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J O U R N A L LI AI ANG 5 6 0 5 5 8 Group 11

I love travelling as well !


I am Li Ai, currently a third-year student majoring in Architecture in University of Melbourne. Throughout the last two years, I have learnt a lot not only how to produce ideas critically but also how to produce the ideas into reality. However, it is no doubt that there are still lots and lots to be improved and keep learning is the main key to success.

My house was surrounded by paddy field and I used to sit at the back door and imagined what I would do. After finishing my secondary school, I was introduced to Architecture course and I believed this is what I want to do in future and it is gonna be fun and challenging. I am very interested to see how architects create space and experiences within the given parameter and how the ideas been generated.

In Year 2012 during my first year second semester, I have took Virtual Environments and this subject actually exposed me to what the real design world is. This is when I realised that design ideas are not only been interpreted using drawing but also by different medias and technologies, so the ideas could be transformed and presented in a much better way. This subject was inspiring and challenging and enabled me to see through the power of technology. Software such as Rhino provide me availability to explore unlimited potentials and possibilities in designing.

Throughout my study, I have been exposed to more and more amazing stuffs and l develop myself for better outcomes. Even I always lost myself during the process but this is what we called learning process and I believed I will find my way one day.

But WHY ARCHITECTURE ? This is the most common question has been asked to architecture student. For me, the story begin back to the olden days when I am still a little girl. I am from a small village located at somewhere of Malaysia where my house could barely seen on Google Maps.

In the first lecture, the lecturer introduced what the subject is mainly about. First thing pop uo in my mind: I am going to die this semester but I know I am going to learn a lot from this subject. This semester is gonna be fun and exciting and hopefully I keep alive and survive to the end. =)




A.1. Design Futuring


A.2. Design Computation


A.3. Composition / Generation


A.4. Conclusion


A.5. Learning Outcomes


References PAR T B



B.0. Site Study, Brief, Design Focus


B.1. Research Field


B.2. Case Study 1.0


B.3. Case Study 2.0


B.4. Technique: Development


B.5. Technique: Prototypes


B.6. Technique: Proposal


B.7. Learning Outcomes


References PAR T C



C.0. Reinvestigate Design Focus


C.1. Design Concept


C.2. Tectonic Element


C.3. Final Model


C.4. Additional LAGI Brief


C.5. Learning Outcomes









It might sounds impossible back to the past, but today, due to the exploitation and limitation of resources adding the unsustainable practices; it can no longer be assumed that we would have a future. In reading ‘Design Futuring’, Fry, the author emphasizes that our generation play an extremely important role in making dramatic changes to sustain our world and secure the future. In today’s world, we, human, are mostly self-centered and this attitude could actually lead the world to the end where no future exists. Therefore, the way we think, the way we act, and the way we design need to be redirected in order to have a sustainable future. In addition, economy and market demand are the direct forces that lead the entire design process, where the designers are required to respond to the demand of the society in creating a dignified public space. This phenomenon widely applied not only in architecture but any design field.

Design has act as the main redirective force towards a sustainable world. Therefore, it is significant to re-define and re-access what is the role of designer as what we design not only affect the economy but also humanity. We should engage the complexity of design as a worldshaping force. This redirection force not only in term of generating sustainable design but also challenge the preconception of others and redirect the design process to a sustainable future.

In this computerization age, the growing amount of cheap and free software that enable anyone to practice as designer raising the question on the quality of designers. The designers should be able to make judgments on the actions that could decrease or increase the futuring potential.

LAGI (Land Art Generator Initiative) was founded in year 2008 which providing a platform to design and construct public art installations that able to generate large scale of clean energy. This program acts as redirected force and emerge people involving not only architects but also professions from other disciplines such as engineers, planners, artists, and landscape architects for innovative ideas and thinking in generating a more sustainable world.

“Problems cannot be solved unless they are confronted and if they are to be solved it will not be by chance but, as said, by design,” -Fry

In short, the most important is to challenge the mindset and the will of the people and mobilize appropriate technologies to change the nature of economic, cultural One of the examples is the and institutional structure, by LAGI design competition means, to make a real differthat been introduced in this ence. subject.




Above Image 1: Timeline and the shadow effect on the cubit

Above Image 2: LED light glow during the night







LAbuUDhabi, N A near R C UBIT Masdar City Robert Flottemesch, Jen DeNike, Johanna Ballhaus, and Adrian P. De Luca

Above Image 3: Lunar Cubit during daytime

Lunar Cubit, which won the LAGI competition year 2010, is a site specific proposal located in Abu Dhabi expected to be the first zero carbon metropolis in the world after its completion. The design consists of 8 monolithics pyraminds and a huge central pyramind. Different approach been used in this design. Instead of complex form and aethestic extragance, simplicity of form , pyramind shape, been applied. However, the strong concept on nature of time, application of physic concepts like photoelectric and the crticial use of materials generate an elegant and beautiful outcome. Lunar Cubit functions not only as energy generator but also a timekeeper which allowing viewers to examine the time. During the day, the panels collect solar energy and convert into electrical energy which later distribute to 250 local households. At night, pyramind would illuminate light depending on the lunar phase and this enable the design to become a landmark icon as travellers would be able to view as flying through to Abu Dhabi International Airport. This also depict the light forver rising and falling as the moons spins around the earth. Undoubtedly, properties of materials helping desingers to expand the future possibilities. In this case, the material used was carefully considered due to its unique location at the Tropic of Cancer.

Above Image 4: Lunar Cubit during nighttime

Amorpous silicon solar panels been used due to its properties that able to withstand high temperature up to 85oC and function well in low light situations. Besides, the design proposed a strong interaction between the users and the landscape. Viewers would be able to create personal experience as they are free to get as close as they want, touch the power plant and stimulate exciting experience that different from normal energy generator that usually isolatew the viewers. The people can access the real data showing how much energy been produced and consumed through either the data monitoring system on site or the app in smartphone. It can be seen that the arhcitects are also concerned on the nature of site. In order to prevent ecological issue, walking path was designed in order to reducing the footprint impact and leave the natural ecosystem and land undisturbed. Today, art of design and renewable energy generation are been widely explored in order to move to a sustainable future. In this design, it can be seen that the architects explore these two acpects and integrate the past and the future by implying new technologies on the simple historic form. It represents the combination of creativity, innovative and sustainability that step into the future. 04

Above Image 5: Eye view level of Fresh Hills

Above Image 6: Landscape of Fresh Hills in larger scale


FRESH HILLS Fresh Kills Park,Staten Island,NY

Matthew Rosenberg

Above Image 7: Windrose data

Above Image 8: Analysis of wind associated with design

This proposal was designed by Matthew Rosenberg and was the second winning entry during the LAGI (Land Art Generator Initiative) Competition 2012. This design is not only conceptually strong but also has high aesthetical value and provide poetic response to the site.

Wind energy is one of the challenging renewable energy resouces as it varied and not constant from time to time. In this proposal, the desinger maximise the potential to capture the wind energy by using the windrose data of the Fresh Kills Park as form generation and pointing the wind turbines into the wind. The elevated form towards the central enhance the wind flow into the turbines and gain the maximum amount of wind energy.

This project is very interesting to look at due to its scuptural appearance which required by the brief but still integrate the notion of urban, history, and the structure typology. There are some factors that influenced and contributed to the project such as the windrose data of the site, the principles of fluid dynamics, the hostory of the landfill and the properties of bamboo. As a result, the design not only well-responded to the brief but also illustrates the critical thinking and consideration of the designer.

Different from normal wind turbines farm that isolates the landscape, the elevated forms of the design generate pathways in between and lead the users from the central plaza to the platform as they reach out to the frame of the surorunding context and enjoy different potential view. Besides, the form of the design also intended to separate the users from the restricted area (wind turbines area) for safety purpose.

Above Image 9: Views from Fresh Hills

As mentioned, the material of the design have been carefully choose by considering the local material and the properties of the bamboo. How bamboo been planted near the site and sustain the design has been shown at the later part of the proposal. Bamboo was chose due to its high strength properties and able to rest lightly on the recycled aluminium frame. This project could be use as a precedent for others in a way of how the desinger respond to the brief and how the critical consideration been made during the design process. Design should not include just the outer appearance but also how it function and the interactions with the surrounding context.


Above Image 10: Waste-to-Energy Building view across landscape

Above Image 11: Rendering Image of Waste-To-Energy Building


WASTE-TO-ENERGY C o p e n h a gen , Den ma r k


Above Image 12: Rendering image user ski on site

Above Image 13: Power Plant along the wall

This design proposal was designed by BIG and it won the competition to design a power plant for Copenhagen. This project has been grounded and expected to be completed in year 2016 and opened to public in year 2017.

thinking and the usual way of design. The building design should not just simply a green building that generate clean energy but it should be significant for the designer to generate ideas and cultures that able to stimulate people towards sustainablity.

The design is an energy generator replacing the neighbouring Amagerforbraending plant with waste-to-energy plant and transform the waste into electrical energy to distribute to the local communities. The most unique of the design is the integration of the recreational space, the ski slope on the roof of the building, that mobilizing and redefining the sustainable architecture. This is relatively significant as mentioned in the reading “Design Futuring” (Fry, 2009), design acts as the redirective force that redirect people

In this case, the architect inverse and challenge the preconcept of the people on waste farm and the treatment facility. Through this project, the waste farm, where people usually avoid, become a local attraction and indirectly generate the concept of “waste could be beautiful”. This design proposal integrated lastest waste treatment technologies and achieve high environmental performance by planting the plant modules on the vertical green facade wrapping the entire building. As a result, the plant will consume the waste collected from 4600 companies and 700000 residents in the Copenhagen and convert 100% of the waste into

Above Image 14: View inside the building

energy. It is predicted that it will collect around 400000 tons of waste per year and generate heating for 160000 residential houses and electricity for 62500 residential houses. Besides, another iconic element of the design is the smoke ring that will generated by the smokestack, which 30cm in diameter, whenever a ton of CO2 been released. This smoke ring increase the awareness of energy consumption and ecological issues to the local community. This project, located in the industrial area, will become the examplary model in term of waste management and treatment facility and also the architectural icon in Copenhagen. These creative design and innovative strategies would actually generate positive competitiveness and stimulate more innovative sustainable design in the future.





oday, the fast-paced technology and computerization is transforming our world not only in terms of industry practices in design and construction within architecture field but also science, healthcare, defence system, education, and entertainment. Transportation such as cars, ships and airplanes and various appliances are totally developed, designed, experimented, and manufactured using digital technologies. These advanced technologies provide us a much convenient and better living and gradually become one of the inseparable parts in our daily life.


Digital Modelling Digital modelling has influenced the design methods and output by the use of 3D digital modelling and animation software that enable the designers to explore possibilities in architecture, which are not designed in the traditional ways. New forms and geometries were generated digitally based on the concepts such as contours, topological space and so on. These digital tools enable the designers to generate high complexity shapes and forms, that hardly been developed and represented in the past.

Digital Production: Fabrication

Parametric Design

Advanced digital technologies also affected the production of the design. Today, the building design are not only been created and generated digitally, they are also been realized using digital tools by “file-to-factory” processes. The design was flatten and been (XXXX) into planar panels and the file is later been sent to the factory for fabrication. This process enabling the designer to produce and construct high complexity shapes which is extremely hard to been manufactured and assembled by conventional technologies. The prefabricated models are now widely used for designers to test and experiment the design outcome and the spatial qualities in real.

