that lay behind my design was that undergraduate and postgraduate students would be separated, but would then share a communal space equally accessible by both. The main driving concept consists in making this student accommodation more like a home, therefore going from student housing to

Postgraduate Undergraduate

STUDENT HOME.

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3 sequences of space occupying the whole width of the site.

The shapes have been modified according to the sun path in Leith, in order to get most sunlight in the building and courtyards.

Shapes changed, and an opening is created on the Eastern part of the building for people to walk through.

The design now spans across the whole site, and a private courtyard was created for the undergraduates (Eastern block). Communal spaces at the front and back.

The building’s orientation has been changed, now only being attached to the Northern block of buildings.

Slight change of shapes, but the main concept has been reached. Addition of exterior landscaping and interaction with neighbouring buildings.


Distribution of space within the design

The building now sits in the middle of the site, with circulation being possible on the Western side and over the 1 storey middle part (both on image above). The 2 entrances remain the same, on the North and South sides of the site. The shapes have been thought in relation to the sunlight and sun-path. The front of the building

(South) was purposely positioned in the middle of the site to create an open space in front of it where the students will be able to spend time. The back of the building (North) has also been taken back in order to provide direct sunlight into the buildings at the back, but to also provide direct sunlight on the “back open space�, where students can also go.

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The postgraduate block, located on the West of the site, is threestoreys high and can accommodate single and couples bedrooms (top floor). Shown below is the iterative process behind the internal planning of this space. The concept was to have a communal space in the middle to encourage interaction between the students, and to suppress corridors and their restrictive social aspect.

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The couples’ floor has the same broad organisation as the other floors, but whereas in some student housing they might be a bit more private, I decided to make these as interactive and sociable as the singles’ floors. This follows the main concept behind this project - making student housing more like a “house”.

CONCEPT DRAWIN


NG - INTERACTION

The undergraduate block, located on the East of the site, is four storeys high and can accommodate single students. These iterative drawings show the process went through to obtain a plan where students would interact but also have their own privacy, in a very specific atmosphere.

The common corridor approach has been abandoned, in order to make this space as interactive as possible. The students therefore can go from their room straight to the communal area, and on to the kitchen and dining room. This open plan enables students in their first years to truly experience living within a community of students.

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The room being the place where students spend most of their time, I felt it crucial to design a space that feels like home, on a much smaller scale. Going away from the generic “bed in the corner” design, the room is divided into 3 to 4 parts, which all interact with each other. As one goes from the entrance to the balcony on the other side of the room, they will experience the different “zones”. However, being very open planned, there will only be small separations (30cm long walls) dividing these spaces.

The middle block of my design acts as the meeting point between two generations of students, on an academic and leisure level. It therefore holds the scheme’s communal room (available for both) but also a study room/library that extends into the undergraduate building, with two distinct but linked spaces for undergraduates and postgraduates.

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FIRST IDEA The buildings are just blocks at this point, and there has been some experimentation in terms of shape of the middle building. Circulation though the site can be made along the Eastern side of the design (the building is in contact with the church on the other side).

DEVELOPMENT N.1 Each block’s shape has changed and reached a semi-final stage. Undergraduates all have balconies from their room, and a communal one (triangular extrusion). The postgraduate couples also have a slightly larger private balcony (facing North).

DEVELOPMENT N.2 At the junction between the balconies and the corner of the building, the void has been filled with an elevator shaft. Students would specifically need it when moving at the start of term and when moving out. Furthermore, this gap is aesthetically filled and gives this continuous look.

DEVELOPMENT N.3 On the Eastern facade of the undergraduate building, the three first floors have been extended to reach the end of the balconies, as if it were protecting them. In that way, the opening seems more private and makes the balconies more personal for the students using them.

DEVELOPMENT N.4 After reflection, the balconies on the undergraduate block’s north facade would not get much sunlight (if any) and would be somewhat unpleasant to be on. They were therefore removed and give this facade a more uniform and aesthetic look. The lift was also later removed.

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Final concept Having this continuation between the three “blocks� creates an overriding problem : circulation through the site. Going around the building is possible, but it was decided to create a direct route through the design, going underneath the shared communal building (middle). By creating this underpass, continuity between the blocks still remains (physically and aesthetically), as the steel structure allows this.

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0. Strip foundation 1. Blinded recycled aggregate sub-base 2. Vapour Control Layer, located between the insulation and inner blockwork ( ) 3. Weephole

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4. Damp Proof Course (DPC) ( ) 5. Damp Proof Membrane (DPM) ( ) 6. Concrete slab, 150mm 7. Insulation, 75mm thick ( )

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8. Cavity tray ( ) 9. Concrete screed, 65mm 10. Cipboard, 10mm ( ) 13

11. Breather Membrane, located on the insulation, on the cavity side ( ) 12. Wall tie (keepin insulation in place) 12

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8 4

7 3

13. Limestone block cladding 10

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14. Lintel, made of L shape steel beams 15. Block and beam floor 16. Header plate

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17. Plasterboard, 10mm 18. Timber battens, 19x19mm 19. Timber truss (supporting roof structure) 20. Chipboard deck, 20mm 21. Standing seam aluminium roofing

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Continuity between the three blocks occurs on the ground floor, with certain faรงades crashing into each other, as seen above and below, or in terms of materiality. This strengthens the idea of social interaction between the different students and age groups.

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Housing

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1:100 GROUND FLOOR PLAN

Church Businesses


Housing Church Businesses

1:100 FIRST FLOOR PLAN

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Housing

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1:100 SECOND FLOOR PLAN

Church Businesses


Housing Church Businesses

1:100 THIRD FLOOR PLAN

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Precedent Study SpringHouse - WLA Exposed steel structure and glazing

Although there are three specific and distinct blocks, this section clearly shows the continuity within the interior. This follows the main concept of bringing students with different skills and from different age groups together, and to create this stimulating environment where students feel welcome and integrated.

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Precedent Study West Burn Lane - Sutherland Hussey Use of sandstone bricks and blocks

1:100 SECTION 41


Precedent Study Block House - Porebski Architects Sandstone blocks on the exterior

The exposed steel frame for the middle building is used as structure but also serves as a grid for the “balcony� where glazing has been added in some of the squares. Sandstone bricks/blocks tie the building into its surrounding, but give the design a somewhat new and different aspect in the new Leith.

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Precedent Study Glass House in the Garden Flavinarchitects

1:100 ELEVATION 43


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P . 4 . I N H A B I T You are asked to explore and speculate on how spaces within your proposed collective housing scheme in Leith might be inhabited. Imagine the characters that might inhabit your building, what are they daily routines? How do the patterns and rhythms of your building relate to the surrounding neighbourhoods How might you represent that?

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The concept behind the rooms layout was to provide different spaces in the room while keeping it open planned. These small separations between the bed and the other spaces signify this break in a discrete manner, segmenting the room. The room becomes more than just a place to sleep in.

As we can see above, occupation of the space would largely vary according to the time of day, to the person living in the room, etc.. It is thanks to this open plan that the students will make their room singular, in contrast with the conventional “bed in the corner� approach.

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P. 2. 4. E N G I N E E R I N G E X P E R I E N C E In this project, we ask you to take the space of cinema - of key scenes from films where spatial experience drives the narrative of the film, and re-conceptualise these scenes in an installation that distils these experiences into a physical artwork that must be moved into, through, over, under - experienced through motion. This is for a hypothetical group show, Narrative Experience, staged in the hypothetical Institute for Advanced Experience, who have a gallery space capable of accommodating multiple installation pieces of 15m x 15m x 15m.

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After having watched the film Moon, we as a group decided to come up with 3 key themes that we could then explore in our installation and movie. Being quite a complicated movie, with many overriding themes, we specifically looked at how Sam (the main character) gradually moves towards insanity; how the idea of repetition was underlined, especially with the clones and when Sam meets the “future Sam� and how they interact. We finally looked at how isolation was portrayed in this spaceship, where the human being can only interact with a robot.

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We therefore moved to a more conceptual approach, filming without moving, and by adding elements such as the smiley faces digitally to give this effect of something alien-like taking over. The camera was set still, and it became (on purpose) quite vague as to whose eyes we were watching the movie through (be it Gerty or Sam), supporting this idea of the human against the robotic world. The movie was composed of different slides and of different views, all in which more and more smiley faces appeared as to symbolise this growing personalisation and insanity. Many were projected through the chair, and arguably this was made to somewhat present the video through Sam’s mind. After having somewhat finished the movie, we came up with the new idea of reversing the movie, having therefore a decrease in the insanity and personalisation, and going back to the initial installations without smiley faces. This created a film that could and should be played in a loop, linking to the concept of clones that take over in the movie (and also going back to the first idea of making a movie that could be played in a loop). Finally, we decided to add slow music (from the movie) to symbolise this rise of tension and irrationality, and then take over with a more rhythmic music in the second part, supporting the idea of degeneration of the space.

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Stills from the video

Final exhibition as it was presented in the Gallery Smiley faces were projected onto the artwork

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Stills from the video


57 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v-WMLDu_0_k&t=14s


A

P

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Having to design in a particular context and following a specific material really guided and directed my design process in this project. By creating a building that relates to the raw material on one side and to what has been made with this material on the other side, I situated this in a very specific context, therefore guiding the rest of my project along this material experimentation. Architecture firms like Ensamble Studio (Spain) really inspired me, not only in terms of material choices but also in the way in which they approach materiality (with projects such as Structures of Landscape for Tippet Rise Art Centre) as more than just a cladding, but actually something that defines the essence of the project. Working with these ideas and trying to apply them to my design really made me discover a design philosophy that I find essential to architecture, one where the architect must have a “discussion” with the materials, context, and other forms of architecture in order to produce a building fitting its global context. I use the word discussion as to designate a mental personal reflection, learning from the different precedents and concepts, in which this conversation will inform on not only what to design but more importantly on how to design and how to approach this task. Working with precedents therefore became something that I found and still find crucial when designing, having this said discussion in one’s mind. I would like to conclude by saying that, to me, designing is an ongoing process that needs constant refining, and in that way, one can never say a project is perfect or perfectly designed. It is however through this process that I hope to achieve an “acceptable” level of rationality and completeness, creating an architecture that understands and implements its role. I believe Peter Zumthor and his work greatly inspired me this year, creating architecture rooted in its context, and creating, as he said, "buildings for the people".

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P. 2. 5. E X P L O R I N G E X P E R I E N C E In Exploring Experience each studio will be asked to work with one material. Each of the students will develop his/her brief on a multi-purpose building for an art-practice connected to the material protagonist of his/her studio. Materials should be thought as agents of processes of building, making, crafting, and inhabitation. Spaces connected to the production of artworks (workshops, artist residencies/ retreats and so forth) should be combined also with the accommodation of ephemeral uses during the Berwick Film & Media Arts Festival taking place every summer in Berwickupon-Tweed in which it will be situated (exhibitions, open workshops, screenings etc). The works of the artists and the architectural setting in which they create them, their studio, are thought here as communicative vessels, one reciprocally informing the other through materiality and creative processes. In Exploring Experience you are invited to explore materials as agents of action.

