Page 1

LANDSCAPE PORTFOLIO LI AIJING JANE BA(LS) HKU ‘18


2

SELF-ORGANIZING METROPOLITAN FALLOW

p. 4-8

COMMONGROUND: REVITALIZING AGING COMMUNITY

p. 9-13

LIVABLE STREET IN THE OVERCROWDED CITY

p. 14-15

CONVIVAL OBJECTS

p. 16-18

TRACING THE LIGHT AND WATER

p. 19

DEVELOPMENT DETOUR

p. 20- 28

RESEARCHES

p. 29- 30

ARTWORKS

p. 31


3


SELF-ORGANIZING METROPOLITAN FALLOW GROUND

NATURAL PROCESSES wetland 1.

wetland

Instructor: Lin Yifeng | HKU 2017 Fall

years without mega flood, wetland evolved into woods

woods 2017 2009 2009

2004

7 years after expo 2010, the expo park at the heart of metropolis Shanghai, an area of 7 km2 still remains largely vacant and idle after the demolish of the temporary exhibition pavilions. This is an difficult ground marked by decades of heavy industries and its toxic pollution remnants, a few active architecture and sporadic poor temporary community of construction workers isolated in an ocean of abandoned fallow land and an urban climate with intolerable heat and droughts in summer.

2.

riparian

soften riverbank

+

2017

block polluted river ot

nt l

aca

v into

3.

meadow

spontaneous succession on demolished sites

planting community balance breaker: Solidago decurrens

4.

grove

remanant soils beds from expo support tree growth 5.

planting beds

discrete canopies and drought area

Without economic or political incentives to sponsor for major transformation, the site cranes for innovative redevelopment strategy which can dramatically change its overall spatial quality in a more sustainable way. I found my solution in the the spontaneous ruderal plants establishing themselves in the impoverished conditions on site. The design will test out a regeneration plan driven by urban ecologies, a new town growing with and enpowered by the improvished group and nature rather than upon their debris.

ACTIVITIES 1. mapping of activities

CATEGORIZE

2.SUBDIVISIONS

3.ACTIVITIES

1.1 mega landscape

2.1 mega landscape

3.1 mega landscape

weekends activities 2. & transportation tunnel passage bus subway frequently used

tourist running concert photograph camping fish/ insect hunt resting

artificial stream and pond planting bed 1.2 mega openspace

spontaneous grove spontaneous meadow

manmade wetland remanant raparian habitat

weekday activities 3. & connection to residential area

3.

fishing

3.2 mega space

2.2 mega openspace

4.

concert family picnic running

camping fish/bu

tterfly

soccer soccer training (kids)

in use

1.3 mega structure

not in use

plaza renewed program 2.3 mega structure

fishing catching

picnic

strolling shoreward wind

vacant lot parking lot covered space

5. profitable activities

mega sports centre concert

3.3 mega structure football field

concert resting dining napping exhibition photograph

6. lack of affordable daily recreation

5.

private P.E.

4

commercial factory

exhibition no program change

5.


INITIAL

existing

PHASE 1

PHASE 2

patch source

spreader

SELF-EVOLVING

editing nodes 0

100 200

500

1000

EXISTING SITE SECTION

5


5 4

3

1

2 6 1 7

8

0

6

100

200

500

1 sheep lawn 2 mowed path 3 paved path 4 subway exit 5 mall 6 SOEs commercial area 7 new commercial area 8 residential area


assigned herbaceous palette self-evolving mosaic woods & shurb

1_INITIAL STAGE MEASURES

3_FIVE YEARS LATER MEASURES

uncover hard surface and allow the vegetation to spread; seedling at the 6 gardens as agitators1;

1

ongoing construction at nearby blocks. developed vegetation trimmed and edited while newly uncovered surface expland freely;

3

2

invite construction workers and gatekeepers to start urban farming at the moisture garden to alter the soil condition2.

as the main construction activities finished, the farming sites turn into moisture gardens1;

1

concentrated maintainance(selective addition & removal at the gardens, mowing out pathes2 and ground for temporary events)

2

ACTIVITIES urban farming; night stroll site for the workers.

2_ONE-TWO YEAR LATER MEASURES

4_TEN YEARS LATER MEASURES full completetion of the area construction;

constructions at surrounding: finish main corridors1;

4

2

1

3

concentrated maintainance(selective addition & removal at the gardens, mowing out pathes2 and ground for temporary events).

concentrated maintainance(selective addition & removal at the gardens, mowing out pathes1 and ground for temporary events2).

2 1

ACTIVITIES

ACTIVITIES

urban farming3;

the park becomes a desitination and daily company for the offices and neiborhood.

night stroll site for the workers; raise 2-3 sheep at the open field assigned for weekends sports4.

0

100

200

500

1000

ecological source for other urban wilderness parks.

