Page 1

In traditional typography, text is composed to create a readable, coherent, and visually

satisfying whole that works invisibly, without the awareness of the reader. Even distri-

bution with a minimum of distractions and anomalies are aimed at producing clarity

and transparency.

Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of text typography—prose fiction, nonfiction, editorial, educational, religious, scientific, spiritual and commercial writing all have differing characteristics and requirements. For historic material, established text

typefaces are frequently chosen according to a scheme of historical genre acquired by a

long process of accretion, with considerable overlap between historical periods.

Contemporary books are more likely to be set with state-of-the-art seriffed "text ro-

ferences are hard to find. So comparative studies of seriffed vs. sans serif type, or justi-

fied vs. unjustified type, have failed to settle the argument over which is best.[citation

needed]

Legibility is usually measured through speed of reading, with comprehension scores used to check for effectiveness (that is, not a rushed or careless read). For example, Miles Tinker, who published numerous studies from the 1930s to the 1960s, used a

speed of reading test that required participants to spot incongruous words as an effectiveness filter.

These days, legibility research tends to be limited to critical issues, or the testing of

specific design solutions (for example, when new typefaces are developed). Examples

mans" or "book romans" with design values echoing present-day design arts, which are

of critical issues include typefaces (also called fonts) for people with visual impair-

(a punchcutter who created the model for Aldine typefaces), and Claude Garamond.

make a key difference.

tightly-fitted text romans specially designed for the task, which offer maximum flexi-

Much of the legibility research literature is somewhat atheoretical — various factors

closely based on traditional models such as those of Nicolas Jenson, Francesco Griffo

With their more specialized requirements, newspapers and magazines rely on compact,

ment, and typefaces for highway signs, or for other conditions where legibility may

bility, readability and efficient use of page space. Sans serif text fonts are often used for

were tested individually or in combination (inevitably so, as the different factors are in-

pair sans serif type for headings with a high-performance seriffed font of matching

visual perception. Some typographers believe that the overall word shape (Bouma) is

introductory paragraphs, incidental text and whole short articles. A current fashion is to

style for the text of an article.

The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and the interplay of text with white space of

the page and other graphic elements combine to impart a "feel" or "resonance" to the

subject matter. With printed media typographers are also concerned with binding mar-

gins, paper selection and printing methods.

Typography is modulated by orthography and linguistics, word structures, word fre-

quencies, morphology, phonetic constructs and linguistic syntax. Typography also is

subject to specific cultural conventions. For example, in French it is customary to insert a non-breaking space before a colon (:) or semicolon (;) in a sentence, while in English it is not.

terdependent), but many tests were carried out in the absence of a model of reading or

very important in readability, and that the theory of parallel letterwise recognition is ei-

ther wrong, less important, or not the entire picture.

Studies distinguishing between Bouma recognition and parallel letterwise recognition

with regard to how people actually recognize words when they read, have favored parallel letterwise recognition, which is widely accepted by cognitive psychologists.[cita-

tion needed]

Legibility can also be compromised by letterspacing, word spacing, or leading that is

too tight or too loose. It can be improved when generous vertical space separates lines

of text, making it easier for the eye to distinguish one line from the next, or previous

line. Poorly designed fonts and those that are too tightly or loosely fitted can also result

.

in poor legibility.

design and readability with the design of the printed page. Designers aim to achieve ex-

Typography is an element of all printed material. Periodical publications, especially

Readability and legibility are often confused. “Legibility is the quality of the typeface

cellence in both.

"The typeface chosen should be legible, that is, it should be read without effort. Sometimes legibility is simply a matter of type size; more often, however, it is a matter of

typeface design. Generally speaking, typefaces that are true to the basic letterforms are more legible than typefaces that have been condensed, expanded, embellished, or abstracted.

"However, even a legible typeface can become unreadable through poor setting and

placement, just as a less legible typeface can be made more readable through good de-

newspapers and magazines, use typographical elements to achieve an attractive, dis-

tinctive appearance, to aid readers in navigating the publication, and in some cases for dramatic effect. By formulating a style guide, a periodical standardizes on a relatively small collection of typefaces, each used for specific elements within the publication,

and makes consistent use of type sizes, italic, boldface, large and small capital letters, colors, and other typographic features. Some publications, such as The Guardian and

The Economist, go so far as to commission a type designer to create bespoke (custom

tailored) typefaces for their exclusive use.

Different periodical publications design their publications, including their typography,

sign."[2]

to achieve a particular tone or style. For example, USAToday uses a bold, colorful, and

Studies of legibility have examined a wide range of factors including type size and type

sizes vary widely, and the newspaper's name is placed on a colored background. In con-

design. For example, comparing serif vs. sans serif type, italic type vs. roman type, line length, line spacing, color contrast, the design of right-hand edge (for example, justifi-

cation, straight right hand edge) vs. ranged left, and whether text is hyphenated.

Legibility research was published from the late nineteenth century on, but the overall

finding has been that the reading process is remarkably robust, and that significant dif-

comparatively modern style through their use of a variety of typefaces and colors; type

trast, the New York Times use a more traditional approach, with fewer colors, less typeface variation, and more columns.

Especially on the front page of newspapers and on magazine covers, headlines are

often set in larger display typefaces to attract attention, and are placed near the masthead.


In traditional typography, text is composed to create a readable, coherent, and vi-

significant differences are hard to find. So comparative studies of seriffed vs. sans

Even distribution with a minimum of distractions and anomalies are aimed at pro-

which is best.[citation needed]

sually satisfying whole that works invisibly, without the awareness of the reader. ducing clarity and transparency.

Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of text typography—prose fiction, non-fiction, editorial, educational, religious, scientific, spiritual and commercial

writing all have differing characteristics and requirements. For historic material,

serif type, or justified vs. unjustified type, have failed to settle the argument over

Legibility is usually measured through speed of reading, with comprehension

scores used to check for effectiveness (that is, not a rushed or careless read). For example, Miles Tinker, who published numerous studies from the 1930s to the

1960s, used a speed of reading test that required participants to spot incongruous

established text typefaces are frequently chosen according to a scheme of histori-

words as an effectiveness filter.

tween historical periods.

These days, legibility research tends to be limited to critical issues, or the testing

Contemporary books are more likely to be set with state-of-the-art seriffed "text

Examples of critical issues include typefaces (also called fonts) for people with

cal genre acquired by a long process of accretion, with considerable overlap be-

romans" or "book romans" with design values echoing present-day design arts,

of specific design solutions (for example, when new typefaces are developed).

visual impairment, and typefaces for highway signs, or for other conditions where

which are closely based on traditional models such as those of Nicolas Jenson,

legibility may make a key difference.

Claude Garamond. With their more specialized requirements, newspapers and

Much of the legibility research literature is somewhat atheoretical — various fac-

Francesco Griffo (a punchcutter who created the model for Aldine typefaces), and magazines rely on compact, tightly-fitted text romans specially designed for the

tors were tested individually or in combination (inevitably so, as the different fac-

Sans serif text fonts are often used for introductory paragraphs, incidental text and

model of reading or visual perception. Some typographers believe that the overall

task, which offer maximum flexibility, readability and efficient use of page space.

whole short articles. A current fashion is to pair sans serif type for headings with a high-performance seriffed font of matching style for the text of an article.

tors are interdependent), but many tests were carried out in the absence of a

word shape (Bouma) is very important in readability, and that the theory of parallel letterwise recognition is either wrong, less important, or not the entire picture.

The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and the interplay of text with white

Studies distinguishing between Bouma recognition and parallel letterwise recog-

nance" to the subject matter. With printed media typographers are also concerned

favored parallel letterwise recognition, which is widely accepted by cognitive

space of the page and other graphic elements combine to impart a "feel" or "resowith binding margins, paper selection and printing methods.

Typography is modulated by orthography and linguistics, word structures, word

frequencies, morphology, phonetic constructs and linguistic syntax. Typography

nition with regard to how people actually recognize words when they read, have psychologists.[citation needed]

Legibility can also be compromised by letterspacing, word spacing, or leading

that is too tight or too loose. It can be improved when generous vertical space sep-

also is subject to specific cultural conventions. For example, in French it is cus-

arates lines of text, making it easier for the eye to distinguish one line from the

tence, while in English it is not.

loosely fitted can also result in poor legibility.

tomary to insert a non-breaking space before a colon (:) or semicolon (;) in a sen.

Readability and legibility are often confused. “Legibility is the quality of the

typeface design and readability with the design of the printed page. Designers aim to achieve excellence in both.

"The typeface chosen should be legible, that is, it should be read without effort.

next, or previous line. Poorly designed fonts and those that are too tightly or

Typography is an element of all printed material. Periodical publications, espe-

cially newspapers and magazines, use typographical elements to achieve an at-

tractive, distinctive appearance, to aid readers in navigating the publication, and

in some cases for dramatic effect. By formulating a style guide, a periodical stan-

dardizes on a relatively small collection of typefaces, each used for specific ele-

Sometimes legibility is simply a matter of type size; more often, however, it is a

ments within the publication, and makes consistent use of type sizes, italic,

letterforms are more legible than typefaces that have been condensed, expanded,

Some publications, such as The Guardian and The Economist, go so far as to

matter of typeface design. Generally speaking, typefaces that are true to the basic

embellished, or abstracted.

"However, even a legible typeface can become unreadable through poor setting

and placement, just as a less legible typeface can be made more readable through

boldface, large and small capital letters, colors, and other typographic features.

commission a type designer to create bespoke (custom tailored) typefaces for

their exclusive use.

Different periodical publications design their publications, including their typog-

good design."[2]

raphy, to achieve a particular tone or style. For example, USAToday uses a bold,

Studies of legibility have examined a wide range of factors including type size

faces and colors; type sizes vary widely, and the newspaper's name is placed on a

and type design. For example, comparing serif vs. sans serif type, italic type vs.

roman type, line length, line spacing, color contrast, the design of right-hand edge

(for example, justification, straight right hand edge) vs. ranged left, and whether

text is hyphenated.

Legibility research was published from the late nineteenth century on, but the

overall finding has been that the reading process is remarkably robust, and that

colorful, and comparatively modern style through their use of a variety of type-

colored background. In contrast, the New York Times use a more traditional approach, with fewer colors, less typeface variation, and more columns.

Especially on the front page of newspapers and on magazine covers, headlines are

often set in larger display typefaces to attract attention, and are placed near the masthead.


In traditional typography, text is composed to create a readable, coherent,

and visually satisfying whole that works invisibly, without the awareness of the reader. Even distribution with a minimum of distractions and anomalies are aimed at producing clarity and transparency.

Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of text typography—prose

fiction, non-fiction, editorial, educational, religious, scientific, spiritual and

commercial writing all have differing characteristics and requirements. For

that significant differences are hard to find. So comparative studies of ser-

iffed vs. sans serif type, or justified vs. unjustified type, have failed to settle the argument over which is best.[citation needed]

Legibility is usually measured through speed of reading, with comprehension scores used to check for effectiveness (that is, not a rushed or careless read).

For example, Miles Tinker, who published numerous studies from the 1930s

to the 1960s, used a speed of reading test that required participants to spot in-

historic material, established text typefaces are frequently chosen according

congruous words as an effectiveness filter.

considerable overlap between historical periods.

These days, legibility research tends to be limited to critical issues, or the

Contemporary books are more likely to be set with state-of-the-art seriffed

veloped). Examples of critical issues include typefaces (also called fonts) for

sign arts, which are closely based on traditional models such as those of

conditions where legibility may make a key difference.

Aldine typefaces), and Claude Garamond. With their more specialized re-

Much of the legibility research literature is somewhat atheoretical — various

romans specially designed for the task, which offer maximum flexibility,

ferent factors are interdependent), but many tests were carried out in the ab-

to a scheme of historical genre acquired by a long process of accretion, with

"text romans" or "book romans" with design values echoing present-day de-

Nicolas Jenson, Francesco Griffo (a punchcutter who created the model for quirements, newspapers and magazines rely on compact, tightly-fitted text

testing of specific design solutions (for example, when new typefaces are depeople with visual impairment, and typefaces for highway signs, or for other

factors were tested individually or in combination (inevitably so, as the dif-

readability and efficient use of page space. Sans serif text fonts are often

sence of a model of reading or visual perception. Some typographers believe

current fashion is to pair sans serif type for headings with a high-perfor-

the theory of parallel letterwise recognition is either wrong, less important,

used for introductory paragraphs, incidental text and whole short articles. A

mance seriffed font of matching style for the text of an article.

The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and the interplay of text with

that the overall word shape (Bouma) is very important in readability, and that or not the entire picture.

Studies distinguishing between Bouma recognition and parallel letterwise

white space of the page and other graphic elements combine to impart a

recognition with regard to how people actually recognize words when they

are also concerned with binding margins, paper selection and printing meth-

by cognitive psychologists.[citation needed]

"feel" or "resonance" to the subject matter. With printed media typographers ods.

