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Liam Ross

Compliant Architecture Scottish Building Standard 4.8.3 Design for Safe Cleaning of Windows

...with f ixed side light

...with f ix ed lower and side light

...with guard rail

...with guard rail and f ix ed side light

...in a glazed assembly to a balcony

...in an horizontal array

4000

...with f ix ed lower light

556

...with f ixed side light

556

...with f ix ed lower and side light

556

...with guard rail

...with guard rail and f ix ed side light

...in a glazed assembly to a balcony

...in an horizontal array

4000

...with f ix ed lower light

556

800

556

556

556 556

556

N/A

556

4000

800

556

556

556

556

556

556

556

556

N/A

556

4000 4000

800

556

556

556

556

556

556

556

556

556N/A

556N/A

556N/A

556N/A

556N/A

N/A

N/A

4000 4000

800 800

4000

800 800

556

N/A

800

556

COMPLIANT ARCHITECTURE Compliant Architecture is a design, research and teaching project based at the University of Edinburgh. It conducts text-based research into the emergence of building regulations, design-research that illustrates the limits they impose, and taught design modules that explore the architectural potential of those limits. The project hopes to render visible the architectural knowledge manifest in regulatory programmes, looking beyond their instrumental ends to the material phenomena they index. Through dissemination and taught programmes it skills students and contemporary practitioners to design with this knowledge.

Liam Ross

Compliant Architecture Scottish Building Standard 4.8.3 Design for Safe Cleaning of Windows

The Apparatus of Contemporary Professional Practice

The Scottish Building Standards

Building today is enframed by an increasingly sophisticated regulatory apparatus. The construction industry is subject to a wide range of governmental programmes - professional codes of conduct, statutory requirements, contractual protocols, good-practice guidelines, mandatory consultation procedures – that address a multitude of concerns – professional accountability, the health and safety of workers and occupants, the environmental cost of building and maintenance, the profitability of development, the demand for democratic representation. Though these programmes engage with differing disciplinary frameworks, they work together inasmuch as they seek to reform current practice, conducting it toward specified ends.

The Scottish Building Standards are a set of building regulations that establish mandatory standards and associated guidance concerning the structural stability, fire performance, environmental impact, accessibility, noise and energy consumption of buildings in Scotland. They are published in technical handbooks and enforced by local authorities – their satisfaction usually concludes RIBA work stage E, to which around 20% of the architects fee is attributed. The standards are empowered by The Building (Scotland) Act, which makes allowance for regulations that “secure the health, safety, welfare and convenience of persons in or about buildings and of others who may be affected by buildings or matters connected with buildings; further the conservation of fuel and power; and further the achievement of sustainable development.”

The increasing scope and ambition of this framework – which appears necessary in the face of range of more or less urgent and concrete challenges – raises questions about the role of the architect. The profession has consistently failed to rise to new demands of government and industry, limiting the degree to which architects remain in charge of building; design responsibility, and the Architect’s fee, is increasingly fragmented across a range of expert sub-consultants. The core discipline appears marginalized academically, as any measurable aspect of building performance – structural stability, services and environmental design, proprietary detailing, component specification, public relations and marketing – is subtracted from its subject matter. Further, the increasing range of pre-ordained objectives mandated by government and industry appears to crowd out the open and subjective potential of Architecture; the function of our built environment appears increasingly reduced to that of economic and bio-political instrument. We might be concerned, then, that every increase in the scope of this governmental apparatus only further enframes the role of the architect, and the open potency of architecture. However, recognizing such a concern to be part of that broader question concerning technology, we might also recognize that enframing to be a mode of revealing; it is precisely through our attempts to modify the world toward our ends that we reveal its material limits as being beyond any specific end. Regulatory requirements, as much as they threaten to foreclose the open potency of building, at the same time point to it. That is, regulation is Epoché; a withholding through which we experience the given. If we understand the role of the architect as the figure charged – beyond any specific empirical design requirement - with holding-open the potential of building, the limits posed by regulatory requirements present themselves as an opportunity.

This system of ‘Building Control’ emerged in Scotland through the Dean of Guild Courts, the rules established by traders granted freedom of the original Royal Burgh’s. During the 19th century, this mercantile jurisdiction was replaced by that of police act’s that empowered the Burghs to pave, light, sanitize and watch-over the space between buildings. Regulations concerning the design of private buildings were limited until the early 20th century, when the Department of Health first published discretional modelbuilding by-laws, and it was not until post-war reconstruction, and the widespread application of new materials and techniques, that a comprehensive and mandatory national building code, empowered by an act of parliament, was first imposed. The Scottish Building Standards, then, index a history of our increasingly sophisticated understanding of the built environment, and its relation to our economy, social conduct, health and environment. The Standards conduct that relationship toward specified ends by issuing guidance that seeks to limit the potential harm caused by building, and increase its potential for positive effect, in building. In doing so, they reveal a range of material concerns for building, pointing to an taking measure of a range of natural phenomena, including – amongst others – the spread of fire, the path of the sun, the properties of water, the size of a double-bed sheet, the height of our eyes, our comfortable gait, safe reach and aspects of our social behaviour. By establishing mandatory standards that apply to all buildings in Scotland, the regulations inscribe this understanding into building, imposing a minimal representational content to all compliant architecture.