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The site is located on the other side of the rive Tweed, running through Berwick-upon-Tweed. With a close proximity to the river front, prevailing winds, and relatively important exposure, I saw this site as an interesting location to design an art gallery for the Berwick Films Media and Arts Festival. The main features of this location defined my design, with a forest at the South-West, containing natural stone and a very calm environment. At the North-East, the site gives view onto the city of Berwick, which is mostly built out of stone. I therefore saw my site as a location for my design bridging the gap between the raw material (stone in the forest) and the finished stone product (Berwick).

Raw material in the woods - Stone

My design - stone block with carved corridors, creating this link between raw material and finished product

Finished product - The stone city of Berwick-upon-Tweed

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Creating these corridors therefore allowed me to divide the two buildings into different occupations. One of them would be private, opened to the public especially during the Berwick Film Media and Arts Festival; and the other private, for the artist and his workshop, but also accommodation space for art students to learn about and practice working on stone and how it can be dealt with.

PUBLIC PRIVATE

RICHARD LONG

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I focused my design around a chosen artist, Richard Long, who mainly works with materials such as stone, creating paths and routes for the viewer to follow and experience. My design would follow this idea of having a set path running though it and unconsciously guiding the viewer through the experience of the building. Here, art is not a mere contemplation but becomes an experience, an exploring experience.


First design ideas, trying to figure out massing. In the very early stages of my design, the corridor approach hadn't been taken into account and I looked at different types of massing, trying to respond to the site.

I also started looking at how the interior spaces could interact with each other and create a form for the outside of the building. Even though my approach to design is normally from the outside to the inside, I tried to work on form and content at the same time in order to create a design that works internally and in the exterior.

63


Rapidly, the idea of creating these corridors carving through the building emerged.

Link to the existing water works building. I wanted to preserve the stone wall of the works, and allow people experiencing my building to go p to it and touch it. I therefore created this glass atrium linking the two buildings, bridging the gap between two stone buildings.

64


My final design therefore originated from the idea of the carving out of a block of stone. Carving out corridors which would create this link between the raw material and the finished product. These would also create the main routes of circulation through my design, creating a journey in between these blocks, as if penetrating the material through the experience of the building. Furthermore, I wanted to create 2 different spaces. The first would be the ones inside the buildings, as gallery spaces, studios, workshops.. The second space in my scheme, which is as important as the inside, is the space in between. By creating these long, high and narrow corridors, cutting this monumental structure, people experiencing the building would really feel in the material, "drowning" in this narrow space of movement.

By looking at creating these corridors I came to the idea of creating two interlocking L shapes, creating two separate buildings. In between these two buildings, a corridor would be created with an internal courtyard, creating a route for people going from the front to the back of the building.

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66

Alongside the actual building, I decided to continue the exhibition space onto the grass on the other side of the road, in order to present Richard Long's artwork. Furthermore, I wished to design a platform on the water framing the view onto Berwick - the finished product.

An other key moment would be the wall, on the Eastern side of the building. This wall is structural, and sits on the side of the building. People experiencing the building would have to walk along it when leaving, and in this way the view onto Berwick would be framed. Furthermore, this "experiential corridor" would strengthen the idea of monumentality in this building, and having viewers "drowned" in the materials.


SEMI-FINAL SCHEME At this point, the shapes of the different buildings and surroundings had been globally decided, keeping these interlocking L shapes, with a neighbouring wall.

SITE PLAN

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Elevation showing materials strategy

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I used mass models to study lighting and how light would get into the voids between the buildings. I noticed that having these high and narrow carving outs created quite specific and beautiful patterns of light, which would illuminate and enlighten the materials' qualities. Model experimentations of the void and the experiential corridor

Sections

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CONCEPT ART MONUMENTALITY EXPERIENTIAL CORRIDOR MATERIALITY EXPERIENCE EXPLORING EXPERIENCE

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MATERIAL STUDIES Our studio was set stone as a material, and I therefore experimented with it and tried understanding it better. Stone has a very interesting materiality when touched, and that was something I would like to include in my design, allowing people to feel the facade as more than just a flat surface. Furthermore, when investigating with stone and water, I realised how much stone can be affected by other materials (see images on the left). The natural weathering of water would therefore be something to welcome on my building, allowing time and weather to naturally give a ever-changing character to my building and its materiality.

MATERIAL STRATEGY CARRYING OUT ON THE INSIDE OF THE BUILDING In the gallery spaces, separation between the different rooms and artworks will be done using stone blocks, subtly guiding the viewer through this gallery of stone. In a way, the experience of the outside voids will be recreated in the inside, adding to this concept of exploring experience.

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1: Gallery space 2: Gallery Bar

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76 GROUND FLOOR PLAN


3: Entrance hall 4: Student leisure area 5: Classroom / Lecture hall (designated for students) 6: Entrance hall 7: Gallery space

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77 GROUND FLOOR PLAN


8: Students’ studio/workshop 9: Artist’s studio/stone workshop 10: Temporary exhibitions space (linked to conference room) 11: Conference room 12: Archive storage space

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12

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10

FIRST FLOOR PLAN


13: Artist’s accommodation 14: Accommodation for visitors during the Berwick Film Arts and Media Festival

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SECOND FLOOR PLAN

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5 STONE MOMENTS THROUGH THE EXPERIENCE OF THE BUILDING CUTTING THROUGH THE STONE STONE AS ARTWORK STONE AS A RAW MATERIAL DETAILS OF STONE STONE AS A FINISHED PRODUCT

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EXPERIENTIAL DRAWINGS

Window and granite blocks arrangement

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1:100 SECTION

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PERSPECTIVE SECTION SHOWING THE CORRIDOR LEADING TO THE BACK OF THE BUILDING

Richard Long's artwork on the ground, guiding the visitors through the experience of the building

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Framed view onto the finished product : Berwick

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Material strategy : Use of granite cladding Musical Studies Centre Ensamble Studio 2002


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

9

10

1: Aluminium parapet covering 2: Granite cladding (cut facade of natural block) 3: Panel strap (Kingspan) supporting the cladding 4: Damp Proof Membrane (DPM) 5: Insulation, placed between steel I beams and studs 6: Railing supporting the granite cladding and panel strap 7: Steel studs (1000 mm centre) 8: Timber battens supporting plasterboard 9: Drip feature bringing any water ingress back out 10: Concrete strip foundation

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1:100 MODEL

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CONCEPT MODEL Through this model I tried to express the feeling of being in these voids, especially in the experiential corridor. This feeling of being lost in a high space, which also drags the viewer downwards through this void, lost in the verticality of space. Materiality surrounds the individual, and not the opposite, and one feels part of the stone, touching and feeling the roughness of it.

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" DECIDING THE SHADOW, BUT LETTING THE LIGHT IN " Peter Zumthor.

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P. 2. 2. PROCESS AND REFLECT LEARNING JOURNAL Process + Reflect should be developed over the course of the year and you should discuss it with your design tutors at regular intervals. It will be assessed as part of the Academic Portfolio submission at the end of semester two.

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MODEL MAKING AT DIFFERENT SCALES

Throughout the year, I tried experimenting model making through different techniques and materials. Going from conventional model making (brown and white card, blue foam) to more original and daring materials (grey card, and actually experimenting with physical materials like stone.

I found using models to understand my designs and inform my design strategy very useful, especially because it presented a different technique of experimentation the can be carried out in 3D, and that is something that I believe is essential when designing. However, I do wish that I used sketch models more in order to develop my scheme further in the earlier stages of the design.

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DRAWING PRECISE & DRAWING LOOSE

Architecture has always been about drawing. During the year, I tried to develop my schemes through drawing and iterations. However, what I found really interesting and useful was drawing at different scales and understanding the difference between loose and precise drawing. Regarding loose drawing, and especially in the Exploring Experience project, I found this technique very useful in explaining my concepts (see sketches above) and ideas on paper. I believe architects can't work without a pen, pencil and paper. I therefore tried, during this year, to explore this relationship that we as architects must use in order to design. When drawing plans, therefore having to be precise, I tried to combine the use of hand drawing and computer aided drawing (Revit) in order to obtain the best characteristics both can give, and also learnt a lot through computer programs, although less than by hand drawing.

95


EXPRESSING & PRESENTING Presenting information has always been something I blieve to be crucial when designing a building and curating a portfolio. Choices in terms of presentation define a project and its identity, therefore being a crucial part of architecture. I specifically focused on the way in which I express and present my ideas, trying to create a range of different images and renders that complement each other to create a full and understandable scheme. Throughout they year, I mainly focused on combining different ways of expressing my ideas in order to create this final and concise scheme, which can be read easily. Using 3D perspectives and renders was important to me not only to show what the building would look like but to convey an experience to the viewer, some sort of taste of what the building would look like. The aim isn't, to me, to be realistic, but to convey the right atmosphere. For example, in the Exploring Experience, I used the same somewhat dark tones in my renders, conveying this idea of materiality and weathering of stone. Furthermore, the colour scheme I used represents the private and public functions of my building. Through this colour coding, I hope to achieve a scheme that is readable to the viewer as more than just plans sections and views, but as a whole finished scheme.

I therefore understood and realised how important the way in which we express our ideas and designs is. Architecture, to me, is about conveying an experience and giving the viewer a glimpse of what the building would eb and feel like if it was to be built, and it is therefore crucial that I continue learning how to express it wisely.

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Throughout this portfolio, I tried to show my leaning journal through my sketchbook work and sketches. My thought process is mainly and mostly developed in this sketchbook, and I tried to express this development through this collation of projects. The development from Semester 1 to Semester 2 can also been witnessed, my drawing and conceptual skills having improved throughout the year. Even though these changes might seem small, it is through this learning journal and process that I realised how to enhance my design skills and how to try to prefect my way of learning.

LEARNING JOURNAL

As part of my learning journal, I created an Instagram account documenting my progress throughout my project. I decided to do this in order to create a digital portfolio that I could share directly and update constantly. In addition to showcasing my work and progress, this process allows me to always see my work flow and development as it is developing, therefore allowing me to develop a critical eye towards my projects and what I produce.

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AP4 NON -DESIGN WORK CONTENTS

AP4 NON-DESIGN MODULE COURSEWORK ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY ............................................................................. 99 ARC2010 ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN ....................................................................................... 114 ARC2020 DISSERTATION STUDIES AND RESEARCH METHODS .................................... 116 ARC2020 ABOUT ARCHITECTURE .............................................................................................. 118

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60 a

ARC2009 - SEMESTER 1 ARC2009 COURSEWORK

DESIGN SUMMARY 62 to 64

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© Crown copyright and database rights 2016 Ordnance Survey (Digimap Licence). FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY. 41

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Analysis of student housing in Leith, Edinburgh.

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LIAM DAVI 150426097

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Scale 1:500 25

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Projection: British National Grid

Site plan - Existing

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Nov 14, 2016 12:07

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Liam Davi University of Newcastle

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Site section - Proposal Area of intervention

DESIGN SUMMARY

DESIGN SUMMARY

Ground floor plan

First floor plan

Structural bay

Second floor plan

Third floor plan

Structural bay

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DESIGN SUMMARY

DESIGN SUMMARY

Section looking South

South Elevation showing materiality

B. CONSTRUCTION EVALUATION

A. PRECEDENTS The main precedent I used in order to understand the structure of my design is a building named «Hotel S», located in the United States. I couldn’t manage to find additional information about the building’s location and archietcts, but found structural details on the American Limestone Company’s website. I found this precedent particularily useful as it shows how a limestone clad façade works (see images A, B, C, D). However, my design’s scale and size is very different compared to this building, which therefore led me to the decision of taking this structure as an example and applying it to my design in a different way.