7


8


9


10


COMMONGROUND: REVITALIZING AGING COMMUNITY Instructor: Bin Jiang | HKU 2017 Spring

HAMMER HILL PARK

LION ROCK MOUNTAIN VEW “As long as I still have the ability to move, I go exercise in Hammer Hill Road Sports Ground every afternoon and go to Ngau Chi Wan Market for shopping and sociailizing as goods there are so much cheaper than in the estate and it is nice to chitchat with others in Tai Pai Dong. I go to community service center to meausure blood sugar level every Tuesday. Medical service is very important in this estate” -old female resident of Hung Ngok House

NAN LIAN GARDEN (600m, 10mins)

x footbridge (stairs)

“I live in Ping Shek Estate. I took my son to the kindergarten interview here today. But we don’t come to this place before. I usually take him to Ping Shek Playground. It is large and has a lot things to play with.” mid-age female visitor

HAMMER HILL SPORTS GROUND

“I live in Tseung Kwan O. I came here every weekends to visit my friend. I usually sit here to wait for her. But we won’t stay long here. It is too windy. The wind carries sand and sometimes even rubbish all around. I would prefer to spend time in malls with her.” -female mid-age visitor

HAMMER HILL MOUNTAIN VEW

BUS& MINIBUS

MTR EXIT

NGAU CHI WAN MARKET

MTR STATION Tseung Kwan O

x

subway(srairs) & too far

public space visitors in residents out

x

PING SHEK ESTATE

difficulties for elderlies

PING SHEK PLAYGROUND (1km, 15mins)

0

0

0

10

20

50

100

0

100

200

100

500

200

10

500

20

11


Choi Hung Estate is a famed public housing project complete in 1960s. 70 years later, the main user group of its public space, residents aged 75 and above constitutes more than 25% of its population, are suffering from original functionalism space that is unfriendly to aged people, as well as abrupt disconnection with nature.

COMMUAL

PRIVATE

INTO SHELTERED

DECKING FOR

COMMUAL ACTIVITIES

BAY

SOCIALIZING

HUB

BACK GARDEN

PUBLIC

SEMI- PUBLIC

NO EXSITING ON SITE QUIET NOISY

public

semi-public

commual

private

noisy

quiet

LOOKOUT+

TRANSFORM

FREE-RUNNINDECKING

SHOPS

BY PLANTS AND SOLID

FOR

This project firsted analysed formal and informal use of public space, Popular covered space under buildings is identified. Based on the space typology, a garden is created and shared by multiple groups aged from 0 to 95.

open& soften edge program& landscaping attraction

GROUND FLOOR

1ST FLOOR quiet garden

toliet

commual activities area

community committee

tea & movies social area

+1.2 m

water jitter sandpit

morning exercise area

workshop sandpit

outdoor activities centre (extension of kindergarten)

facilities house kindergarten

educational rooftop garden

morning-tea resteraunt

INDOOR PROGRAMS TARGET GROUPS ELDERLIES KIDS RESIDENTS ALL (RESIDENTS + VISITORS)

12

OUTDOOR MIXED-USE SPACE FOR RESIDENTS ALL (RESIDENTS + VISITORS)


A

B

a

b

perspective 0

10

20

50

N

13


0

10

20

50

tolerant wind pollut- shade Chloris barbata Bauhinia Ă— blakeana

Melastoma malabathricum Rhaphiolepis indica

Gardenia jasminoides

Ficus microcarpa

14

Chrysopogon aciculatus Dactyloctenum aegyptium

Cinnamomum burmannii

Eragrostis amabilis

Cardamine flexuosa

Phanera variegata

Lespedeza formosa

Capsella bursa-pastoris Stellaria alsine Grimm. Portulaca oleracea

Dalbergia benthamii

Litsea rotundifolia

Mimosa pudica

Psychotria asiatica Ardisia crenata

preserve existing trees principle: control grading change near root within

Gordonia axillaris

Ilex asprella

Oxalis corniculata

Bryophyllum pinnatum

Machilus breviflora Rhynchlytrum repens

Solidago decurrens

Tabebuia chrysantha


0

10

20

50

tolerant wind pollut- shade Chloris barbata Bauhinia Ă— blakeana

Melastoma malabathricum Rhaphiolepis indica

Gardenia jasminoides

Ficus microcarpa

Chrysopogon aciculatus Dactyloctenum aegyptium

Cinnamomum burmannii

Eragrostis amabilis

Cardamine flexuosa

Phanera variegata

Lespedeza formosa

Capsella bursa-pastoris Stellaria alsine Grimm. Portulaca oleracea

Dalbergia benthamii

Litsea rotundifolia

Mimosa pudica

Psychotria asiatica Ardisia crenata

PRE-EXSITING TREES PLANTING SCHEME preserve existing trees principle: control grading change near root within

Gordonia axillaris

Ilex asprella

Oxalis corniculata

Bryophyllum pinnatum

Machilus breviflora Rhynchlytrum repens

Solidago decurrens

Tabebuia chrysantha

15


LIVABLE STREET IN THE OVERCROWDED CITY Instructor: Matthew Pryor& Gavin Coates | HKU 2016 Fall Queen’s Road East is a historic bustling street full of residents, commuters, tourists and shopkeepers (most run furniture and eatery business). Given such high-density condition, the project explores shared street design and innovative urban greening that balance current conflicting usage and creates a much more livable streetscape.