SCHEDULE OF WINDOWS ARRANGEMENTS TO BE CLEANED EASILY FROM WITHIN: HORIZONTAL ARRANGEMENTS Technical Standards: Domestic 4

OPENING METHOD CONFIGURATION

Safety

Safety is the "state of freedom from unnacceptable risks of personal harm". Buildings should be designed to consider the safety and the welfare and convenience of buiding users. 4.8

Side Hung / Open O

Risk of Accident

Non-projecting butt h 4000

Both faces of a window should be capable of being cleaned from within the building such that there will not be a threat to the cleaner from a fall.

556

800

1100

1825

4.8.3 Cleaning of Windows Design for reach should accomodate the 5th percentile of the UK adult population. This suggests limits of 556mm for reaching out and 1825mm for overhead reach. Guarding should be provided for opening windows with a sill beneath 1100mm. Windows within 4m of a f ixed surface can be cleaned from that surface. Guarding to a balcony should be provided to a height of 800mm.

Diff icult to clean from outside. Risk of fallin cleaning. Safety res

Side Hung / Open O

with offset projecting

Gap between casem least 95mm. Risk of entrapment. falling o Safety restrictor shou

Side Hung / Open In

Non-projecting butt h

Risk of collision with out during use and c should be considered

Tilt and Turn

Tilt function provides associated with open open in turn mode. R and cleaning. Safety considered for turn m

Scottish Building Standard 4.8.3: Safe Cleaning of Windows Standard 4.8.3 regulates the design of windows so as reduce the danger of accidents associated with window cleaning. It recommends that the size of windows, and their opening method, be limited so as to ensure that both faces of all domestic window glazing be reachable from within the building by 95% of the UK adult population. 4.

Section 4 of the Scottish Building Standard’s technical handbook, domestic version, concerns Safety. Safety is defined as ‘a state of freedom from unacceptable risks of personal harm’. The Scottish Build ing Standards demand that buildings be designed to safeguard the safety, welfare and convenience of building users.

4.8

Mandatory Standard 4.8 is concerns risks to personal harm posed by accidents. Amongst other things, it states that every building must be designed such that ‘both faces of a window are capable of being cleaned such that there will not be a threat to the cleaner from a fall’.

4.8.3

Guidance note 4.8.3 states that falls account for most window cleaning accidents, which generally oc cur from loss of balance during over-extension of reach. It suggests, therefore, that it is important for transparent or translucent glazing to be designed so that it may be cleaned without the need for over- extension. Specifically, it advises that “Any window, all or part of which is more than 4 m above adja cent ground or internal floor level, should be constructed so that any external and internal glazed sur faces can be cleaned safely from [either]: inside the building in accordance with Clause 8 of BS 8213: Part 1: 2004; or a load-bearing surface large enough to prevent a person falling further”.

BS 8213

British Standard 8213 establishes standards for windows, doors and roof lights, and Part 1 addresses specifically their design for safety in use and during cleaning. Clause 8 makes a detailed risk assess ment of those risks posed during cleaning - including the danger of a fall - and contains specific sub- clauses that assess the risk posed by different means of cleaning; reversing the window, opening the window inwards, access through the opening light, access through an adjacent light. Appendix A of Part 1 provides a digest of statistics published by the Department of Trade and Industry that give reach capabilities for various populations, including strength measurements for older adults. It recom mends that design for reach should accommodate the 5th percentile of the UK adult population, and concludes that window design should anticipate a maximum safe reach of 556mm reaching out, and 1825mm overhead. The document includes a further table that defines a range of window types, and details other risks – such as collision, entrapment or slamming – associated with them.

Through this cascade of acts, regulation and guidance, building is called upon to act as an instrument of risk reduction. In doing so, the regulation points to and reveals a wide range of empirical data regarding building and its occupation; it draws upon anthropometric data that index specific characteristics of the human body – the average reach and strength of the population, and limits the size of windows to represent these qualities – as well as indexing specific characteristics of windows; the range of commonly available opening types and configurations, recognizing that these characteristics effect the reach-ability of glazing, and pose a variety of risks. Regulation 4.8.3 points to the fact that our physical interaction with building, and the risk this poses, are part of the materiality of architecture. The specific limits set by 4.8.3 index that materiality, and inscribe it into building.