What is parametric design? Today, there is no particular definition on parametric design and it is generally related to terms generative, digital, computational and associative. Parametric design is an extremely valuable and useful tool for architects and designers to explore, design and generate creative and innovative design. It usually been generated digitally through certain algorithms resulting a high complexity outcome.

Material Exploration The new, complex form generation in architecture design and the development in material science have led the architects and professions from other related field to a new interest in exploring the properties of materials that able to produce the desired effects and aesthetic of the project. Materials have been deeply explored and this opened up the possibilities that changing the properties of the materials dynamically through internal or external incitement such as heat and light. Besides, the apparent properties of materials could be manipulated by reform the structure or the organisation of the materials. One example of this is shown later in the precedent works study.

In Animate Form (1999), Greg Lynn, the writer, studied and generate references for architecture that could be applied in parametric design. In this method, instead of the shape, the principles encoded into parametric equations of the particular design are declared during the design process. Variation of parameters would generate different outcomes that defining geometry. Manipulating and changing value of parameter would reprogram and reconfigured the form by being stretched, pulled, pushed and manipulated. This method rejects the idea of fixed and only solution by enables designers and architects to explore the infinite number of potentialities.

“While physical form can be defined in terms of static coordinates, the virtual force of the environment in which it is designed contributes to its shape”- Kolera However, different from digital design, architectural design should incorporate many other factors. For instances, designing and developing building projects using parametric tools may sometimes aesthetically stunning, but most of these designs may lean to inappropriate and over-assumptions to respond and react in the real world. Many designers, who actively engaged in the parametric design, to a certain extent agree to focus more on the affective qualities and performances of the design instead of using delimiting input to generate forms of the building. Constraint Satisfaction, one of the design methods in reading by , could be applied in this case to produce potential but yet applicable and relevant design outcome.


Swallow’s Nest - New Cultural Center T a i

C h u n g

Vincent Cellebaut Designed by Vincent Cellebaut, this new cultural center,named Swallow’s Nest, was dedicated to the Fine Arts and Literature. This is a design idea on cultural eclecticism and spatial flexibility. This parametric form explored the application of computational approach in architectural design. The idea of using mobius strip as principle has been introduced in the past and did not expire over time ,instead, it has now been further developed by architects to generate interesting parametric form. This complex appearance form is actually derived from repitition of isosceles triangular section extruded around

Above Image 15: Building Diagram


its elliptic path,twisted in 360 degree, forming a huge 3D Mobius ring. This design approach generates not only elegant and beautiful form, but the dynamic movement across the building create spatial felxibilites with different height and width. According to the architect, this organic form is designed under the shape of three ruled surfaces, which could adjust easily and decomposed into planar panels. This design has reminded me of the International Terminal at Waterloo Station in year 1993 shown on Architecture in Digital Age by Kolarevic (2003), which depicts the conceptual and development benefits afforded by computational approach to design.

Besides, it can be seen that digital design not only helping architects generate higly complex geometries and forms but also the structural components of how the building should be construct as well. Digital design able to communicate and express the idea by rendering and photoshop so reader would understand better on the design intents. This design approach has been applied in other design as well. One of the example is the Kazakhstan National Library in Astana by BIG, which recently won the first prixe in the competition. The building was designed as a mobius strip with continuous circulation.

Above Image 16: Prespective View from courtyard

Above Image 17: Building View in bird-eye level Right Image 18: Kazakhstan National Library


Kilden Performing Art Center Kristiansand, Norway

ALA Architects

This building is designed by ALA Architects as per-

forming arts center, located in front of waterfront at Kristiansand, Norway. This is a recent example of parametric modeling using digital and computational approach.

Above Image 19: Building Perspective View Right Top Image 20: Inner view of the building Right Middle Image 21: Side View of building Right Bottom Image 22: Opposite view across river


The most significant element in this building design is the main facade facing waterfront, also named as the Wave Wall. It is a ruled surface that span the timber between curved and straight at lower and upper edge respectively. This enormous timber strip facade been cantilivered up and intersects with the vertical steel frame and glass window through both exterior and interior. In this design, the computational approach by the arhcitects is different from some. In this case, the

parametric modeling system was used only later during the detail design to achieve the parametric optimization of form and performance instead of for form-finding process. Computer has been used as a representation tool instead of design generative tool. The building was designed with the intention to be popular and please everybody. It can be seen from the sharp and exaggerate panels throughout different parts of buildings. Every single corner of the building expressed themselves and all these interesting parametric facades were integrated and form an elegant building as a whole. All these design intents were idealized by the use of digital tools. In term of structural and construction of the building, there is a total of 305 primary beams jointed to the building’s steel structures, 1769 secondary corssbeam, and 12248 straight but twisted oak cladding boards. In order to construct the building, high precise mathematic definition is needed to assemble the components seamlessly. By using parametric modeling system, the exact position of every single components and how they will be constructed were calculated and presented which could be hardly conceived in the past. The parametric system has specialized tools including the entire construction process from input geometry to fabrication and they are all could be manipulated individually without changing the performance and functionality. Besides, in order to achieve structural optimization, structural analysis softwares were used to test and improve the system until a satisfied solution found.


Above Image 23: Rendering Image on the building

HiDrone is designed as a movable architecture gallery that is adaptable and able to reconfigured. This design proposed by SPARC, a research team at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, won the first prize in London Architecture Gallery International Competition in year 2008. The building consists of pistons operated by hydraulic energy that are reprogramme, depending on the functions and weather, releasing and filing water recycled from the Thames River. These reconfigured pistons are able to change the form of the gallery. They are pre-stressed with springs and as they filled with water,the pistons become a box-shaped, assume to be close. The design has two different state: closed and open state. In its closed state, it is a huge 3D screen, where the fiber optic light emitters generating visual effects for the city of London. In its open state, it generates social-engaging spaces through its pistonsreconfiguration from various


scales: floor, furniture and ceilings. The volume of space with various configurations is controlled by the quantity of water released. This design proposal exploring and expanding the future possibilites by generate new technology that is totally adaptable. By designing movable volume and space, the building itself actually evolve and create new context and user experiences that no one has before. The design challenges the traditional construction of fixed beam, column, floor, ceiling to create spaces. This parametric was generated by inserting the encoded equations derived from the concept. Live and dead load probably become one of the paramters in this case besides of the filing and released of water from the river. This could hardly designed and developed in olden days without the digital tools. Digital tools expand infinite future possibilities for the designer to manipulate and experiment their ideas.

HIDRONE Thames, London






Above Image 24: Rendering Image on the building in different states

However, the relevant and the real potentialities of the design been questioned. The encoded equation of the parametric might be too complex as too many aspects need to take into consideration as parameter. The design team also undergo investigation the idealization in reality and how it could be manufactured and constructed.

In term of architectural design , this design should be further critically analysed and re-considered. It is true that the digital tools would help the architects to generate the parametric but it might be manipulated too far rigid in a way distintive from architectural design. Externally imposed constraints such as site condition, surrounding context, climate, and light penetrations should be taken into consideration to generate a parametric design that is highly performative.

Below Image 25: Diagram of building express idea of dynamic movement





oday, digital tools have been widely used in contemporary architectural design not only as the representational tool but also increasingly used for generate variation of form and its transformation.

Generative design system

As defined in reading Architecture in Digital Age by Kolarevic, generative design method is “a radical departure centuries old traditions and norms of architectural design, digitallygenerated forms are not designed or drawn, but they are calculated by the chosen generative computational methods.� Without question, generative design systems have imply a fundamental move that shifted the design approach from the modelling of external form to the finding of form based on the generative techniques and logic. (Leach, 2009)


The formation of generative design is made up of four elements: (1) Parameters or Input (2) Forming rules or algorithms which is the generative mechanism (3) Derivation of output (4) Choosing the best solution This system works in such a way where the architectural principles could be articulated as a set of generative rules and the concepts evolution could be encoded digitally. In today architectural design, most of the design forms were based on the principles of biological form and growth.

“The generative role of new digital techniques is accomplished through the designer’s simultaneous interpretation and manipulation of a computational construct… The capacity of digital, computational architectures to generate “new” designs is, therefore, highly dependent on the designer’s perceptual and cognitive abilities, as continuous, dynamic processes ground the emergent form.” -Kolarevic (2003) Moreover, the generative scripts would automatically generate a series of redundant outcomes and also unpredictable highly complex forms and compositions, which will be evaluated later based on their optimal performance for further development. These evolution of the generative approaches is driven by a system called “genetic” algorithm.

Algorithm thinking and design Algorithm can be defined as “a finite set of rules operations” that aimed to fulfil a clearly defined agenda in a definite number of phases. In algorithm, one single value or a bunch of values were taken as input, been worked out and went through series of computational phases that transform and convert them into output, result either one single value or a bunch of values. Algorithmic code functions well as generative tools in designing by generating very sophisticated and complex geometries by using simple and little amounts of data. This is because scripting formed the basis of algorithmic models which the agents have ability to interact locally to generate emergent topologies in forms, articulation and structures in architectural design. At this point, it can be said that the parametric design system is based on the application of algorithmic thinking and design. Parametric models in generative design processes or the stimulation of complex circumstances could potentially explored to generate dynamic and complex design by the inductive use of algorithms due to their responsiveness and adapt-

ability to varying design requirements and criteria.

“Algorithms can be regarded as extensions to the human brain and may facilitate a leap to the areas of unpredictable potential.” – Terzidis (2011) However, applying similar algorithmic code would often generate a variety of iterations and arising redundant forms. Therefore, appropriate and relevant criteria have to be pre-defined by the designer in order to prevent the creation of optimal iterations.

Constraint satisfaction Besides, constraint satisfaction is extremely relevant to apply during the generative design process. By setting rules and constraints, the potential “solution space” is narrowed and restricted and this enables the designers to optimize the performance of the design outcomes. Performative design Undeniably, in contemporary architectural, digital tools and computerization enable architects to generate high complexity visual or formal project outcomes. This could be achieved as mentioned above, through algorithm thinking and logic as generative tools to design. However, pragmatic and performative design could be generated as well by these approaches. Performative principles could be applied both either during the early stage of design process, when concept and main forms were worked out; or the later stage when the optimal performance of the systems was tested. In formal case, performance criteria were used as the guidance and the performance metrics could be encoded in the parametric model. In latter scenario, it is more suitable in addressing multiplex performance that beyond the limit of parameterization, for instance, the structural performance of the design.


Above Image 26: Topology Diagram Below Image 27: Digital approach in form-finding and optimization

This design proposal, named Cast Thicket, been judged and won the competition ACADIA 2012. The final refined model has been installed and exhibited later at APPLIED: Research through Fabrication Exhibition by TEXFAB. This exhibition was led by the internationally acknowledged professions within parametric modeling field, providing alternative for the participants to expose temselves to the highest stage of design potentialities.