Typography is modulated by orthography and linguistics, word structures,

word frequencies, morphology, phonetic constructs and linguistic syntax. Ty-

pography also is subject to specific cultural conventions. For example, in

French it is customary to insert a non-breaking space before a colon (:) or semicolon (;) in a sentence, while in English it is not. .

read, have favored parallel letterwise recognition, which is widely accepted Legibility can also be compromised by letterspacing, word spacing, or leading that is too tight or too loose. It can be improved when generous vertical space separates lines of text, making it easier for the eye to distinguish one

line from the next, or previous line. Poorly designed fonts and those that are too tightly or loosely fitted can also result in poor legibility.

Typography is an element of all printed material. Periodical publications, es-

Readability and legibility are often confused. “Legibility is the quality of the

pecially newspapers and magazines, use typographical elements to achieve

ers aim to achieve excellence in both.

tion, and in some cases for dramatic effect. By formulating a style guide, a

typeface design and readability with the design of the printed page. Design-

"The typeface chosen should be legible, that is, it should be read without ef-

fort. Sometimes legibility is simply a matter of type size; more often, how-

ever, it is a matter of typeface design. Generally speaking, typefaces that are

an attractive, distinctive appearance, to aid readers in navigating the publica-

periodical standardizes on a relatively small collection of typefaces, each

used for specific elements within the publication, and makes consistent use

of type sizes, italic, boldface, large and small capital letters, colors, and other

typographic features. Some publications, such as The Guardian and The

true to the basic letterforms are more legible than typefaces that have been

Economist, go so far as to commission a type designer to create bespoke

"However, even a legible typeface can become unreadable through poor set-

Different periodical publications design their publications, including their ty-

condensed, expanded, embellished, or abstracted.

ting and placement, just as a less legible typeface can be made more readable

(custom tailored) typefaces for their exclusive use.

pography, to achieve a particular tone or style. For example, USAToday uses

through good design."[2]

a bold, colorful, and comparatively modern style through their use of a vari-

Studies of legibility have examined a wide range of factors including type

name is placed on a colored background. In contrast, the New York Times

size and type design. For example, comparing serif vs. sans serif type, italic type vs. roman type, line length, line spacing, color contrast, the design of

right-hand edge (for example, justification, straight right hand edge) vs.

ety of typefaces and colors; type sizes vary widely, and the newspaper's

use a more traditional approach, with fewer colors, less typeface variation, and more columns.

ranged left, and whether text is hyphenated.

Especially on the front page of newspapers and on magazine covers, head-

Legibility research was published from the late nineteenth century on, but the

placed near the masthead.

overall finding has been that the reading process is remarkably robust, and

lines are often set in larger display typefaces to attract attention, and are


In traditional typography, text is composed to create a readable, coherent, and visually satisfying whole that works invisibly, without the awareness of the reader. Even distribution with a minimum of distractions and anomalies are aimed at producing clarity and transparency. Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of text typography— prose fiction, non-fiction, editorial, educational, religious, scientific, spiritual and commercial writing all have differing characteristics and requirements. For historic material, established text typefaces are frequently chosen according to a scheme of historical genre acquired by a long process of accretion, with considerable overlap between historical periods. Contemporary books are more likely to be set with state-of-the-art seriffed "text romans" or "book romans" with design values echoing present-day design arts, which are closely based on traditional models such as those of Nicolas Jenson, Francesco Griffo (a punchcutter who created the model for Aldine typefaces), and Claude Garamond. With their more specialized requirements, newspapers and magazines rely on compact, tightly-fitted text romans specially designed for the task, which offer maximum flexibility, readability and efficient use of page space. Sans serif text fonts are often used for introductory paragraphs, incidental text and whole short articles. A current fashion is to pair sans serif type for headings with a high-performance seriffed font of matching style for the text of an article. The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and the interplay of text with white space of the page and other graphic elements combine to impart a "feel" or "resonance" to the subject matter. With printed media typographers are also concerned with binding margins, paper selection and printing methods. Typography is modulated by orthography and linguistics, word structures, word frequencies, morphology, phonetic constructs and linguistic syntax. Typography also is subject to specific cultural conventions. For example, in French it is customary to insert a non-breaking space before a colon (:) or semicolon (;) in a sentence, while in English it is not. . Readability and legibility are often confused. “Legibility is the quality of the typeface design and readability with the design of the printed page. Designers aim to achieve excellence in both. "The typeface chosen should be legible, that is, it should be read without effort. Sometimes legibility is simply a matter of type size; more often, however, it is a matter of typeface design. Generally speaking, typefaces that are true to the basic letterforms are more legible than typefaces that have been condensed, expanded, embellished, or abstracted. "However, even a legible typeface can become unreadable through poor setting and placement, just as a less legible typeface can be made more readable through good design."[2] Studies of legibility have examined a wide range of factors including type size and type design. For example, comparing serif vs. sans serif type, italic type vs. roman type, line length, line spacing, color contrast, the design of right-hand edge (for example, justification, straight right hand edge) vs. ranged left, and whether text is hyphenated. Legibility research was published from the late nineteenth century on, but the overall finding has been that the reading process is remarkably

robust, and that significant differences are hard to find. So comparative studies of seriffed vs. sans serif type, or justified vs. unjustified type, have failed to settle the argument over which is best.[citation needed] Legibility is usually measured through speed of reading, with comprehension scores used to check for effectiveness (that is, not a rushed or careless read). For example, Miles Tinker, who published numerous studies from the 1930s to the 1960s, used a speed of reading test that required participants to spot incongruous words as an effectiveness filter. These days, legibility research tends to be limited to critical issues, or the testing of specific design solutions (for example, when new typefaces are developed). Examples of critical issues include typefaces (also called fonts) for people with visual impairment, and typefaces for highway signs, or for other conditions where legibility may make a key difference. Much of the legibility research literature is somewhat atheoretical — various factors were tested individually or in combination (inevitably so, as the different factors are interdependent), but many tests were carried out in the absence of a model of reading or visual perception. Some typographers believe that the overall word shape (Bouma) is very important in readability, and that the theory of parallel letterwise recognition is either wrong, less important, or not the entire picture. Studies distinguishing between Bouma recognition and parallel letterwise recognition with regard to how people actually recognize words when they read, have favored parallel letterwise recognition, which is widely accepted by cognitive psychologists.[citation needed] Legibility can also be compromised by letterspacing, word spacing, or leading that is too tight or too loose. It can be improved when generous vertical space separates lines of text, making it easier for the eye to distinguish one line from the next, or previous line. Poorly designed fonts and those that are too tightly or loosely fitted can also result in poor legibility. Typography is an element of all printed material. Periodical publications, especially newspapers and magazines, use typographical elements to achieve an attractive, distinctive appearance, to aid readers in navigating the publication, and in some cases for dramatic effect. By formulating a style guide, a periodical standardizes on a relatively small collection of typefaces, each used for specific elements within the publication, and makes consistent use of type sizes, italic, boldface, large and small capital letters, colors, and other typographic features. Some publications, such as The Guardian and The Economist, go so far as to commission a type designer to create bespoke (custom tailored) typefaces for their exclusive use. Different periodical publications design their publications, including their typography, to achieve a particular tone or style. For example, USAToday uses a bold, colorful, and comparatively modern style through their use of a variety of typefaces and colors; type sizes vary widely, and the newspaper's name is placed on a colored background. In contrast, the New York Times use a more traditional approach, with fewer colors, less typeface variation, and more columns. Especially on the front page of newspapers and on magazine covers, headlines are often set in larger display typefaces to attract attention, and are placed near the masthead.


In traditional typography, text is composed to create a readable, coherent, and visually satisfying whole that works invisibly, without the awareness of the reader.

Even distribution with a minimum of distractions and anomalies are aimed at producing clarity and transparency.

Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of text typography—prose fiction,

significant differences are hard to find. So comparative studies of seriffed vs. sans

serif type, or justified vs. unjustified type, have failed to settle the argument over which is best.[citation needed]

Legibility is usually measured through speed of reading, with comprehension

scores used to check for effectiveness (that is, not a rushed or careless read). For

non-fiction, editorial, educational, religious, scientific, spiritual and commercial

example, Miles Tinker, who published numerous studies from the 1930s to the

established text typefaces are frequently chosen according to a scheme of histori-

words as an effectiveness filter.

writing all have differing characteristics and requirements. For historic material, cal genre acquired by a long process of accretion, with considerable overlap be-

1960s, used a speed of reading test that required participants to spot incongruous

tween historical periods.

These days, legibility research tends to be limited to critical issues, or the testing of

Contemporary books are more likely to be set with state-of-the-art seriffed "text

ples of critical issues include typefaces (also called fonts) for people with visual im-

romans" or "book romans" with design values echoing present-day design arts,

specific design solutions (for example, when new typefaces are developed). Exam-

pairment, and typefaces for highway signs, or for other conditions where legibility

which are closely based on traditional models such as those of Nicolas Jenson,

may make a key difference.

Claude Garamond. With their more specialized requirements, newspapers and

Much of the legibility research literature is somewhat atheoretical — various fac-

task, which offer maximum flexibility, readability and efficient use of page space.

tors are interdependent), but many tests were carried out in the absence of a

Francesco Griffo (a punchcutter who created the model for Aldine typefaces), and

magazines rely on compact, tightly-fitted text romans specially designed for the

tors were tested individually or in combination (inevitably so, as the different fac-

Sans serif text fonts are often used for introductory paragraphs, incidental text

model of reading or visual perception. Some typographers believe that the overall

with a high-performance seriffed font of matching style for the text of an article.

lel letterwise recognition is either wrong, less important, or not the entire picture.

and whole short articles. A current fashion is to pair sans serif type for headings

The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and the interplay of text with white

word shape (Bouma) is very important in readability, and that the theory of paral-

Studies distinguishing between Bouma recognition and parallel letterwise recogni-

space of the page and other graphic elements combine to impart a "feel" or "reso-

tion with regard to how people actually recognize words when they read, have fa-

with binding margins, paper selection and printing methods.

psychologists.[citation needed]

nance" to the subject matter. With printed media typographers are also concerned

vored parallel letterwise recognition, which is widely accepted by cognitive

Typography is modulated by orthography and linguistics, word structures, word

Legibility can also be compromised by letterspacing, word spacing, or leading that

also is subject to specific cultural conventions. For example, in French it is cus-

lines of text, making it easier for the eye to distinguish one line from the next, or

frequencies, morphology, phonetic constructs and linguistic syntax. Typography

tomary to insert a non-breaking space before a colon (:) or semicolon (;) in a sen-

tence, while in English it is not. .

Readability and legibility are often confused. “Legibility is the quality of the type-

face design and readability with the design of the printed page. Designers aim to achieve excellence in both.

is too tight or too loose. It can be improved when generous vertical space separates previous line. Poorly designed fonts and those that are too tightly or loosely fitted can also result in poor legibility.

Typography is an element of all printed material. Periodical publications, espe-

cially newspapers and magazines, use typographical elements to achieve an attrac-

tive, distinctive appearance, to aid readers in navigating the publication, and in

some cases for dramatic effect. By formulating a style guide, a periodical stan-

"The typeface chosen should be legible, that is, it should be read without effort.

dardizes on a relatively small collection of typefaces, each used for specific ele-

matter of typeface design. Generally speaking, typefaces that are true to the basic

boldface, large and small capital letters, colors, and other typographic features.

Sometimes legibility is simply a matter of type size; more often, however, it is a

letterforms are more legible than typefaces that have been condensed, expanded, embellished, or abstracted.

"However, even a legible typeface can become unreadable through poor setting

and placement, just as a less legible typeface can be made more readable through good design."[2]

Studies of legibility have examined a wide range of factors including type size and

type design. For example, comparing serif vs. sans serif type, italic type vs. roman

type, line length, line spacing, color contrast, the design of right-hand edge (for example, justification, straight right hand edge) vs. ranged left, and whether text is

ments within the publication, and makes consistent use of type sizes, italic,

Some publications, such as The Guardian and The Economist, go so far as to com-

mission a type designer to create bespoke (custom tailored) typefaces for their ex-

clusive use.

Different periodical publications design their publications, including their typog-

raphy, to achieve a particular tone or style. For example, USAToday uses a bold,

colorful, and comparatively modern style through their use of a variety of type-

faces and colors; type sizes vary widely, and the newspaper's name is placed on a

colored background. In contrast, the New York Times use a more traditional approach, with fewer colors, less typeface variation, and more columns.

hyphenated.