Top Hung / Open O

Non-projecting butt h

Diff icult to clean from outside. Risk of fallin cleaning. Safety res

Louvres

Openings between lo Risk of falling through restrained on short e Positive hold-open po

Bottom Hung / Ope

Safety-restrictor hing

Risk of collisions insi Weight of sash a limi

Horizontally Pivoted Fully reversible

Risk of collisions outs use and cleaning. A f itted to secure windo

Vertically Pivoted

Nominal 90 degree o

Risk of collisions outs use and cleaning. A secure window durin

Horizontal Sliding

Nominal 90 degree o

No risk of collisions. array, if all sashes pa Risk of falling out dur

Vertically Sliding

Side hinged sashes f

No risk of collisions o during use and clean factor.

Top Hung / Open In

Safety-restrictor hing

Risk of collisions insi Weight of sash a limi

SILY FROM WITHIN:

Opening Light

...with f ixed side light

...with f ix ed lower and side light

...with guard rail

...with guard rail and f ix ed side light

...in a glazed assembly to a balcony

Side Hung / Open Out 556

556

556

556

556

556

556

556

556

556

556

800

1100

1825

556

800

4000

Non-projecting butt hinges Diff icult to clean from within. Risk of collisions outside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered.

...in an horizontal array

4000

...with f ix ed lower light

Side Hung / Open Out N/A

4000

1100

Gap between casement and frame should be at least 95mm. Risk of collisions outside. Risk of entrapment. falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered.

1825

with offset projecting hinges.

Side Hung / Open In 556

556

556

556

556

556

556

556

556

556

556

556

556

556

556

556

4000

800

1100

Risk of collision with window inside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered.

1825

Non-projecting butt hinges

4000

800

1100

1825

Tilt and Turn Tilt function provides ventilation without risk associated with opening. Risk of collisions when open in turn mode. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered for turn mode.

Top Hung / Open Out Non-projecting butt hinges

N/A

N/A

4000

800

1825

Diff icult to clean from within. Risk of collisions outside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered.

Louvres Openings between louvres should be 95-100mm. Risk of falling through window (glazing only restrained on short edge). Risk of entrapment. Positive hold-open position should be provided.

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

800

1100

1825

556

Bottom Hung / Open In Safety-restrictor hinge

556

1100

1825

Risk of collisions inside. Risk of entrapment. Weight of sash a limiting factor.

Horizontally Pivoted Fully reversible

556

556

1825

556

4000

1100

Risk of collisions outside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. A reversing catch should be f itted to secure window during cleaning.

Vertically Pivoted Nominal 90 degree opening

556

N/A

556

N/A

800

Horizontal Sliding

1

Nominal 90 degree opening

2

1

2

1

2

556

1

2

556

1

2

556

1

2

N/A

556

556

1100

1825

556

1825

556

1100

No risk of collisions. Cleaning only possible in array, if all sashes pass, or if f ixed light removable. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning.

556

1825

556

1100

Risk of collisions outside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. A catch should be f itted to secure window during cleaning.

Note: pane 1 is removable

Vertically Sliding Side hinged sashes for cleaning

N/A

1100

4000

Top Hung / Open In Safety-restrictor hinge

556

4000

800

1100

1825

Risk of collisions inside. Risk of entrapment. Weight of sash a limiting factor.

Fixed Light Only cleanable from adjacent opening light or balcony.

556

1825

556

1825

556

1100

No risk of collisions outside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. Weight of sash is limiting factor.

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

SCHEDULE OF WINDOWS TO BE CLEANED FROM WITHIN Maximum glazing sizes for a range of opening methods / configurations

OPENING METHOD / CONFIGURATION

ROM WITHIN:

Horizontal Arrays with Continuous Opening Lights

SCHEDULE OF GLAZED ARRANGEMENTS TO BE CLEANED FROM WITHIN Glazing arrays demonstrating the maximum glazed Area permissible for a variety of opening methods

OPENING METHOD / CONFIGURATION

Side Hung / Open Out Non-projecting butt hinges

556

800

1100

1825

4000

Diff icult to clean from within. Risk of collisions outside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered.

Side Hung / Open Out with offset projecting hinges.

556

800

1100

1825

Gap between casement and frame should be at least 95mm. Risk of collisions outside. Risk of entrapment. falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered.

Side Hung / Open In Non-projecting butt hinges

556

800

1100

1825

Risk of collision with window inside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered.

Tilt and Turn

556

800

1100

1825

Tilt function provides ventilation without risk associated with opening. Risk of collisions when open in turn mode. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered for turn mode.

Top Hung / Open Out Non-projecting butt hinges

556

800

1100

1825

Diff icult to clean from within. Risk of collisions outside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered.

Louvres

556

800

1100

1825

Openings between louvres should be 95-100mm. Risk of falling through window (glazing only restrained on short edge). Risk of entrapment. Positive hold-open position should be provided.