In this proposal, Tracy and Yogiaman, the desingers, explore the materials on tensile concrete. Instead of conventional heavy concrete construction, light framework were developed with lightly coloured, emphasising the surface details. Three refinements been developed: - Replace formwork with prefabricated internal frame - Replace steel forms with thin membrane on frame - Replace solid walls with strut network. A mesh of slender members created by using repeated structural system of lighweight formwork and leverage the fluidity property of concrete. These members been dispersed into network of struts addressing the structure organization and the spatial needs. Through design process, it can be seen that there is a clear agenda looking for more thorough digital implementation as the design was developed through unusual geometries and innovatives structure organization to improve the materials as well as the environmental performance. In short, this is interesting to look at how the material been manipulated and challenged its properties by the way the designer construct and experiment it virtualy using digital tool. The designers also proposed a promising prototype and precedent that integrate the contemporary way of representation and technologies to the traditional way of construction so to expand the future possibilties. In addition, integration of the advanced fabrication technology and cutting edge design wth contextual significant would alternately generate affective and associative outcomes.


HIDRONE Thames, London






Left bottom Image 28: Installation in the exhibition Right Image 29: Rendering image of the design Below Image 30: Structural and construction analysis


The Yas Hotel A








Hani Rashid,Lise Anne Couture

Above Image 31: Rendering image of the design Below Image 32: Close view to the Grid shell structures


Below Image 33: Structural analysis using digital software

This building was built in 2009 and it is the first

new hotel over the world been built over F1 race circuit: Yas Marina Circuit. The design is a combination of two hotel towers which linked by dymanic Grid-shell structure with steel and glass bridge crossing above the F1 race circuit. This building has now became an architectural icon in Abu Dhabi due to the high aesthetic value and elegant forms, which associated with the speed and spectacle to the geometries form that based on the Islamic art and craft traditions. It is also engineering significant due to the complex construction of the design. It consists of 217-meter curvilinear and sweeping glass, steel associate with Grid Shell system, and LED lighting system. Grid-shell system is one of the main features of the whole architectural design and also performance of design by generating “an atmosphere-like veil visible from miles away.” It visually links both buildings and generating visual effects and reflections of sky, sea, and landscape surrounding.

Below Image 34: Control Point been manipulated and testing direction of force

This method generates parametric form based on algorithms simulating dynamic relaxation and sustainable methods for construction. Form generated based on this method was mass customized and therefore, the choice of material is extremely essential as well. “With digital form-generation, it is possible to embed parameters and forces other than gravitation, in the logic of algorithm. These additional parameters reflect pragmatic issues, constraints from manufacturing or construction, design intents and additional performance criteris.”


SUBDIVIDED COLUMNS 2011 Gwangju Design Biennale Michael Hansmeyer

Above Image 35: Rendering image of the columns


“A computational approach to architecture enables the generation of the previously unseen. Forms that can longer be conceived of through traditional methods become possible. New realms open up,� - Michael Hansmeyer There are a number of inspiring and exciting projects developed by Hansmeyer, who educated as a computer programmer and architect, that aims to generate new architectural expression by the use of algorithms. Several column with 2.7m high were fabricated as layered model using sheets with thickness of 1mm. The project is on design of novel column based on the subdivision processes. How subdivision can be defined has been explored as well as generate elaborated ornament on the column. As mentioned, in algorithms design, input is compulsory and in this scenario, it is the abstracted doric column. All the input was tagged in order to differentiate every single components during subdivision process. As the result, instead of designing a column, the designer design the process to form the column. This approach emphasises the shift from a single subject to a bunch of subjects. Different parameters been tested digitally and generate unlimited mutations of column.

The result is a series of columns that exhibit both highly specific local conditions as well as an overall coherency and continuity. The ornament is in a continuous flow, yet it consists of very distinct local formations. The complexity of column contrasts with the simplicity of its generative process. This technologies is very useful in generating extremely detailed and sophisticated surface. They are all been generated just by the use of simple data and every single details of the surface could be prefabricated precisely. However, in our case, this approach might be not appropriate as the scale of the scuptural is much larger than the column. It is no doubt that this project is most likely a digital design instead of architectural design that habe to take other factors in considerations.






Learning Outcomes

Summary on Precedents Study

The Fresh Hills and The Lunar Cubit are good example demonstrating how the architects respond well to the brief and site. From the proposals, it can be seen that the arhcitects have went through throughtful consideration not only its interesting appearance but how it would affect the user and landscape towards sustainablity. In Waste-to-Energy projects, the architects challenge the pre-conception of the user and this could be used as a reference on how to redirect people thinking from the way we design.

Intended Design Approach - Merge with the site and become part of the community - Energy generator with sculptural look but also pragmatic and func tional - Sustainable light-weight material construction - Evolving contemporary digital architectural

In the case of New Cultural Center and the National Library, the architects demonstrate the concept of digital morphegenesis, which a simple geometry could be develped and articulated into a complex and dynamic outcome which define the spatial quality and flexibility. Kilen Performing Art Center shows the computational approach by designers to create pattern and surface that aimed on performance and functionality as well as using of computational technologies to achieve the complex structural. HiDrone and The Yas Hotel show that the material and structures could be maximised and optimise form could be generated through generative design system.

Through readings and research, I start to understand what is parametric design about. In the past, I always curious how the architects the students generate these creative and interesting form. What make them design in this form and how they can develop and render in such a complicated geometries? Today, through the precedent studies accosiated with the readings and lectures, I start to understand different design process and the strstegies used in generating and form and how the mindset of the architects shift.

Design Process exploring

Traditional Process

Internal models


Generative Process

Internal models


Genetic Process

Internal models


External models External models External models

In terms of software learning, sometimes I find it hard to understand and follow but in the meantime,I find it motivating and exciting. I also found Grasshopper actually very useful in generating parametric models even though it is a bit complicated tools for me at the moment. It ables to generate, store and update the form by just a few clicks. There is always unpredictable outcomes generated during the experiment process. However, this would be a good method for me to explore possibilities design during design process.It might consume most of my time but I believe this is a new method to discover novel creative potentialities.


References: 1. LAGI Competition 2012, viewed 24 March 2014 2. Greg L., 1999. Animate Form, viewed 26 March 2014 3. Tony F., 2009. Design Futuring Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice, New York: Oxford International Publishers Ltd. 4. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, 2014. Theories of the Digital in Architecture, London: New York: Routledge 5. Kalay, Yehuda E.,2004. Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

6. Kolarevic, Branko, 2003. Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, New York; London: Spon Press

Image References: Image 1-4 Image 5-9 Image 10-14 Image 15-17 Image 18 Image 19-22 Image 23-25 Image 26-30 Image 31-32 Image 33-34 Image 35


: : : : : : : : : : : ing-ski-slope-incinerator/



Criteria Designn


Figure1 Map of Refshaleoen, Copenhagen, Denmark


Design Brief & Site Study

The design brief of LAGI Competition 2014 is to design a site specific public artwork that, in addition to its conceptual beauty has the ability to harness energy cleanly from nature and convert it into electricity for the utility grid of city,[1] which the site is located at Refshaleoen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Refshaleoen, the design site, is a manmade island located in Copenhagen’s island , which is rich in historical contect, now is a shipyard consists of 8000 employees. Today, it has become the icon of Danish industrial history and made up of mix of creative entrepreneurships, flea markets, small craft facilities, cultural and recreational venues. The city (The European Green Capital 2014) is moves towards carbon neutral status by 2025, the debate over the aesthetic manifestation and human interaction component of our new energy infrastructure is becoming increasingly important to the planning strategies required to attain zero-carbon sustainability goals.[2]

As mentioned in Part A, it is crucial not only redirect the way of design by designers but also succeed in redirecting the thinking of people and making the world realize importance of this new way of thinking towards sustainability. Historical background Refshaleoen, formerly an island in its own right but today been adjoined to island of Amager, is a former industrial site in the harbor of Copenhagen, Denmark. Back to history in 1624, there is block of house built on the island, together with Kastellet located north of city, aimed to guard the entrance into Copenhagen harbor. In 1871, B&W established a shipyard which today consists of 8000 people, which then become the icon of Danish Industrial history. Today, the site is often been treated as a venue for festivals and events.[3]

This competition provide a platform for not only designers but other professions to bring in creative and innovative ideas, concepts and suggestions that able to generate green energy while maintain its high aesthetical value integrated with the local environments.

1. “Design Guidelines,” Land Art Generator Initiative, last viewed 28 April 2014, 2. “Refshaleoen, Copenhagen,” Wikipedia, last viewed 30 April 2014,,_Copenhagen 3. “Life on Copenhagen,” VisitCopenhagen Official website, last viewed 28 April 2014,


Figure 2 Balloon man


D e s i g n

C o n c e p t

Meeting the design brief by designing an energy generator that not only able to capture energy from nature and convert into electricity, but also dynamic, relaxed and responsive skin structure as the approach to sculptural energy generator design. The design is aimed to increase and enhance the liveness of the site with rigid and industrial building surrounding, attract visitors to the site as gaining publicity for the city of Refshaleoen as well as enable to attract the attention of the architecture community. Skin structure with dynamic and adaptive behavior creating not only visual effect but also enable user to experience the spatial changes is one of the main intention for the success of the sculptural energy generator. This dynamic design could be achieved by using light, thin and flexible material as the skin connected to rigid skeleton frame structure by tension force associated with wind force acting on the surfaces. “Fundamental to this technological and material experimentation is that atypical buildings realized over the past decade or so – whether complexly shaped, complexly patterned, or behaving dynamically-are affecting in novel ways our perceptions of surface, form, and space through carefully crafted effects, explorations of inventive material organizations pursued across a wide range of scales. � [4] I truly believed it is going to be very interest ing and I am very looking forward in how the group is going to achieved the design idea by maximizing the potential of the responsive skin structure that became its formal aesthetics to create clean energy generator that stimulate and challenge the mind of the people.

4. Branko Kolarevic and Kevin R. Klinger, Manufacturing Material Effects: Rethinking Design and Making in Architecture (New York: Routledge, 2008) 34


Research Field

Architecture begins with geometry where it shapes all buildings, no matter how humble.[5] This element plays extremely important role in architecture.. From a single line till the pattern of the wall allocation, every single component are relating to the idea of geometries. Today, the advanced constructive reflections and conceptional characteristic leading to the founding of the architectural design can bring the architect to work with complex geometries.[6]

As mentioned previously, we would like to focus on the idea of creating dynamic geometrical form of sculptural energy generator emphasizing the spatial quality, at the same time, increase the aliveness of the site which surrounded by rigid, tall buildings. It could be foresee that there is high potentialities in exploring the geometries formed which able to stand out from the simple rigid geometrical form surrounding and eventually attract the attention of visitors even from the opposite land. Precedents provided are inspiring especially the Green Void LAVA in creating interesting geometries.