A B

First of all, the «brick» or panel size would be different, as it would be smaller on my building (200x400mm). However that doesn’t change the structure. Second of all, I chose to change the support of this cladding, and have it vertical instead oh horizontal, in order to minimise the number of supports, although this is only an experimental decision and might be the wrong one (see sketch).

C

D Source: http://www.americanlimestone.com/residential/alcsolution/

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B. CONSTRUCTION EVALUATION

C. CONSTRUCTION DECLARATION 5

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SUGGESTED IMPROVEMENTS 14 13

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16

After analysing the structure of my design, I realised that some parts of the construction could be improved in order to enhance the efficiency of this building.

10

First of all, it can be seen that the ground floor construction chosen has a score of C in the Green Guide to Specifications 2 (GG2S), and I therefore looked at other possible structural techniques to use to achieve a better grading. Because of the nature and specifications of the site (Leith, Edinburgh), a solid concrete ground floor remains the best approach, in contrast with a suspended ground floor which would be used on a sloping site with bad ground conditions. The current approach scored especially badly in terms of eutrophication and water disposal. It would therefore be preferable to replace this construction technique with an OSB/3 decking on a vapour control layer, laid on timber battens and insulation. These would be laid on an in situ 30% PFA concrete floor on polyethylene DPM then laid on a blinded recycled aggregate sub-base; which has an overall score of A (GG2S). The choice of windows can also be improved, as they score a mere B in the GG2S, and openings are a very important aspect of the construction in a site like Leith (specific climate). It would therefore be more advisable to use PVC-U windows with steel reinforcement, with double glazing. In that case, with an overall score of A (GG2S), thermal insulation and efficiency would be improved in a building where openings are crucial.

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C. CONSTRUCTION DECLARATION

0. Strip foundation 1. Blinded recycled aggregate sub-base 2. Insulation, 75mm thick ( ) 3. Vapour Control Layer, located between the insulation and inner blockwork ( ) 4. Damp Proof Course (DPC) ( ) 5. Damp Proof Membrane (DPM) ( ) 6. Breather Membrane, located on the insulation, on the cavity side ( ) 7. Weephole 8. Cavity tray ( ) 9. Wall tie (keepin insulation in place) 10. Cipboard, 10mm ( ) 11. Lintel, made of L shape steel beams 12. Block and beam floor 13. Plasterboard, 10mm 14. Timber battens, 19x19mm 15. Header plate 16. Timber truss (supporting roof structure) 17. Chipboard deck, 20mm 18. Standing seam aluminium roofing 19. Concrete slab, 150mm 20. Concrete screed, 65mm 21. Limestone brick cladding

D. TECTONIC INTENT

The exterior of my design is made of limestone blocks, which appear on all sides of the building. This cladding was chosen in relation to the strong presence of stone in the surrounding site (there is a multitude of stone buildings in Edinburgh and Leith), but also as it would the adequate size (bigger than brick) in terms of scale and context of the design (3 to 4 storeys high). I therefore decided to have this limestone as cladding over an outer leaf of blockwork, in order to give this continuous look to the building across all levels. In that way, the whole design looks like a whole and not just an assembly of floors. This thus follows the concept behind my design, which was to make student housing look like a uniform house and not just flats stacked onto each other. I also chose to have this partially filled masonry construction because it integrates well within the site, and with it being hidden by this exterior more “natural� cladding, would provide the adequate structure for such a building. Finally, stone and masonry were chosen firstly because of their appealing aesthetic aspect (natural and tied in to the site), but also because they are specifically adequate in a Scottish climate. Wind-driven rain and snow would be quite frequent in this area, thus having multiple layers seemed like the right answer to such a challenge, reducing the chance of water ingress.

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ARC2009 - ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY - SEMESTER 2 - 2A CONTENTS

ARC2009 Architectural Technology Coursework Submission Part 2A

INTRODUCTION

3

Access Audit and Report

AUDIT LOCATION AND SCOPE

4

Centre d’Art et de Culture, 92190, Meudon - FRANCE

REPORT

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150426097

Car parking

7

Pedestrian routes

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1

INTRODUCTION:

Entrance

12

Information

14

SUMMARY

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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APPENDIX A

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Car parking

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Pedestrian routes

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Entrance

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Information

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APPENDIX B

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2

AUDIT LOCATION AND SCOPE

Adress: Centre d’Art et de Culture, 15 Boulevard des Nations Unies, 92190, Meudon – FRANCE. Date of visit: 18 April 2017 Weather conditions: There was an overcast sky with occasional showers and sun, creating a moist and humid ground texture outside.

CENTRE

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The Centre d’Art et de Culture de Meudon (Centre of Arts and Culture) is a modern concrete building designed by architect Jacques Perrault in 2000, and contains the town’s cinema/performance stage and a relatively small exhibition space. Built following the modernist straight and using exposed concrete panels, this cultural centre serves as a three storey public building in front of a large open space, in the epicentre of this relatively busy town near Paris. 1:2000 Plan with context

Chosen building In order to carry out this audit, I will make reference to a condition called paraplegia, which is a medical condition where the individual loses the ability to use their lower body. This is often a result of spinal cord injury, especially in the thoracic, lumbar or sacral regions of the spine. Paraplegic individuals require a wheelchair, however they most often do not need someone pushing them, but will entail close parking, spaces to stop and rest, and adequate ramps.

Car park Main road Entrance pedestrian routes

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1:1000 Plan with context


AUDIT LOCATION AND SCOPE External Environment:

Illustrated Report

AUDIT LOCATION AND SCOPE

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Car Parking

X

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Setting-down points Pedestrian Routes

X

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Shared spaces Street Furniture

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External Ramps

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External Steps Handrails

Internal Environment:

1:500 Ground floor plan

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Entrances Doors – external and internal

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Doors – access control systems

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Doors – opening and closing systems Entrance Foyers

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Reception desks and service counters Seating

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Horizontal circulation

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Surfaces Internal ramps, steps and stairs

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Passenger lifts

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Platform lifts Sanitary facilities

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Wayfinding, information and signs Communication systems and acoustics

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Switches and controls

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Lighting

X

In my audit, I will look at the car park and the pedestrian routes leading to the building, before focusing on the entrances to and within the building, then analysing the information system and how it is presented. For a paraplegic individual, it is essential that these routes and key points be totally accessible, otherwise making their experience of the edifice very limited.

Building Management:

Main entrance

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Fire exits

Building Management checklist

Communicatons:

Entrance lobby

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Information Clear print

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Large print Braille

Exhibition space

Telephone services

Lift

Audio tape Digital

Auditorium/performance stage

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REPORT

Car parking

Websites

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Communication services

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REPORT

Figure 1: Existing car park

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Car parking

Ticket dispensing machine Entrance and route to building

The car park’s location and accessibility are crucial, especially for paraplegic people, as their travel distance can’t be too important and they will often require a car to get to this cultural centre. This car park, located reasonably close to the building, contains 26 parking spots, including 3 designated bays. The amount and spacing of these bays and the circulation lanes are very acceptable, and the number of places reasonable for such a building. However, 2 designated spaces are close to the exit towards the building, but one is located further away (see Figure 1). Therefore, to make this more suitable, an improvement could be to move the third designated bay closer to the exit of the car park (see Figure 2).

The ticket dispensing machine is adequately placed, and very suitable for a non-disabled individual. However, for a paraplegic person, the screen is located too high up for them to see, especially if the sun creates glare. This screen could therefore be lowered to facilitate their payment. Figure 3: Existing ticket dispensing machine. A paraplegic individual would have difficulties seeing the screen as his eyesight is lower than ours. They would therefore encounter difficulties using this machine.

Figure 2: Proposed car park with relocated designated bay

Non-paraplegic person’s eyes level.

1,68m Paraplegic person’s eyes level.

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Figure 4: Proposed carpark with ground signage indicatin g the exit towards the building. A noticeable colour was proposed in order to make this path easy to see for every one

Finally, even though the exit is fairly straightforward, ground signage could be added to guide people to the path leading to the building, in order to facilitate this exit (see Figure 4).

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REPORT

REPORT

Pedestrian routes

Pedestrian routes

At the back (North, Route n°2), a narrow alley constitutes a second route, even though not a lot of people use it. Being as narrow as 1,4 meters at one point (see Figure 8), this route could be problematic if a paraplegic were to cross someone else in this narrow section. Not a lot could be made to improve this, and the nature of the building creates semi passing places that could be a solution.

The entrance to the building can reached by 3 different routes, which reduces the amount of people on each one. Having a large “esplanade” in front of the main entrance has the advantage of creating a big space easy to use for a paraplegic individual. No obstructive objects such as lights or drainage could block their way, and lighting allows occupation at all time (see Figure 5).

2

Passing place

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Figure 6

Figure 9: Plan showing the passing places paraplegic people could use

3 1.40m

Figure 5: Pedestrian routes leading to the entrance of the building Route n°1 - Esplanade Route n°2 - Northern alley Figure 7

Route n°3 - From the car park Building entrance

REPORT

9

Figure 8: Pedestrian route n°2, showing the narrow passage

10

REPORT

Pedestrian routes

Finally, the most used route by paraplegic individuals would be the one leading from the car park to the entrance. A pathway surrounded by plants creates this link, but it is uncovered and relatively narrow (see Figure 10).

Entrance

I believed it crucial to analyse the entrances in this building because, should they not be taken into account in terms of accessibility, paraplegic and disabled people could not get into the building at all, going against the sole function of the cultural centre.

In order to improve this pedestrian route, benches and passing/resting places could be created on the side, allowing disabled people to rest if need be, or for people to stand when a wheelchair user comes from the other side (see Figure 11).

Figure 13: Main entrance

Figure 10: Existing pedestrian route (n°3)

Figure 11: Proposed pedestrian route inculding seating and passing places (

) Figure 12: Front façade showing the entrance doors

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Figure 14: View of the entrance, showing part of the esplanade


REPORT

REPORT

Entrance

Globally, the entrances in this building are mostly user friendly, with no change in levels at openings, and clean and flat changes in materiality (see Figure 15). This prevents wheels on a wheelchair getting caught or blocked on a slight change in level. Furthermore, this building presents large clearing behind the doors allowing paraplegic individuals to circulate freely and easily once in the building or in a new room (see Figure 16).

Information

For a paraplegic individual, information on how to navigate through the building is crucial, circulation being a lot more difficult, and that is why I chose to look at how information is accessible in this cultural centre.

Clear print is readily available, with a very readable font and contrasting colours (see Figure 18), allowing these individuals to navigate easily. However, in some places, the font could be made bigger, so that these signs could be seen from further away (see Figure 19).

Figure 16: View of the entrance and the lobby from the inside. To the left is the reception desk

Figure 15: Detail of sloor/door/mat junction, showing nearly no change in level

However, this cultural centre did present an inconvenient in its design regarding paraplegic people. The entrance doors are made of steel, glass, and wood, and are therefore quite heavy. (see Figure) This would pose a problem to someone coming to this building on their own, having to open this heavy door by themselves. As a solution, the entrance door could be automatized and opened electrically, using a wall switch located at wheelchair height. This would allow such people to enter the building freely and without an accompanying tier.