Bottom Hung / Open In Safety-restrictor hinge

556

800

1100

1825

Risk of collisions inside. Risk of entrapment. Weight of sash a limiting factor.

Horizontally Pivoted Fully reversible

556

800

1100

1825

Risk of collisions outside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. A reversing catch should be f itted to secure window during cleaning.

Vertically Pivoted Nominal 90 degree opening

556

800

1100

1825

Risk of collisions outside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. A catch should be f itted to secure window during cleaning.

Horizontal Sliding Nominal 90 degree opening

R

R

R

R

R

R

556

800

1100

1825

No risk of collisions. Cleaning only possible in array, if all sashes pass, or if f ixed light removable. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning.

Vertically Sliding Side hinged sashes for cleaning

556

800

1100

1825

No risk of collisions outside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. Weight of sash is limiting factor.

Top Hung / Open In Safety-restrictor hinge

Fixed Light Only cleanable from adjacent opening light or balcony.

556

800

1100

1825

Risk of collisions inside. Risk of entrapment. Weight of sash a limiting factor.

R

ROM WITHIN:

Horizontal Arrays with Maximized Fixed Lights

SCHEDULE OF GLAZED ARRANGEMENTS TO BE CLEANED FROM WITHIN Glazing arrays demonstrating the maximum glazed area permissible for a variety of opening methods and configurations

OPENING METHOD / CONFIGURATION

Side Hung / Open Out Non-projecting butt hinges

556

800

1100

1825

4000

Diff icult to clean from within. Risk of collisions outside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered.

Side Hung / Open Out with offset projecting hinges.

556

800

1100

1825

Gap between casement and frame should be at least 95mm. Risk of collisions outside. Risk of entrapment. falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered.

Side Hung / Open In Non-projecting butt hinges

556

800

1100

1825

Risk of collision with window inside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered.

Tilt and Turn

556

800

1100

1825

Tilt function provides ventilation without risk associated with opening. Risk of collisions when open in turn mode. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered for turn mode.

Top Hung / Open Out Non-projecting butt hinges

556

800

1100

1825

Diff icult to clean from within. Risk of collisions outside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered.

Louvres

556

800

1100

1825

Openings between louvres should be 95-100mm. Risk of falling through window (glazing only restrained on short edge). Risk of entrapment. Positive hold-open position should be provided.

Bottom Hung / Open In Safety-restrictor hinge

556

800

1100

1825

Risk of collisions inside. Risk of entrapment. Weight of sash a limiting factor.

Horizontally Pivoted Fully reversible

556

800

1100

1825

Risk of collisions outside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. A reversing catch should be f itted to secure window during cleaning.

Vertically Pivoted Nominal 90 degree opening

556

800

1100

1825

Risk of collisions outside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. A catch should be f itted to secure window during cleaning.

Horizontal Sliding Nominal 90 degree opening R R

R

R

R

R

556

800

1100

1825

No risk of collisions. Cleaning only possible in array, if all sashes pass, or if f ixed light removable. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning.

Vertically Sliding Side hinged sashes for cleaning

556

800

1100

1825

No risk of collisions outside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. Weight of sash is limiting factor.

Top Hung / Open In Safety-restrictor hinge

Fixed Light Only cleanable from adjacent opening light or balcony.

556

800

1100

1825

Risk of collisions inside. Risk of entrapment. Weight of sash a limiting factor.

ROM WITHIN:

Horizontal Arrays with Continuous Opening Lights

Side Hung / Open Out Non-projecting butt hinges

556

800

1100

1825

4000

Diff icult to clean from within. Risk of collisions outside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered.

Side Hung / Open Out with offset projecting hinges.

556

800

1100

1825

Gap between casement and frame should be at least 95mm. Risk of collisions outside. Risk of entrapment. falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered.

Side Hung / Open In Non-projecting butt hinges

556

800

1100

1825

Risk of collision with window inside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered.

Tilt and Turn

556

800

1100

1825

Tilt function provides ventilation without risk associated with opening. Risk of collisions when open in turn mode. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered for turn mode.

Top Hung / Open Out Non-projecting butt hinges

556

800

1100

1825

Diff icult to clean from within. Risk of collisions outside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered.

Louvres

556

800

1100

1825

Openings between louvres should be 95-100mm. Risk of falling through window (glazing only restrained on short edge). Risk of entrapment. Positive hold-open position should be provided.

Bottom Hung / Open In Safety-restrictor hinge

556

800

1100

1825

Risk of collisions inside. Risk of entrapment. Weight of sash a limiting factor.

Horizontally Pivoted Fully reversible

556

800

1100

1825

Risk of collisions outside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. A reversing catch should be f itted to secure window during cleaning.