5. “Geometry and Architecture,” Architecture, last viewed 27 April 2014, ideasapproaches/a/geometry.htm 6. Cornelie Leopold and Andreas Matievits, “Journal for Geometry and Graphics Volume 5, No.2 (2001): 181-192 ( “Studies of Geometry Integrated in Architectural Projects” ) 7. “Green Void by LAVA,” Dezeen, last viewed 28 April 2014, http://www.dezeen com/2008/12/16/green-void-by-lava/


Figure 3

View of Green Void from ground level

Green Void Lava “We wanted to see how far we could take the idea of creating more space with less material, filling 3000 cubic meters, the equivalent of 8 million cola cans, with a minimal surface of 300 square meters weighting only 40 kg.”, emphasises Tobias Wallisser Director of LAVA Europe[7] This precedent explores the use of computation to generate minimal surface and membrane structures at different scales. This installation was derived from the nature which could be found in the nature of cells, soap bubbles and crystals. The final geometry is not explicitly designed, resulting the most efficient way to connect the different boundaries in 3D space. Digital tools and engineering techniques are extremely important in this case study as ac

curacy is needed in order to generate the single pieces that form the membrane. By using the latest digital fabrication technology, this parametric geometrical form was been realized in lightweight fabric, flexible material which follows the gravity forces, tension forces and growth. The lightness and elastic properties of the material form the membrane enables the designer to use minimal surface, based on the idea of “More with Less”, on the membrane, suspended over 5-storey height on stainless steel cables. How equal tension forces applied on the membrane and the relationship between the membrane and the frame could be explored as it not only leads to various possibilities in form generation and structure system that could be applied to the sculptural energy generator design but also enhancing the aesthetical value of the design. 36



Case Study 1.0




As our group design idea is to generate dynamic and responsive sculptural energy generator which will shift its form or appearance according to the wind force, the virtual model of the geometry of Green Void Lava is used for form study such as how geometries formed differently and also the structure and surface. The exploration in this case study exposed us with the application of Kangaroo plug in, which enable us to explore and play with the stiffness and the tensile strength. Basically, Kangaroo is an add-on live physics machine for Grasshopper and also functions as generative components whch embeds the physical behaviour directly in the digital 3D model and enable us to interact with it by observing how the simulation is running. It is very useful for various optimization, animation, structural analysis and more.[8]

Figure 4

Digital model of Green Void project

In this case study, the structure play a minor role in determining the form and the aesthetic performance. It depends on the behavior properties of the membrane material which could hardly be shown in digital model. In physical model, the elasticity and the flexibility of the membrane would affect the degree of curvature and also the overall aesthetic.

8. “Grasshopper Kangaroo,� Wiki, last viewed 29 April 2014,


There are different approaches in achieving the geometries of the GreenVoid Lava which are through the use of single geometry, exo-skeleton system as well as different curves. All these approaches were explored by either changing the slider value, adding or reducing the definition, or even total change the overall form.


As could be seen in matrix below, the variation of form by using exo-skeleton is relatively limited and and the forms generated could be predicted. In this exploration, what interested me the most is how these simple form could be further manipulated using Kangaroo Plug in in the next matrix.

Cubic Mesh II

Curve Loft

Radius : 8

Voronoi 2D

Pipe surface

Rail revolution

Cylinder + Cube II

Cubic Mesh III

Polar Array


Smooth mesh



It is very interesting to how the Kangaroo plug in which shift the rigid geometry to very smooth and dynamic geometrical form. Anchor point is one of the component of Kangaroo Physics engine. It could be used to fix the points in a certain location and they will not be moved no matter any forces applied to them. Matrix below shows ddifferent geometries formed by locating anchor point differently. As a whole, the outcomes is not successful as the form is rather awkward and also failed to achieve the spatial quality that we after. One of the reasons probably due to the initial slender geometry itself.


The matrix below shows the outcome of exploring the rest length with another type of geometry. The geometries formed is better compared to the matrix at the left. How different rest length affect the relaxation of the geometries and generate very organic form. Although the geometries formed look dynamic, the variations of the forms are relatively limited. This probably because of the lacking in constraint. For instance, the site context could be used as constraint where the geometry could be manipulated to fit the environment surrounding.



Spatial Quality Dynamic Form Dynamic Surface

Aesthetic Value

Selection Criterias Our rough idea of the sculpture is to focus on how the geometry of the sculptural form responds to the wind source of the site. Kangaroo plug-in could help in relaxing the rigid component of the original form, it enhances the spatial quality of the sculpture, thus creating a more dynamic pattern. Different spatial quality in response to the air pressure will allow different experience of wind speed into the sculpture. Besides, a non-rigid geometry with smooth edges will promote smooth wind flow within the body of the sculpture. In related to the flat rectangular surface of the site, the irregular sculpture would be outstanding on that site, which could attract the users.




Case Study 2.0


Reverse Engineer

Suggested by the histories and theories of spatial patterns design research, it is new technologies that are most significantly changing and centralizing the roles of patterns in the future of space and place design.[9] Today, in most of the designs, the paramount innovation is that either generate patterns technologically or using patterns as membranes, fields, sophisticated surfaces, structure system, emotive atmosphere and more.

Reverse Engineering is the process of discovering the technological principles of a device, object, or a system through the analysis of its structure, function, and operation.[10] Originally, reverse engineering was applied in the analysis of hardware for commercial purpose or military advantage. It usually involves the subject disassemble, evaluating its components and its behavior, workings in detail, in order to re-create the subject.

As in our design, the responsive behavior of the design is the focus and thus we thought it might be closely related to how the pattern of the membrane would adapt to certain factor. AU Office and Exhibition Space been chose as Case Study 2 and this project was aimed to investigate how these panels form interesting pattern on the façade.

Up to a certain level, this process implicates taking the subject that we might not understand completely in terms of technical at the initial stage, and coming to perceive completely how it has been functioned and been constructed. In another words, this process enables us to study the program’s structure and the logic behind its formation. “Generally speaking, the deeper you go as you wander into a program, the longer the code path between the input where you “start” and the place where you end up.”[11] It therefore leads to critical insights on how the program functions, which is extremely appropriate and useful in exploiting the software. The most robust benefit of this process is that we could manipulate the program’s structure which directly affect its logical flow. This could be seen in the following page on how we exploit the software and the challenge the definition and its structure using case study as reference.

9. Mark Garcia, “Prologue for a History, Theory and Future of Patterns of Architecture and Spatial Design,” Architecture Design, November/December, 2009, 8. 10. Eilam, Eldad and Chikofsky, Elliot J., Reversing: secrets of reverse engineering (John Wiley & Sons, 2007) 3. 11. “Chapter 3: Reverse Engineering and Program Understanding” : 71-145, last viewed 30 April 2014,



AU Office and Exhibition Space Shanghai, China

Archi Union Architects Inc

Figure 5

Design Concept

figure 6

Design Functions

Figure 7

Block Arrangement

This building consists of three identical warehouse spaces which enclose by external parametric wall. These parametric walls consists of hollow concrete blocks, angled to generate very interesting texture, which is to superimpose the contours and the definition of silk undulating in the w i n d . [12] T h e s e a n g l e d p a t t e r n i n g o f b l o c k s n o t o n l y a l l o w w i n d s f r o m v a r i ous direction to enter the buildings but also enable varying amounts of light. These parametric structures attract people by its free form and interesting geometries which align with our design ideas on the energy generator. However, the most interesting part is the designer stimulate the visual effect of the visitors with the creation of the dynamic, curved wall with contrasting rough, rigid and dull material, concrete. This reverse re-

12. “AU Office and Exhibition Space,� Archdaily, last viewed 25 April 2014,


R e v e r s e

E n g i n e e r

In our reverse engineering process, I think our progress went pretty well. This is one of the valuable lesson as it taught me that try and error is the best way to show what is wrong and what to do to improve and moving forward. In this case study, we start by analysing the design from large scale to detail scale and raising questions at each stage. The definition getting longer and sophisticated as we go into detail in order to achieve better outcome. “Generally speaking, the deeper you go as you wander into a program, the longer the code path between the input where you “start” and the place where you end up.”[13] As a result, we realize that although the outcome might look similar, but the approach is different from the original definition. However, how the pattern formed by vector can be one of the techniques to apply in the sculptural energy generator in generating interesting form, for instance the surface might create wave following the vector of the wind.

13. “Chapter 3: Reverse Engineering and Program Understanding” : 71-145, last viewed 30 April 2014,





Technique: Development

? The history of design can be read as a constantly changing process of exploring for new formmaking ideas, using whatever tools and intellectual concepts are at hand. New languages and styles of design require such exploratory play, especially at their early stages [14]

Based on our design idea, to create dynamic and responsive sculptural energy generator, we tried to alter the model digitally aiming to create dynamic flow. Our approach to achieve the outcome is by using different geometries, different pattern, vector and point attractor, and also kangaroo plug in to generate smooth and dynamic form. During the exploration, there might have times when things didn’t go well as expected, but these never stop us from moving forward instead provide courage to improve. As can be seen from the iterations, more and more complex composition formed. Some forms look relatively messy and may not be appropriate to be built in physical world. This may be because of our lack of knowledge in controlling the software and thus unable to fully utilize the tools to optimize the result.

14. Woodbury, Robert F., ed. by Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman,”How Designers Use Parameters,” Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge, 2014) 153–170.



The curve is manipulated while the rest kept as constraints to explore the shape in relationship with the rest structure and the effect on the relaxed surface



How panels been arranged is manipulated while the rest kept as constraints to explore its relationship with the rest structure and effect on the relaxed surface

Range Domain Start: 0.5 Domain End: 20

Random Seed : 50

Scale to Random Seed: 50

Dispatch Height a: 1 Height b: 3

Dispatch Height a: 1 Height b: 5

Range Domain Start: 0.5 Domain End: 20

Random Seed : 50

Scale to Random Seed: 50

Dispatch Height a: 1 Height b: 3

Dispatch Height a: 1 Height b: 5


Vector Factor

Vector is manipulated while the rest kept as constraints to explore the dynamic form and shape in relationship with the rest the structure and the effect on the relaxed surface


Rel a xa tion

Kangaroo plug in is manipulated while the rest kept as constraints to explore the degree of relaxation and its relationship with the rest structure and effect on the relaxed surface

rest length 10

rest length 10

rest length 30

rest length 30

rest length 50

rest length 50

rest length 80

rest length 80

rest length 100

rest length 100


Anchor Points

Anchor point is manipulated while the rest kept as constraints to explore the relationship of the fixed point with the rest the structure and the effect on the relaxed surface

long axis

short axis

anchor surface

4 edges

4 corners


all except 4 edges

4 edges + x-axis on surface

4 edges + diagonal on surface

4 edges

4 corners

R e - C o n s i d e r a t i o n Up to this stage, we start to realize that the method used in Case study 2 might not appropriate in our case as the systems applied are totally contrasting. In this case study, the hollow block (the panel) itself act as its whole structure and support its own weight while in our design case, skin and frame structure system would be more appropriate which allows flexible movements on the surface. As in the case study, the panel which is the structure are interlocked to each other by 3D panel and hardly move. It might looks dynamic but in fact, it is rigid in term of flexibility. Therefore, in the next development, instead of using 3D panel, we choose to take a step back and using case study 1 as reference, 2D panel was used and been further explored. Besides, throughout the exploration, we also find out the simple geometry fit our design idea the most as it able to generate the dynamic visual effect the best. On the other hand, complex geometry might shift the people focus besides hardly generate dynamic surface.