Especially on the front page of newspapers and on magazine covers, headlines are

Legibility research was published from the late nineteenth century on, but the

masthead.

overall finding has been that the reading process is remarkably robust, and that

often set in larger display typefaces to attract attention, and are placed near the


In traditional typography, text is composed to create a readable, coherent,

and visually satisfying whole that works invisibly, without the awareness of

and that significant differences are hard to find. So comparative studies of

seriffed vs. sans serif type, or justified vs. unjustified type, have failed to set-

the reader. Even distribution with a minimum of distractions and anomalies

tle the argument over which is best.[citation needed]

Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of text typography—prose

scores used to check for effectiveness (that is, not a rushed or careless read).

are aimed at producing clarity and transparency.

fiction, non-fiction, editorial, educational, religious, scientific, spiritual and

commercial writing all have differing characteristics and requirements. For

historic material, established text typefaces are frequently chosen according

to a scheme of historical genre acquired by a long process of accretion, with considerable overlap between historical periods.

Legibility is usually measured through speed of reading, with comprehension

For example, Miles Tinker, who published numerous studies from the 1930s

to the 1960s, used a speed of reading test that required participants to spot

incongruous words as an effectiveness filter.

These days, legibility research tends to be limited to critical issues, or the

testing of specific design solutions (for example, when new typefaces are de-

Contemporary books are more likely to be set with state-of-the-art seriffed

veloped). Examples of critical issues include typefaces (also called fonts) for

sign arts, which are closely based on traditional models such as those of Nico-

conditions where legibility may make a key difference.

Aldine typefaces), and Claude Garamond. With their more specialized re-

Much of the legibility research literature is somewhat atheoretical — various

"text romans" or "book romans" with design values echoing present-day delas Jenson, Francesco Griffo (a punchcutter who created the model for

people with visual impairment, and typefaces for highway signs, or for other

quirements, newspapers and magazines rely on compact, tightly-fitted text

factors were tested individually or in combination (inevitably so, as the dif-

readability and efficient use of page space. Sans serif text fonts are often used

sence of a model of reading or visual perception. Some typographers believe

rent fashion is to pair sans serif type for headings with a high-performance

that the theory of parallel letterwise recognition is either wrong, less impor-

The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and the interplay of text with

Studies distinguishing between Bouma recognition and parallel letterwise

"feel" or "resonance" to the subject matter. With printed media typogra-

read, have favored parallel letterwise recognition, which is widely accepted

romans specially designed for the task, which offer maximum flexibility,

for introductory paragraphs, incidental text and whole short articles. A cur-

seriffed font of matching style for the text of an article.

white space of the page and other graphic elements combine to impart a

phers are also concerned with binding margins, paper selection and printing methods.

Typography is modulated by orthography and linguistics, word structures,

word frequencies, morphology, phonetic constructs and linguistic syntax. Typography also is subject to specific cultural conventions. For example, in

French it is customary to insert a non-breaking space before a colon (:) or semicolon (;) in a sentence, while in English it is not. .

Readability and legibility are often confused. “Legibility is the quality of the typeface design and readability with the design of the printed page. Design-

ferent factors are interdependent), but many tests were carried out in the ab-

that the overall word shape (Bouma) is very important in readability, and

tant, or not the entire picture.

recognition with regard to how people actually recognize words when they

by cognitive psychologists.[citation needed]

Legibility can also be compromised by letterspacing, word spacing, or leading that is too tight or too loose. It can be improved when generous vertical

space separates lines of text, making it easier for the eye to distinguish one

line from the next, or previous line. Poorly designed fonts and those that are too tightly or loosely fitted can also result in poor legibility.

Typography is an element of all printed material. Periodical publications, es-

pecially newspapers and magazines, use typographical elements to achieve an

attractive, distinctive appearance, to aid readers in navigating the publica-

ers aim to achieve excellence in both.

tion, and in some cases for dramatic effect. By formulating a style guide, a

"The typeface chosen should be legible, that is, it should be read without ef-

for specific elements within the publication, and makes consistent use of type

fort. Sometimes legibility is simply a matter of type size; more often, how-

ever, it is a matter of typeface design. Generally speaking, typefaces that are true to the basic letterforms are more legible than typefaces that have been

periodical standardizes on a relatively small collection of typefaces, each used sizes, italic, boldface, large and small capital letters, colors, and other typo-

graphic features. Some publications, such as The Guardian and The Econo-

mist, go so far as to commission a type designer to create bespoke (custom

condensed, expanded, embellished, or abstracted.

tailored) typefaces for their exclusive use.

"However, even a legible typeface can become unreadable through poor set-

Different periodical publications design their publications, including their ty-

through good design."[2]

a bold, colorful, and comparatively modern style through their use of a vari-

ting and placement, just as a less legible typeface can be made more readable

pography, to achieve a particular tone or style. For example, USAToday uses

ety of typefaces and colors; type sizes vary widely, and the newspaper's name

Studies of legibility have examined a wide range of factors including type size

is placed on a colored background. In contrast, the New York Times use a

vs. roman type, line length, line spacing, color contrast, the design of right-

more columns.

and type design. For example, comparing serif vs. sans serif type, italic type hand edge (for example, justification, straight right hand edge) vs. ranged

more traditional approach, with fewer colors, less typeface variation, and

left, and whether text is hyphenated.

Especially on the front page of newspapers and on magazine covers, head-

Legibility research was published from the late nineteenth century on, but

placed near the masthead.

the overall finding has been that the reading process is remarkably robust,

lines are often set in larger display typefaces to attract attention, and are


In traditional typography, text is composed to create a readable, coher-

robust, and that significant differences are hard to find. So comparative

awareness of the reader. Even distribution with a minimum of distrac-

have failed to settle the argument over which is best.[citation needed]

Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of text typography—

hension scores used to check for effectiveness (that is, not a rushed or

ent, and visually satisfying whole that works invisibly, without the

tions and anomalies are aimed at producing clarity and transparency.

studies of seriffed vs. sans serif type, or justified vs. unjustified type,

Legibility is usually measured through speed of reading, with compre-

prose fiction, non-fiction, editorial, educational, religious, scientific, spir-

careless read). For example, Miles Tinker, who published numerous

requirements. For historic material, established text typefaces are fre-

quired participants to spot incongruous words as an effectiveness filter.

long process of accretion, with considerable overlap between historical

These days, legibility research tends to be limited to critical issues, or the

itual and commercial writing all have differing characteristics and

quently chosen according to a scheme of historical genre acquired by a

periods.

Contemporary books are more likely to be set with state-of-the-art ser-

iffed "text romans" or "book romans" with design values echoing present-day design arts, which are closely based on traditional models such

as those of Nicolas Jenson, Francesco Griffo (a punchcutter who created

the model for Aldine typefaces), and Claude Garamond. With their more

specialized requirements, newspapers and magazines rely on compact,

tightly-fitted text romans specially designed for the task, which offer

studies from the 1930s to the 1960s, used a speed of reading test that re-

testing of specific design solutions (for example, when new typefaces are developed). Examples of critical issues include typefaces (also called

fonts) for people with visual impairment, and typefaces for highway

signs, or for other conditions where legibility may make a key difference. Much of the legibility research literature is somewhat atheoretical —

various factors were tested individually or in combination (inevitably so, as the different factors are interdependent), but many tests were carried

out in the absence of a model of reading or visual perception. Some ty-

maximum flexibility, readability and efficient use of page space. Sans

pographers believe that the overall word shape (Bouma) is very impor-

text and whole short articles. A current fashion is to pair sans serif type

is either wrong, less important, or not the entire picture.

serif text fonts are often used for introductory paragraphs, incidental

for headings with a high-performance seriffed font of matching style for the text of an article.

The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and the interplay of text with

white space of the page and other graphic elements combine to impart a "feel" or "resonance" to the subject matter. With printed media typographers are also concerned with binding margins, paper selection and

tant in readability, and that the theory of parallel letterwise recognition Studies distinguishing between Bouma recognition and parallel letter-

wise recognition with regard to how people actually recognize words

when they read, have favored parallel letterwise recognition, which is widely accepted by cognitive psychologists.[citation needed]

Legibility can also be compromised by letterspacing, word spacing, or

printing methods.

leading that is too tight or too loose. It can be improved when generous

Typography is modulated by orthography and linguistics, word struc-

tinguish one line from the next, or previous line. Poorly designed fonts

syntax. Typography also is subject to specific cultural conventions. For

bility.

a colon (:) or semicolon (;) in a sentence, while in English it is not.

Typography is an element of all printed material. Periodical publica-

Readability and legibility are often confused. “Legibility is the quality of

to achieve an attractive, distinctive appearance, to aid readers in navi-

tures, word frequencies, morphology, phonetic constructs and linguistic

example, in French it is customary to insert a non-breaking space before .

the typeface design and readability with the design of the printed page.

Designers aim to achieve excellence in both.

"The typeface chosen should be legible, that is, it should be read without

vertical space separates lines of text, making it easier for the eye to disand those that are too tightly or loosely fitted can also result in poor legi-

tions, especially newspapers and magazines, use typographical elements

gating the publication, and in some cases for dramatic effect. By formu-

lating a style guide, a periodical standardizes on a relatively small

collection of typefaces, each used for specific elements within the publi-

cation, and makes consistent use of type sizes, italic, boldface, large and

effort. Sometimes legibility is simply a matter of type size; more often,

small capital letters, colors, and other typographic features. Some publi-

that are true to the basic letterforms are more legible than typefaces that

mission a type designer to create bespoke (custom tailored) typefaces for

however, it is a matter of typeface design. Generally speaking, typefaces have been condensed, expanded, embellished, or abstracted.

cations, such as The Guardian and The Economist, go so far as to comtheir exclusive use.

"However, even a legible typeface can become unreadable through poor

Different periodical publications design their publications, including

readable through good design."[2]

AToday uses a bold, colorful, and comparatively modern style through

setting and placement, just as a less legible typeface can be made more Studies of legibility have examined a wide range of factors including

type size and type design. For example, comparing serif vs. sans serif

their typography, to achieve a particular tone or style. For example, US-

their use of a variety of typefaces and colors; type sizes vary widely, and

the newspaper's name is placed on a colored background. In contrast,

the New York Times use a more traditional approach, with fewer colors,

type, italic type vs. roman type, line length, line spacing, color contrast,

less typeface variation, and more columns.

hand edge) vs. ranged left, and whether text is hyphenated.

Especially on the front page of newspapers and on magazine covers,

the design of right-hand edge (for example, justification, straight right Legibility research was published from the late nineteenth century on,

but the overall finding has been that the reading process is remarkably

headlines are often set in larger display typefaces to attract attention,

and are placed near the masthead.


In traditional typography, text is composed to create a readable, coherent, and visually satisfying whole that works invisibly, without the awareness of the reader. Even distribution with a minimum of distractions and anomalies are aimed at producing clarity and transparency. Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of text typography— prose fiction, non-fiction, editorial, educational, religious, scientific, spiritual and commercial writing all have differing characteristics and requirements. For historic material, established text typefaces are frequently chosen according to a scheme of historical genre acquired by a long process of accretion, with considerable overlap between historical periods. Contemporary books are more likely to be set with state-of-the-art seriffed "text romans" or "book romans" with design values echoing present-day design arts, which are closely based on traditional models such as those of Nicolas Jenson, Francesco Griffo (a punchcutter who created the model for Aldine typefaces), and Claude Garamond. With their more specialized requirements, newspapers and magazines rely on compact, tightly-fitted text romans specially designed for the task, which offer maximum flexibility, readability and efficient use of page space. Sans serif text fonts are often used for introductory paragraphs, incidental text and whole short articles. A current fashion is to pair sans serif type for headings with a high-performance seriffed font of matching style for the text of an article.

The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and the interplay of text with white space of the page and other graphic elements combine to impart a "feel" or "resonance" to the subject matter. With printed media typographers are also concerned with binding margins, paper selection and printing methods.

Typography is modulated by orthography and linguistics, word structures, word frequencies, morphology, phonetic constructs and linguistic syntax. Typography also is subject to specific cultural conventions. For example, in French it is customary to insert a nonbreaking space before a colon (:) or semicolon (;) in a sentence, while in English it is not. . Readability and legibility are often confused. “Legibility is the quality of the typeface design and readability with the design of the printed page. Designers aim to achieve excellence in both.

"The typeface chosen should be legible, that is, it should be read without effort. Sometimes legibility is simply a matter of type size; more often, however, it is a matter of typeface design. Generally speaking, typefaces that are true to the basic letterforms are more legible than typefaces that have been condensed, expanded, embellished, or abstracted. "However, even a legible typeface can become unreadable through poor setting and placement, just as a less legible typeface can be made more readable through good design."[2]

Studies of legibility have examined a wide range of factors including type size and type design. For example, comparing serif vs. sans serif type, italic type vs. roman type, line length, line spacing, color contrast, the design of right-hand edge (for example, justification, straight right hand edge) vs. ranged left, and whether text is hyphenated. Legibility research was published from the late nineteenth century on, but the overall finding has been that the reading process is re-

markably robust, and that significant differences are hard to find. So comparative studies of seriffed vs. sans serif type, or justified vs. unjustified type, have failed to settle the argument over which is best.[citation needed]

Legibility is usually measured through speed of reading, with comprehension scores used to check for effectiveness (that is, not a rushed or careless read). For example, Miles Tinker, who published numerous studies from the 1930s to the 1960s, used a speed of reading test that required participants to spot incongruous words as an effectiveness filter.