Vertically Pivoted Nominal 90 degree opening

556

800

1100

1825

Risk of collisions outside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. A catch should be f itted to secure window during cleaning.

Horizontal Sliding Nominal 90 degree opening

556

800

1100

1825

No risk of collisions. Cleaning only possible in array, if all sashes pass, or if f ixed light removable. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning.

Vertically Sliding Side hinged sashes for cleaning

556

800

1100

1825

No risk of collisions outside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. Weight of sash is limiting factor.

Top Hung / Open In Safety-restrictor hinge

Fixed Light Only cleanable from adjacent opening light or balcony.

556

800

1100

1825

Risk of collisions inside. Risk of entrapment. Weight of sash a limiting factor.

SCHEDULE OF GLAZED ARRANGEMENTS TO BE CLEANED FROM WITHIN Glazing arrays demonstrating the maximum height and spacing of a continuous strip window for a variety of opening methods

OPENING METHOD / CONFIGURATION

ROM WITHIN:

Horizontal Arrays with Maximized Fixed Lights

Side Hung / Open Out Non-projecting butt hinges

556

800

1100

1825

4000

Diff icult to clean from within. Risk of collisions outside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered.

Side Hung / Open Out with offset projecting hinges.

556

800

1100

1825

Gap between casement and frame should be at least 95mm. Risk of collisions outside. Risk of entrapment. falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered.

Side Hung / Open In Non-projecting butt hinges

556

800

1100

1825

Risk of collision with window inside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered.

Tilt and Turn

556

800

1100

1825

Tilt function provides ventilation without risk associated with opening. Risk of collisions when open in turn mode. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered for turn mode.

Top Hung / Open Out Non-projecting butt hinges

556

800

1100

1825

Diff icult to clean from within. Risk of collisions outside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered.

Louvres Openings between louvres should be 95-100mm. Risk of falling through window (glazing only restrained on short edge). Risk of entrapment. Positive hold-open position should be provided.

N/A

Bottom Hung / Open In Safety-restrictor hinge

556

800

1100

1825

Risk of collisions inside. Risk of entrapment. Weight of sash a limiting factor.

Horizontally Pivoted Fully reversible

556

800

1100

1825

Risk of collisions outside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. A reversing catch should be f itted to secure window during cleaning.

Vertically Pivoted Nominal 90 degree opening

556

800

1100

1825

Risk of collisions outside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. A catch should be f itted to secure window during cleaning.

Horizontal Sliding Nominal 90 degree opening

556

800

1100

1825

No risk of collisions. Cleaning only possible in array, if all sashes pass, or if f ixed light removable. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning.

Vertically Sliding Side hinged sashes for cleaning

556

800

1100

1825

No risk of collisions outside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. Weight of sash is limiting factor.

Top Hung / Open In Safety-restrictor hinge

Fixed Light Only cleanable from adjacent opening light or balcony.

N/A

556

800

1100

1825

Risk of collisions inside. Risk of entrapment. Weight of sash a limiting factor.

SCHEDULE OF GLAZED ARRANGEMENTS TO BE CLEANED FROM WITHIN Glazing arrays demonstrating the maximum size of fixed lights cleanable from adjacent opening lights in a continuous strip window for a variety of opening methods

OPENING METHOD / CONFIGURATION

ARRANGEMENT OF GLAZING TO BE CLEANED EASILY FROM WITHIN

GLAZED ARRANGEMENT TO BE CLEANED FROM WITHIN Facade design demonstrating maximum height of glazing cleanable from within

ARRANGEMENT NO. 1: DEMONSTRATING HEIGHT OF GLAZING CLEANABLE FROM WITHIN VERTICALLY SLIDING / INWARD OPENING LIGHTS with FIXED LOWER LIGHTS CLEANABLE FROM OPENING LIGHT

556

800

KITCHEN

DINING

LIVING

BEDROOM

ARRANGEMENT OF GLAZING TO BE CLEANED EASILY FROM WITHIN ARRANGEMENT NO. 1: DEMONSTRATING HEIGHT OF GLAZING CLEANABLE FROM WITHIN VERTICALLY SLIDING / INWARD OPENING LIGHTS with FIXED LOWER LIGHTS CLEANABLE FROM OPENING LIGHT

556

800

1825

4000

Notes: External face of high level opening to ground floor bedroom from outside. External face of doors cleanable from ground or balcony

1100

1100

1825

4000

Notes: External face of high level opening to ground floor bedroom from outside. External face of doors cleanable from ground or balcony

KITCHEN

DINING

LIVING

BEDROOM

GLAZED ARRANGEMENT TO BE CLEANED FROM WITHIN Facade design demonstrating width of fixed light cleanable from within