A

B HIGH-RISE RESIDENCE

COMMERCIAL

EVA

COMMERCIAL (OFFICE TOWER) FLEXIBLE DEFINITIVE

a COMMERCIAL (OFFICE TOWER)

b COMMERCIAL (OFFICE TOWER)

N

1950-60s OLD CHINESE STYLE RESIDENCE 0 1 2

5

10

OTHER BUILDING TYPES

COMUAL/REST ZONE DAILY VEHIVLES COMMUTERS/ PERDESTRI-

16


17


CONVIVAL OBJECTS Instructor: Bin Jiang& Natalia Echeverri| HKU 2017 Spring Group member: Li Aijing& Lee Yingchik

MAIN USERS MINOR USERS SHORTER LONGER 7:00-9:00 STUDENTS& CARETAKERS OTHER

18:00-20:00 RESIDENTS OTHER

EARLIER LATER afterschool we go to Mcdownald to chill I want somewhere to sit and rest where can I have fun at night where can I go before the movie

15:00-17:00 STUDENTS& CARETAKERS OTHER

18

22:00-24:00 FRUIT TRUCK DRIVERS OTHER


The site is at the boundary of Yau Mat Tei Fruit market. The dynamic landscape is often seen as chaotic and undesired by city managers. The design tries to discover the everyday logics behind various flows of groups on-site and absorb the energy to create more humane and continent public space.

b

site 1 830mm 360mm 1100mm

ACTIVITIES ANTICIPATION

BEFORE

INTERVENTION SECTION 1:25

b

B

AFTER PLAN 1:50 SHADED ALL YEAR

7AM - 10AM

PLAN 1:50

B

b STREET SECTIONS 1:100

B

A

site 2

3PM-5PM

6PM-8PM

10PM-12AM

GATHERING 6 - 8 HRS

DURATION

SITTING WAITING 10 - 20 MINS

GARDENING > 1 HR

READING 10 - 30 MINS

SITTING & EATING 10 - 30 MINS

SITTING 3 - 10 MINS EATING 10 - 20 MINS

ORIGINAL ACTIVITY

GATHERING 6 - 8 HRS

STANDING LEANING WAITING 10 STANDING & EATING 10 MINS - 20 MINS

PLAN 1:50 WITH SHADE IN 3:30 PM LATE JUNE

READING 10 MINS

a BEFORE

SITTING 3 - 5 MINS

AFTER 3:20PM

EATING 10 MINS

INTERVENTION SECTION 1:25

1100m

550mm

a

A

a

A

STREET SECTIONS 1:100

19

c

site 3

BEFORE

INTERVENTION SECTION 1:25


1100m

INTERVENTION SECTION 1:25

550mm

a

A

a

A

STREET SECTIONS 1:100

c BEFORE

site 3

INTERVENTION SECTION 1:25

C

c

460mm PLANTING AFTER 10:00AM

REST FOR ELDERLY

C

c

4:00PM

C 1100mm 1020mm

560mm

PLAN 1:50 WITH SHADE IN 11:30AM LATE JUNE

116mm

C

c

D

1020mm

STREET SECTIONS 1:100

d 1:00PM

site 4 150mm 560mm f

F

650mm

650mm

560mm

110mm

3:40PM

INTERVENTION SECTIONS 1:25

PLAN 1:300 WITH SHADE IN 3:30PM LATE JUNE D

e

E

PLAN 1:50 d

D 6:00PM

20

F

f

e

E

STREET SECTIONS 1:100 3:30PM


TRACING THE LIGHT AND WATER Instructor: Matthew Pryor& Andrew Toland | HKU 2016 Spring This ecological-educational trail revails hydrological and light condition along a stream in Sai Kung Natural Park. Studies focused on details of construction process from which practical innovation is made.

ROCK SLAB

METAL PLATE

CARVE OUT ROCK SLAB

WOOD DECK

CONCRETE BASE WOOD FRAME

STEEL I BEAN

EXPLODED DRAWING 1:50

21


DEVELOPMENT DETOUR -- Planning the environmental futures of rural Laos’s new corridors Instructor: Ashley Scott Kelly & Xiaoxuan Lu| HKU 2018 Spring Individual Design Studio The China-Laos Railway cuts through mountainous landscape of northern Laos. For construction logistics, temporary construction roads linking national main road corridors with remote construction sites were built into previously marginalized communities. Particularly, in the section in between Southern Oudomxay and Northern Luang Prabang, such roads reach more than 100 km long, forming a new terrestrial corridor linking up many villages as well as two major cities Muang Xai and Luang Prabang at its ends. The road provides precious infrastructure service and more market access to the villages, a promising solution to the land pressure and overcultivation occurred on site due to coercive government land allocation policy and increasing population. Altitude 800 700 600 500 400

Expansion of cultivation

Marginalized upland community

35 km rural road from Houay Phouly Village to Mouang county was widened. A new route with gentler gradient across the moutain was constructed 45 km of new construction road to Pak Ou, Luang Prabang is built, providing new terrestrial transportation means to Luang Prabang

Luang Prabang Tourist arrival is projected to increase by 1000%

Provincial Road linking Muang to National Highway route 13 was widened and partially asphalted

2003 Agriculture in villages alongside Route 13 gradually commercialized

2004 Rubber boom throughout Northen Laos

Maize Production mainly exported to Thailand

2006

2010

Maize Covers 1,500 ha in Oudomxay, export market shift to China

2012

2016

Rising concerns for great damage done to farmers and environment due to chemical pesticide

JAN, 2017

Railway construction is projected to finish

MAY, 2017

2018 President of GoL urges Oudomxay to boost crop production for railway, while no memodium signed between Oudomxay and China on what crop to produce and what amount

Maize Covers 28,600 ha in Oudomxay Expansion of banana

22

2011

Rubber boom broke due to international price drastically dropped. Rubber in Oudomxay reached ubber already covers over 30,000 ha. Many lied idle or cut down.