Figure 17: Example of a system of automatic doors and wall switch

REPORT

13

Figure 18: Font used to indicate directions, in a contrasting colour

14

REPORT

Information

In the exhibition space, borders indicating the author and painting title are placed relatively high up on the wall, which makes it difficult to read for these disabled people, and could therefore be set lower (see Figure 21).

Figure 19: View of the same pillar with information from far away and closer up. We can see that, from far away, it is harder to distinguish the information written down

Information

The presence of large print is limited but adequate where it is presented. Adding large print that indicates crucial elements (such as lifts, toilets, exits) to paraplegic people and disabled people in general could be a solution to make this building more accessible. Another way to make it more accessible would be to place braille writing near signs, which is present at no point in this building, and to also indicate the way to the lift, being especially useful for paraplegic people (see figure).

Figure 22: First floor lobby

Figure 21: Proposed intervention for the borders The border has been lowered to suit both disabled and non-disabled individuals Non-paraplegic person’s eyes level. Painting border

Paraplegic person’s eyes level.

Figure 20: Exhibition room as it stands today

105

Figure 23: Proposal to include large prints on the ground and walls to direct people.

15

16


SUMMARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Overall, it can be said that this cultural centre provides good accessibility and access for all. Built at the turn of the century, when the regulations came into normality and became mandatory, we can see that it definitely took these into consideration. Most of the measures put in place for disabled people are appropriate and any disabled individual could navigate freely and relatively easily through the building. However, some would still struggle to navigate perfectly (for example blind people, the building lacking braille writing), therefore minor changes as the ones presented in this Audit could be made in order to make sure the Centre d’Art et de Culture provides full “Access for All”.

http://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Paraplegia.aspx http://www.meudon.fr/fileadmin/Images/CONTENUS-PAGES/LOISIRS/LIEUX_CULTURELS/ Centre_d_art/Fiche_Tech_CAC_MaJ_03_2017.pdf

Word count: 1160.

http://www.meudon.fr/le-centre-d-art-et-l-espace-robert-doisneau/centre-d-art-et-de-culture-517.html http://www.infociments.fr/batiment/batiment-public/culture-sport/meudon-centre-art-culture-moderne http://www.deogratiasclinic.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/paralysis_2.jpg http://www.atlanticcanadainjurylawyers.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Paraplegia.png https://thumbs.dreamstime.com/x/automatic-door-button-handicapped-people-2037470.jpg https://blackboard.ncl.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/pid-3015249-dt-content-rid-8687796_1/courses/M1617-ARC2009/Access%20Audit%20Handbook%281%29.pdf https://blackboard.ncl.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/pid-3015250-dt-content-rid-8687797_1/courses/M1617-ARC2009/Approved%20Document%20M.pdf

17

APPENDIX A - ACCESS AUDIT

106

18

APPENDIX A - ACCESS AUDIT

Car Parking

19

20

Car Parking


APPENDIX A - ACCESS AUDIT

APPENDIX A - ACCESS AUDIT

Pedestrian routes

21

APPENDIX A - ACCESS AUDIT

Information

APPENDIX A - ACCESS AUDIT

Entrances

22

Information

APPENDIX B

Figure 23: Auditorium ntrance door as seen by a «normal» individual Figure 25: View of the back of the building from the car park

As we can see, we musn’t forget that paraplegic people have their eye level lower then ours, and this therefore affects where we put information on the walls and floor.

Figure 24: Auditorium ntrance door as seen by a paraplegic individual

23

24

25

107


ARC2009 - SEMESTER 2 - 2B ARC2009 ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY COURSEWORK SUBMISSION PART B MEANS OF ESCAPE - EXPLORING EXPERIENCE 150426097

1

S U M MAR Y AN D CALC U LAT I O N S

2

S U M MAR Y AN D CALC U LAT I O N S

My design is made up of 2 separate buildings. Therefore, in order to carry out these calculations, both buildings had to have their separate calculations. The Southern block (Green) will have its calculations written in green throughout this report, whereas the Northern block (Red) will have its calculations written in red throughout this report.

Strategy Modifications in order to comply with Fire Safety Regulations: 1. Addition of two protected staircases in the Northern building (Red, see site map on next page) to provide adequate escape routed throughout the building. One of them goes from the top floor (4) whereas the other one goes from the 2nd floor (2) to the ground floor. 2. Creation of refuge points within the protected staircases, and near the final exits in the Southern block. 3. The staircase in the Northern block had to be removed to leave space for the protected staircase. 4. Adding 2 Final Exits on the ground floor of the Southern building, and one on the ground floor of the Northern building.

3

108

4


S U M MAR Y AN D CALC U LAT I O N S

S U M MAR Y AN D CALC U LAT I O N S

MAXIMUM OCCUPANCY

MAXIMUM OCCUPANCY

Figure 1: Table C1 - Approved Doc. Part B Vol. 2 p.135

5

6

S U M MAR Y AN D CALC U LAT I O N S

MAXIMUM OCCUPANCY

    SECOND   FLOOR     SECOND   TYPE  OF  FLOOR   TYPE  OF     ROOM  (AS   ROOM   TYPE  O F   TYPE  OF   SEEN   IN   ROOM  (AS   ROOM   APPENDIX   SEEN  IN   C)   APPENDIX   8   Artist  studio   C)   8   Exhibition   8   Artist  studio   workshop   8   Exhibition   4   Reading   workshop   room   Reading     4   room       TOTAL                            TOTAL                     THIRD   FLOOR     THIRD   FLOOR   TYPE  O F   TYPE  OF     ROOM  (AS   ROOM   TYPE  O F   TYPE  OF   SEEN   IN   ROOM  (AS   ROOM   APPENDIX   SEEN  IN   C)   APPENDIX   11   Kitchen/living   C)   room   11   Kitchen/living   12   Bedrooms   room     12     TOTAL     Bedrooms         TOTAL                                    

SUMMARY AND CALC

FLOOR SPACE   FLOOR   FACTOR   2 SPACE   M /PERSON   FACTOR   2 M /PERSON   5   5   5   5   1  

ROOM AREA  (M2)   ROOM   AREA  (M2)  

CALCULATION MAXIMUM   OCCUPANCY   CALCULATION   MAXIMUM   OCCUPANCY  

107.25 54   107.25   54   56.75  

107.25/5 54/5   107.25/5   54/5   56.75/1  

22 11   22   11   57  

1

56.75

56.75/1

57

     

     

     

South  building                    22    North  building                    68    South  building                    22    North  building                    68  

FLOOR SPACE   FLOOR   FACTOR   2 SPACE   /PERSON   M FACTOR   2 M /PERSON   7  

ROOM AREA  (M2)   ROOM   AREA  (M2)  

CALCULATION MAXIMUM   OCCUPANCY   CALCULATION   MAXIMUM   OCCUPANCY  

55.2

55.2/7

8

7 8  

55.2 21.75  

55.2/7 21.75/8  

8 3  

8  

21.75  

21.75/8 North   building                      3   11  

North building                      11  

GROUND FLOOR   GROUND   FLOOR       TYPE  OF   TYPE  OF   TYPE   OF   TYPE   OF   ROOM   (AS   ROOM   ROOM   ROOM   SEEN   IN  (AS   SEEN  IN   APPENDIX   APPENDIX   C)   C)   4   Bar/lounge   4   Bar/lounge   area   area   8   Exhibition   8   Exhibition   space/Art   space/Art   gallery   gallery   8   Exhibition   8   Exhibition   space/Art   space/Art   gallery   gallery      TOTAL          TOTAL                              FIRST  FLOOR    FIRST  FLOOR     TYPE  OF   TYPE  OF   TYPE  OF   TYPE  OF   ROOM   (AS   ROOM   ROOM   ROOM   SEEN   IN  (AS   SEEN  IN   APPENDIX   APPENDIX   C)   C)   4   Reading   4   Reading   room/Class   room/Class   room   room   8   Gallery   Gallery     8        TOTAL          TOTAL                                                             U LAT I O N S          

FLOOR FLOOR   SPACE   SPACE   FACTOR   FACTOR   M22/PERSON   M /PERSON  

ROOM ROOM   AREA  (M22)   AREA  (M )  

CALCULATION MAXIMUM   CALCULATION   MAXIMUM   OCCUPANCY   OCCUPANCY  

1 1  

79 79  

79/1 79/1  

79 79  

5 5  

23.2 23.2  

23.2/5 23.2/5  

5 5  

5 5  

93 93  

93/5 93/5  

19 19  

     

     

     

     

     

South building                      84   South   4   North  b building     uilding                                      189   North  building                    19  

FLOOR FLOOR   SPACE   SPACE   FACTOR   FACTOR   M22/PERSON   M /PERSON  

ROOM ROOM   AREA  (M22)   AREA  (M )  

CALCULATION MAXIMUM   CALCULATION   MAXIMUM   OCCUPANCY   OCCUPANCY  

1 1  

84.75 84.75  

84.75/1 84.75/1  

85 85  

5 5  

115.25 115.25  

115.25/5 115.25/5  

23 23  

     

     

     

South  building                    85      SNouth   orth  b building   uilding                                      8 25   3    North  building                    23  

Figure 2

Figure 3

MAXIMUM OCCUPANCY

Figure 4

Figure 5

7

8

FOURTH FLOOR     TYPE  OF   TYPE  OF   FLOOR   ROOM   CALCULATION   MAXIMUM   ROOM  (AS   ROOM   SPACE   AREA  (M2)   OCCUPANCY   SEEN  IN   FACTOR   2 APPENDIX   M /PERSON   C)   11   Kitchen/living   7   22.5   22.5/7   4   room   12   Bedrooms   8   8.5   8.5/8   1     TOTAL                 North  building                      5       GRAND  TOTAL               South  building                      191                   North  building                      126           WIDTHS   –  escape  routes   Note: Toilets, corridors, stairs and circulation routes were omitted from these calculations, only taking  into account habitable rooms, before amendments done to the design in order to comply with Fire Safety FLOOR   BUILDING   NUMBER  OF  PEOPLE   REQUIRED   Regulaitons EXITING   MINIMUM  WIDTH   OF  ESCAPE  ROUTE   AND  EXITS  (MM)   FOURTH  FLOOR   South   N.A.   N.A.     North   5   750   THIRD  FLOOR   South   N.A.   N.A.     North   16   750   SECOND  FLOOR   South   22   750     North   84   850   FIRST  FLOOR   South     107   850     North   107   850   GROUND  FLOOR   South   191   1050     North   126   1050            

Figure 6

109


S U M MAR Y AN D CALC U LAT I O N S

ESCAPE ROUTES - MINIMUM WIDTH

FOURTH FLOOR     TYPE  OF   TYPE  OF   FLOOR   ROOM  (AS   ROOM   SPACE   SEEN  IN   FACTOR   APPENDIX   M2/PERSON   C)   11   Kitchen/living   7   room   12   Bedrooms   8     TOTAL                   GRAND  TOTAL                                   WIDTHS  –  escape  routes     FLOOR   BUILDING  

FOURTH FLOOR     THIRD  FLOOR     SECOND  FLOOR     FIRST  FLOOR     GROUND  FLOOR    

Figure 7: Table 4 - Approved Doc. Part B Vol. 2 p.36

Figure 8                    

South North   South   North   South   North   South     North   South   North  

ROOM AREA  (M2)  

CALCULATION MAXIMUM   OCCUPANCY  

22.5

22.5/7

4

8.5

8.5/8

1

North building                      5  

 

South building                      191   North  building                      126  

S U M MAR Y AN D CALC U LAT I O N S

STAIRS - MINIMUM WIDTH

NUMBER OF  PEOPLE   REQUIRED   EXITING   MINIMUM  WIDTH   OF  ESCAPE  ROUTE   AND  EXITS  (MM)   N.A.   N.A.   5   750   N.A.   N.A.   16   750   22   750   84   850   107   850   107   850   191   1050   126   1050  

S U M MAR Y AN D CALC U LAT I O N S

STAIRS - MINIMUM WIDTH

However, after looking at Table 6 (Figure 11), we can see that this building counts as an assembly building, and therefore the minimum width of stairs must be of 1100 mm.