ARRANGEMENT OF GLAZING TO BE CLEANED EASILY FROM WITHIN ARRANGEMENT NO. 2: DEMONSTRATING WIDTH OF FIXED LIGHT CLEANABLE FROM WITHIN VERTICALLY SLIDING / INWARD OPENING LIGHTS with FIXED LOWER AND SIDE LIGHTS CLEANABLE FROM OPENING LIGHT

556

800

KITCHEN

DINING

LIVING

BEDROOM

ARRANGEMENT OF GLAZING TO BE CLEANED EASILY FROM WITHIN ARRANGEMENT NO. 2: DEMONSTRATING WIDTH OF FIXED LIGHT CLEANABLE FROM WITHIN VERTICALLY SLIDING / INWARD OPENING LIGHTS with FIXED LOWER AND SIDE LIGHTS CLEANABLE FROM OPENING LIGHT

556

800

1825

4000

Notes: External face of f ixed lights to ground & 1st f loor cleanable from outside. External face of high level opening to ground f loor bedroom from outside. Both faces of inward opening lights to kitchens cleanable from within.

1100

1100

1825

4000

Notes: External face of f ixed lights to ground & 1st f loor cleanable from outside. External face of high level opening to ground f loor bedroom from outside. Both faces of inward opening lights to kitchens cleanable from within.

KITCHEN

DINING

LIVING

BEDROOM

GLAZED ARRANGEMENT TO BE CLEANED FROM WITHIN Facade design demonstrating extent of fixed light cleanable from within

ARRANGEMENT OF GLAZING TO BE CLEANED EASILY FROM WITHIN ARRANGEMENT NO. 3: DEMONSTRATING EXTENT OF FIXED LIGHT CLEANABLE FROM WITHIN SIDE HUNG INWARD OPENING LIGHTS with FIXED LOWER AND SIDE LIGHTS CLEANABLE FROM OPENING LIGHT

556

800

KITCHEN

DINING

LIVING

BEDROOM

ARRANGEMENT OF GLAZING TO BE CLEANED EASILY FROM WITHIN ARRANGEMENT NO. 3: DEMONSTRATING EXTENT OF FIXED LIGHT CLEANABLE FROM WITHIN SIDE HUNG INWARD OPENING LIGHTS with FIXED LOWER AND SIDE LIGHTS CLEANABLE FROM OPENING LIGHT

556

800

1825

4000

Notes: External face of high level opening to ground f l oor bedroom from outside.

1100

1100

1825

4000

Notes: External face of high level opening to ground f loor bedroom from outside.

KITCHEN

DINING

LIVING

BEDROOM

ARRANGEMENT OF GLAZING TO BE CLEANED EASILY FROM WITHIN

GLAZED ARRANGEMENT TO BE CLEANED FROM WITHIN Facade design demonstrating varied barrier heights

ARRANGEMENTNO. OF 3: GLAZING TO BE CLEANED EASILY FROM WITHIN: ARRANGEMENT DEMONSTRATING VARIED BARRIER HEIGHTS HORIZONTAL RIBBON ARRANGEMENT SIDE HUNG, INWARD RANGE OF FIXED AND OPENING OPENING WINDOWS LIGHTS that RECESSED BALCONY TO LIVINGHEIGHTS ROOM PROVIDE A RANGE OF BARRIER STEPPED BARRIER AT 800 mm AND 1100 mm. Notes: Barrier height at windows 1100mm Barrier height reduces to 900mm where wide (kitchen counter) Barrier height reduces to 800mm to balcony External face of fixed glazing to 1st floor cleanable from ground

Technical Standards: Domestic 4

Safety

Safety is the "state of freedom from unnacceptable risks of personal harm". Buildings should be designed to consider the safety and the welfare and convenience of buiding users. 4.8

Risk of Accident

4000

Both faces of a window should be capable of being cleaned from within the building such that there will not be a threat to the cleaner from a fall. 4.8.3 Cleaning of Windows

556

800

ARRANGEMENT OF GLAZING TO BE CLEANED EASILY FROM WITHIN ARRANGEMENT NO. 3: DEMONSTRATING VARIED BARRIER HEIGHTS RANGE OF FIXED AND OPENING LIGHTS that PROVIDE A RANGE OF BARRIER HEIGHTS

1825

Notes: Barrier height at windows 1100mm Barrier height reduces to 900mm where wide (kitchen counter) Barrier height reduces to 800mm to balcony External face of fixed glazing to 1st floor cleanable from ground

1100

1100

1100

1825

1825

556 Design for reach should accomodate the 5th percentile of the UK adult population. This suggests limits of 556mm for reaching out and 1825mm for overhead reach. Guarding should be provided for opening windows with a sill beneath 1100mm. Windows within 4m of a fixed surface can be cleaned from that surface. Guarding to a balcony should be provided to a height of 800mm.