These days, legibility research tends to be limited to critical issues, or the testing of specific design solutions (for example, when new typefaces are developed). Examples of critical issues include typefaces (also called fonts) for people with visual impairment, and typefaces for highway signs, or for other conditions where legibility may make a key difference.

Much of the legibility research literature is somewhat atheoretical — various factors were tested individually or in combination (inevitably so, as the different factors are interdependent), but many tests were carried out in the absence of a model of reading or visual perception. Some typographers believe that the overall word shape (Bouma) is very important in readability, and that the theory of parallel letterwise recognition is either wrong, less important, or not the entire picture. Studies distinguishing between Bouma recognition and parallel letterwise recognition with regard to how people actually recognize words when they read, have favored parallel letterwise recognition, which is widely accepted by cognitive psychologists.[citation needed]

Legibility can also be compromised by letterspacing, word spacing, or leading that is too tight or too loose. It can be improved when generous vertical space separates lines of text, making it easier for the eye to distinguish one line from the next, or previous line. Poorly designed fonts and those that are too tightly or loosely fitted can also result in poor legibility.

Typography is an element of all printed material. Periodical publications, especially newspapers and magazines, use typographical elements to achieve an attractive, distinctive appearance, to aid readers in navigating the publication, and in some cases for dramatic effect. By formulating a style guide, a periodical standardizes on a relatively small collection of typefaces, each used for specific elements within the publication, and makes consistent use of type sizes, italic, boldface, large and small capital letters, colors, and other typographic features. Some publications, such as The Guardian and The Economist, go so far as to commission a type designer to create bespoke (custom tailored) typefaces for their exclusive use. Different periodical publications design their publications, including their typography, to achieve a particular tone or style. For example, USAToday uses a bold, colorful, and comparatively modern style through their use of a variety of typefaces and colors; type sizes vary widely, and the newspaper's name is placed on a colored background. In contrast, the New York Times use a more traditional approach, with fewer colors, less typeface variation, and more columns. Especially on the front page of newspapers and on magazine covers, headlines are often set in larger display typefaces to attract attention, and are placed near the masthead.


In traditional typography, text is composed to create a readable, coherent, and

visually satisfying whole that works invisibly, without the awareness of the

reader. Even distribution with a minimum of distractions and anomalies are

aimed at producing clarity and transparency.

Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of text typography—prose fic-

tion, non-fiction, editorial, educational, religious, scientific, spiritual and com-

mercial writing all have differing characteristics and requirements. For historic

significant differences are hard to find. So comparative studies of seriffed vs.

sans serif type, or justified vs. unjustified type, have failed to settle the argument over which is best.[citation needed]

Legibility is usually measured through speed of reading, with comprehension

scores used to check for effectiveness (that is, not a rushed or careless read).

For example, Miles Tinker, who published numerous studies from the 1930s to

the 1960s, used a speed of reading test that required participants to spot incon-

material, established text typefaces are frequently chosen according to a

gruous words as an effectiveness filter.

siderable overlap between historical periods.

These days, legibility research tends to be limited to critical issues, or the test-

scheme of historical genre acquired by a long process of accretion, with con-

Contemporary books are more likely to be set with state-of-the-art seriffed "text

romans" or "book romans" with design values echoing present-day design arts,

which are closely based on traditional models such as those of Nicolas Jenson,

Francesco Griffo (a punchcutter who created the model for Aldine typefaces),

and Claude Garamond. With their more specialized requirements, newspapers

and magazines rely on compact, tightly-fitted text romans specially designed

for the task, which offer maximum flexibility, readability and efficient use of

page space. Sans serif text fonts are often used for introductory paragraphs, incidental text and whole short articles. A current fashion is to pair sans serif type

for headings with a high-performance seriffed font of matching style for the text

of an article.

The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and the interplay of text with white

space of the page and other graphic elements combine to impart a "feel" or

ing of specific design solutions (for example, when new typefaces are developed). Examples of critical issues include typefaces (also called fonts) for

people with visual impairment, and typefaces for highway signs, or for other conditions where legibility may make a key difference.

Much of the legibility research literature is somewhat atheoretical — various

factors were tested individually or in combination (inevitably so, as the different

factors are interdependent), but many tests were carried out in the absence of a model of reading or visual perception. Some typographers believe that the

overall word shape (Bouma) is very important in readability, and that the theory

of parallel letterwise recognition is either wrong, less important, or not the entire

picture.

Studies distinguishing between Bouma recognition and parallel letterwise

recognition with regard to how people actually recognize words when they

"resonance" to the subject matter. With printed media typographers are also

read, have favored parallel letterwise recognition, which is widely accepted by

Typography is modulated by orthography and linguistics, word structures, word

Legibility can also be compromised by letterspacing, word spacing, or leading

concerned with binding margins, paper selection and printing methods.

frequencies, morphology, phonetic constructs and linguistic syntax. Typography

also is subject to specific cultural conventions. For example, in French it is customary to insert a non-breaking space before a colon (:) or semicolon (;) in a

sentence, while in English it is not. .

Readability and legibility are often confused. “Legibility is the quality of the

typeface design and readability with the design of the printed page. Designers

cognitive psychologists.[citation needed]

that is too tight or too loose. It can be improved when generous vertical space

separates lines of text, making it easier for the eye to distinguish one line from

the next, or previous line. Poorly designed fonts and those that are too tightly or loosely fitted can also result in poor legibility.

Typography is an element of all printed material. Periodical publications, espe-

cially newspapers and magazines, use typographical elements to achieve an

aim to achieve excellence in both.

attractive, distinctive appearance, to aid readers in navigating the publication,

"The typeface chosen should be legible, that is, it should be read without effort.

standardizes on a relatively small collection of typefaces, each used for specific

Sometimes legibility is simply a matter of type size; more often, however, it is a

and in some cases for dramatic effect. By formulating a style guide, a periodical elements within the publication, and makes consistent use of type sizes, italic,

matter of typeface design. Generally speaking, typefaces that are true to the

boldface, large and small capital letters, colors, and other typographic features.

expanded, embellished, or abstracted.

commission a type designer to create bespoke (custom tailored) typefaces for

basic letterforms are more legible than typefaces that have been condensed,

"However, even a legible typeface can become unreadable through poor set-

ting and placement, just as a less legible typeface can be made more readable through good design."[2]

Studies of legibility have examined a wide range of factors including type size

Some publications, such as The Guardian and The Economist, go so far as to their exclusive use.

Different periodical publications design their publications, including their typog-

raphy, to achieve a particular tone or style. For example, USAToday uses a

bold, colorful, and comparatively modern style through their use of a variety of typefaces and colors; type sizes vary widely, and the newspaper's name is

and type design. For example, comparing serif vs. sans serif type, italic type vs.

placed on a colored background. In contrast, the New York Times use a more

edge (for example, justification, straight right hand edge) vs. ranged left, and

columns.

roman type, line length, line spacing, color contrast, the design of right-hand

whether text is hyphenated.

Legibility research was published from the late nineteenth century on, but the

overall finding has been that the reading process is remarkably robust, and that

traditional approach, with fewer colors, less typeface variation, and more

Especially on the front page of newspapers and on magazine covers, headlines

are often set in larger display typefaces to attract attention, and are placed near the masthead.


In traditional typography, text is composed to create a readable, coherent,

and visually satisfying whole that works invisibly, without the awareness of

the reader. Even distribution with a minimum of distractions and anomalies are aimed at producing clarity and transparency.

Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of text typography—prose

fiction, non-fiction, editorial, educational, religious, scientific, spiritual and

commercial writing all have differing characteristics and requirements. For

and that significant differences are hard to find. So comparative studies of

seriffed vs. sans serif type, or justified vs. unjustified type, have failed to

settle the argument over which is best.[citation needed]

Legibility is usually measured through speed of reading, with comprehension scores used to check for effectiveness (that is, not a rushed or careless read). For example, Miles Tinker, who published numerous studies

from the 1930s to the 1960s, used a speed of reading test that required

historic material, established text typefaces are frequently chosen accord-

participants to spot incongruous words as an effectiveness filter.

tion, with considerable overlap between historical periods.

These days, legibility research tends to be limited to critical issues, or the

ing to a scheme of historical genre acquired by a long process of accre-

Contemporary books are more likely to be set with state-of-the-art seriffed "text romans" or "book romans" with design values echoing present-day

testing of specific design solutions (for example, when new typefaces are

developed). Examples of critical issues include typefaces (also called

fonts) for people with visual impairment, and typefaces for highway signs,

design arts, which are closely based on traditional models such as those

or for other conditions where legibility may make a key difference.

for Aldine typefaces), and Claude Garamond. With their more specialized

Much of the legibility research literature is somewhat atheoretical — vari-

of Nicolas Jenson, Francesco Griffo (a punchcutter who created the model requirements, newspapers and magazines rely on compact, tightly-fitted

ous factors were tested individually or in combination (inevitably so, as the

ity, readability and efficient use of page space. Sans serif text fonts are

the absence of a model of reading or visual perception. Some typogra-

ticles. A current fashion is to pair sans serif type for headings with a high-

readability, and that the theory of parallel letterwise recognition is either

text romans specially designed for the task, which offer maximum flexibil-

often used for introductory paragraphs, incidental text and whole short ar-

performance seriffed font of matching style for the text of an article.

The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and the interplay of text with

different factors are interdependent), but many tests were carried out in

phers believe that the overall word shape (Bouma) is very important in

wrong, less important, or not the entire picture.

Studies distinguishing between Bouma recognition and parallel letterwise

white space of the page and other graphic elements combine to impart a

recognition with regard to how people actually recognize words when they

phers are also concerned with binding margins, paper selection and print-

cepted by cognitive psychologists.[citation needed]

"feel" or "resonance" to the subject matter. With printed media typogra-

ing methods.

read, have favored parallel letterwise recognition, which is widely ac-

Legibility can also be compromised by letterspacing, word spacing, or

Typography is modulated by orthography and linguistics, word structures,

leading that is too tight or too loose. It can be improved when generous

Typography also is subject to specific cultural conventions. For example,

guish one line from the next, or previous line. Poorly designed fonts and

word frequencies, morphology, phonetic constructs and linguistic syntax.

in French it is customary to insert a non-breaking space before a colon (:) or semicolon (;) in a sentence, while in English it is not. .

Readability and legibility are often confused. “Legibility is the quality of the

vertical space separates lines of text, making it easier for the eye to distinthose that are too tightly or loosely fitted can also result in poor legibility.

Typography is an element of all printed material. Periodical publications,

especially newspapers and magazines, use typographical elements to

typeface design and readability with the design of the printed page. De-

achieve an attractive, distinctive appearance, to aid readers in navigating

"The typeface chosen should be legible, that is, it should be read without

typefaces, each used for specific elements within the publication, and

signers aim to achieve excellence in both.

effort. Sometimes legibility is simply a matter of type size; more often,

however, it is a matter of typeface design. Generally speaking, typefaces

that are true to the basic letterforms are more legible than typefaces that have been condensed, expanded, embellished, or abstracted.

"However, even a legible typeface can become unreadable through poor setting and placement, just as a less legible typeface can be made more

the publication, and in some cases for dramatic effect. By formulating a

style guide, a periodical standardizes on a relatively small collection of

makes consistent use of type sizes, italic, boldface, large and small capital letters, colors, and other typographic features. Some publications, such as

The Guardian and The Economist, go so far as to commission a type de-

signer to create bespoke (custom tailored) typefaces for their exclusive use.

Different periodical publications design their publications, including their

readable through good design."[2]

typography, to achieve a particular tone or style. For example, USAToday

Studies of legibility have examined a wide range of factors including type

a variety of typefaces and colors; type sizes vary widely, and the newspa-

size and type design. For example, comparing serif vs. sans serif type,

italic type vs. roman type, line length, line spacing, color contrast, the design of right-hand edge (for example, justification, straight right hand

edge) vs. ranged left, and whether text is hyphenated.

Legibility research was published from the late nineteenth century on, but

the overall finding has been that the reading process is remarkably robust,

uses a bold, colorful, and comparatively modern style through their use of

per's name is placed on a colored background. In contrast, the New York

Times use a more traditional approach, with fewer colors, less typeface

variation, and more columns.

Especially on the front page of newspapers and on magazine covers,

headlines are often set in larger display typefaces to attract attention, and are placed near the masthead.


In traditional typography, text is composed to create a readable, coherent, and visually satisfying whole that works invisibly, without the awareness of the reader. Even distribution with a minimum of distractions and anomalies are aimed at producing clarity and transparency.

ably robust, and that significant differences are hard to find. So comparative studies of seriffed vs. sans serif type, or justified vs. unjustified type, have failed to settle the argument over which is best.[citation needed]

Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of text typography— prose fiction, non-fiction, editorial, educational, religious, scientific, spiritual and commercial writing all have differing characteristics and requirements. For historic material, established text typefaces are frequently chosen according to a scheme of historical genre acquired by a long process of accretion, with considerable overlap between historical periods.