Overcultivation in midland & shortened fallow - land allocation policy and population pressure

Insufficient flat land for paddy field in lowland area

Emergent road repair carried out by China railway company at many section of the new construction roads

April,2018

2021

No Freight Station in Muang

Freight Station in Muang

Corridor Migrant Influx: 135 households, 945 persons New Agriculture Land: 1,170 ha

Corridor Migrant Influx: 228 households, 1596 persons New Agriculture Land: 1,950 ha

Muang

Muang

Villagers are reported to move to area alongside the construction route. Some villagers have bought motorcycles and small trucks

Government banned banana plantation. Banana in Oudomxay reaches 6,236 ha

Pak Ou

Pak Ou


Yet the roads can be an unstable ground. The undulating topography and steep long slopes are precarious in wet season. Prevailing unpaved road course and poor construction quality (excessive cut sections and absence of erosion control measurements) put its connectivity into uncertainty. The China railway company fight the terrain by delivering plenteous emergent engineering repairing during the wet season. However, villagers without proper machinery can hardly repeat the same routine after railway construction completes.

45 km 0.8h

Route (Main 13 Natio nal C orrido r)

Muang Xai

Muang

NON-INTERVENTION RISK ANALYSIS

35 km 1h

1 2

Ne

w

Dir

tR

d(

20

1 To Muang and Muang Xai(Capital of Oudomxay)

6

Pak Ou

45 km 1.3h

17

) fo

rR

ail

RISKY SECTIONS

5

4

3

oa

Meanwhile, it is reported that villagers have started to set up settlements and purchasing small trucks and motorcycles along the corridor. While villagers are likely not fully acknowledged the impact of improper agriculture practices on adjacent road structure stability, typically cash crop monoculture and slash and burn on over-steep slopes, future expansion might subject the road to continuous erosion under monsoonal downpouring and series of failures. Eventually, as seen in many precedents, the road will become too rugged to use within a short time.

Co

ns

tru

22 km 0.3h

cti

on

Ac

ce

ss

Luang Prabang

ROAD CONDITION in 2017 widened

ALTERNATIVE if FAIL IN WET SEASON X Take alternative pre-existing road

2 Intra-Village

newly-built

3 Intra-Village

widened

X

4 Intra-Village

widened

X

5 To Luang Prabang

newly-built

6 To Luang Prabang

newly-built

LOW: Provincial road(8-10m wide) from Muang to to Route 13 established for years, previously accessible in wet season, partially asphalted in 2017

HIGH: New dirt road beyond section 6 to Route 13 might fail

VILLAGES WITH LOW RISK IN WET SEASON

scenario i none of 1,3,4 stablized

Keo,Khonthoy Moklom, Tham, Phouhouat gnai, Mokcha laeng, Saenchot

Nongtao

scenario ii only 1 stablized

Tham, Phouhouat gnai, Mokcha laeng, Saenchot

Nongtao, Keo, Khonthoy Moklom

Phouhouat gnai, Mokcha laeng, Saenchot, Tham(East)

Nongtao, Keo, Khonthoy Moklom, Tham(West)

scenario iii only 1&3 stablized scenario iv 1,3,4 all stablized

PRIORITY

PHASE I Terraced Riprap, Live Fascine, Vegetation Preservation Riprap

Riprap Riprap

VILLAGES WITH HIGH RISK IN WET SEASON

INTERVENTION FLOW CHART

10 km

implement phase I at risky road sections

Take alternative pre-existing road to Mekong River (extra 10km)

FURTHER RISK

Nongtao, Keo, Khonthoy Moklom, Tham, Phouhouat gnai, Mokcha laeng, Saenchot

Terraced Riprap

PHASE II APPLICABLE STRATEGIES

Identify SUITABLE AREAS for new settlements and cultivation

Apply strategy to sites according to TYPOLOGY and slope

Based on risk evaluation, Invest in different crops/livestocks withdifferent harvest timing to minimize unexpected loss due to road blockage

if no approperiate crop under current risk level, choose another strategy suitable for the land condition

PHASE III LOCAL PROCESSING

Dried Fruit Processing - Prolong storage time for wet-season harvested products Animal Feed Processing - Build up local market, reduce reliance on external traders and companies

23


MAPPING : RISK & LAND PRESSURE

The project tries to detour villagers from predicted adverse future to more sustainable alterna-tives, by providing a phased strategies system. It first helps villagers identify strategic detouring options on the roads and prioritize labour for some simple rapid action that can be delivered to mitigate road failure risks.

24

Then suitable areas for future settlement and land cultivation is delineated based on multiple factors as topography, edaphic conditions, local hydrology, existing labour pool and biotic interaction.