556

ARRANGEMENT OF GLAZING TO BE CLEANED EASILY FROM WITHIN

GLAZED ARRANGEMENT TO BE CLEANED EASILY FROM WITHIN Facade design demonstrating extent of glazing cleanable from balcony

ARRANGEMENT NO. 4: DEMONSTRATING EXTENT OF FIXED LIGHT CLEANABLE FROM BALCONY SIDE HUNG INWARD OPENING GLAZED DOORS / WINDOWS with FIXED LOWER AND SIDE LIGHTS CLEANABLE FROM BALCONY / WINDOW EDGE PROTECTION TO BALCONIES / WINDOWS

556

800

ARRANGEMENT OF GLAZING TO BE CLEANED EASILY FROM WITHIN ARRANGEMENT NO. 4: DEMONSTRATING EXTENT OF FIXED LIGHT CLEANABLE FROM BALCONY SIDE HUNG INWARD OPENING GLAZED DOORS / WINDOWS with FIXED LOWER AND SIDE LIGHTS CLEANABLE FROM BALCONY / WINDOW EDGE PROTECTION TO BALCONIES / WINDOWS

556

800

1825

4000

Notes: External face of f ixed lights to windows without balconies cleanable from opening light.

1100

1100

1825

4000

Notes: External face of f ixed lights to windows without balconies cleanable from opening light.

ARRANGEMENT OF GLAZING TO BE CLEANED EASILY FROM WITHIN

GLAZED ARRANGEMENT TO BE CLEANED EASILY FROM WITHIN Facade design demonstrating height of glazing cleanable from balcony

ARRANGEMENT OF NO.GLAZING 6: ARRANGEMENT TO BE CLEANED EASILY FROM WITHIN: DEMONSTRATING HEIGHT OF GLAZING CLEANABLE FROM BALCONY HORIZONTAL RIBBON ARRANGEMENT FIXEDHUNG, LIGHTS and OUTWARD DOORS AND VENTILATORS with SIDE INWARD OPENINGOPENING WINDOWS BALCONY BALCONY TO LIVING ROOM RECESSED STEPPED BARRIER AT 800 mm AND 1100 mm. Notes: External face of fixed lights cleanable from ground or balcony

Technical Standards: Domestic 4

Safety

Safety is the "state of freedom from unnacceptable risks of personal harm". Buildings should be designed to consider the safety and the welfare and convenience of buiding users. Risk of Accident

4000

Both faces of a window should be capable of being cleaned from within the building such that there will not be a threat to the cleaner from a fall.

4000

4.8

4.8.3 Cleaning of Windows

556

800

ARRANGEMENT OF GLAZING TO BE CLEANED EASILY FROM WITHIN ARRANGEMENT NO. 6: DEMONSTRATING HEIGHT OF GLAZING CLEANABLE FROM BALCONY FIXED LIGHTS and OUTWARD OPENING DOORS AND VENTILATORS with BALCONY

556

800

1825

4000

Notes: External face of fixed lights cleanable from ground or balcony

1100

1100

800

1825

1100

1825

556

Design for reach should accomodate the 5th percentile of the UK adult population. This suggests limits of 556mm for reaching out and 1825mm for overhead reach. Guarding should be provided for opening windows with a sill beneath 1100mm. Windows within 4m of a fixed surface can be cleaned from that surface. Guarding to a balcony should be provided to a height of 800mm.

SCHEDULE OF WINDOWS ARRANGEMENTS TO BE CLEANED EASILY FROM WITHIN: HORIZONTAL ARRANGEMENTS Technical Standards: Domestic 4

OPENING METHOD / CONFIGURATION

Safety

Safety is the "state of freedom from unnacceptable risks of personal harm". Buildings should be designed to consider the safety and the welfare SCHEDULE OF WINDOWS ARRANGEMENTS TO BE EASILY FROM WITHIN: and convenience of CLEANED buiding users. HORIZONTAL ARRANGEMENTS 4.8 Risk of Accident