Legibility is usually measured through speed of reading, with comprehension scores used to check for effectiveness (that is, not a rushed or careless read). For example, Miles Tinker, who published numerous studies from the 1930s to the 1960s, used a speed of reading test that required participants to spot incongruous words as an effectiveness filter.

Contemporary books are more likely to be set with state-of-the-art seriffed "text romans" or "book romans" with design values echoing present-day design arts, which are closely based on traditional models such as those of Nicolas Jenson, Francesco Griffo (a punchcutter who created the model for Aldine typefaces), and Claude Garamond. With their more specialized requirements, newspapers and magazines rely on compact, tightly-fitted text romans specially designed for the task, which offer maximum flexibility, readability and efficient use of page space. Sans serif text fonts are often used for introductory paragraphs, incidental text and whole short articles. A current fashion is to pair sans serif type for headings with a high-performance seriffed font of matching style for the text of an article. The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and the interplay of text with white space of the page and other graphic elements combine to impart a "feel" or "resonance" to the subject matter. With printed media typographers are also concerned with binding margins, paper selection and printing methods. Typography is modulated by orthography and linguistics, word structures, word frequencies, morphology, phonetic constructs and linguistic syntax. Typography also is subject to specific cultural conventions. For example, in French it is customary to insert a non-breaking space before a colon (:) or semicolon (;) in a sentence, while in English it is not. . Readability and legibility are often confused. “Legibility is the quality of the typeface design and readability with the design of the printed page. Designers aim to achieve excellence in both. "The typeface chosen should be legible, that is, it should be read without effort. Sometimes legibility is simply a matter of type size; more often, however, it is a matter of typeface design. Generally speaking, typefaces that are true to the basic letterforms are more legible than typefaces that have been condensed, expanded, embellished, or abstracted. "However, even a legible typeface can become unreadable through poor setting and placement, just as a less legible typeface can be made more readable through good design."[2] Studies of legibility have examined a wide range of factors including type size and type design. For example, comparing serif vs. sans serif type, italic type vs. roman type, line length, line spacing, color contrast, the design of right-hand edge (for example, justification, straight right hand edge) vs. ranged left, and whether text is hyphenated. Legibility research was published from the late nineteenth century on, but the overall finding has been that the reading process is remark-

These days, legibility research tends to be limited to critical issues, or the testing of specific design solutions (for example, when new typefaces are developed). Examples of critical issues include typefaces (also called fonts) for people with visual impairment, and typefaces for highway signs, or for other conditions where legibility may make a key difference. Much of the legibility research literature is somewhat atheoretical — various factors were tested individually or in combination (inevitably so, as the different factors are interdependent), but many tests were carried out in the absence of a model of reading or visual perception. Some typographers believe that the overall word shape (Bouma) is very important in readability, and that the theory of parallel letterwise recognition is either wrong, less important, or not the entire picture. Studies distinguishing between Bouma recognition and parallel letterwise recognition with regard to how people actually recognize words when they read, have favored parallel letterwise recognition, which is widely accepted by cognitive psychologists.[citation needed] Legibility can also be compromised by letterspacing, word spacing, or leading that is too tight or too loose. It can be improved when generous vertical space separates lines of text, making it easier for the eye to distinguish one line from the next, or previous line. Poorly designed fonts and those that are too tightly or loosely fitted can also result in poor legibility. Typography is an element of all printed material. Periodical publications, especially newspapers and magazines, use typographical elements to achieve an attractive, distinctive appearance, to aid readers in navigating the publication, and in some cases for dramatic effect. By formulating a style guide, a periodical standardizes on a relatively small collection of typefaces, each used for specific elements within the publication, and makes consistent use of type sizes, italic, boldface, large and small capital letters, colors, and other typographic features. Some publications, such as The Guardian and The Economist, go so far as to commission a type designer to create bespoke (custom tailored) typefaces for their exclusive use. Different periodical publications design their publications, including their typography, to achieve a particular tone or style. For example, USAToday uses a bold, colorful, and comparatively modern style through their use of a variety of typefaces and colors; type sizes vary widely, and the newspaper's name is placed on a colored background. In contrast, the New York Times use a more traditional approach, with fewer colors, less typeface variation, and more columns. Especially on the front page of newspapers and on magazine covers, headlines are often set in larger display typefaces to attract attention, and are placed near the masthead.


In traditional typography, text is composed to create a readable, coherent, and visually satisfying whole that works invisibly, without the awareness of the reader. Even distribution with a minimum of distractions and anomalies are aimed at producing clarity and transparency. Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of text typography—prose fiction, non-fiction, editorial, educational, religious, scientific, spiritual and commercial writing all have differing characteristics and requirements. For historic material, established text typefaces are frequently chosen according to a scheme of historical genre acquired by a long process of accretion, with considerable overlap between historical periods.

Contemporary books are more likely to be set with state-of-the-art seriffed "text romans" or "book romans" with design values echoing present-day design arts, which are closely based on traditional models such as those of Nicolas Jenson, Francesco Griffo (a punchcutter who created the model for Aldine typefaces), and Claude Garamond. With their more specialized requirements, newspapers and magazines rely on compact, tightly-fitted text romans specially designed for the task, which offer maximum flexibility, readability and efficient use of page space. Sans serif text fonts are often used for introductory paragraphs, incidental text and whole short articles. A current fashion is to pair sans serif type for headings with a high-performance seriffed font of matching style for the text of an article. The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and the interplay of text with white space of the page and other graphic elements combine to impart a "feel" or "resonance" to the subject matter. With printed media typographers are also concerned with binding margins, paper selection and printing methods.

Typography is modulated by orthography and linguistics, word structures, word frequencies, morphology, phonetic constructs and linguistic syntax. Typography also is subject to specific cultural conventions. For example, in French it is customary to insert a non-breaking space before a colon (:) or semicolon (;) in a sentence, while in English it is not. . Readability and legibility are often confused. “Legibility is the quality of the typeface design and readability with the design of the printed page. Designers aim to achieve excellence in both.

"The typeface chosen should be legible, that is, it should be read without effort. Sometimes legibility is simply a matter of type size; more often, however, it is a matter of typeface design. Generally speaking, typefaces that are true to the basic letterforms are more legible than typefaces that have been condensed, expanded, embellished, or abstracted.

"However, even a legible typeface can become unreadable through poor setting and placement, just as a less legible typeface can be made more readable through good design."[2]

Studies of legibility have examined a wide range of factors including type size and type design. For example, comparing serif vs. sans serif type, italic type vs. roman type, line length, line spacing, color contrast, the design of right-hand edge (for example, justification, straight right hand edge) vs. ranged left, and whether text is hyphenated. Legibility research was published from the late nineteenth century on, but the overall finding has been that the reading process is remarkably robust, and that significant differences are hard to find.

So comparative studies of seriffed vs. sans serif type, or justified vs. unjustified type, have failed to settle the argument over which is best.[citation needed]

Legibility is usually measured through speed of reading, with comprehension scores used to check for effectiveness (that is, not a rushed or careless read). For example, Miles Tinker, who published numerous studies from the 1930s to the 1960s, used a speed of reading test that required participants to spot incongruous words as an effectiveness filter.

These days, legibility research tends to be limited to critical issues, or the testing of specific design solutions (for example, when new typefaces are developed). Examples of critical issues include typefaces (also called fonts) for people with visual impairment, and typefaces for highway signs, or for other conditions where legibility may make a key difference.

Much of the legibility research literature is somewhat atheoretical — various factors were tested individually or in combination (inevitably so, as the different factors are interdependent), but many tests were carried out in the absence of a model of reading or visual perception. Some typographers believe that the overall word shape (Bouma) is very important in readability, and that the theory of parallel letterwise recognition is either wrong, less important, or not the entire picture. Studies distinguishing between Bouma recognition and parallel letterwise recognition with regard to how people actually recognize words when they read, have favored parallel letterwise recognition, which is widely accepted by cognitive psychologists.[citation needed]

Legibility can also be compromised by letterspacing, word spacing, or leading that is too tight or too loose. It can be improved when generous vertical space separates lines of text, making it easier for the eye to distinguish one line from the next, or previous line. Poorly designed fonts and those that are too tightly or loosely fitted can also result in poor legibility.

Typography is an element of all printed material. Periodical publications, especially newspapers and magazines, use typographical elements to achieve an attractive, distinctive appearance, to aid readers in navigating the publication, and in some cases for dramatic effect. By formulating a style guide, a periodical standardizes on a relatively small collection of typefaces, each used for specific elements within the publication, and makes consistent use of type sizes, italic, boldface, large and small capital letters, colors, and other typographic features. Some publications, such as The Guardian and The Economist, go so far as to commission a type designer to create bespoke (custom tailored) typefaces for their exclusive use. Different periodical publications design their publications, including their typography, to achieve a particular tone or style. For example, USAToday uses a bold, colorful, and comparatively modern style through their use of a variety of typefaces and colors; type sizes vary widely, and the newspaper's name is placed on a colored background. In contrast, the New York Times use a more traditional approach, with fewer colors, less typeface variation, and more columns.

Especially on the front page of newspapers and on magazine covers, headlines are often set in larger display typefaces to attract attention, and are placed near the masthead.


In traditional typography, text is composed to create a readable, coherent,

bust, and that significant differences are hard to find. So comparative

of the reader. Even distribution with a minimum of distractions and anom-

have failed to settle the argument over which is best.[citation needed]

Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of text typography—prose

sion scores used to check for effectiveness (that is, not a rushed or care-

and visually satisfying whole that works invisibly, without the awareness alies are aimed at producing clarity and transparency.

fiction, non-fiction, editorial, educational, religious, scientific, spiritual

and commercial writing all have differing characteristics and require-

ments. For historic material, established text typefaces are frequently chosen according to a scheme of historical genre acquired by a long

process of accretion, with considerable overlap between historical peri-

ods.

Contemporary books are more likely to be set with state-of-the-art ser-

studies of seriffed vs. sans serif type, or justified vs. unjustified type,

Legibility is usually measured through speed of reading, with comprehen-

less read). For example, Miles Tinker, who published numerous studies

from the 1930s to the 1960s, used a speed of reading test that required

participants to spot incongruous words as an effectiveness filter.

These days, legibility research tends to be limited to critical issues, or the

testing of specific design solutions (for example, when new typefaces are

developed). Examples of critical issues include typefaces (also called fonts) for people with visual impairment, and typefaces for highway

iffed "text romans" or "book romans" with design values echoing pres-

signs, or for other conditions where legibility may make a key difference.

as those of Nicolas Jenson, Francesco Griffo (a punchcutter who created

Much of the legibility research literature is somewhat atheoretical — vari-

specialized requirements, newspapers and magazines rely on compact,

the different factors are interdependent), but many tests were carried out

ent-day design arts, which are closely based on traditional models such

the model for Aldine typefaces), and Claude Garamond. With their more

tightly-fitted text romans specially designed for the task, which offer max-

imum flexibility, readability and efficient use of page space. Sans serif

text fonts are often used for introductory paragraphs, incidental text and

whole short articles. A current fashion is to pair sans serif type for headings with a high-performance seriffed font of matching style for the text

of an article.

The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and the interplay of text with

white space of the page and other graphic elements combine to impart a

"feel" or "resonance" to the subject matter. With printed media typogra-

phers are also concerned with binding margins, paper selection and

printing methods.

Typography is modulated by orthography and linguistics, word struc-

tures, word frequencies, morphology, phonetic constructs and linguistic syntax. Typography also is subject to specific cultural conventions. For

example, in French it is customary to insert a non-breaking space before a colon (:) or semicolon (;) in a sentence, while in English it is not.

.

Readability and legibility are often confused. “Legibility is the quality of the typeface design and readability with the design of the printed page.

Designers aim to achieve excellence in both.

ous factors were tested individually or in combination (inevitably so, as

in the absence of a model of reading or visual perception. Some typographers believe that the overall word shape (Bouma) is very important in

readability, and that the theory of parallel letterwise recognition is either

wrong, less important, or not the entire picture.

Studies distinguishing between Bouma recognition and parallel letterwise

recognition with regard to how people actually recognize words when

they read, have favored parallel letterwise recognition, which is widely accepted by cognitive psychologists.[citation needed]

Legibility can also be compromised by letterspacing, word spacing, or

leading that is too tight or too loose. It can be improved when generous

vertical space separates lines of text, making it easier for the eye to dis-

tinguish one line from the next, or previous line. Poorly designed fonts

and those that are too tightly or loosely fitted can also result in poor legi-

bility.