MAPPING : SUITABLE AREAS FOR FUTURE EXPANSION

Pak Ou

and & shortened fallow nd population pressure 50m

Phase I Rapid Stablization thourgh Micro-scale Transformation Liv

eF

15°

20°

25°

30°

35°

asc

ine

&Ve

get

atio

for risky sections identified

np

res

erv

atio

n

Rip

Ter ra

rap

cin

Before

gc

ons

truc

tion

spo

il

Before After

After

with

tun

nel

exc

ava

tion

Live fascine stops upslope failure. Preserved forest stablizes the soil

was

te

Upslope failure Untreated construction spoil washed into water body and causes pollution

Terraced spoil armored with riprap to protect the road base from erosion. The increased weight also help reduce risk of downslope failure

25


Phase II Appropriate Land Use and Conservative Farming Techniques Fru 0°

15°

20°

25°

30°

it -

35°

woo

dy

*

shr

ub

agr

Legume - Nitrogeon fixation

Annual - labour input/month

Growing

Harvest

Perennial- Investment cycle/ year

Growing

Mature(Harvest)

Type 1. Hill Slope

ofo

Original vegetatiion is replaced by cash crop monoculture. Low biomass and shallow roots of maize can not hold soil and intercept runoff, which will deteriorate erosion

For village with low risk in scenario ii

res

try

sys

tem

Mango

Citrus

Paper Mulberry

* Stylosanthes quianensis (Stylo CIAT 184)

Shallow failure on roadside slope due to continuous erosion in wet season. Loss of agricultural land & crop. Villagers might have grown plants harvest in wet season, the products are trapped due to road disconnectivity.

Brachiaria decumbens (Basilisk)

For village with low risk in scenario i

Cover crop for erosion

Lychee

For

age

Pla

Jackfruit

Longan

Shady-requiring or shady tolerant species such as cadarmom and tea are planted in understories when tree canopy closes. They are simultaneously cover crop provide soft armor the soil against rain

Cardamom

nta

tion

&G

raz

ing

Lan

d

Continuous cultivation of monoculture soil-taxing cash crop for a few years, the soil fertility and structure breaks down and has to lie in fallow for a long period

For all scenario Incorporate forage plantation as cover crop when canopy is still open. It allows farmers to have economic output from the system at initial stage. Also far-reaching roots of forage help hold the soil and extract nutrition in deep leaching layer

Buffalo

/ year

Cattle

Hedgerow of shurbby legume pigeon pea helps to physically intercept runoff and fixes nitrogeon in surrounding soil.

Goat

*

Output Yr 1

Yr 15

Stylosanthes quianensis (Stylo CIAT 184)

+

Brachiaria decumbens (Basilisk)

Soil build-up with legume and grass

Fruit - woody shrub agroforestry system

Riprap

Upland Field

Grazing Land

Type 2. Toe Slope

Phase II Fruit Tree- Woddy Shrub Agroforestry

For low risk village in scenario Month iii 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Upl

and

Fie

ld

Maize Peanut

*

Farmers relying on fertilizer and herbcide provided by contract farmer for continuous cash-crop monoculture, which will eventually lead to soil pollution or depletion

Construction spoil together with vehicular pollutants washed into agricultural field

While the foreign investor might not appear in harvest season

Cassava Chilli

Additional investment in facilities constructed for introduced cash crop Oven house for tobacco (Maintainence 2M kip/ year)

*

Paper Mulberry Pigeon pea

Chromo- Intercropping& Hedge Row laena Crop rotation odorata as cover crop for fallow period

For low risk village in scenario ii

Month 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Cash crop dependent on contract farming Month 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Sesame

Sugarcane

Pumpkin

Far

For all scenario

min

gT erra

ce

Month 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Tobbaco

Riprap and regenerated vegetation will reduce erosion downslope. Bioswale disposed sediment and allow hydrocarbons pollutants to degrade. Afterwards, water can be recycled for irrigation in dry season

Paddy Rice For low risk village in scenario iii

*

Watermelon

Construction spoils are recycled to build terrace and increase flat area for cultivation Crops can be sold by local traders are encouraged than ones totally rely on foreign investors

Soybean

Chilli For low risk village in scenario ii

Crops for both domestic and China market are planted to reduce reliance on foreign investors

Month 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Sesame

Crop rotationSoil conservation

26

Pumpkin

Riprap

Phase I Riprap

Farming Terrace

Phase I Buffer Biosw


Crop rotationSoil conservation

Type 3. Valley

Rip

For low risk village in scenario Month ii 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

aria

nG

ard

en

Lettuce Cabbage Garlic Onion Cucumber For low risk village in scenario i

Land is used for cultivation regardlessly, esp. under the food security pressure from cash crop expansion

Pineapple

Papaya

Silt recycled from river

Wa te

rsh

ed

Damage of upslope vegetation cover and construction spoil easily washed into water course and polluting water source for villages

Roadside vegetation important to watershed management is preserved for NFTPs harvest and erosion control

Con

ser

vat

ion 13m

Bridge lead agriculture and settlement to flat alluvial plain rather than steep slope adjecent to river

30m

Bridge offer optional site for agriculture in flat plain Conserve vegetation critical to watershed management

For

age

Pla

Watershed Conservation

nta

tion

&L

Type 4. Flat Plain

ives

Phase II Phase II Bamboo Bridge Riparian Gard

For all scenario

toc

kF

arm

Buffalo

Continuous cropping on previous overcultivated land, villagers are trapped in viscious cycle of land degradation

/ year

Cattle

Pig

Composting can be used to improve the soil

Livestock pen make it convenient to manage livestocks, reduces livestock missing. Also proper and concentrated manure management (by composting) provide soil amendment in forage plantation