110

WIDTHS –  Stairs     WIDTHS   STAIR   –  Stairs   NUMBER  OF  FLOORS     SERVED   STAIR   NUMBER  OF  FLOORS   SERVED   STAIRS  1   1       STAIRS  2 1   1       STAIRS  2 1   3       STAIRS  3 1   4   2       STAIRS  4 2   5   3       3     STAIRS  5          But  according  to  Table  7:     But     according  to  Table  7:     STAIR   NUMBER  OF  FLOORS     SERVED   STAIR   NUMBER  OF  FLOORS   SERVED   STAIRS  1   1       STAIRS  1 1   2       STAIRS  2 1   3       STAIRS  3 1   4   2       STAIRS  4 2   5   3       3     STAIRS  5            WIDTH  OF  FINAL  EXITS     WIDTH   OF   Final  exit   1  F    INAL          W  =E  XITS   ((N/2.5)  +  (60xS))  /  80     W  =  ((79/2.5)  +  (60x1.1))  /  80   Final  exit  1              W   W  =  1((N/2.5)   .22m   +  (60xS))  /  80   W  =  ((79/2.5)  +  (60x1.1))  /  80     .22m   +  (60x1.1))  /  80   Final  exit  2              W   W  =  1((85/2.5)     W  =  1.25m   Final  exit  2                W  =  ((85/2.5)  +  (60x1.1))  /  80  

NUMBER OF  PEOPLE   EXITING   NUMBER  OF  PEOPLE   EXITING   79     79   22     22     22   42     42   84     84    

REQUIRED MINIMUM  WIDTH   REQUIRED   OF  STAIRS  (MM)   MINIMUM   WIDTH   1000   OF     STAIRS  (MM)   1000     1000     1000     1000     1000     Figure 11: Table 4 - Approved Doc. Part B Vol. 2 p.45

NUMBER OF  PEOPLE   EXITING   NUMBER  OF  PEOPLE   EXITING   79     79   22     22     22   42     42   84     84    

REQUIRED MINIMUM  WIDTH   REQUIRED   OF  STAIRS  (MM)   MINIMUM   WIDTH   1100   OF     STAIRS  (MM)   1100     1100     1100     1100     1100    

Figure 9: Table 4 - Approved Doc. Part B Vol. 2 NUMBER OF  FLOORS   NUMBER  OF  PEOPLE   REQUIRED   p.46 SERVED   EXITING   MINIMUM  WIDTH OF  STAIRS  (MM)   NUMBER  OF  FLOORS   NUMBER  OF  PEOPLE   REQUIRED   STAIRS   1   1   79   1000   SERVED   EXITING   MINIMUM  WIDTH      OF  STAIRS  (MM)       STAIRS   2   1   22   1000   STAIRS  1   1   79   1000                   STAIRS  3   1   22   1000   STAIRS  2   1   22   1000                   STAIRS  4   2   42   1000   STAIRS  3   1   22   1000                   STAIRS  5   3   84   1000   STAIRS   4   2   42   1000   According to Table 7, all my stairs must have                 a minimum width of 1000 mm, as determined   by Table 7 (Figure 9). STAIRS  5   3   84   1000             Figure 10 But  according  to  Table  7:         10   But  according  to  Table  7:   STAIR   NUMBER  OF  FLOORS   NUMBER  OF  PEOPLE   REQUIRED     SERVED   EXITING   MINIMUM  WIDTH   OF  STAIRS  (MM)   STAIR   NUMBER  OF  FLOORS   NUMBER  OF  PEOPLE   REQUIRED   STAIRS   1   1   79   1100   SERVED   EXITING   MINIMUM  WIDTH      OF  STAIRS  (MM)       STAIRS   2   1   22   1100   STAIRS   1   1   79   1100   S U M MAR Y AN D CALC U LAT I O N S                 STAIRS  3   1   22   1100   STAIRS  2   1   22   1100                   STAIRS  4   2   42   1100   STAIRS  3   1   22   1100           FINAL EXITS MINIMUM WIDTH         STAIRS  5   3   84   1100   STAIRS  4   2   42   1100                     STAIRS  5   3   84   1100                 WIDTH  OF  FINAL  EXITS         Final  exit  1              W  =  ((N/2.5)  +  (60xS))  /  80   Using the formula: WIDTH   OF  FINAL  EXITS   W  =  ((79/2.5)  +  (60x1.1))  /  80   W = ((N/2.5) + (60xS)) / 80   where: W  =  1.22m   Final   e xit   1               W   =   ( (N/2.5)   +   ( 60xS))   /   8 0   W : Minimum width of Final Exit   W   =   ( (79/2.5)   +   ( 60x1.1))   /   8 0   N = Number of people using this Exit Final  exit  2              W  =  ((85/2.5)  +  (60x1.1))  /  80   =  1.22m   S = Minimum stairsW   width W  =  1.25m       Final  exit  2              W  =  ((85/2.5)  +  (60x1.1))  /  80     W  =  1.25m    Final  exit  2              W  =  ((22/2.5)  +  (60x1.1))  /  80     W  =  0.94m           Final  exit  4              W  =  ((126/2.5)  +  (60x1.1))  /  80   W  =  1.45m       Figure 13     FLOOR   TRAVEL  FROM   TRAVEL  TO   TRAVEL  DISTANCE   (M)   GROUND  FLOOR   Bar  lounge   Final  exit   16.5     Exhibition  room   Final  exit   9     Exhibition  room   Final  exit   26                                     FLOOR   TRAVEL  FROM   TRAVEL  TO   TRVAEL   TRAVEL   12 DISTANCE  (ONE   DISTANCE   DIRECTION   (MORE  THAN   ONLY)  (M)   ONE   DIRECTION)  (M GROUND   Bar  lounge   Final  exit  3   16.5     FLOOR  

WIDTHS –  Stairs     STAIR  

9

Figure 12

11

WIDTHS –  Stairs     STAIR  


Final exit  4              W  =  ((126/2.5)  +  (60x1.1))  /  80   W  =  1.45m           FLOOR   TRAVEL  FROM   TRAVEL  TO  

S U M MAR Y AN D CALC U LAT I O N S

MAXIMUM TRAVEL DISTANCES WHEN ESCAPING

GROUND FLOOR              

Bar lounge   Exhibition  room   Exhibition  room          

Final exit   Final  exit   Final  exit          

BACKGROUND INFORMATION Building

SITE PLAN - 1:500

Building boundaries Site boundaries

FLOOR

TRAVEL FROM  

TRAVEL TO  

TRVAEL DISTANCE  (ONE   DIRECTION   ONLY)  (M)  

GROUND FLOOR       FIRST  FLOOR       SECOND  FLOOR       THIRD  FLOOR     FOURTH  FLOOR    

Bar lounge  

Final exit  3  

16.5

TRAVEL DISTANCE   (MORE  THAN   ONE   DIRECTION)  (M)    

Exhibition room   Exhibition  room   Reading  room   Classroom   Gallery   Artist  Studio   Reading  room   Workshop   Bedroom   Kitchen   Kitchen   Bedroom  

Final exit  3   Final  exit  3   Final  exit  2   Final  exit  2   Storey  exit   Final  exit  1   Storey  exit   Storey  exit   Storey  exit   Storey  exit   Storey  exit   Storey  exit  

9         13   9         9   5  

26   9.5   19.5   22       23   17.5   18      

 Figure 15    As we can see on Table 2 (Figure 14), limitations on travel dis-

Figure 14: Table 2 - Approved Doc. Part B Vol. 2 p.33

TRAVEL DISTANCE   (M)   16.5   9   26          

tance when escaping a building are of 18m for a one direction exit and of 45m more an exit taking more than one direction. In my design (before amendments), we can see that all the escape travel distances comply with the Approved Document Part B Volume 2 on Fire Safety and Regulations.

Figure 16

13

14

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

4

3

2

1

E2.

S2.

E3.

S3.

Figure 17

Figure 18

Figure 19

15

E3. Final Exit n°3

Figure 20 E2. Final Exit n°2

S2. Stairs 2

S3. Stairs 3

16

111


BACKGROUND INFORMATION

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

SECTION 1:100 G

E1. S5.

E4. S4.

Figure 21 E1. Final Exit n°1 E4. Final Exit n°4 S4. Stairs 4 S5. Stairs 5

17

4

STRATEGY

Figure 22

18

3

STRATEGY

Protected staircase

Protected staircase

Route from the furthest away point from the final Exit on the topmost level

Route from the furthest away point from the final Exit on the topmost level

Refuge point for disabled individual

Route from topmost disabled toilet to Final Exits

Refuge point for disabled individual

6.5m

11.5 m

16m

In order to add this protected staircase, one of the flats had to be removed, this was a concession to make in order to comply with Document B Volume 2. Figure 23

19

112

20

Figure 24


2

STRATEGY

1

STRATEGY

Protected staircase

Protected staircase

Route from the furthest away point from the final Exit on the topmost level

Route from the furthest away point from the final Exit on the topmost level

Route from topmost disabled toilet to Final Exits

Route from topmost disabled toilet to Final Exits

Refuge point for disabled individual

Refuge point for disabled individual

6.5m Final Exit

8m

6.5m 8m

13.2m

17.8m

17.2m

Final Exit

17m

6.7m 6.4m

Figure 25

21

22

Figure 26

STRATEGY Protected staircase Route from the furthest away point from the final Exit on the topmost level Route from topmost disabled toilet to Final Exits

Refuge point for disabled individual

Final Exit 3m 3.3m

Figure 27

23

113


ARC2010 - ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN EXISTING WALL CONSTRUCTION:

Element Outer surface resistance Plasterboard Timber battens Blockwork Insulation Cavity Sandstone block Inner surface resistance

Thickness (mm)

12 20 100 75 50 100

Thermal conductivity W/mK

0.17 0.16 0.18 0.04 1.7

Total resistance U Value

Resistance m2K /W i.e. Thickness(M) /TC 0.04

18 17

0.07 0.125 0.6 1.875 0.18 0.06 0.125

16 13

14

15

0. Strip foundation

3.075 1/3.075 = 0.32 W/m2K

1. Blinded recycled aggregate sub-base 2. Insulation, 75mm thick ( ) 3. Vapour Control Layer, located between the insulation and inner blockwork ( ) 4. Damp Proof Course (DPC) ( ) 5. Damp Proof Membrane (DPM) ( )

ROOF CONSTRUCTION:

6. Breather Membrane, located on the insulation, on the cavity side ( ) 7. Weephole

12

8. Cavity tray ( )

Element Outer surface resistance Aluminium Chipboard deck Timber batten Insulation Timber truss Timer batten Plasterboard Inner surface resistance

Thickness (mm)

1.2 20 20 75 200 20 12

Thermal conductivity W/mK

205 0.18 0.16 0.04 0.16 0.16 0.17

Total resistance U Value

150426097 ARC2009 Technology SAP Evaluation - Dwelling Plus 2016-2017

Resistance m2K /W i.e. Thickness (m)/TC 0.04 0 0.11 0.125 1.875 1.25 0.125 0.07 0.125

9. Wall tie (keepin insulation in place) 10. Cipboard, 10mm ( ) 11. Lintel, made of L shape steel beams 12. Block and beam floor

11

13. Plasterboard, 10mm 14. Timber battens, 19x19mm 15. Header plate 16. Timber truss (supporting roof structure) 17. Chipboard deck, 20mm

21

18. Standing seam aluminium roofing 19. Concrete slab, 150mm 20. Concrete screed, 65mm 21. Limestone brick cladding

9

3.595 1/3.595 = 0.28 W/m2K

6 2

8 4

10

20 19

7

5

3

1

WINDOWS: Double glazing (low E, air filled, 12mm gap). U Value = 2.1 W/m2K

0

DOORS

Project 1

19.01.2017

Project 1 19.01.2017

Operator Telephone Fax e-Mail

Operator Telephone Fax e-Mail

Room 1 / Light scene 1 / 3D Rendering

U Value = 3 W/m2K https://www.pilkington.com/~/media/Pilkington/Site%20Content/UK/Reference/TableofDefaultUValues.ashx

Room 1 / Light scene 1 / 3D Rendering

MODIFIED

DAYLIGHT IMPROVEMENTS WALL CONSTRUCTION: Project 1 19.01.2017

Operator Telephone Fax e-Mail

Project 1

Element

19.01.2017

Operator Telephone Fax e-Mail

Project 1

Project 1 19.01.2017

Room 1 / Light scene 1 / False Colour Rendering Operator

19.01.2017

Operator Telephone

Room 1 / Light scene 1 / False Colour Rendering Fax

Telephone Fax e-Mail

e-Mail

Room 1 / Light scene 1 / Daylight factor calculation surface 1 / Isolines (D)

Room 1 / Light scene 1 / Daylight factor calculation surface 1 / Isolines (D) Project 1

Project 1 19.01.2017

19.01.2017

Operator Telephone Fax e-Mail

Operator Telephone Fax e-Mail

Room 1 / Light scene 1 / False Colour Rendering

Room 1 / Light scene 1 / False Colour Rendering

Thickness (mm)

Thermal conductivity W/mK

Resistance m2K /W i.e. Thickness (m)/TC 0.04

12 20 100 100 50 100

0.17 0.16 0.18 0.026 1.7

0.07 0.125 0.6 3.8 0.18 0.06 0.125

Outer surface resistance Plasterboard Timber battens Blockwork Insulation Cavity Sandstone block Inner surface resistance Total resistance U Value

5 1/5 = 0.2 W/m2K

ROOF CONSTRUCTION:

Scale 1 : 107

Position of surface in room: Marked point: (0.000 m, 0.000 m, 0.750 m)

DIALux 4.6 by DIAL GmbH

Element

Scale 1 : 107

Position of surface in room: Marked point: (0.000 m, 0.000 m, 0.750 m)

Page 3

DIALux 4.6 by DIAL GmbH

Dav [%] 2.19

Page 3

Grid: 32 x 32 Points

Grid: 32 x 32 Points Dmin [%] 0.34

Dmax [%] 16

Dmin / Dav 0.154

Dmin / Dmax 0.020

DIALux 4.6 by DIAL GmbH

EXISTING

Dav [%] 3.44

Dmin [%] 0.86

Dmax [%] 15

Dmin / Dav 0.250

Dmin / Dmax 0.058

Horizontal illuminance outdoors Eo: 10667 lx

Horizontal illuminance outdoors Eo: 10667 lx

MODIFIED

Page 4

DIALux 4.6 by DIAL GmbH

Page 4

I modelled my flat’s living area (kitchen/dining/communal area) in order to understand and analyse the daylight factors and qualities within the space. This succession of spaces was designed open planned and has 3 exposed faces (East, South and West). These are therefore the only facades where glazing can be added and therefore where light can come in. As we can see from this Dialux simulation, the distribution of daylight is somewhat unequal and needs reconsidering. In the Southwest corner, the amount of light is too important due to the two windows in the corner relatively close to each other. However, the Northwest corner is in comparison a lot darker and requires a bit more daylight. The main issue remains in the very little amount of light that gets into the middle of the space, as it is quite a long space with no windows on two sides. With an average of around 100 lx, the daylighting strategy seriously needs DIALux 4.6 by DIAL GmbH to be reconsidered, as this constitutes around a third of the space’s area. Page 4 DIALux 4.6 by DIAL GmbH Page 4 DIALux 4.6 by DIAL GmbH

Page 5

DIALux 4.6 by DIAL GmbH

Thermal conductivity W/mK

Resistance m2K /W i.e. Thickness (m)/TC 0.04

1.2 20 20 100 200 20 12

205 0.18 0.16 0.022 0.16 0.16 0.17

0 0.11 0.125 4.54 1.25 0.125 0.07 0.125

Outer surface resistance Aluminium Chipboard deck Timber batten Insulation Timber truss Timer batten Plasterboard Inner surface resistance Total resistance U Value

Page 5

In order to improve the daylighting strategy for this space, I first changed the location of windows on the West façade, by moving them northward along the wall, in order to get more daylight in the Northern section of the space, and by increasing their width (2m to 2.5m). I also moved the one on the Southwest corner further north in order to reduce daylight in this corner. The windows on the South façade were also moved along the South axis, and are now centred along this façade. Finally, in order to increase the amount of daylight in the middle of the space, I added a roof light in the middle of the roof, allowing a now somewhat uniform daylight distribution across the space. Triple glazing would be used in order to keep the daylight at an agreable level, but also in terms of thermal performance.

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Thickness (mm)

WINDOWS: Triple glazing. U Value = 0.5 W/m2K DOORS U Value = 3 W/m2K https://roof-maker.co.uk/triple-glazing-and-u-values/

6.385 1/6.385 = 0.16 W/m2K

DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS After having analysed the daylight in my space, I changed window sizes to allow more daylight in and added a roof light. The windows were double glazed, but are now triple glazed, in order to enhance the thermal performances and obtain a reduced U value (now of 0.5 W/m2K for glazing), as well as the roof light. Because this flat is part of student housing, meaning that the consummation of water per flat is quite high, I also raised the amount of insulation around the water tanks from 20mm to 40mm. However a better SAP was mainly achieved by modifying the insulation within the wall and the roof. Going from 75 to 100mm thick, the sheer width of the insulation now accounts for less heat loss and a better insulated flat. However I also changed the insulation type, using Kingspan Thermapitch TP10 (with a thermal resistance of 0.022 W/mK) for the roof and Kingspan Thermawall TW50 (with a thermal resistance of 0.022 W/mK) for the wall. These are high performance insulation systems which, combined with a thicker layer, provide a better thermal and insulation strategy for the flat. My design therefore went from 77.37 before the changes to 81.53 after the modifications, thanks to these different changes.


ENERGY STRATEGIES By improving my design, I reduced my total energy cost from £817 to £667 per year, going from £482 to £353 for space heating, £201 to £184 for water heating, remaining at £15.6 for pump and fan cost, and going from £117 to £113 for lighting energy. However, in order ot reduce the costs and energy consumption even more I looked into these energy strategies that I could use in my flat/dwelling.

GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMPS In order to provide space heating and cooling for my flat and building, I decided I could use a ground source heat pump, as the ground conditions and surface area allow it and make it an adequate energy strategy. Using a vapour compression cycle, this system will use the heat from the ground to heat the building, and also cool it during the warmer months. The best approach would be to use horizontal collectors (due to the large surface area and because it is a new construction) with indirect circulation. By being underground, this system is therefore secure, reliable (no exposure to weather), and does not cause pollution, making it a suitable energy strategy to make this building/flat sustainable. This system can also be used to obtain hot water, but due to the need for low temperatures, this water would not be warm enough and would need to be heated again. I therefore looked at other systems to heat the water. However, after having calculated the surface needed, it was concluded that this approach would not be suitable as the required surface needed to install a GSHP (620m2)1 would be too important, especially considering that would only power one flat, and my design is made of 6 of them.

Photovoltaic Panels

SOLAR WATER HEATING

In terms of elctricity, I chose to use photovoltaic panels in order to provide electricity for lighting and pumps. These panels, situated on the roof, convert the solar energy into current and electricity, then redistributed through the building and used by the resident. As my building’s roof is slightly slanted and suited for solar panels, this seemed like the suitable approach for electricity. By using moncrystalline/polycrystalline array, which would provide an output of 90-110 kWh per annum, I would therefore need (choosing 100 kWh as a reference) 5.3m2 of PV panels. These would provide the right amount of electricity for my flat for a year. However the residents will need to make sure that these are rightly positioned (30/40 degrees) and maintained regularly to ensure good electricity production.

My flat also needs to have hot water for washing and cleaning, and I therefore decided to use solar water heating. Using the energy of the sun to heat the water, a glazed flat-plate collector will be set on the roof (this system was chosen because of the slightly sloped roof and the right orientation of these panels being possible: South and Southeast) and will heat the water then sent to a hot water cylinder. A conventional boiler still remains to boost the hot water if needed. By using such a system, most of the hot water consumed (around 70%) will have been heated by the sun, therefore allowing major savings. However, this system would not be constant (as the ground source heat pump) as it depends on the exterior weather and amount of solar radiation in the area and on the day. After calculations, I came to the conclusion that I would need solar water heating with 8 evacuated tubes to achieve an energy production of 528 kWh per year (which would produce 538 kWh per year). Because of the need for another boiler, space heating will be achieved by traditional methods using a conventional boiler, as it wouldn’t be possibleto complement all these

1 : https://www.kensaheatpumps.com/grants-incentives/domestic-rhi/calculator-tool/ http://www.apricus.com/html/solar_energy_calculator.htm#.WII-NzamlaQ http://www.gshp.org.uk/documents/CE82-DomesticGroundSourceHeatPumps.pdf https://blackboard.ncl.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/pid-2679598-dt-content-rid-7910494_1/courses/M1617-ARC2010/Course%20Documents/SAP%20The%20Illustrated%20Guide%20to%20Renewable%20Technologies/Illustrated%20Guide%20to%20Renewable%20Technologies.pdf

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ARC2020 - DISSERTATION STUDIES