Typography is an element of all printed material. Periodical publications,

especially newspapers and magazines, use typographical elements to

achieve an attractive, distinctive appearance, to aid readers in navigating

the publication, and in some cases for dramatic effect. By formulating a style guide, a periodical standardizes on a relatively small collection of

typefaces, each used for specific elements within the publication, and

"The typeface chosen should be legible, that is, it should be read without

makes consistent use of type sizes, italic, boldface, large and small capi-

however, it is a matter of typeface design. Generally speaking, typefaces

such as The Guardian and The Economist, go so far as to commission a

have been condensed, expanded, embellished, or abstracted.

clusive use.

effort. Sometimes legibility is simply a matter of type size; more often,

that are true to the basic letterforms are more legible than typefaces that

"However, even a legible typeface can become unreadable through poor

setting and placement, just as a less legible typeface can be made more

tal letters, colors, and other typographic features. Some publications,

type designer to create bespoke (custom tailored) typefaces for their ex-

Different periodical publications design their publications, including their

typography, to achieve a particular tone or style. For example, USAToday

readable through good design."[2]

uses a bold, colorful, and comparatively modern style through their use

Studies of legibility have examined a wide range of factors including type

paper's name is placed on a colored background. In contrast, the New

size and type design. For example, comparing serif vs. sans serif type,

italic type vs. roman type, line length, line spacing, color contrast, the de-

sign of right-hand edge (for example, justification, straight right hand

of a variety of typefaces and colors; type sizes vary widely, and the newsYork Times use a more traditional approach, with fewer colors, less typeface variation, and more columns.

edge) vs. ranged left, and whether text is hyphenated.

Especially on the front page of newspapers and on magazine covers,

Legibility research was published from the late nineteenth century on, but

are placed near the masthead.

the overall finding has been that the reading process is remarkably ro-

headlines are often set in larger display typefaces to attract attention, and


In traditional typography, text is composed to create a readable, co-

herent, and visually satisfying whole that works invisibly, without the awareness of the reader. Even distribution with a minimum of dis-

markably robust, and that significant differences are hard to find. So

comparative studies of seriffed vs. sans serif type, or justified vs. un-

justified type, have failed to settle the argument over which is

tractions and anomalies are aimed at producing clarity and trans-

best.[citation needed]

Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of text typography—

prehension scores used to check for effectiveness (that is, not a

parency.

Legibility is usually measured through speed of reading, with com-

prose fiction, non-fiction, editorial, educational, religious, scientific,

rushed or careless read). For example, Miles Tinker, who published

and requirements. For historic material, established text typefaces

ing test that required participants to spot incongruous words as an

spiritual and commercial writing all have differing characteristics

are frequently chosen according to a scheme of historical genre ac-

quired by a long process of accretion, with considerable overlap between historical periods.

Contemporary books are more likely to be set with state-of-the-art

seriffed "text romans" or "book romans" with design values echoing

present-day design arts, which are closely based on traditional mod-

els such as those of Nicolas Jenson, Francesco Griffo (a punchcutter

who created the model for Aldine typefaces), and Claude Garamond.

With their more specialized requirements, newspapers and maga-

zines rely on compact, tightly-fitted text romans specially designed

numerous studies from the 1930s to the 1960s, used a speed of read-

effectiveness filter.

These days, legibility research tends to be limited to critical issues,

or the testing of specific design solutions (for example, when new

typefaces are developed). Examples of critical issues include type-

faces (also called fonts) for people with visual impairment, and typefaces for highway signs, or for other conditions where legibility may make a key difference.

Much of the legibility research literature is somewhat atheoretical —

various factors were tested individually or in combination (inevitably

for the task, which offer maximum flexibility, readability and efficient

so, as the different factors are interdependent), but many tests were

tory paragraphs, incidental text and whole short articles. A current

Some typographers believe that the overall word shape (Bouma) is

use of page space. Sans serif text fonts are often used for introduc-

fashion is to pair sans serif type for headings with a high-perfor-

carried out in the absence of a model of reading or visual perception.

very important in readability, and that the theory of parallel letterwise

mance seriffed font of matching style for the text of an article.

recognition is either wrong, less important, or not the entire picture.

The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and the interplay of text

Studies distinguishing between Bouma recognition and parallel let-

impart a "feel" or "resonance" to the subject matter. With printed

words when they read, have favored parallel letterwise recognition,

with white space of the page and other graphic elements combine to media typographers are also concerned with binding margins, paper

selection and printing methods.

terwise recognition with regard to how people actually recognize which is widely accepted by cognitive psychologists.[citation needed]

Typography is modulated by orthography and linguistics, word

Legibility can also be compromised by letterspacing, word spacing,

linguistic syntax. Typography also is subject to specific cultural con-

erous vertical space separates lines of text, making it easier for the

structures, word frequencies, morphology, phonetic constructs and

ventions. For example, in French it is customary to insert a nonbreaking space before a colon (:) or semicolon (;) in a sentence, while in English it is not.

.

Readability and legibility are often confused. “Legibility is the quality of the typeface design and readability with the design of the printed page. Designers aim to achieve excellence in both.

"The typeface chosen should be legible, that is, it should be read

or leading that is too tight or too loose. It can be improved when geneye to distinguish one line from the next, or previous line. Poorly designed fonts and those that are too tightly or loosely fitted can also result in poor legibility.

Typography is an element of all printed material. Periodical publica-

tions, especially newspapers and magazines, use typographical ele-

ments to achieve an attractive, distinctive appearance, to aid readers

in navigating the publication, and in some cases for dramatic effect.

By formulating a style guide, a periodical standardizes on a relatively

without effort. Sometimes legibility is simply a matter of type size;

small collection of typefaces, each used for specific elements within

speaking, typefaces that are true to the basic letterforms are more

face, large and small capital letters, colors, and other typographic

lished, or abstracted.

mist, go so far as to commission a type designer to create bespoke

more often, however, it is a matter of typeface design. Generally

legible than typefaces that have been condensed, expanded, embel"However, even a legible typeface can become unreadable through poor setting and placement, just as a less legible typeface can be made more readable through good design."[2]

Studies of legibility have examined a wide range of factors including

the publication, and makes consistent use of type sizes, italic, boldfeatures. Some publications, such as The Guardian and The Econo-

(custom tailored) typefaces for their exclusive use.

Different periodical publications design their publications, including their typography, to achieve a particular tone or style. For example,

USAToday uses a bold, colorful, and comparatively modern style through their use of a variety of typefaces and colors; type sizes

type size and type design. For example, comparing serif vs. sans

vary widely, and the newspaper's name is placed on a colored back-

contrast, the design of right-hand edge (for example, justification,

proach, with fewer colors, less typeface variation, and more

serif type, italic type vs. roman type, line length, line spacing, color straight right hand edge) vs. ranged left, and whether text is hyphen-

ated.

Legibility research was published from the late nineteenth century on, but the overall finding has been that the reading process is re-

ground. In contrast, the New York Times use a more traditional apcolumns.

Especially on the front page of newspapers and on magazine covers, headlines are often set in larger display typefaces to attract attention, and are placed near the masthead.


In traditional typography, text is composed to create a readable, coherent, and visually satisfying whole that works invisibly, without the awareness of the reader. Even distribution with a minimum of distractions and anomalies are aimed at producing clarity and transparency.

Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of text typography—prose fiction, non-fiction, editorial, educational, religious, scientific, spiritual and commercial writing all have differing characteristics and requirements. For historic material, established text typefaces are frequently chosen according to a scheme of historical genre acquired by a long process of accretion, with considerable overlap between historical periods.

Contemporary books are more likely to be set with state-of-theart seriffed "text romans" or "book romans" with design values echoing present-day design arts, which are closely based on traditional models such as those of Nicolas Jenson, Francesco Griffo (a punchcutter who created the model for Aldine typefaces), and Claude Garamond. With their more specialized requirements, newspapers and magazines rely on compact, tightly-fitted text romans specially designed for the task, which offer maximum flexibility, readability and efficient use of page space. Sans serif text fonts are often used for introductory paragraphs, incidental text and whole short articles. A current fashion is to pair sans serif type for headings with a high-performance seriffed font of matching style for the text of an article.

The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and the interplay of text with white space of the page and other graphic elements combine to impart a "feel" or "resonance" to the subject matter. With printed media typographers are also concerned with binding margins, paper selection and printing methods.

Typography is modulated by orthography and linguistics, word structures, word frequencies, morphology, phonetic constructs and linguistic syntax. Typography also is subject to specific cultural conventions. For example, in French it is customary to insert a non-breaking space before a colon (:) or semicolon (;) in a sentence, while in English it is not. . Readability and legibility are often confused. “Legibility is the quality of the typeface design and readability with the design of the printed page. Designers aim to achieve excellence in both.

"The typeface chosen should be legible, that is, it should be read without effort. Sometimes legibility is simply a matter of type size; more often, however, it is a matter of typeface design. Generally speaking, typefaces that are true to the basic letterforms are more legible than typefaces that have been condensed, expanded, embellished, or abstracted.

"However, even a legible typeface can become unreadable through poor setting and placement, just as a less legible typeface can be made more readable through good design."[2]

Studies of legibility have examined a wide range of factors including type size and type design. For example, comparing serif vs. sans serif type, italic type vs. roman type, line length, line spacing, color contrast, the design of right-hand edge (for example, justification, straight right hand edge) vs. ranged left, and whether text is hyphenated.

Legibility research was published from the late nineteenth century on, but the overall finding has been that the reading process

is remarkably robust, and that significant differences are hard to find. So comparative studies of seriffed vs. sans serif type, or justified vs. unjustified type, have failed to settle the argument over which is best.[citation needed]

Legibility is usually measured through speed of reading, with comprehension scores used to check for effectiveness (that is, not a rushed or careless read). For example, Miles Tinker, who published numerous studies from the 1930s to the 1960s, used a speed of reading test that required participants to spot incongruous words as an effectiveness filter. These days, legibility research tends to be limited to critical issues, or the testing of specific design solutions (for example, when new typefaces are developed). Examples of critical issues include typefaces (also called fonts) for people with visual impairment, and typefaces for highway signs, or for other conditions where legibility may make a key difference.

Much of the legibility research literature is somewhat atheoretical — various factors were tested individually or in combination (inevitably so, as the different factors are interdependent), but many tests were carried out in the absence of a model of reading or visual perception. Some typographers believe that the overall word shape (Bouma) is very important in readability, and that the theory of parallel letterwise recognition is either wrong, less important, or not the entire picture. Studies distinguishing between Bouma recognition and parallel letterwise recognition with regard to how people actually recognize words when they read, have favored parallel letterwise recognition, which is widely accepted by cognitive psychologists.[citation needed]

Legibility can also be compromised by letterspacing, word spacing, or leading that is too tight or too loose. It can be improved when generous vertical space separates lines of text, making it easier for the eye to distinguish one line from the next, or previous line. Poorly designed fonts and those that are too tightly or loosely fitted can also result in poor legibility.

Typography is an element of all printed material. Periodical publications, especially newspapers and magazines, use typographical elements to achieve an attractive, distinctive appearance, to aid readers in navigating the publication, and in some cases for dramatic effect. By formulating a style guide, a periodical standardizes on a relatively small collection of typefaces, each used for specific elements within the publication, and makes consistent use of type sizes, italic, boldface, large and small capital letters, colors, and other typographic features. Some publications, such as The Guardian and The Economist, go so far as to commission a type designer to create bespoke (custom tailored) typefaces for their exclusive use.

Different periodical publications design their publications, including their typography, to achieve a particular tone or style. For example, USAToday uses a bold, colorful, and comparatively modern style through their use of a variety of typefaces and colors; type sizes vary widely, and the newspaper's name is placed on a colored background. In contrast, the New York Times use a more traditional approach, with fewer colors, less typeface variation, and more columns. Especially on the front page of newspapers and on magazine covers, headlines are often set in larger display typefaces to attract attention, and are placed near the masthead.


In traditional typography, text is composed to create a readable, coherent, and visually satisfying whole that works invisibly, without the awareness of the reader. Even distribution with a minimum of distractions and anomalies are aimed at producing clarity and transparency. Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of text typography—prose fiction, non-fiction, editorial, educational, religious, scientific, spiritual and commercial writing all have differing characteristics and requirements. For historic material, established text typefaces are frequently chosen according to a scheme of historical genre acquired by a long process of accretion, with considerable overlap between historical periods.

Contemporary books are more likely to be set with state-ofthe-art seriffed "text romans" or "book romans" with design values echoing present-day design arts, which are closely based on traditional models such as those of Nicolas Jenson, Francesco Griffo (a punchcutter who created the model for Aldine typefaces), and Claude Garamond. With their more specialized requirements, newspapers and magazines rely on compact, tightly-fitted text romans specially designed for the task, which offer maximum flexibility, readability and efficient use of page space. Sans serif text fonts are often used for introductory paragraphs, incidental text and whole short articles. A current fashion is to pair sans serif type for headings with a high-performance seriffed font of matching style for the text of an article. The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and the interplay of text with white space of the page and other graphic elements combine to impart a "feel" or "resonance" to the subject matter. With printed media typographers are also concerned with binding margins, paper selection and printing methods.