For all scenario

Com

Forage plantation and commercialized livestock production secure income for villagers. Meanwhile, far-reaching roots of forage help hold the soil and extract nutrition in deep leaching layer and improve the structure. Animal manure can further fertilizes the land

pos

ting

vegetable, grain residues

animal manure

Composting

fallen tree foliage

Composting

Forage Plantation Phase II Composting

food scraps 1m

5m

10m

P F 100m

Phase II Fruit Tree- Woddy Shrub Agroforestry

Phase I Riprap

Non- intervention Scenario

Phase II Forage Plantation Grazing Land

Phase I Buffer Bioswale

Phase I Riprap

Non- intervention Scenario

Phase II Composting

Phase II Farming Terrace

Phase II Forage Plantation

100m

Within those areas, specific land use is planed out considering surrounding slope morphological typology gradients and risk level at different locations. For longterm development, two achievable local processing options are proposed in order to further build up villagers’ resiliency against the uncertain traffic conditions and empower them to live smoothly with the unstable ground.

27 Phase II Phase II Bamboo Bridge Riparian Garden

Phase II Farming Terrace


100m

Phase III Local Processing Network

0-15

Ani

ma

s ha

rves

t at

l Fe

ed

Fruit - woody shrub agroforestry system Grazing Land

+

200 Pro 0 USD 1 cacessin 1 m ttle cog capa ach nsu city ine me : 1to for s 3 n/h eac ton h vil /yea lage r

500 Pro 0~600 Avecessin 0 USD pro rage og capa ces rch city sing ard : 75 time yield kg/h 1m : 80 in L sea achine h/ha aos son for : 60 , 3h 3 h 00k arve a orc g/ha st s hard eas w ons ith per sam yea e sp r ecie

Crop Field(Farming Terrace, upland field etc.)

15-20 20~25 25~30 30~35

Mill

one

Fru

it D

rye

r Ca

Fruit - 3 ha

bin

et

Fruit: 11 ha Fruit: 3 ha

+ +

++

Fruit - 7 ha

Fruit - 4 ha

+

Fruit - 10 ha

+

+ Fruit - 5 ha

Fruit - 23 ha

+ +

28


RESEARCH UNCOORDINATED FRONTIER: RUBBER & ECOTOURISM 1997 S

Lack of sufficient coordination causes problems within rubber and ecotourism industries and incompatibility in-between.

CHALEUNSOUK NAN LANTAY

Key points

NALEU

NAM KOI

• Rubber boom caused devastating impact on natural landscape attraction.

SOUP THOUTH

• Lack of implementation of rubber plantation suitablity zonal guideline induces various risks.

WATERWAY: THE ONLY ACCESS

RURAL ROADS

Nan Lantay

Naleu

Nam Koi

• Management issues in NPA: corridors became rubber plantation. Trekking route on weekly basis cuts through core zone while original habitants were relocated. Insufficient funds from ecotourism.

Soup thouth

2005 Tourism Revenue Comparision

High

PROVINCIAL TOURISM INDUSTRY INCOMR STREAM $3,152,521

NAM HA ECOTOURISM PROJECT $75,000 NAM HA ECOGUIDES $31,745

CONSERVATION OUTREACH ACTIVITIES COVER ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES PAY VILLAGERS TO PERFORM TRAIL MAINTENANCE

REVENUE TO NPA MANAGEMENT UNIT $7,600 1 USD per person per time entry permit to NPA

Rubber Suitablity Moderate

Ecotourism Village Village with Lodge

Low

Trek Route

Nan lan tay

Tourism Admin Lodge Food and Travel baverage operaincome stration

ECOTOURISM OPERATION

Unstocked Forest

Other

BIOLOGICAL CORRIDOR

NSEC(ROUTE3) RUBBER PLANTATION

Original Land Cover 2002 Replaced by Rubber 2016

Swidden Agriculture

2018 S

Chaleunsouk

• Wildlife habitat and ecological services degradation resulted from rubber expansion is underestimated.

Swidden Agriculture

BIOLOGICAL CORRIDOR

Wildlife m

on

it o r

Illegal a

Tourism Admin AcFood income stration comen- and dation

Travel opera-

Nan Eng

Tour- Handiism crafts attrac-

ctivities, threates report

Land Cover Raplaced by Rubber Since 2002

a mosaic landscape of various structure, better vegetated corridor and multiple niches than monoculture rubber