ARC2020 DISSERTATION PROPOSAL 2016-2017 NEWCASTLE UNIVERSITY

After having discussed the concept of experimental preservation in the previous seminars, I came to think about a subject relating to past architecture, and how we as architects and architecture students could deal with it in today’s world. In exploring this relation between past and present architecture (if the distinction can even be made), I decided to study Petra, Jordan’s ”rose-red city half as old as time”1. Rediscovered in 1812 by Johann Ludwig Burckhardt, a Swiss explorer, Petra was built as early as 300 B.C. by the Nabateans, a group of nomads living in the region of nowadays Syria and Saudi Arabia. What makes this city so particular is the way in which it was built: in the middle of a desert, and all the buildings were carved out of stone, creating these monumental façades. More interestingly, considering that this city was only discovered 200 or so years ago, the mystery and thrill of rediscovering how an ancient civilisation lived and built architecture motivates us to understand and research further on this matter. I therefore wish to, in my dissertation, explore the way in which the Nabateans built such beautiful and imposing masterpieces, and created such an advanced city in terms of architecture and engineering. However, I would further wish to build upon this understanding and research and propose a way of using our knowledge of the Nabatean’s construction techniques architecture, and water supply systems and apply them to today’s desert architecture. Perhaps, this research could lead to a proposal of bringing back Petra’s prestige of when it had flourishing vegetation as an oasis city, at the heart of Middle Easter trade routes. What is fascinating to me about Petra is, first of all, the fact that these monumental tombs and buildings were built using only the technology available 2000 years ago, and in a very particular and ingenious way. Their water irrigation system, that brought water from the city of Ain Musa (roughly 8 km away) and neighbouring water reservoirs to Petra, was perfectly engineered to prevent the pipes from leaking and to get vast amounts of water that the growing city required. In order to find out more about this facet of Petra’s development, I will mainly focus on written accounts of this irrigation system, as for example what Yazan Safwan Al-Tell explains in his doctoral thesis entitled “Interpretation and Preservation of Nabateans Innovative Technologies: Case Study Petra Jordan”2. I could also use a wider range of resources, as for example maps historians and archaeologists have made, trying to map this engineering grid. The way in which they carved the stone façades was also fascinating, using a top-down approach and carving their way down to the ground, and that is something I would analyse and describe further in my actual dissertation, also using texts such as How Petra Was Built, by Rababeh, Shaher M3. I managed to find many books on Petra in the University Library, but, as I live in Paris, most books such as the latter one will be available to me in the French National Library or French archives. After having understood and analysed this building technique, I would find it interesting to use this knowledge to propose a way of integrating these techniques into today’s architectural world, especially when building in the desert or in excavated stone.

NABATEAN ARCHITECTURE IN PETRA: HOW CAN WE USE THEIR CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES AND EARLY WATER SUPPLY NETWORK TO PRESERVE THE STONE CITY OF PETRA? LIAM DAVI TUTOR: JOSEP-MARIA GARCIA-FUENTES

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All of the information required to undertake this dissertation project will be available to me in French archives, complemented by the books from Newcastle University Library, and I will be able to gain access to not only books but also archaeological surveys of the site, as many French archaeologists have undertaken projects on Petra and information can be found in the French National Library. Furthermore, I can also find information on the internet, such as documentaries (as for example BBC’s 2015 “Petra: Lost City of Stone”4, which not only explains Petra’s history but also offers an insight onto modern day stone carvers trying to

rebuild a Nabatean façade using their ancestral techniques) or pieces of writing on which I could build my knowledge and opinion. As a research resource, this documentary and more especially this case study (which we could view as experimental preservation) would strongly relate to the discussions led in the seminar, and that is something I would also like to explore when writing this dissertation. Finally, actually going to Petra to visit this lost city would be ideal, but in case this trip can’t be made for economic or other reasons, I will try, over the summer, to organise one or several meetings with French archaeologists and architects that have been working on Petra, in order to get first hand opinions constituting a primary source and a very interesting look on the topic. In order to explore Petra’s architecture, I would choose the text-based dissertation, giving an in depth analysis and discussion on the subject. However, I would devote part of this dissertation to proposing a way of using what we learnt from this discussion to look differently at architecture in deserts and stone environments, especially for a potential revival and preservation of Petra. In conclusion, in this dissertation I would like to learn from Nabatean architecture in Petra in order to bring to light – and maybe to reality – its past prestige and greatness as a city excavated in stone.

Bibliography: 1 : Lawlor, J. 1974. The Nabataeans in historical perspective, Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House. 2 : Yazan Safwan Al-Tell, 2006-2011. Interpretation and Preservation of Nabateans Innovative Technologies: Case Study Petra Jordan. Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus, Germany. 3 : Rababeh, Shaher M, 2005. How Petra Was Built: an analysis of the construction techniques of the Nabateans freestanding buildings and rock-cut monuments in Petra, Jordan. Oxford: Archaeopress. 4 : National Geographic. (2015). Petra: Lost City of Stone - Full Documentary 2015. [Online Video]. 27 July 2015. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0CowfQRzYoI. [Accessed: 19 May 2017] 5 : Markoe, G. 2003. Petra Redicovered, Lost City of the Nabateans. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, in association with the Cincinnati Art Museum. 6 : Culliford B., Amr K., Berthudund M., Roddis I., 1995. Petra. Arabesque internationale, P.V. Vivikenand. 7 : Belloni S., 1996. Petra The Pink City of the Desert. Plurigraf.


DISSERTATION ELECTIVE PRESENTATION Proposal of experimental preservation of the Tour Montparnasse, in Paris.

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ARC2024 - ABOUT ARCHITECTURE

The urban environment has seen radical changes across the 20th and 21st centuries (the automobile, war, mass housing, computation and digitalization, greater access to the city and the workplace for women, etc etc.). Focusing on just one of these developments, explore its effects on buildings or space, with reference to at least 3 specific examples in a particular location.

On the 30th January 1933, Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany, marking the start of the Nazi regime in Germany that would last until 1945. During this period, the dictatorial government established a totalitarian regime that had control over nearly all aspects of life, with architecture being subject to major changes as well. It is important to note that all this occurred in a context of a search for power, a will to show power and eventually war. It is therefore interesting to explore how and why architecture was affected by this Nazi totalitarian regime. Before analysing this change in architecture, it is crucial to understand the view of architecture within the Nazi party. Whereas the officials all (more or less) agreed on a single political view and way of ruling the country, this was not the case in architecture. Their differing views and opinions meant that not one, but many, “Nazi architectural styles” would emerge, as can clearly be seen when analysing the architectural ideas and constructions that emerged from this heterogeneous Nazi way of thinking. Architecture therefore became focused on its meaning and what it showed to the people, and this was ever so true in a totalitarian regime like the Nazi one. We will therefore explore the different ways in which the Nazis applied their political concepts to changing the country’s architecture, including Hitler’s search for monumentality, an architecture returning to its German historical roots, and an evaluation of their approach to public housing.

Before paying attention to the actual changes that the Nazis made to architecture, it is crucial to present the way in which the government approached and took control of the architectural realm. During the 1920’s and 30’s, modernist architectural ideas were emerging all around Europe, and an organisation called The Ring had been created by architects seeking change and modernism in Germany. However, the Nazi ideology and officials did not agree with this new style and preferred to distance themselves from this modernist wave, wanting to create and give birth to a “National Socialist” architecture. As shown by Barbara Miller Lane, the officials wanted a “new architecture rooted in the Volk… in blood and race”1, in strong contradiction with the modernist ideals. They therefore opposed The Ring and other modernist movements such as the Bauhaus, in order to supress these movements. Even though, at first, no real laws were passed in order to prevent these architects from getting commissions, the government still tried to prevent them from practising, as for example in late 1932, early 1933 when the Gestapo raided the Bauhaus school and even did the same when they moved to Berlin. The political party was gradually taking control of the architectural scene in order to adapt the country’s urban schemes to their will. In 1933, the Third Reich government took another step and granted the government and its officials – rather than the municipalities – control over architectural development. This, in effect, meant that it became the government who commissioned projects, allowing the Nazi party to have control over what was being built, “uniting” the nation. It was in this context of nearly total control of the architectural scene that the Nazis went on to build their Third Reich.

How was architecture in Germany affected by the Nazi totalitarian regime between 1933 and 1945?

Liam DAVI 150426097

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2 Taylor, R. R. (1974), The Word in Stone, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, p.47 3 “Hitler’s Kulturrede: Deutsch sein heisst klar sein,” VB, Sept.6, 1934; cited in Lane, B. M. (1985), ‘Architectural Control under the Nazis’, Architecture and Politics in Germany 1918-1945, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, p.174.

: Report of a meeting of the Rhein-Ruhr division of the BDA, Kölnische Zeitung, May, 7 1933, quoted in “Deutsche Zeitungsausschnitte.”; cited in Lane, B. M. (1985), ‘Architectural Control under the Nazis’, Architecture and Politics in Germany 1918-1945, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, p.174. 1

Fig.2: Zeppelinfeld, during a rally

Fig.3: Zeppelinfeld, with its monumental entrance

The Zeppelinfeld was made for the cult of the Führer, as he would be placed at the centre of this imposing structure, as if at a place of worship. Indeed, this construction could well be interpreted as a place for worship of the Nazi regime, and it is this typical Nazi over-exaggeration that highly supports this idea, as everything (including architecture) evolves around the cult of the Nazi regime and of Hitler. Dan van der Vat perfectly resumed this, commenting “the key element was hugeness, […], the Führer stood overlooking and dominating them, bathed in light against a background of red and black, blood and iron.”4. This hugeness can also be seen in the Nazi propaganda movie Triumph of the Will5, by Leni Riefenstahl, where Hitler is shown giving speeches at the Zeppelinfeld, and effectively we can truly see the impact the architecture had on the people and on the atmosphere within this Zeppelinfeld, where every element contributes to the theatrical effect of greatness. However, it must be said that not many immense buildings were actually built between 1933 and 1945. Hitler had plans for many but in reality only realised a handful of such buildings, as for example the German Chancellery. The effect of the Nazi party, and especially of Hitler’s vision, on architecture can be seen not in terms of physical constructions, but in terms of concept. The Nazis built and designed these massive, monumental buildings as part of a political will, following a concept, and these spaces were used to idealise the political sphere, meaning that architecture had more than ever become a political tool. In contradiction to previous public buildings, these new ones were part of a larger scheme: global expansion.