Typography is modulated by orthography and linguistics, word structures, word frequencies, morphology, phonetic constructs and linguistic syntax. Typography also is subject to specific cultural conventions. For example, in French it is customary to insert a non-breaking space before a colon (:) or semicolon (;) in a sentence, while in English it is not. . Readability and legibility are often confused. “Legibility is the quality of the typeface design and readability with the design of the printed page. Designers aim to achieve excellence in both.

"The typeface chosen should be legible, that is, it should be read without effort. Sometimes legibility is simply a matter of type size; more often, however, it is a matter of typeface design. Generally speaking, typefaces that are true to the basic letterforms are more legible than typefaces that have been condensed, expanded, embellished, or abstracted. "However, even a legible typeface can become unreadable through poor setting and placement, just as a less legible typeface can be made more readable through good design."[2]

Studies of legibility have examined a wide range of factors including type size and type design. For example, comparing serif vs. sans serif type, italic type vs. roman type, line length, line spacing, color contrast, the design of right-hand edge (for example, justification, straight right hand edge) vs. ranged left, and whether text is hyphenated. Legibility research was published from the late nineteenth century on, but the overall finding has been that the reading

process is remarkably robust, and that significant differences are hard to find. So comparative studies of seriffed vs. sans serif type, or justified vs. unjustified type, have failed to settle the argument over which is best.[citation needed] Legibility is usually measured through speed of reading, with comprehension scores used to check for effectiveness (that is, not a rushed or careless read). For example, Miles Tinker, who published numerous studies from the 1930s to the 1960s, used a speed of reading test that required participants to spot incongruous words as an effectiveness filter. These days, legibility research tends to be limited to critical issues, or the testing of specific design solutions (for example, when new typefaces are developed). Examples of critical issues include typefaces (also called fonts) for people with visual impairment, and typefaces for highway signs, or for other conditions where legibility may make a key difference.

Much of the legibility research literature is somewhat atheoretical — various factors were tested individually or in combination (inevitably so, as the different factors are interdependent), but many tests were carried out in the absence of a model of reading or visual perception. Some typographers believe that the overall word shape (Bouma) is very important in readability, and that the theory of parallel letterwise recognition is either wrong, less important, or not the entire picture. Studies distinguishing between Bouma recognition and parallel letterwise recognition with regard to how people actually recognize words when they read, have favored parallel letterwise recognition, which is widely accepted by cognitive psychologists.[citation needed] Legibility can also be compromised by letterspacing, word spacing, or leading that is too tight or too loose. It can be improved when generous vertical space separates lines of text, making it easier for the eye to distinguish one line from the next, or previous line. Poorly designed fonts and those that are too tightly or loosely fitted can also result in poor legibility. Typography is an element of all printed material. Periodical publications, especially newspapers and magazines, use typographical elements to achieve an attractive, distinctive appearance, to aid readers in navigating the publication, and in some cases for dramatic effect. By formulating a style guide, a periodical standardizes on a relatively small collection of typefaces, each used for specific elements within the publication, and makes consistent use of type sizes, italic, boldface, large and small capital letters, colors, and other typographic features. Some publications, such as The Guardian and The Economist, go so far as to commission a type designer to create bespoke (custom tailored) typefaces for their exclusive use.

Different periodical publications design their publications, including their typography, to achieve a particular tone or style. For example, USAToday uses a bold, colorful, and comparatively modern style through their use of a variety of typefaces and colors; type sizes vary widely, and the newspaper's name is placed on a colored background. In contrast, the New York Times use a more traditional approach, with fewer colors, less typeface variation, and more columns. Especially on the front page of newspapers and on magazine covers, headlines are often set in larger display typefaces to attract attention, and are placed near the masthead.


In traditional typography, text is composed to create a

excellence in both.

works invisibly, without the awareness of the reader.

"The typeface chosen should be legible, that is, it should

Some typographers believe that the overall word shape

anomalies are aimed at producing clarity and trans-

matter of type size; more often, however, it is a matter of

theory of parallel letterwise recognition is either wrong,

readable, coherent, and visually satisfying whole that

Even distribution with a minimum of distractions and

parency.

Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of text

be read without effort. Sometimes legibility is simply a

typeface design. Generally speaking, typefaces that are

true to the basic letterforms are more legible than type-

faces that have been condensed, expanded, embellished,

are interdependent), but many tests were carried out in

the absence of a model of reading or visual perception.

(Bouma) is very important in readability, and that the less important, or not the entire picture.

Studies distinguishing between Bouma recognition and

typography—prose fiction, non-fiction, editorial, educa-

or abstracted.

parallel letterwise recognition with regard to how people

writing all have differing characteristics and require-

"However, even a legible typeface can become unread-

parallel letterwise recognition, which is widely accepted

are frequently chosen according to a scheme of historical

legible typeface can be made more readable through

tional, religious, scientific, spiritual and commercial

ments. For historic material, established text typefaces

genre acquired by a long process of accretion, with con-

siderable overlap between historical periods.

Contemporary books are more likely to be set with stateof-the-art seriffed "text romans" or "book romans" with

design values echoing present-day design arts, which are

able through poor setting and placement, just as a less good design."[2]

Studies of legibility have examined a wide range of fac-

actually recognize words when they read, have favored by cognitive psychologists.[citation needed]

Legibility can also be compromised by letterspacing,

word spacing, or leading that is too tight or too loose. It

can be improved when generous vertical space separates

tors including type size and type design. For example,

lines of text, making it easier for the eye to distinguish

type, line length, line spacing, color contrast, the design

fonts and those that are too tightly or loosely fitted can

comparing serif vs. sans serif type, italic type vs. roman

one line from the next, or previous line. Poorly designed

closely based on traditional models such as those of

of right-hand edge (for example, justification, straight

created the model for Aldine typefaces), and Claude

phenated.

Typography is an element of all printed material. Period-

newspapers and magazines rely on compact, tightly-fit-

Legibility research was published from the late nine-

use typographical elements to achieve an attractive, dis-

offer maximum flexibility, readability and efficient use

the reading process is remarkably robust, and that signif-

Nicolas Jenson, Francesco Griffo (a punchcutter who Garamond. With their more specialized requirements,

ted text romans specially designed for the task, which

of page space. Sans serif text fonts are often used for in-

troductory paragraphs, incidental text and whole short

articles. A current fashion is to pair sans serif type for

headings with a high-performance seriffed font of

matching style for the text of an article.

The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and the inter-

play of text with white space of the page and other

graphic elements combine to impart a "feel" or "reso-

right hand edge) vs. ranged left, and whether text is hy-

teenth century on, but the overall finding has been that

icant differences are hard to find. So comparative studies

of seriffed vs. sans serif type, or justified vs. unjustified

type, have failed to settle the argument over which is

lication, and in some cases for dramatic effect. By

formulating a style guide, a periodical standardizes on a relatively small collection of typefaces, each used for

specific elements within the publication, and makes con-

Legibility is usually measured through speed of reading,

Some publications, such as The Guardian and The Econ-

with comprehension scores used to check for effective-

ness (that is, not a rushed or careless read). For example,

Miles Tinker, who published numerous studies from the

selection and printing methods.

fectiveness filter.

Typography is modulated by orthography and linguistics,

These days, legibility research tends to be limited to crit-

constructs and linguistic syntax. Typography also is sub-

tinctive appearance, to aid readers in navigating the pub-

sistent use of type sizes, italic, boldface, large and small

1930s to the 1960s, used a speed of reading test that re-

word structures, word frequencies, morphology, phonetic

ical publications, especially newspapers and magazines,

best.[citation needed]

nance" to the subject matter. With printed media typographers are also concerned with binding margins, paper

also result in poor legibility.

quired participants to spot incongruous words as an ef-

ical issues, or the testing of specific design solutions (for

example, when new typefaces are developed). Examples

capital letters, colors, and other typographic features.

omist, go so far as to commission a type designer to cre-

ate bespoke (custom tailored) typefaces for their exclusive use.

Different periodical publications design their publica-

tions, including their typography, to achieve a particular

tone or style. For example, USAToday uses a bold, colorful, and comparatively modern style through their use of

a variety of typefaces and colors; type sizes vary widely,

and the newspaper's name is placed on a colored back-

ject to specific cultural conventions. For example, in

of critical issues include typefaces (also called fonts) for

ground. In contrast, the New York Times use a more tra-

fore a colon (:) or semicolon (;) in a sentence, while in

way signs, or for other conditions where legibility may

variation, and more columns.

French it is customary to insert a non-breaking space be-

English it is not. .

Readability and legibility are often confused. “Legibility is the quality of the typeface design and readability with the design of the printed page. Designers aim to achieve

people with visual impairment, and typefaces for high-

make a key difference.

Much of the legibility research literature is somewhat

atheoretical — various factors were tested individually

or in combination (inevitably so, as the different factors

ditional approach, with fewer colors, less typeface

Especially on the front page of newspapers and on magazine covers, headlines are often set in larger display

typefaces to attract attention, and are placed near the masthead.


In traditional typography, text is composed to create a readable, coherent, and visually satisfying whole that works invisibly, without the awareness of the

aim to achieve excellence in both. "The typeface chosen should be legible, that is, it

reader. Even distribution with a minimum of distrac-

should be read without effort. Sometimes legibility is

and transparency.

is a matter of typeface design. Generally speaking,

tions and anomalies are aimed at producing clarity

simply a matter of type size; more often, however, it

sual perception. Some typographers believe that the overall word shape (Bouma) is very important in

readability, and that the theory of parallel letterwise

recognition is either wrong, less important, or not the entire picture.

typefaces that are true to the basic letterforms are

Studies distinguishing between Bouma recognition

text typography—prose fiction, non-fiction, editorial,

densed, expanded, embellished, or abstracted.

people actually recognize words when they read,

mercial writing all have differing characteristics and

"However, even a legible typeface can become un-

widely accepted by cognitive psychologists.[citation

Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of

educational, religious, scientific, spiritual and com-

more legible than typefaces that have been con-

and parallel letterwise recognition with regard to how

have favored parallel letterwise recognition, which is needed]

requirements. For historic material, established text

readable through poor setting and placement, just as

scheme of historical genre acquired by a long process

through good design."[2]

Legibility can also be compromised by letterspacing,

torical periods.

Studies of legibility have examined a wide range of

It can be improved when generous vertical space sep-

typefaces are frequently chosen according to a

of accretion, with considerable overlap between his-

Contemporary books are more likely to be set with

state-of-the-art seriffed "text romans" or "book ro-

a less legible typeface can be made more readable

word spacing, or leading that is too tight or too loose.

factors including type size and type design. For ex-

arates lines of text, making it easier for the eye to dis-

vs. roman type, line length, line spacing, color con-

Poorly designed fonts and those that are too tightly or

ample, comparing serif vs. sans serif type, italic type

tinguish one line from the next, or previous line.

mans" with design values echoing present-day design

trast, the design of right-hand edge (for example, jus-

loosely fitted can also result in poor legibility.

such as those of Nicolas Jenson, Francesco Griffo (a

and whether text is hyphenated.

Typography is an element of all printed material. Pe-

faces), and Claude Garamond. With their more spe-

Legibility research was published from the late nine-

rely on compact, tightly-fitted text romans specially

that the reading process is remarkably robust, and

arts, which are closely based on traditional models

punchcutter who created the model for Aldine typecialized requirements, newspapers and magazines

designed for the task, which offer maximum flexibility, readability and efficient use of page space. Sans

serif text fonts are often used for introductory para-

tification, straight right hand edge) vs. ranged left,

teenth century on, but the overall finding has been

that significant differences are hard to find. So com-

parative studies of seriffed vs. sans serif type, or jus-

tified vs. unjustified type, have failed to settle the

riodical publications, especially newspapers and

magazines, use typographical elements to achieve an attractive, distinctive appearance, to aid readers in

navigating the publication, and in some cases for dramatic effect. By formulating a style guide, a periodical standardizes on a relatively small collection of

typefaces, each used for specific elements within the

graphs, incidental text and whole short articles. A

argument over which is best.[citation needed]

publication, and makes consistent use of type sizes,

with a high-performance seriffed font of matching

Legibility is usually measured through speed of read-

and other typographic features. Some publications,

current fashion is to pair sans serif type for headings

style for the text of an article.

The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and the interplay of text with white space of the page and

other graphic elements combine to impart a "feel" or

"resonance" to the subject matter. With printed media

typographers are also concerned with binding mar-

ing, with comprehension scores used to check for effectiveness (that is, not a rushed or careless read).

For example, Miles Tinker, who published numerous

studies from the 1930s to the 1960s, used a speed of

reading test that required participants to spot incongruous words as an effectiveness filter.

gins, paper selection and printing methods.