Technique: Prototypes

“Much like other design methods, the use of prototypes, precedents, and metaphors is intended to provide the designer with a starting point from which to develop the new design.”[15]

“Physical model is vital to understanding architecture, to anticipating the construction of a building or component.”[16]

From the quotes, it can be seen that how important it is the prototypes in architectural design. Throughout the prototyping process, it enables us to understand and review our own design in further level which hardly visualize just by the use of digital tools. Making prototype, we actually reviewing how the whole design works and what are the wrong and what could be improved in the future. Physical model not only test out the material effect and the function but also put the focus on how the structure been constructed in the real world. We continue the exploration based on case study 1: inspired by the dynamic form and flexible material which generate very organic form. However, we found out that case study 2 is different from what we after. In case study 2, the panel itself form the structure and required rigid and firmed material so to hold and support the whole structure. The panel on the façade generate visual effect of dynamic flow in fact they are all fixed and rigid. This is extremely contrast to our design focus which to generate dynamic and responsive model which theoretically require light and flexible material. Therefore, in the process of generating prototype, we shift our approach more alike to Case Study 1.

15. Kalay. E. Yehuda, “Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design,” (2004) 25. 16. Brady Peters, “Realising the architectural idea Computational Design at Herzog & de Meuron,” Architecture Design, November/December, 2009.


Materiality Nowadays, researches and designers are increasingly looking and searching for inspiration in nature in order to discover new materials and the new material behaviors, so that the design buildings could respond dynamically to changing environmental conditions.[17] Today, as we can see from architectural design examples, building materials play extremely important role which are used not only in building envelopes, as surface finishes but also structural systems and more for different effects and purposes. More importantly, the most common reason is been used to affect the perceptions and experience of the forms, surfaces, and spaces. Material effects are not just for visual effects but also experiential effects. In another words, materials and their certain properties helping designers creating multi-sensor architecture, where we not only visualize the material on surface, but also able to feel them probably by hear and touch them, which contribute to user’s comprehension and experience of spaces. As seen from Case study 1, new materials are offering dynamically changing properties, unparalleled thinness and functionally gradient compositions. They are not only generate new forms of architectural expression, and new means of conceptual and material production, increasingly advances in material science have radically affected architectural thinking. Using this project as our precedent, the frame at the end of connecting the membrane been adopted in our prototype experiment.

17. Branko Kolarevic, and Kevin R. Klinger. Manufacturing Material Effects: Rethinking Design and Making in Architecture. New York: Routledge, 2008.


Using Green Void LAVA as our precedent, the frame at the end of connecting the membrane been adopted in our prototype experiment. Different types of material were tested out to experiment their behavior properties and also the effects generated. In order to create the effects that we are looking for, we reduce the scope of materials to those which are light and flexible, such as fabric, paper, tracing paper, table cloth and more. The result are not as what we expected as instead of creating the wavy and echo effect, the whole fabric expanded outwards as a whole. This probably due to some reasons: the length of the prototype and the lightness of the materials. We thought that the main reason probably because of its larger weight and then, we shift to another lighter and thinner material which is the table cloth. The effect is slightly better compared to fabric which move waves were generated. Comparatively, thin plastic type table cloth provide sense of lightness and dynamic and also better visual effect and experienceHowever, the overall effect is quite similar to the fabric which is different from what we want to achieve. Instead of making tunnel as a whole using single piece of materials, we decide to experiment the idea by breaking the model into simple panels by paper. The result is fixed as all the panels are interlocked to each other and hence hardly generate wavy effect. Then, we decide to break the panels furhter into indivudal unit and experiment with different connection.



Connection Inspired by the research done by Islamic Art Department in the Louvre, Paris, by Mario Bellini and Rudy Ricciotti, we experimented and tested out with very simple panels 2D panels. As mentioned in the research, “Patterns of planar quads strongly reflect the curvature behaviour of a geometry surface and these may exhibit extraordinary points at undesired location, a strong variation in panel sizes and incompatibility with boundary conditions. A practical solution to meet imposed constraints can be achieved by hybrid meshes of triangles and planar quads since they offer more degree of freedom.”[18] Initially, we test out with panels using planar quads connected at four corners respectively. The result are much closer to what we want to achieve compared to previous prototype. Therefore, we decide to keep this technique which break the panels into individual unit and connect them with joint in the following prototype.

in term of the joint, at the beginnign stage, we are struglling with how to make the connection between individual panels that able to generate the effect that we are after. The first experiment is connecting them using fishline, which did not work out as expected. The fishline is flexible in longer span but not in a shorter lenght and thus it is very hard to control and fix the joint. Instead of fishline, we sew the panels using threads and it work out much better as it is very flexible and firmed enogh in shorter span, This lead to the idea that the joint is extremely important as well and it should be flexible but firmed enough and controllable to fit the panels in their position. The largest disadvantage of this method was that it take too long to generate just a small size of surface.

Compared to digital model, physical prototype enables us to analyse that model further to see how we could improve in on the next time. For the next model, we were try to imrpove the flexibility of movement which responsive to the wind forces. In order to improve the degree of flexibility of the surface, we again break the plaar quads into planar triangles and also experiment it with different connection. The result again improved much better as it became a fabric like properties which is thin and light but still flexible and dynamic.

18. Mark Garcia, “Geometry and New and Future Spatial Patterns 980,” Architecture Design, November/December, 2009, 60-65.



figure 8


Map of the design site

Technique Proposal

W i n d

S t u d y

As in our design, wind energy is one of the most important factors as it has been used as the energy resources and also the factor that directly infleunce our design aesthetic to create dynamic form that responsive to wind forces. The data and the direction of the wind on the site was been studied and been made into diagrams as shown below. The diagrams were made according to the wind velocity in different seasons across the year. As could be seen from the diagrams, most of the wind came from west and South-west direction.

figure 9

Diagram of Wind Velocity


Proposed Algorithmic Design Method

The form of the scuptural energy generator proposed to be form based on the data of the wind velocity been scripted into the Grasshopper definition associated with the relationships where the density of wind is inversely proportional to the radius of the tunnel. As the density of the wind increase, the radius of the tunnel decrease so that the users inside the tunnel will experience the pressure of the spatial quality symbolize the pressure of the wind forces. 67

Figure 9

Definiton of the digital prototype




Figure 10 Wind acting on model

Fi g ur e 1 1

Pr o p o s e d St r u c tural Framing

Perspective View 1

Figure 12 Plan View


Figure 13

Rendering of model to show architectural quality

The digital model was further explore using Kangaroo plug in to stimulate the effect of wind velocity acting on the model. As we move the slider which indicate the wind force, it can be observed the degree of relaxation of surface vary and move according to the force of the wind. The form was screenshot after the stimulation using Kangaroo to present a clearer image on the architectural qualities to be achived in the design.


P h ysi ca l Pr ototy p e Based on the prototypes before, there are few techniques and aspects that take into the design process. The model in the software space been unrolled in a logical way into planar surface and been sent for fabrication and later been assembled. However, the prototype result is out of expected as the scale of the model is too big. After second trial, the outcome is shown at the right page. We are successfully assembly the structure with the frame together with the panels. Sadly, the effect is still different from what we expected as the panels are interlocked to each other and form rigid and fix model. As a result, we fabricate again the panel and cut into individual single unit and joint them based on the best technique explored previously using tape. Although the prototype unable to achive what we after, the architecture qualities still can be observed, which is very useful for us in later exploration. This is what we could not been seen and tested in the model in digital space.



Proposed Materiality

Figure 14 Peratech’s Quantum Tunelling Composite (QTC) material

This material is a type of material that can be used to generate a range of smart switches and sensors. It was discovered and made in year 1996 by CTO David Lussey and the company’s founder which enable the material itself to sense both touch and pressure.[19] This material was made from a mixture of conductive particles and elastomeric binder. As it applied to fabric, it ables to create very simple on or off switches. The appearance of this material are dynamic and could be form in shapes. In addition, tt has been figured out and developed into both transparent or opaque version. Therefore, we propose this material could be used as the panels in our design model.


Energy System

Figure 15 Sketches of how the system work in our proposed design model

Figure 16 Principal of Piezoelectricity Mechanism

The world is full of vibrating surfaces that could yield a rich trove of clean, sustainable energy. it’s called piezoelectric energy, formed by the conversion of mechanical strain into electrical, a charge that is created when certain crystalline structures are subjected to stress or pressure. The device can be used to harvest energy from micro to macro scales, which form relatively small vibrations to many surfaces that are subjected to variable pressure such as highways and dance floors. The Bolton scientists have developed a way to weave piezoelectric capabilitt into a flexible structure that lends itself to a wider variety of uses.[20] In our proposal, we would incorporate piezoelectric devices at the anchor points of the tunnel. Even when there is no strong wind, the device still can produce energy when low-speed airflow over it and vibrate. Later, the vibration would be transferred along the string that connect every single panel to the device.

Figure 17 Piezoelectrical sensor

19. “Smart Dressing,� The Engineer, last viewed 2 May 2014,




Learning Outcomes

I n t e r i m P r e s e n t a t i on F eed b a ck

It is very glad that tutors and guest crit like the design ideas of creating dynamic and fluidity form enhancing the spatial quality and comprehend the experience of the users at the site. However, there are still much more things to be improved shown as below: 1. The design concepts could be more focus on what is the main experience that we want the users to visualise and experience. For instance, do we want the every single panels to be moved or do we want the whole panels moved as one? These questions should be answered very carefully and determined so that able to produce more focus design model. 2. The idea could still be explored and expanded further in term of experiences. We should not be fear to introduce varying experience effects and qualities in the design model to make the model more interesting.

3. The form of the design model is quite simplisitc as did not show the complexity and interaction between different elements and could be explored further not only based on the windrose data. We should reviewing the design, and figur out suggestion on how to make a design that is more ornamental. 4. The design is lacking of relationships with the site context. This is quite an important aspects in architectural design so that not only the model interactive with the users but theoretically engage deeply with the site context such as site history, culture and so on. Other groups did quite well in this area and I think we should refered how they generate idea through site analysis and applied in our design to generate better and more convincing outcome. 5. Test out and do experiment in real work on how it works and thus define the panel and structure which would create more convincing design model.

Learning Objectives Objective 7 Developing “the ability to make a case for proposals” As we doing the weekly task, we tend to complete the task by doing what requested without having a thought on it. Our design ideas and concepts came late only week before Easter Break. This is clearly reflected in the matrix that the initial argument is quite weak However, is glad to say that thanks to the teamwork, we were able to pull through with the idea and generate design as the best we could.

Objective 3 Developing “skills in various threedimensional media” Although I struggled a lot and find the software hard to use which take me long time to do it, I still glad that at least I learn by doing it and exposed myself to design model digitally and also digitally fabricated the physical prototypes. It Is very interesting and I believed this skill would help me a lot in the future especially in design studio in order to investigate scale, material effects, forms, construction assembly and so on.

Objective 2 Developing “an ability to generate a variety of design possibilities for a given situation” During the initial phase of doing the weekly task, I was lost and has no idea what I am trying to achieve and this happen to our group as all of us are new to this software. We tend to just doing what we think we need to do and do not have a clear understanding on it. As seen in matrix, we just play around with the definition at surface level and without a clear intention. The design intent is not clear and not shown in the matrix. This probably because we are lack of knowledge and understanding of grasshopper and its components and we find it hard to set the parameter as well as the constraints.