Considering that not many monumental buildings were actually built between 1933 and 1945 most of the constructions undertaken by the Nazi party was on a smaller scale, built for the people and the officials. Robert Ley (head of the Labour Front) and Baldur von Schirach (head of the Hitler Youth) were responsible for the largest amount of construction during this period, ordering the creation of many Ordensburgen (leadership schools) and Fig.4: Ordenburg Vogelsang Gemeinschafthäuser (local party office buildings) all over Germany. These buildings and this type of architecture moved away from the neo-classicism preferred by some in the party and returned to more middle-age like architecture styles. Building in more traditional methods, the government was in fact commemorating a historical period where Germany was a great country and military expansion was at the heart of the country’s

                                                                                                         

                                                                                                         

1

One main aspect of Nazi architecture was the monumentality and greatness of edifices. Hitler was the main supporter of this idea, along with his personal architect, Albert Speer, who designed and built according to Hitler’s architectural vision. To him, architecture should reflect the greatness of the country, achieved by creating gigantic imposing buildings which would remind the Volk (the people) of the greatness of their country – and therefore Hitler. As Taylor suggests, “Hitler regarded architecture as a political weapon”2, which explains his use of such an imposing architecture. He believed that “German-ness equals clarity”3, and by using a neo-classical approach to architecture, he hoped to show not only the German people, but also the whole world, that Germany was a powerful, superior nation, deeply rooted in history. The buildings Hitler designed (The German House of Art for example, see Figure 1) were often made of stone, with clear façades, and colonnades recalling Greek architecture, although simplified to support this idea of “clarity”. They served as Fig.1: German House of Art the support for presenting his ideas for the future Nazi Germany. By creating this monumental architecture, Hitler was using architecture not as a simple building, but as a statement of his power, a pedestal for the “greatness” of the Nazi party, a political weapon. It is therefore not surprising that Hitler used his love of the profession to sustain his political will. Besides wanting to show the Volk his own greatness, Hitler also believed that these buildings could show the people the “way of life”. These impressive, massive buildings implied that the way of life as a community was better, and that together, the Volk could achieve greater goals. He was therefore directly using architecture both to serve his political beliefs and to unite the nation. This idea of uniting the nation was repeatedly expressed in the famous Nazi slogan: “Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer” (One People, One Nation, One Leader), and it nicely shows how Hitler transformed the architecture to serve the country’s political beliefs. One of the best examples of this is the Nuremberg Rally Grounds. Also called the Nazi Party rally grounds, they were designed by Albert Speer as a grand scheme for grounds where the Nazi Party could have its rallies and show its power to the people. What remains of this grand scheme and is most indicative of the type of architecture that was built is the Zeppelinfeld. Built in the town of Nüremberg in 1933, this large open space was the home to many Nazi rallies up until 1945. It had a grandstand typical of Hitler’s architectural views, spanning 320 meters, on which Hitler would stand and give his speeches. On either side of the stand were a row of columns, again harking back to classical and Greek architecture, by which would stand many of the Nazi party officials along with the army.

2

                                                                                                          4 5

3

Van der Vat, D. (1997), The Good Nazi, The Life and Lies of Albert Speer, Great Britain: Weidenfeld & Nicholson, p.49. Triumph of the Will, 1935. [DVD] Leni Riefenstahl, Germany: Reichsparteitag-Film.

4


aims, and it is through architecture that they hoped to remind the people of these times and to recall the glorious “era of crusades and military colonization”6. The Ordensburgs were training schools for military officials and leaders, and were all built on quite a large scale (for example Clemens Klotz, Ordensburg Vogelsang), using stone as the main material and resembling ancient fortresses built on hills (see Fig.4 and Fig.5). However, these Romanesque and Fig.5: Ordenburg, showing details Gothic buildings all had a modern touch to them, which again underlines the differing views within the Nazi party when it came to architecture. The surfaces were often bare and some of these (Vogelsang for example) had continuous long bay windows, recalling the typical modernist architecture of the 1910’s and 1920’s. By blending these different styles together, the government created buildings that revived historical traditions of “superiority” and created aesthetically pleasing buildings. Along with the Ordensburg, the party also commissioned the construction of more modest buildings, which followed a key concept known as “blood and soil”. This ideology, encouraged by the Agricultural Ministry, believed that the “real” Germans were determined by blood and by the right to have land. This racial ideology was crucial to Nazi ideology at the time and was one of the pillars of their anti-Semitic policies. These smaller building were built in a style often called “folk” style, where the architecture was very typical of rural architecture; by this the government was trying to link back to the image of a rural society, one true to the Nazi ideology of a mostly rural Volk. This again ties back to the idea of connecting with the people. The government felt that it was crucial to show the way for the Volk in order to create a strong and united nation, and what better way to do it than to create an architecture and spread a style so common to the people, and remind them of a time when the country was striving politically and militarily (therefore assimilating to strength). It was this specific use of architecture that the Nazis tried to engage with, rather than just erecting buildings, and which was radically different to the previous, pre-war, approach to (modern) architecture. As states Barbara Miller Lane, this “folk” style was the one best suited to this blood and soil approach and “for many Nazi officials it reflected a genuine ideological commitment.”7.

Fig.6: Typical “folk” construction

In a way, even though this approach differs from Hitler’s monumental attitude towards architecture, we can see a similarity in the way in which both “opinions” show this will to build for the Volk, and to integrate it in architectural aims. However, it is crucial to understand that the Volk here is not meant as

                                                                                                         

each individual, but as a single united mass (German obviously) which supported the Nazi regime. Architecture became even more interlinked with the politics than before, applying a crucial ideology and being used as a form of communication from the government to the Volk, and to the world.

Finally, in order to analyse the ways in Fig.7: Housing development, Aachen. which architecture changed under the Nazi regime, we will look at the way in which they approached public housing, and how they developed a new attitude towards it. Building a new government and therefore a new “country” meant that the Nazi approach towards public housing was going to change, and would ideally reflect the political views of the party and its officials. Rather than actually designing a building typology or design, they developed more of a scheme, a concept for public housing in general. In 1934, Gottfried Feder and the government had managed to bring building societies under government control, which in effect meant that the Nazi administration commissioned public buildings and had full control over their design and construction. The concept they developed was one that once again followed the ideology of blood and soil, and consisted in repatriating and dispatching the city dwellers to more rural areas. To him, “the metropolis is the death of a nation”8, and he widely fought this idea of the emerging urban society, desiring to go back to a more rural society which would “strengthen the race”9, which he believed tied in with the National Socialist movement. The government therefore planned to build small plots in the periphery of cities and in the countryside, designed for a single family, with the capacity to grow a small amount of crops (see Fig.7). In a way, we can see this as an other application of the revival of the folk style that occurred in Nazi Germany at that time, and an effort to get the people rooted in their history through an architectural revival – and therefore in the new society created by the Nazi government. These buildings weren’t new and revolutionary, being more linked to the past, and this was intended to be a way in which the Nazis could radically change architecture. However, in reality, this idea remained very conceptual and only a small number of such buildings actually ended up being built. Most of the buildings built under Feder’s control were actually in continuation with the style of the Weimar Republic, with terraced housing and apartment blocks on the periphery of urban centres. His changes relied solely on his concepts for a new Fig.8: Siedlung Ramersdorf, Munich application of social housing to suit the 8 Feder, “Das Deutsche Siedlungswerk,” 186; cited in Lane, B. M. (1985), ‘Architectural Control under the Nazis’, Architecture and Politics in Germany 1918-1945, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, p.206. 9 “Deutsche nationalsozialistische Siedlungswerk,” Wege zur neuen Sozialpolitik (Berlin: DAF, 1936), 215; cited in Lane, B. M. (1985), ‘Architectural Control under the Nazis’, Architecture and Politics in Germany 1918-1945, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, p.174.

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“Hitler was not the dictator in architecture that he was in politics.”10 This quote from Robert R. Taylor truly underlines the character of Nazi architecture between 1933 and 1945, one that, contrary to what might commonly be thought, was influenced not by one political opinion but by many differing views. Hitler didn’t truly impose his vision of architecture on his fellow officials, something that he did in politics, although he still gave Nazi architecture one of its main aspects: monumentality. These differing views therefore led to many interpretations of what Nazi architecture should be and what it should display. Yet, it must be said that the effect the Nazi government had on architecture was more than just a production of buildings, since it relied more on the fact that architecture was now used as a political tool. The underlying change was in the purpose and concept behind architecture, its use for a political purpose, and having this idea of “what it would mean for Nazi Germany and National Socialism” at the heart of the design process. Architecture had now become a means, not an end. It is interesting to imagine, had Germany won the war, what urban Berlin would now look like, Hitler having been allowed to exercise free will over the construction of the new “capital of the world”, and whether this revival of classicism and folk architecture would have persisted through time.

Bibliography: Taylor, R. R. (1974), The Word in Stone, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. Lane, B. M. (1985), ‘Architectural Control under the Nazis’, Architecture and Politics in Germany 1918-1945, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Van der Vat, D. (1997), The Good Nazi, The Life and Lies of Albert Speer, Great Britain: Weidenfeld & Nicholson. Taylor, J. & Shaw, W. (1997), Dictionary of the Third Reich, Revised edition, England, London: Penguin group. Freeman, M. (1987), Atlas of Nazi Germany, Kent: Croom Helm Ltd. Triumph of the Will, 1935. [DVD] Leni Riefenstahl, Germany: Reichsparteitag-Film. http://www.usarmygermany.com/Communities/Augsburg/Sonthofen%20train%20station%20early%2 01950s%20postcard.jpg https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dc/NS-Ordensburg_Vogelsang_-_Burgfried.jpg http://www.thirdreichruins.com/vogelsang8.jpg http://4.bp.blogspot.com/gA8zQ8fETSw/UYFJfxwIHFI/AAAAAAAAQbM/PqEHoGyPDl4/s1600/Zeppelinfeld+Tribune+Entr ance+-+Nürnberg+Reichsparteitag+-+Germany+1900-1939+-+Third+Reich-+NSDAP++Peter+Crawford.jpg https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/600x315/f4/d0/e5/f4d0e5e0cd08b9cb341b2b702270cb11.jpg https://whitecubediaries.files.wordpress.com/2013/12/bundesarchiv_bild_146-1990-07326_mc3bcnchen_haus_der_deutschen_kunst.jpg?w=920&h=638 http://www.techpedia.pl/files/10121.jpg

                                                                                                         

Lane, B. M. (1985), ‘Architectural Control under the Nazis’, Architecture and Politics in Germany 1918-1945, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, p.196. 7 Lane, B. M. (1985), ‘Architectural Control under the Nazis’, Architecture and Politics in Germany 1918-1945, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, p.199. 6

government’s political views. The government also built what they called Siedlungs, which were housing scheme exhibitions that showed the people and the world how the Nazis wanted to build public housing communities. These were designed as a neighbourhood with single-family terraced houses on very large plots, all giving onto a central courtyard, with extensive vegetation. This therefore gave the idea of a rural setting, with lavish plots, although this was clearly an exaggerated depiction of what a typical rural also had an exhibition hall, in which the officials presented models and ideas of their new urban schemes. This was all of course a demonstration of large-scale propaganda to show the people what the government wanted them to see. Along with this exaggeration, most of the houses and exhibition halls contained furniture that people who would live there couldn’t afford, which again shows the embellishment the party was trying to achieve. In a way, this could remind us of the Potemkin villages that were displayed in the Soviet Union under Stalin’s dictatorship, as part of a forged image of a country that lives in peace and union. The Nazis weren’t the only ones to use architecture to serve a political and totalitarian purpose, this was also true to all the dictatorial regimes of the time (Stalin’s Soviet Union, Mussolini’s Italy, and many more). The Nazis were trying to achieve similar aims to show their state of “development”. A good example of this was the Siedlung Ramersdorf, in Munich (see Fig.8), which was typical of this propaganda. The use of architecture as propaganda wasn’t innovative but it did represent a change from previous German architecture and we can see that this was done purely as a political move. Hitler and his government believed that architecture was one of the ways to achieve change in society, and they therefore used architecture to not only change people’s views, but to physically enhance and encourage a physical change that could lead to political and societal alteration. The Nazi government therefore controlled not only architecture and the urban environment, but all aspects of society, and architecture is a good example of these interlinks.

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Taylor, R. R. (1974), The Word in Stone, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, p.36.

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Newcastle University Stage 2 Architecture Portfolio  

Second year of architecture at Newcastle University portfolio, presenting design and non-design works over the course of the 2016-2017 year.

Newcastle University Stage 2 Architecture Portfolio  

Second year of architecture at Newcastle University portfolio, presenting design and non-design works over the course of the 2016-2017 year.

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