Opening Light

Side Hung / Open Out

Non-projecting butt hinges Both faces of a window should be capable of being 556 Opening Light ...with f ix ed lower light ...with f ixe OPENING METHOD / cleaned from within the building such that there will SCHEDULE OF WINDOWS ARRANGEMENTS TOCONFIGURATION BE CLEANED EASILY FROM WITHIN: Diff icult to clean from within. Risk of collisions not be a threat to the cleaner from a fall. HORIZONTAL ARRANGEMENTS outside. Risk of falling out during use and 4 Safety cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered. 4.8.3 Cleaning of Windows Safety is the "state of freedom from unnacceptable risks of personal harm". Buildings should be Design for reach shouldDomestic accomodate the 5th Technical Standards: Opening Light OPENING METHOD / designed to consider the safety and the welfare CONFIGURATION 556 and convenience of buiding users. percentile of the UK adult population. This suggests limits of 556mm for reaching out and 4 Safety 1825mm for overhead reach. Guarding should be Side Hung / Open Out 4.8 Risk of Accident provided for sill beneath Safety is the opening "state ofwindows freedom with fromaunnacceptable Non-projecting butt hinges 1100mm. Windows within 4m of a should f ixed surface risks ofofpersonal harm". Buildings be Both faces of a window should be capable being 556 556 556 cleaned from that surface. to a designed towill consider the safety andGuarding the welfare cleaned from within the building suchcan thatbe there should beofprovided a height of 800mm. Diff icult to clean from within. Risk of collisions and buiding to users. not be a threat to the cleaner from a balcony fall. convenience outside. Risk of falling out during use and Hung / Open Out cleaning. Safety restrictor should beSide considered. 4.8 Risk of Accident 4.8.3 Cleaning of Windows Non-projecting butt hinges with offset projecting hinges. faces of a window should be capable of being 556 Design for reach should accomodateBoth the 5th cleaned from within the building such that there will percentile of the UK adult population. This Diff icbetween ult to clean from within. Risk ofshould collisions Gap casement and frame be at 556 not be a threat to the cleaner from a fall. suggests limits of 556mm for reaching out and outside. RiskRisk of falling out during use and least 95mm. of collisions outside. Risk of 1825mm for overhead reach. Guarding should be cleaning. Safety restrictor should considered. entrapment. falling out during usebe and cleaning. 4.8.3 Cleaning of Windows provided for opening windows with a sill beneath Safety restrictor should be considered. 1100mm. Windows within 4m of a f ixed surface Design for reach should accomodate the 5th can be cleaned from that surface. Guarding to a percentile of the UK adult population. This balcony should be provided to a height of 800mm. 556 suggests limits of 556mm for reaching out and 1825mm for overhead reach. Guarding should be Side Hung / Open Out provided for opening windows with a sill beneath 1100mm. Windows within 4m of a f ixed surface with offset projecting hinges. 556 556 556 can be cleaned from that surface. Guarding to a balcony should be provided to a height of 800mm. Gap between casement and frame should be at least 95mm. Risk of collisions outside. Risk of Out Side Hung / Open In entrapment. falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered. with offset projecting hinges. Non-projecting butt hinges 1825 1825

1100 1100

1100

1825

800

1100

1825

800

1100

1825

4000

1100

1825

4000

800

1100

1825

1100

1825

4000

Technical Standards: Domestic

556

1100

1825 1825

Gap between casement and frame befalling at Risk of collision with window inside.should Risk of least 95mm. collisionsSafety outside. Risk of out during useRisk andofcleaning. restrictor entrapment. falling out during use and cleaning. should be considered. Safety restrictor should be considered.

Side Hung / Open In Non-projecting butt hinges

556

556

55

1100

1825

Risk of collision with window inside. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor Side Hung / Open In Tilt and Turn should be considered.

Non-projecting butt hinges Tilt function provides ventilation without risk associated with opening. Risk of collisions when Risk withRisk window inside. of falling openof in collision turn mode. of falling outRisk during use out during use Safety and cleaning. restrictor and cleaning. restrictorSafety should be should be considered. considered for turn mode.

1100 1100

1825

556

Tilt and Turn 556

556

55

1100

1825

Tilt function provides ventilation without risk associated with opening. Risk of collisions when open in turn mode. Risk of falling out during use and cleaning. Safety restrictor should be Tilt and Turn Top Hung / Open Out considered for turn mode.

Tilt function provides ventilation without risk Non-projecting butt hinges associated with opening. Risk of collisions when open in to turn mode. of falling during use Diff icult clean fromRisk within. Risk out of collisions and cleaning. Safety should be outside. Risk of fallingrestrictor out during use and consideredSafety for turn mode. should be considered. cleaning. restrictor

1100

1825 1825

556

Top Hung / Open Out

Š The University of Edinburgh 2010 No part of this publication may be reproduced without prior permission from the author. liam.ross@ed.ac.uk www.architecture.ed.ac.uk

556

556

55

Non-projecting butt louvres hinges should be 95-100mm. Openings between Risk of falling through window (glazing only Diff c i ult to clean from within.Risk Risk collisions restrained on short edge). of of entrapment. outside. hold-open Risk of falling out during and Positive position shoulduse be provided. cleaning. Safety restrictor should be considered.

556 1825 1825

Vsevolod Kondratiev-Popov Nathan Ozga Alexander David Clark Victor Olivar

Diff icult to clean from within. Risk of collisions outside. Risk of falling out during use and Top Hung / Open Out cleaning. Safety restrictor should beLouvres considered.

1100

Assistants:

Non-projecting butt hinges 1825

COMPLIANT ARCHITECTURE | Liam Ross

Louvres Openings between louvres should be 95-100mm. Risk of falling through window (glazing only

556

N/A


Dramatizing Risk