Objective 7 Develop foundational understandings of computational geometry, data structures and types of programming At the beginning stage of learning grasshopper, I found myself lost as I usually just follow what the video tutorial taught and do not really understand how the definition works. It was only during the reverse-engineer of the project forced me to understand definition and how they works in Grasshopper. Different from Rhino where we can just type in the command and the outcome would be produced directly, Grasshopper need a deep understand on how it actually works in order to work it out. 76

Figure References Figure 1 Figure 2,12.611653,17z/ data=!3m1!4b1!4m2!3m1!1s0x465252d7ea5f3e85:0xba30a56f755c8fd7

Figure 3

Figure 5

“AU Office and Exhibition Space,” Archdaily, last viewed 25 April 2014,

Figure 6

“AU Office and Exhibition Space,” Archdaily, last viewed 25 April 2014,

Figure 7

“AU Office and Exhibition Space,” Archdaily, last viewed 25 April 2014,

Figure 8,12.611653,17z/ data=!3m1!4b1!4m2!3m1!1s0x465252d7ea5f3e85:0xba30a56f755c8fd7

Figure 9

Figure 14

“Smart Dressing,” The Engineer, last viewed 2 May 2014,


References “Design Guidelines,” Land Art Generator Initiative, last viewed 28 April 2014, competition2014.html “Refshaleoen, Copenhagen,” Wikipedia, last viewed 30 April 2014, Refshale%C3%B8en,_Copenhagen “Life on Copenhagen,” VisitCopenhagen Official website, last viewed 28 April 2014, Branko Kolarevic, and Kevin R. Klinger. Manufacturing Material Effects: Rethinking Design and Making in Architecture. New York: Routledge, 2008. “Geometry and Architecture,” Architecture, last viewed 27 April 2014, http://architecture. Cornelie Leopold and Andreas Matievits, “Journal for Geometry and Graphics Volume 5, No.2 (2001): 181192 , “Green Void by LAVA,” Dezeen, last viewed 28 April 2014, http://www.dezeen com/2008/12/16/greenvoid-by-lava/ “Grasshopper Kangaroo,” Wiki, last viewed 29 April 2014, Kangaroo Mark Garcia, “Prologue for a History, Theory and Future of Patterns of Architecture and Spatial Design,” Architecture Design, November/December, 2009, 8. Eilam, Eldad and Chikofsky, Elliot J., Reversing: secrets of reverse engineering (John Wiley & Sons, 2007) 3. “Chapter 3: Reverse Engineering and Program Understanding” : 71-145, last viewed 30 April 2014, http:// “AU Office and Exhibition Space,” Archdaily, last viewed 25 April 2014, au-office-and-exhibition-space-archi-union-architects-inc/ Woodbury, Robert F., ed. by Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman,”How Designers Use Parameters,” Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge, 2014) 153–170. Kalay. E. Yehuda, “Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design,” (2004) 25. Brady Peters, “Realising the architectural idea Computational Design at Herzog & de Meuron,” Architecture Design, November/December, 2009. Mark Garcia, “Geometry and New and Future Spatial Patterns 980,” Architecture Design, November/December, 2009, 60-65. “Smart Dressing,” The Engineer, last viewed 2 May 2014,




Detailed Design



C.0 Re-investigate the Design Focus


Review Feedback




4 5 6 7


6 1 2

2 4






Proposed design model - Interim Presentation

Proposed design model - Final Presentation


Technique Development

During Interim Presentation, the proposed

model was generated based on the wind data and the main concept was to manipulate the form in creating spatial quality to the users walking inside the sculptural. However, the design outcome was being too literal with its simple form and lack of site context. For the next design proposal, instead of generate the form using algorithmic method, the team’s approach was generating form based on the site anlaysis on the design site. Various potential issues been analysed such as the potential circulation on the site, the level of exposure on the site, the wind velocity, and also the density of activities on the site. As a result, the combination of these analyse generate the form. It was later been pasted into the digital space and manipulated by rebuild it, pull and push enhancing the wind capture and also the inner spatial quality. However, for this approach, the team find it harder to further develop and play with the algorithmic design method. The potential in creating interesting generative form was minimised in this approach and also the form optimisation been failed to achieved. As the form is manually drawn, it is hardly for the team to imply the parameters and constraints on it. For this approach, instead of computerisation, digital tools were used as the computational tools in the design process.

Learning from previous approaches, for the final design proposal, the team tend to combine the two approaches by the use of site analysis and generate the form digitally. Using Case Study 1.0 (The Green Void LAVA) as precedent, curves was used to generate the form. The curves that studied and generate in the second approach been manipulate in digital space by using algorithmic method. Different from previous methods, this approach enable the team to explore and come out with more interesting form ,which hardly to produce it by hand drawing. Numbers of interesting forms been generated easily and quickly by few clicks. Besides, since it is a group project, it is very important how the team dividing the tasks so that work could be done in the most efficient way. This is one of the important techniques been learn in doing group work. For the first two design proposal, the team is always stuck on ideas, lost in what the team should do and hardly move on in design process. Instead of using divide and combine method, we tend to discuss and work out every single element as a group which eventually minimise the potential design ideas.As suggested by tutor, we decide to divide the tasks for every single members focusing on different aspects and combine these elements at the end. For instance, one focusing on panels, one of structural, one on energy and one on the joint. As a result, we find out that things work much better and more effiicient compared to the previous approach.


Further Exploration



Explore interesting

form which maximise the wind resistance


Explore and deter-

mine the potential panels maximise the energy generation


Explore how to con-

struct the sculptural in real world


Explore how energy

been generated with the moving panels


C .0.2


R ev i ew B ri ef

Site Specific Public Artwork Creative and Innovative Ideas Generate Green Energy

Figure 1

Map of the design site

Harness Energy From Nature Convert Into Electricity Maintain its High Aesthetical Value Stimulate Visitor’s Mind


Site Analysis

Wind Analysis


Potential Wind Velocity

Density of Activities on Design site at larger scale

Potential Spot with High Exposure

Potential Circulation

Site Analyse is one of the extremely important process in architectural design. This process is to enable the designer to understand the background of the design site and also the cultural background which may affect the design outcome in the later stage. It is very important for a designer to design a project which has a well relationship between the project and the site surrounding itself. As a preparation for the final design proposal, the site analyse was done and restudy to search for the potential opportunities.



C. 1 . De sign Co ncep t


Resp on s i v e S c ul pt u re

Visu al l y I nt e r a ct i ve Op t im is e W i n d I c o n i c L a n d ma rk

For the final proposal, the responsiveness and the dynamic movement of the flapping panels to wind introduces a sense of interaction through its motion and presence. Through the beautiful motion of the flapping panels, the whole sculpture provide a sense of liveness, creating elegant moving effect which able to draw the attention of the visitors to the site. In term of the design form, it has to optimise the wind resistance hit on the panel surface to maximise the energy generated, which to be stored and transformed into electrical energy and later supply to the households surrounding the site. Inspired by projects shown at the right, the facade panel reacts to wind condition and thus are in constant motion. The sculptural energy generator would be an installation with strong character stand on the site, easy to recognize and outstand itself from the boring, rigid industrial surrounding area. It could transform into an iconic landmark of Refshaleoen, Copenhagen. These interesting design ideas could be studied in the recent design project especially the kinetic and esponsive design model by Ned Kahn. His designs usually involves capturing an invisible aspect of nature such as wind and making it visible, which conceptually could be applied in our design model.

One of the examples is the Kinetic Artwork for Brisbane Airport where the building facades move in waves in response to wind. In this project, as viewed from the exterior, the exterior

1. “ UAP + Ned Kahn to create kinetic artwok for Brisbane Airports,� Achdaily, last viewed 6 June 2014, http://www.archdaily. com/69219/uap-ned-kahn-to-create-kinetic-artwork-for-brisbane-airport/exterior_courtesy-of-urban-art-projects/


Kinetic Artwork for Brisbane Airport By UAP + Ned Kahn

Figure 2 Perspective view on the ripple effect on the facade

facade of one side of the car park will generate apperance of ripple effectas the wind passing through the suspended aluminium panels.[1] The elevation view of the facade create a

direct interaction between the facade installation and its natural environment. As viewed from the interior space of the car park, these interesting movement creating patterns of light and shadows, projecting onto the walls and floors as sunlight passes through the facade. 96


Explore interesting

form which maximise the wind resistance

Air-foil form Maximise vertical surface Spatial Quality

Engaging Entrance

High optimise wind


Shipyard historical background

Form Generation

Inspired by the Case Study 1 where curves were used to generate geometry, for the finalform proposal, similar approach been applied in order to come out with dynamic and interesting form.

the curves. However, I realised that the graph effect might not been efficient as the curves as it is very easy to tangled in certain curves which generate failure in form generation.

Curves was generated and further developed based on the previous esign proposal (by the use of site analysis) and manipulate in digital space in order to create and achieve the architectural quality that we looking after. The groph was used in manipulating the final form generated from

After the form exploration, we start to take a step back and start to analyse the form generated by reasoning and rationalise them. The goodside of the forms was highlighted and been combined to generate the final form for the sculptural.


With the view and approach as the parameters, the idea of creating unplanar, dynamic

sculptural form, with the idea of “form in motion� is attractive and draw people attential to visit the site. In order to stimulate people eyes and minds, it is essential to create more interesting and unique form that able to detach itself and stand out from the site surroudning. Besides, the interesting unregular entrance at the end kind of welcoming people and attract them to enter the scultural in order to maximize the piezo flooring energy generation besides raising the publicity on the green energy and the idea of sustainability. The huge opening at the western end with the shipyard symbolose might draw people especially from the opposite land to visit the site. Also, through the shifting curve of the middle part, it makes the form looks more lively and the curved surfaces which also express the movement in the structure.

With the wind and light as parameters, the vertical surface been maximize which re-

duce the horizontal surface at the sametime in order to maximize the wind force hit on the panel surface. The surface of the form following the air foil so that to reduce the wind load acting on the structural of the sculptural. In addition, different height of th form adding the unplanar surface of the facade create interesting and uneven shadow , where the visitor could experience beautiful visual effect and having shade at the same time.

With the wind and energy optimisation, the height of the sculptural rise gradually as the exposure to the wind, wind frequency increase. The average height of the sculptural is more than 10m in order to maximise the wind passing through the surface.


Final Form Proposed


Location Plan:


Refshaleoen, Copenhagen

The form generated is placed into the design site in order to investigate and study the scale of the design model and the overall outcome on the site. It is very important to study especially how the human scale associate with the scale of the whole model as it will affect the overall spatial quality and experiential effects. By placing the model on the site, it rise the issue on how should it been sit on site to achieve the best result and also enable the designer to visualize how visitor view the design and experience on the site. In our final design proposal, the form is placed towards the western end of the design site near the entrance of the water taxi terminal. The primary reasons placing near the western end of the design site are to maximize the wind capture as the predominent wind is from South, South West, West and North, adding there are less blocking.It is also to maximize the view of the sculptural from the opposite land. The distance from the land entrance should not be too far as well so that visitors from both land and water taxi terminal able to enter the sculptural from short distance. Besides that, as the result from our explorations, we realized that wind can be unpredictable that it can come from different directions. The main wind directions at Refshaleoen as mentioned above should be fully utilised by manipulating the panels (which deflect the most) in order to maximise the energy generated. 102


Explore how to con-

struct the sculptural in real world


Panel Exploration Previosuly, the first prototype was using planar square and also triangular. Experiment was carried out with the prototype up to scale 1:10 to test the reality effect. The feedback during presentation was that the panels was too boring and not being explored. This tme, we test with different panels as inspired by the elements related to the site. The fish skin, square develop into different from, arrow foil, and so on. The potential panels were then been tested further in physical to test the efficiency of the panels.