Village Relocated Village within NPA National Boundary Provincial Boundary

SWIDDEN AGRICULTURE

NSEC Other Road

NPA

Water Body

NPA Core Zone

SOURCES Alton, C., David Bluhm and Somsouk Sananikone.(2005) Para Rubber Study, Hevea brasiliensis, Lao P.D.R.Lao - German Program Rural Development in Mountainous Areas of Northern Lao PDR. Google earth Pro V7.1.8.3036. (December, 1997). Luang Namtha, Lao PDR. 20°52’03.59’’N, 101°.23’48’’E, Eye alt 24.93 km. Landsat / Copemicus. [January 29, 2018) 6. Earth Explorer. (2018). ASTER. Sioux Falls, South Dakota: USGS. Earth Explorer. (2016). Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS C1 Level-1 LC81300462016046LGN01. USGS. Earth Explorer. (2016). Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS C1 Level-1 LC81300452016046LGN01. USGS. Johnson, A., S. Singh, M. Dongdala and O.Vongsa. (2003). Wildlife hunting and use in the Nam Ha National Protected Area: Implications for rural livelihoods and biodiversity conservation. December 2003. Wildlife Conservation Society, Vientiane.Nam Ha. (n.d.).Eco-Guide Service in Nam Ha National Protected Area “Nam Ha NPA”. Nam Ha NPA. Retrieved from http://www.namha-npa.org/info/contact_us.htm. Opensreet map contributor. (2018). Untitled. OpenStreet map. Downloaded from OSM editor, ArcGIS. Schipani, S. (2007).Ecotourism as an Alternative to Upland Rubber Cultivation in the Nam Ha, National Protected Area, Luang Namtha. Juth Pakai, Issue 8. Schipani, S. & Marris, G. (2002). Linking Conservation and Ecotourism Devemlopment: Lessons from the UNESCO-National Tourism Authority of Lao PDR Nam Ha Ecotourism Project. Schipani, S.(2008).IMPACT: The Effects of Tourism on Culture and the Environment in Asia and the Pacific: Alleviating Poverty and Protecting Cultural and Natural Heritage through Community-Based Ecotourism in Luang Namtha, Lao PDR. Bangkok: UNESCO. Keovilay, T.(2012).Tourism and Development in Rural Communities: A Case Study of Luang Namtha Province, Lao PDR.Lincoln University. Digital thesis.

UNSTOCKED FOREST

HIGH

20°

MODERATE 900M

10km

LAND COVER IN 2002 REPLACED BY RUBBER PLANTATION RESTRICTED

HIGH 700M MODERATE ELEVATION

SLOPE

(PRIMARY) FOREST

1100M

MODERATE

30°

(SECONDARY) FOREST

(canopy coverage <= 20%, mainly regenerating fallow land)

DISTANCE TO WATERSOURCE

UNSTOCKED FOREST 22% RISKS: soil erosion devastating frost depletion & pol (every 10 yrs) lution of wat ersource

SWIDDEN AGRICULTURE 2%

OTHER (RICE PADDY, PLANTATION,URBAN etc.) 50%

FOREST 26%

RUBBER PLANTATION SUITABLITY HIGH 28%

MODERATE 57%

LOW 15%

29


ETHICS OF SUSTAINABILITY ACROSS FORMAL AND INFORMAL SECTORS Formalizing Illegal Mining

Engineers’ work is often seen as mere calculation and application of certain standards and specification. However, realities of uncertainties and constraints require ingenuity of engineers to engage in much negotiation and coordination in the field of politics.

AASTHO STANDARDS FOR HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION

Pavement Courses

CAP(CEMENT/ ASPHALT) BASE (FINE AGGREGATE) SUBBASE (COARSE AGGREGATE) SUBGRADE (SOIL/ AGGREGATE) EMBANKMENT (SOIL/ AGGREGATE) COMPACT ORIGINAL FOUNDATION

2002 Standardize Construction FILL

CUT

CUT & FILL

Highway Construction

Key points • Engineering standards’ main concern is security and durability, which is highly reductive and inscribed through numeric

Constrcution Process 1.EXCAVATION

ILLEGAL MINING GROWN EXPONENTIALLY DRIVEN BY HIGH INTERNATIONAL GOLD PRICES

RECOGNIZING SMALL MINING WITH LAW 27,651

2. EMBANKMENT

3. PAVEMENT COURSES

2005

CONSTRUCTION OF INTEROCEANIC HIGHWAY SECTION 3 INAMBARI-INAPARI BEGAN

2008

2010 PERU ISSUED EMERGENCY DECREE NO. 012-2010, WHICH DECLARED IT IN THE NATIONAL INTEREST TO FORMALIZE MINING OPERATIONS IN MADRE DE DIOS. ACTION INCLUDES ESTABLISHMENT OF MINING EXCLUSION ZONES AND PROHIBITING USE OF DREDGE AND SIMILAR DEVICES

2010

190 OPERATIVE SANCTION ISSUED, MANY OF WHICH AIMS TO SEIZE AND DESTROY ILLEGAL MACHINERY.

99% OF MDD MINING ARE ILLEGAL MINING

2011

ENGINEERS SOURCING STONE MATERIAL FROM ILLEGAL MINING

2014

ONLY 1,514 MINING RIGHTS REGISTERED AMONG ESTIMATED 22,000 ARTISANAL MINERS IN MADRE DE DIOS. MASSIVE FORMALIZATION NEEDS FROM NATIONAL GOVERNMENT HAS LEFT THE REGIONAL GOVERNMENT OVERWHELMED. MEANWHILE, ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS CONTINUE TO BE IGNORED

2016

HIGHWAY SECTION 3 CONSTRUTION COMPLETE

STONE IS USED “AS LONG AS” THE ROAD SURFACE BUILT IS STABLE

IMPROVED TRAFFIC CONNECTIVITY FACILITE ILLEGAL MINING INTO MORE REMOTE RAINFOREST

Alluvial Mining in Madre de dios 1. SHIEVE RIVERBED MATERIALS INTO TOP OF THE WOODEN CONTRAPTION.