Potential Prototypes Experiments Experiment 1

Constant Variable : The distance of Stalk attached to the Panels Wind Velocity Manipulate Variable : Panel Shapes Responding Variable : Panel Deflection

Experiment 2

Constant Variable : The distance of Stalk attached to the Panels Wind Velocity Manipulate Variable : Panel Sizes Responding Variable : Panel Deflection 105

Experiment 3

Constant Variable : Panel Materials Wind Velocity Manipulate Variable : The distance of Stalk attached to the Panels Responding Variable : Panel Deflection

Experiment 4

Constant Variable : The distance of Stalk attached to the Panels Wind Velocity Manipulate Variable : Panel Materials Responding Variable : Panel Deflection 106

E xperi ment 1: Pa nel Pro t o t y p e s S c a l e 1 :5

Prototype of the potential panels with scale 1 to 5 been carried out and tested. Initially, the panel was tested in individually in term of the level of dynamic and deflection associated with natural wind. However, due to the unpredictable wind properties, the experiment might be not accurately as there is different wind velocity at different period of time. The result might be inaccurate and might mislead us from the best panels. As a solution, the panels were all tested simultaneously at the same time and placed 107

at close distance in order to maximise the accuracy. The expriment was recorded and the time lapse images were taken within interval of 2seconds. From the experiment, it is quite obvious to see that the strip (where horizontal ratio larger than vertical; least vertical cross section connected to the column) work out the best. For the final panel proposal, rectangular strips were choose to maximise the visual effect and also the energy generation. 108

Experiment 2: Optimise, Refine Final Panels

As result from previous experiments, we concluded that rectangular strip panel work best in creating flapping effect compared to other panels. However, there is issue been raised throughout the experiment as the strip panels stay static when the wind blown in low speed. It flaps and deflects the most when the wind velocity is high. Therefore, with the same total surface area , we further divide the panel into smaller strips and tested it together with the larger strips to compare the outcome.


From the previous experiment, at the time, we test the experiment of both panels at the same time. As can be noticed from the time-lapse image, the smaller strip deflect most of the time but the angle of deflection is smaller compared to the larger panels which deflect in large angle when the wind speed is high. In order to optimise the effect and energy generated, we decided to implement these different size of rectangular strip in relationship with the wind velocity.


Experiment 3 :


Testing on the deflection of differ

rent lenght of piezo patch As after the experiment on different types of panel, we do think on the possibilities by maximising the energy generate by manipulate the piezo patch. Then, we decide to test on the level of deflection by different length of the piezo patch. During the experiment, the simiar materials been used in order to act as the control varioable. Front side and back side of the materials used so that it is much easier for us to differentiate. This experiment was actually not being too successful as the level deflection of both piezo patch with different length is hardly differentiate and compared. Only after longer period of time, we can start to see that the longer piezo patch deflect little bit more compared to the shorter piezo patch. As resultm we decided for the piezo patch to go with longer length but yet able resist the opposite force acting on it so that it will still able to support itself and the panels that been fized to it.


E xperi ment 4 : T es ti ng l e v e l o f p i e zo d e fl e c t i o n w it h d


d i f f e r ent ha rd nes s of m a te r i a l s For the materials of the panels, we decide to carry out the experiment aiming on the differential in material hardness. Initially, very hard and thick material (MDF board was tested. However, the weight of the materials were way much too heavy and could not be supported by single layer of the piezo patch. Thus, it come to small conclusion that in term of materiality, the panels itself must made of light materials that able to be supported by the single layer of patch but still enable to deflect the piezo associsated with the natural wind. Then, we decide to test with the reflective hard papercard and the soft glossy flyer quality paper. The experiment shown as the left images. It is noticeble that hard materials deflect the piezo patch the best which means generate the most energy compared to the softer materials. However, softer materials deflect itself the most creating most dynamic movement especially even in low wind condition and this has been taken into our consideration in material selection as well. As result, we come out with a conclusion that hard material suitable for the panels during high wind condition while softer material is suitble for the panels as in low wind contition.


Panel Diagram



Final Panel Proposal


Long Stalk Hard Aluminium Sheet Panel Surface

W 350 500

From the panel exploration and experiment, it comes to the finalise stage. The panel was refined aiming on maximising the level of efficienvy in deflecting the piezo-patch and still able to produce beautiful dynamic visual effect at the same period. As the frequency and velocity of wind increase, harder materials used with larger panel surface area. This is because hard material deflect the piezo-patch the best in the approriate wind velocity and maximise the energy generated. Similarly, as the wind frequency and velocity reduced, softer material with less surface area been used for the panels so that it able to react and move in low wind condition. The panels are mounted on tilted hinges so that when there is no wind they come to rest in angle. When there is wind, the metal panels sway like grasses in a breeze . the gentle movement of the aluminium panels and the way they reflectlight and colours from the sky and surrounding urban landscape gives the artwork a porous feel. 117


e Area



Long Stalk Hard Aluminium Sheet Panel Surface Area

250 500

500 150

Long Stalk Soft Aluminium Sheet Panel Surface Area 118


C. 2 . Te c tO NI C El em en t



Explore how to con-

struct the sculptural in real world

Structural Exploration From the previous design proposal, it is no doubt that how the structural support the design is extremely important. As proposed in the previous design model, prefabricated I-beam with huge angle curved and twisted is impossibleto be build in the real world. The giant, huge structural is not possible by just being supported by a number of prefabricated steel. Intermediate support is needed associated with the steel structure in order to supporr the whole structural. For the final proposal, different types of structures been explored which support the model in both horizontal and vertical direction. From the explorations, it can be seen that some looks fine but some are failure examples. Among the structures shown at the left, the strcutral system with the bracing (at the left bottom corner) was the most successul structural system in digital space. However, it come to consideration that it might be fragile in real world scale as it need to support the huge and tall sculptural. The structrual system shown at the right bottom corner with the primary and secondary structure might failed at that stage but the system work out the best to support the large scale of the design model. As a result, the structural system with primary and secondary structure was choose for the final proposal. Further development needed in creating successful structural system in both digital and real world.


Rib Structure

Single Structure with bracing in between

Waffle Frame

Primary and Secondary Structure


Top Figure 3 Walter Gropius Factory Left Figure 4 Museo Soumaya panels on structural system Right Figure 5 Museo Suomaya structural system at night


Final Structural Precedent Inspired by the Factory designed by Walter Gropius, the building was divided both horizontally and vertically into grid form b ythe use of floor slabs and thick columns. Curtain wall with slender steel frames were fitted into the space within the horizontal and vertical element creating a clean and neat structural finish with minimal structural surface. It is also similar to the idea of fitting the window frames into the opening where the structural surrounding the opening acts as the load bearing structures and the window frame was just to support the window itself. Similar in our design model, strcutrues create the opening and enable the beautifl moving panels to fit into the opening. Besides, another precedent that been studied is the Museo Soumaya that consists of free-style structure which made its unique facade a reality.[2] The building applied primary structure as well as secondary structure in order to support the huge and giant vertical surface of the building. Similar to the Walter Gropius Factory, the facade was divided into appropriate grid form and been braced between the structure.

2. “Museo Soumaya has a Secret, by Denise Allen Zwicker,� Geometrica, last viewed 7 June 2014, museo-soumaya-has-a-secret


Final Structural Proposed In the previous design proposal, the structural system was designed not only to support the sculptural energy generator but also maintaing the dynamic flow of the deisgn form with minimal structural volume. Taking this to the final proposal, the structural system was redesigned and refined in order to solve support system and the constructability issue. It is necessary for the structural system not only to carry the load itself and also able to resist the wind load applied on it. As mentioned previously, the model was divided into grid and primary structures were located in an appropriate scale supporting the whole structures. Intermediate structures (bracings) were placed between the grid so that the structures would not deflect and remained in its position. These intermediate structures also help to support and distribute the load transfer to the primary structures. Columns were placed vertically and fitted within the grid, connecting the primary strcutures above and below. In this case, the slender columns would not deflect as they are not the load-bearing strctures and do not carry the structure load. Panels will later been fit to the columns and move freely in its own responding to the wind passing across.


Divide Surface


Interpolate curves


Interpolate curves


ExtractPipedCurve 125





Primary Structure


Secondary Structure


On Site Core Construction Diagram

Pile Footing

Pile footing was choosen as the footing system due to the high structural point load (column structures) as well as the poor soil properties (aslocated nearto the sea with high level of moisture).


Concrete Floor Slab

Concrete floor slab was then poured on the sculptural floor surface area aimed on levelling the surface as preparation for the installation of the Piezo flooring panel. Smooth surface is prefered in order to maximise the compression force generated.

Primary Steel Structure

Primary Steel Structure erected follow cally, the steel structures were broke i socket connection to jointed the steel trues and socket joint were prefabric and constructed on site by using cra height of the sculptural.

Secondary Steel Structure

wed by the secondary Structures. Basiinto parts and been connected using ls as a whole system. All the steel strcucated in factory and been delivered ane due to the high weight and the

Piezoelectric flooring panel installation Piezoflooring was installed as the floor finish so that again boost the energy generated while people walking through the sculptural.

Flapping panels for piezoelectric generation Panels now will installed fixed to the secondary structures and now, the sculptural is ready to welcome people and generate energy .


Joinery Details

Connection system between panel-piezocolumn The panel was fixed to the piezo patch by hinge connection. The joint has to be fix joint so that the flapping panels able to deflect the piezo patch simultaneously, The patch was then clamped to the column and the cables were then been continued and connected to the lower member and then the energy storage at the bottom part of the structural below ground.

Connection between column to primary steel structures There is high number of column installed in the sculptural. Instead of connecting the column using bolt joint, dowel joint provided along at both end of the column so that minimising the structural elements at the same time quicken the installation. 129

Connection between primary steel structures Instead of supporting the structures with slender, long steel, the structure was break down into parts and been connected to each other by the connection joint (the socket). By breaking down the structures into parts, structure bending ordeflection could be avoided and also increase the strength of the whole structural system as the elements are all interlock to each other. Force are then more evenly distributed among the structural elements.

Connection between primary steel structures to slab and footing As for the bottom part of the structures, primary structures were connected to the floor slab by bolting to the slab. The load was then transfered from the structures to the slab and then to the pile footing.


Structural Exploration Prototype


“The link between architectural representation and the physicality of its constructions has an undeniable influence on architects and students.” [3] “The idea is that having an object, albeit small, constructed impeccably is a tangible argument for defending a reality that has not yet come to be.” [4] As can be seen from phrases above, one can tell that it is extremely importance of having prototype on how the model could be constructed in real. As today, nothing is almost impossible to be build in digital space. However, as an architect, in order to produce design outcome that is convincingly argued and well resolved, it is essential to search for the realisation of digital model. Problems would arise while modelling which may determined and change the design outcome, help to optimise, and refined the final design model. As can be seen from this prototype at the left, it failed to achieve the expectation of being a rigid and firm supportive system as shown in the digital space (at the right). During the process, it actually helps me to further explore and improve the system.

3. Ethel Baraona Pohl, “From line to hyperreality”, (Barcelona, 2012), last viewed 7 June 2014, 4. Ethel Baraona Pohl, “From line to hyperreality”, (Barcelona, 2012), last viewed 7 June 2014,


Joinery Prototypes Scale 1:5 In order to create moving panels but yet fixed to the column, how it actually connected and jointed need be studied, tested and fully understood. For the first joinery proposal, a pully with fixed joint was welded to the primary steel structure and the cable (with a degree of flexibility) connecting the joints clamped on the individual panels. Initially, the joint was located at the middle of the panels so that the panels could be flapped in both top and bottom. However, things do not happen as what we imagined as the joint unable to achieved what we after as the cable may swing and rotate . Then we move the joint up to the top so that the panel would hanged on the cable (like the hanging clothes) and the joint was doubled in single panel to increase the strength of joint and also to balance the panel so that it would only flap in one direction. As could be seen in digital space, the joints look real and we thought it could surely work in the real work. The joints were then been simplified and fabricate in order to test it out in real world. As can be seen from the prototype, the result was not pleasant and the system does not work as expected. The fishing lines sway downwards which implicated that it is not going to work in the design model which is in much larger scale. Although the prototype failed to achieve what the team after, it enables us to learn the mistakes and improve the system later on.



Materiality In previoud prototype, different materials with different material properies been tested and experimented to examine the quality and effect. From the exploration, we find out that material did play an extremely important part in designing as it might help us to achieve and fulfill our design intent. Different materials creating different effects and it should be tested physically as sometimes what we thought of the properties might not be worked with the circumstances. Learning from the previous failure prototype, the reason of failure probably due to the type of materials as well. For the final deisgn proposal, the materiality was carefully considered and different materials been tested so to optimise the result optained. After the experiment, we decided to go with the aluminium sheet due to its slightly bendable properties and also level of hardness which deflect the piezo patch. Besides, aluminium sheet has number of advantages as it can reflect the sky and surrounding on its surface which act as visual interact with the users and its natural surroudning. It is not only fulfill the pragmatic aspect but also consists of high aesthetical value.


For the panel, different materials been tested in order to come out with the best material propoerties that able to deflect the piezo the best, at the same time still be able to achieve the design architectural quality that we looking after. Experiment 1: Initially, we test with really hard material- MDF board. Material properties: Hard, Non-elastic, Non bendable Efficient when high wind: 0 Efficiency when low wind: 0 Aesthethical value: 2 The experiment failed as the material is too hard and too heavy. However, we still test it by clamped it to column. The result was bad as it was not being able to move due to the fixed rigid at the end adding its rigid body propoeties. Experiment 2: Then, we tested with hard reflective card paper (to simulate aluminium sheet) Material Properties: Medium Hard, Bendable Efficient when high wind: Efficiency when low wind: Aesthethical value:

9 5 7

The result is quite happy as it deflects the most when wind is strong, at the same time it also would bendd slightly if the wind is not too strong. Overall, able to optimise deflection effect on piezo when wind exist while generate beautiful movement. Experiment 3: Lastly, we carried experiment using soft glossy flyer quality paper Material Properies: Soft, Elastic, Highly Bendable Efficient when high wind: Efficiency when low wind: Aesthethical value:

3 4 8

The material might be quite soft to deflect the piezo compared to the previous one. As when wind too strong, just the panel would flip but not the piezo. However, it still able to move and deflect slightly in low wind condition while generate very dynamic fluid and very beautiful movement. 136

Final Proposed Joinery Model

Connection Steel-Steel The final proposed model for the primary connection with scale was being prefabricated and assemblied. The component has to be build and connect to right angle in order to fit the steel structure nicely to it. Initially, the structures are hardly assembly as awhole as there is no a main support system. The models have to be assembly by two people in order for the models to stand up nicely and hold up each other perfectly as the forces are now evenly distributed and interlock with each other.


Connection Panel-Patch The final proposed model with scale 1:5 was been assemblied and tested. The clamp was prefabricated using MDF board while the panel and patch was produced using card cutter. The result is quite exciting and it looks rather similar to the model in the digital space.



C.3. Final Model


Final Model Representation The need for representation techniques that create a context for the viewer, transmitting and communicating the dreams, ideas, and projects has a long history, This long-history representation techniques has guided artists, designers as well as architects to researching the best ways to deliver and communicate their innermost thoughts to other people. Today, by comparing the work of the “paper architects” to the recent technology of augmented reality, it can be seen how the representation techniques have been evolved from the past, especially in these recent years, which the digital tools becoming almost an extension of our daily system. “Representation can actually allow one to work on things that one may not yet know how to describe spatially or architecturally.” [5] Not only representation in term of drawings and collages, physical model by means of scale models is extremely important. This is to test the constructability of the model in real world with the right scale and also enable audience to use as a tool to understand the concepts such as the geometry and the complexity. By building the scale models, it also helps the designers to identify the issue, problems or even opportunities in generating convincing and well argued design outcomes.

5. Ethel Baraona Pohl, “From line to hyperreality”, (Barcelona, 2012), last viewed 7 June 2014,


Figure 6 : Site Model Scale 1:2000















Final Presentation Model

therefore, the physical model unable to present the performative aspect -also due to time constraint, weunable to generate the 3D print model -due to the limitation of the technology as the limited material thickness , very different from what visualised digitally. -the ratio has to be in 1:4 and thus create close gap -different -and also

Figure 7 : Physical Model Scale 1: 250


During the final presentation, the final model commented as failed to convey the design intent, in generating dynamic skin facade. The panels are not to scale and hence, failed to deliver the overall experience. This would actually mislead the audience in what the team trying to achieve and creating confusion between the spatial experience and the architectural quality of the design model. Besides, the connection shown in the models is different from what the final proposed connection.


the final developed design model, the file was sent originally to be 3D printed due to its complexity of the unplanar, curvy form. However, due to the time constraints, unfortunately we were only able to produce it digitally. However, there are some issues been arised and learnt during the file sending process in order to prefabricate in 3D printing. Some of the issue is the limitation of the machine which the model has to be produced with minimum 2mm thick with 1:4 ratio to height in maximum 170 x 170mm. After the file modification, we realised that the structural form was totally differen from what we want as the gap between structural is too close due to the scale-up dimensions. This shows that in future, the physical model is still needed for form study at different stages uditng the design process in order to ensure an accurate outcome in the actual form.


Final Proposed Section Model

This is the section model with scale 1:5 of the final proposed design model. The model was brought outside in order for the experiment to been carrie dout in the natural wind condition. We are quite happy with the result as the panel flap and move beautifully and did actually achieve the result that we expected. 147


Final Model




East Elevation


North Elevation

West Elevation

South Elevation




C.4. Additional LAGI Brief Requirements


Energ y S y s tem : P i e z o e l e c t r i c E f f e c t

Wind Energy


Due to its very windy climate on the design site, wind was chose as the p the traditional wind power generator, namely, that using a large rotation which has been introduced and widely used recently- piezoelectric syste the energy from wind induced vibration instead of wind driven rotation.

Considering of the unpredictable wind strength, the flexible and robust sential component of the system.[6] Basically, design is to clamp one ed connected to the leaf (the panels). When the wind across the system, drive the piezo-leaf to bend in the downstream of the air wake. The AC s cal energy in a capacitor.

The advantage of this system is the significant energy performance, low as broad response band to wind speeds and directions.[7]

Piezo-Flooring 6. Shu-guang Li, Hod Lipson, and Francis C.Moon, “Flapping Piezo-Leaf Generator for Wind Energy Harvesting�, last viewed 7 June 2014,



Explore how energy

been generated with the moving panels

Electrical Energy

c Energy

primary energy resources to generate electrical energy. Instead of using nal turbine to harvest energy from the air, new technology been choose em. The central idea of this system is that the flapping leaf-piezo harvest .

t piezoelectric materials, Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) used as the esdge of the PVDF element to the fixed column and leave the other edge it will lead the aero-instability and the periodic pressure difference will signal been collected from the flapping piezo-leaf, and store the electri-

w cost, low-maintenance, scalable construction, easy installation, as well

Piezo-Panel 7. Li S., Lipson H., “ Vertical-Stalk Flapping-Leaf Generator For Parallel Wind Energy Harvesting�, Proceedings of the ASME/AIAA 2009 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems, 2009.


E ner gy Cal cul a ti on

Figure 8 : Annual Energy Consumption per households in Copenhagen

Annual Electrical Energy Consumption in Copenhagen

x 1


Average wind Speed at Copenhagen = 12 m/s 159

1.340 kWh


0.50m x 0.50m = 0.25m2

x x


1 72 x 106

= =

1.75 x 107 m2 72 x 106 panel

produce 296 x 10-6 W at 8 m/s 4.44 x 10-4 W at 12 m/s 1.5984 W in one hour 38 W in one day 14, 000 W in one year produce 1.0 x 109 kWh in one year


able to supply

x 7x106 per year


C.5. Learning Objectives and Outcomes



he main purpose of this proposal is to design a parametric sculptural energy generator that would be able to attract the media and people attention and therefore helps in raising publicity not only of the city for this unique and innovative design but also redirect people thinking on the idea of sustainability that it could be something beautifulas well. The sculptural energy generator not onng oly able to generate electrical energy to the households with clean energy but also serve as an visual icon of the city, Refshaleoen. The project mainly explore the using of parametric design, as in complex curved formed are generated to express the idea and stimulate people mindset. During the final presentation, negative feedback received as in the form, the structural, and the panels are not fully explored and remain unresolved and prototypes shown are failure examples. This probably due to the poor time management of the team and also uneven workload during the design process. We always assuming everything is okay without having deep thought on the rational reason behind. Come to the end, I realise that even distribution of workload and similar effort among teamwork is extremely important in a group project as well as good communication and time-management. Up to this stage, studio air has really opened my eyes and exposed me to what architecture could be. It is not only about the creative and innovative idea but also the innovative effort that we can progress in our design techniques and skills. Throughout this project,even though I feel discouraged at times when not being able to form an innovative ideas, it has enriched and exposed me to the understanding as well as the idea, techniques and skills applied through the different projects searched to draw ideas from. This project has also made me design things differently not only hand drawing but the use of parametric tools which allows us to come out with more interesting and complex forms. As the final model, I realised that it is very important for it to deliver the messgae well to the audience. As a whole, I still very enjoy the course and I feel that the project has challenged myself to be more innovative, to think differently and keep up with the computational tools that would help me to progress and develop as a designer.


Figure References Figure 1,12.611653,17z/ data=!3m1!4b1!4m2!3m1!1s0x465252d7ea5f3e85:0xba30a56f755c8fd7

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 4 & 5

References “ UAP + Ned Kahn to create kinetic artwok for Brisbane Airports,” Achdaily, last viewed 6 June 2014, courtesy-of-urban-art-projects/ “Museo Soumaya has a Secret, by Denise Allen Zwicker,” Geometrica, last viewed 7 June 2014, http:// Ethel Baraona Pohl, “From line to hyperreality”, (Barcelona, 2012), last viewed 7 June 2014, http://www. Shu-guang Li, Hod Lipson, and Francis C.Moon, “Flapping Piezo-Leaf Generator for Wind Energy Harvesting”, last viewed 7 June 2014, Li S., Lipson H., “ Vertical-Stalk Flapping-Leaf Generator For Parallel Wind Energy Harvesting”, Proceedings of the ASME/AIAA 2009 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems, 2009.


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