IVECO

(if other excavation not BORROW EXCAVATION viable)

Excavation

1. COMMON EXCAVATION

2. ROCK EXCAVATION (BLAST-

3.ROCK EXCAVATION (RIPPER, POWERED-SHOVEL)

3.

languages. When landing upon context, specific practices can vary a lot.

4.

1. HAULING & PLACING

Mining Exclusion Zone

In Procedure

Natural Reserve Area

Titled

Natural Buffer Area

Extinct

ANAP Zone

Embankment

2. GRADING

Mining Formalization & Regulation Mine Catastre

3. COMPACTING

1. HAULING & PLACING

2. GRADING

engineers negotiate with specific stakeholders in reality to source materials

ILLEGAL MINING IN AMAZON RIVERS: MORE ECONOMIC VIABLE MATERIAL SOURCE

Pavement Courses Construction 3. COMPACTING

Urban Area

Highway & Illegal Mining Interoceanic Highway National Road Departmental Road Illegal Alluvial Mining 2016 Illegal Alluvial Mining 2010

FIELD LABORATORY

SIEVE SIZE

GRADATION

LIQUID LIMIT

Illegal Alluvial Mining 2004

specific conbination of local material at hand worked out by engineers at field lab

STONE 75 MM

Contour at 100m interval River

30

2 MM

numeric translation of engineers’ prior expectation rather PLASTIC LIMIT than truth-seeking, few consulted during construction

SAND 75 μM

SOIL-AGGREGATE

ENGINEERS’ PRAGMATIC THINKING AS LONG AS THE PROJECT CAN BE CARRIED OUT WITHIN BUDGET AND CAN SUSTAIN UNDER SPECIFIC CONDITIONS FOR A EXPECTED PERIOD OF TIME

Cusco

Madr e Puno de Dios

=

SOURCES AASHTO.(2008).Guide specifications for highway construction, 2008.American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. AASHTO.(2012).Standard specifications for transportation materials and methods of sampling and testing. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Asnera,G.P., Llactayob,W., Tupayachia.R., & Lunac,E.R. (2013, NOV.). Elevated rates of gold mining in the Amazon revealed through high-resolution monitoring.PNAS,vol. 110,no. 46.18454–18459. GOMIAM-PERU.(2015).SANCTION POLITICS: LESSONS FROM MINING POLICY IN MADRE DE DIOS, PERU.GOMIAM-PERU. Earth Explorer. (2018). ASTER. Sioux Falls, South Dakota: USGS. Earth Explorer. (2017). Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS C1 Level-1 LC80030692016260LGN01. USGS. Earth Explorer. (2016). Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS C1 Level-1 LC80030692016260LGN01. USGS. Earth Explorer. (2016). Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS C1 Level-1 LT50030692010259CUB00. USGS. HARVEY,P. & KNOX,H. (2015). Roads:An Anthropology of Infrastructure and Expertise. Cornell University Press. Kowler.L.F., Ravikumar.A., Larson.A.M, Rodriguez-Ward.D., Burga.C., Tovar.J.G.(2016). Analyzing multilevel governance in Peru: Lessons for REDD+ from the study of land-use change and benefit sharing in Madre de Dios, Ucayali and San Martin.Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR). Piñeiro,V., Thomas.J& Elverdin,P. (2016).The Agricultural Sector as an Alternative to Illegal Mining in Peru: A Case Study of Madre de Dios.INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE. SWENSON,J.J., CARTER1,C.E., DOMEC,J., DELGADO,C.I. (2011).GOLD MINING IN THE PERUVIAN AMAZON: GLOBAL PRICES, DEFORESTATION, AND MERCURY IMPORTS. PLoS ONE 6(4): e18875. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018875 Geocatmin.(2018). Catastro Minero. El Instituto Geológico, Minero y Metalúrgico, Peru. Geocatmin.(2018). Área y restringida. El Instituto Geológico, Minero y Metalúrgico, Peru. GeoIDEP: Catalogo Nacional de Metadatos del Perú.(2016).Red vial vecinal del Perú del Sistema Nacional de Carreteras al 31.dic. GeoIDEP: Catalogo Nacional de Metadatos del Perú.(2014). Red Vial Departamental del Perú Dic.2014.Lima, Peru: RESIDENCIA DEL CONSEJO DE MINISTROS Secretaría de Gobierno Digital Comité Coordinador Permanente de la Infraestructura de Datos Espaciales del Perú.

GRAVEL

-

Departmental Boundary

3. GOLD DUST IS KEPT DURING FLOWING THROUGH A THICK CARPET OVER THE WOODEN TRENCH. 4. GOLD IS SEPARATE FROM SILT BY MERCURY.

IVECO

• Engineer’s negotiation is based on a contingent pragmatic philosophy, “as long as” the project is carried out seccussfully. Such lack of criticality might cause unwanted political consequences.

2.

1.

2. SUCK AND PUMP WATER INTO THE TOP OF CONTRAPTION. WASHING WATER SEPARATES MUD AND STONES IN THE SLUDGE AND ALLOW SMALLER PARTICLES TO FLOW DOWN.

SILT-CLAY

PLASTICITY INDEX

ANDES MOUNTAINS: STONE MATERIALS AVAILBLE THROUGH RECYCLING CUT SECTION BUT HIGH TRANSPORTATION COST

20 km


31

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