These days, legibility research tends to be limited to

Typography is modulated by orthography and lin-

tions (for example, when new typefaces are devel-

critical issues, or the testing of specific design solu-

guistics, word structures, word frequencies, morphol-

oped). Examples of critical issues include typefaces

Typography also is subject to specific cultural con-

and typefaces for highway signs, or for other condi-

ogy, phonetic constructs and linguistic syntax.

ventions. For example, in French it is customary to

insert a non-breaking space before a colon (:) or

semicolon (;) in a sentence, while in English it is not.

(also called fonts) for people with visual impairment,

as to commission a type designer to create bespoke (custom tailored) typefaces for their exclusive use.

Different periodical publications design their publi-

cations, including their typography, to achieve a particular tone or style. For example, USAToday uses a bold, colorful, and comparatively modern style

through their use of a variety of typefaces and colors; type sizes vary widely, and the newspaper's name is

placed on a colored background. In contrast, the New

York Times use a more traditional approach, with

fewer colors, less typeface variation, and more

columns.

Much of the legibility research literature is somewhat

Especially on the front page of newspapers and on

ally or in combination (inevitably so, as the different

play typefaces to attract attention, and are placed

atheoretical — various factors were tested individu-

bility is the quality of the typeface design and read-

factors are interdependent), but many tests were car-

ability with the design of the printed page. Designers

such as The Guardian and The Economist, go so far

tions where legibility may make a key difference.

.

Readability and legibility are often confused. “Legi-

italic, boldface, large and small capital letters, colors,

ried out in the absence of a model of reading or vi-

magazine covers, headlines are often set in larger disnear the masthead.


In traditional typography, text is composed to cre-

both.

reading or visual perception. Some typographers

whole that works invisibly, without the awareness

"The typeface chosen should be legible, that is, it

very important in readability, and that the theory

of distractions and anomalies are aimed at produc-

ity is simply a matter of type size; more often,

less important, or not the entire picture.

ally speaking, typefaces that are true to the basic

Studies distinguishing between Bouma recogni-

have been condensed, expanded, embellished, or

gard to how people actually recognize words

ate a readable, coherent, and visually satisfying

of the reader. Even distribution with a minimum

should be read without effort. Sometimes legibil-

ing clarity and transparency.

however, it is a matter of typeface design. Gener-

Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of

letterforms are more legible than typefaces that

text typography—prose fiction, non-fiction, edito-

believe that the overall word shape (Bouma) is

of parallel letterwise recognition is either wrong,

tion and parallel letterwise recognition with re-

abstracted.

when they read, have favored parallel letterwise

tics and requirements. For historic material, estab-

"However, even a legible typeface can become

tive psychologists.[citation needed]

according to a scheme of historical genre acquired

just as a less legible typeface can be made more

Legibility can also be compromised by letterspac-

rial, educational, religious, scientific, spiritual and commercial writing all have differing characterislished text typefaces are frequently chosen

by a long process of accretion, with considerable

overlap between historical periods.

Contemporary books are more likely to be set with state-of-the-art seriffed "text romans" or

"book romans" with design values echoing pres-

unreadable through poor setting and placement, readable through good design."[2]

Studies of legibility have examined a wide range

recognition, which is widely accepted by cogni-

ing, word spacing, or leading that is too tight or

too loose. It can be improved when generous ver-

tical space separates lines of text, making it easier

of factors including type size and type design. For

for the eye to distinguish one line from the next,

type vs. roman type, line length, line spacing,

that are too tightly or loosely fitted can also result

example, comparing serif vs. sans serif type, italic

or previous line. Poorly designed fonts and those in poor legibility.

ent-day design arts, which are closely based on

color contrast, the design of right-hand edge (for

son, Francesco Griffo (a punchcutter who created

vs. ranged left, and whether text is hyphenated.

Typography is an element of all printed material.

mond. With their more specialized requirements,

Legibility research was published from the late

and magazines, use typographical elements to

tightly-fitted text romans specially designed for

been that the reading process is remarkably ro-

aid readers in navigating the publication, and in

traditional models such as those of Nicolas Jen-

the model for Aldine typefaces), and Claude Gara-

newspapers and magazines rely on compact,

the task, which offer maximum flexibility, read-

ability and efficient use of page space. Sans serif

example, justification, straight right hand edge)

nineteenth century on, but the overall finding has bust, and that significant differences are hard to

find. So comparative studies of seriffed vs. sans

Periodical publications, especially newspapers

achieve an attractive, distinctive appearance, to

some cases for dramatic effect. By formulating a style guide, a periodical standardizes on a rela-

tively small collection of typefaces, each used for

text fonts are often used for introductory para-

serif type, or justified vs. unjustified type, have

current fashion is to pair sans serif type for head-

best.[citation needed]

makes consistent use of type sizes, italic, bold-

matching style for the text of an article.

Legibility is usually measured through speed of

other typographic features. Some publications,

for effectiveness (that is, not a rushed or careless

far as to commission a type designer to create be-

graphs, incidental text and whole short articles. A ings with a high-performance seriffed font of

The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and

the interplay of text with white space of the page

and other graphic elements combine to impart a

"feel" or "resonance" to the subject matter. With

printed media typographers are also concerned

with binding margins, paper selection and printing

methods.

Typography is modulated by orthography and lin-

guistics, word structures, word frequencies, morphology, phonetic constructs and linguistic

syntax. Typography also is subject to specific cul-

tural conventions. For example, in French it is

customary to insert a non-breaking space before a colon (:) or semicolon (;) in a sentence, while in

English it is not. .

Readability and legibility are often confused.

“Legibility is the quality of the typeface design

and readability with the design of the printed

page. Designers aim to achieve excellence in

failed to settle the argument over which is

reading, with comprehension scores used to check

read). For example, Miles Tinker, who published

numerous studies from the 1930s to the 1960s,

used a speed of reading test that required partici-

pants to spot incongruous words as an effectiveness filter.

These days, legibility research tends to be limited

specific elements within the publication, and

face, large and small capital letters, colors, and

such as The Guardian and The Economist, go so

spoke (custom tailored) typefaces for their exclu-

sive use.

Different periodical publications design their pub-

lications, including their typography, to achieve a

particular tone or style. For example, USAToday

uses a bold, colorful, and comparatively modern

to critical issues, or the testing of specific design

style through their use of a variety of typefaces

developed). Examples of critical issues include

paper's name is placed on a colored background.

solutions (for example, when new typefaces are

typefaces (also called fonts) for people with visual

impairment, and typefaces for highway signs, or

for other conditions where legibility may make a key difference.

Much of the legibility research literature is somewhat atheoretical — various factors were tested

individually or in combination (inevitably so, as

the different factors are interdependent), but many

tests were carried out in the absence of a model of

and colors; type sizes vary widely, and the news-

In contrast, the New York Times use a more tradi-

tional approach, with fewer colors, less typeface

variation, and more columns.

Especially on the front page of newspapers and on magazine covers, headlines are often set in larger display typefaces to attract attention, and are

placed near the masthead.


In traditional typography, text is composed to

both.

tion. Some typographers believe that the over-

fying whole that works invisibly, without the

"The typeface chosen should be legible, that is,

readability, and that the theory of parallel let-

create a readable, coherent, and visually satis-

awareness of the reader. Even distribution with

it should be read without effort. Sometimes

aimed at producing clarity and transparency.

often, however, it is a matter of typeface de-

a minimum of distractions and anomalies are

Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect

of text typography—prose fiction, non-fiction,

editorial, educational, religious, scientific, spiritual and commercial writing all have differing

tant, or not the entire picture.

sign. Generally speaking, typefaces that are

Studies distinguishing between Bouma recog-

than typefaces that have been condensed, ex-

regard to how people actually recognize words

true to the basic letterforms are more legible panded, embellished, or abstracted.

"However, even a legible typeface can become

quently chosen according to a scheme of his-

just as a less legible typeface can be made

unreadable through poor setting and placement,

torical genre acquired by a long process of

more readable through good design."[2]

historical periods.

Studies of legibility have examined a wide

Contemporary books are more likely to be set

design. For example, comparing serif vs. sans

accretion, with considerable overlap between

with state-of-the-art seriffed "text romans" or "book romans" with design values echoing

present-day design arts, which are closely

terwise recognition is either wrong, less impor-

legibility is simply a matter of type size; more

characteristics and requirements. For historic

material, established text typefaces are fre-

all word shape (Bouma) is very important in

nition and parallel letterwise recognition with when they read, have favored parallel letter-

wise recognition, which is widely accepted by cognitive psychologists.[citation needed]

Legibility can also be compromised by let-

terspacing, word spacing, or leading that is too

tight or too loose. It can be improved when

generous vertical space separates lines of text,

range of factors including type size and type

making it easier for the eye to distinguish one

serif type, italic type vs. roman type, line

signed fonts and those that are too tightly or

length, line spacing, color contrast, the design

of right-hand edge (for example, justification,

line from the next, or previous line. Poorly deloosely fitted can also result in poor legibility.

straight right hand edge) vs. ranged left, and

Typography is an element of all printed mate-

faces), and Claude Garamond. With their more

Legibility research was published from the late

elements to achieve an attractive, distinctive

azines rely on compact, tightly-fitted text ro-

has been that the reading process is remarkably

publication, and in some cases for dramatic ef-

based on traditional models such as those of

Nicolas Jenson, Francesco Griffo (a punchcutter who created the model for Aldine type-

specialized requirements, newspapers and mag-

whether text is hyphenated.

nineteenth century on, but the overall finding

mans specially designed for the task, which

robust, and that significant differences are hard

cient use of page space. Sans serif text fonts are

sans serif type, or justified vs. unjustified type,

offer maximum flexibility, readability and effioften used for introductory paragraphs, inci-

dental text and whole short articles. A current fashion is to pair sans serif type for headings

with a high-performance seriffed font of

matching style for the text of an article.

to find. So comparative studies of seriffed vs.

have failed to settle the argument over which is

pers and magazines, use typographical

appearance, to aid readers in navigating the

fect. By formulating a style guide, a periodical

standardizes on a relatively small collection of typefaces, each used for specific elements

within the publication, and makes consistent

best.[citation needed]

use of type sizes, italic, boldface, large and

Legibility is usually measured through speed of

graphic features. Some publications, such as

reading, with comprehension scores used to

small capital letters, colors, and other typo-

The Guardian and The Economist, go so far as

check for effectiveness (that is, not a rushed or

to commission a type designer to create be-

published numerous studies from the 1930s to

clusive use.

The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and

careless read). For example, Miles Tinker, who

page and other graphic elements combine to

the 1960s, used a speed of reading test that re-

the interplay of text with white space of the

rial. Periodical publications, especially newspa-

spoke (custom tailored) typefaces for their ex-

matter. With printed media typographers are

quired participants to spot incongruous words

as an effectiveness filter.

Different periodical publications design their

lection and printing methods.

These days, legibility research tends to be lim-

USAToday uses a bold, colorful, and compara-

impart a "feel" or "resonance" to the subject

also concerned with binding margins, paper seTypography is modulated by orthography and

ited to critical issues, or the testing of specific

design solutions (for example, when new type-

publications, including their typography, to

achieve a particular tone or style. For example,

tively modern style through their use of a variety of typefaces and colors; type sizes vary

widely, and the newspaper's name is placed on

linguistics, word structures, word frequencies,

faces are developed). Examples of critical is-

syntax. Typography also is subject to specific

people with visual impairment, and typefaces

York Times use a more traditional approach,

is customary to insert a non-breaking space be-

where legibility may make a key difference.

more columns.

while in English it is not.

Much of the legibility research literature is

Especially on the front page of newspapers and

tested individually or in combination (in-

larger display typefaces to attract attention, and

morphology, phonetic constructs and linguistic cultural conventions. For example, in French it fore a colon (:) or semicolon (;) in a sentence,

.

Readability and legibility are often confused.

sues include typefaces (also called fonts) for for highway signs, or for other conditions

somewhat atheoretical — various factors were

“Legibility is the quality of the typeface design

evitably so, as the different factors are interde-

page. Designers aim to achieve excellence in

absence of a model of reading or visual percep-

and readability with the design of the printed

pendent), but many tests were carried out in the

a colored background. In contrast, the New

with fewer colors, less typeface variation, and

on magazine covers, headlines are often set in are placed near the masthead.


In traditional typography, text is composed to create

aim to achieve excellence in both.

perception. Some typographers believe that the over-

that works invisibly, without the awareness of the

"The typeface chosen should be legible, that is, it

ability, and that the theory of parallel letterwise

tions and anomalies are aimed at producing clarity

simply a matter of type size; more often, however, it is

a readable, coherent, and visually satisfying whole

reader. Even distribution with a minimum of distracand transparency.

Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of text

typography—prose fiction, non-fiction, editorial, educational, religious, scientific, spiritual and commer-

should be read without effort. Sometimes legibility is

a matter of typeface design. Generally speaking, type-

recognition is either wrong, less important, or not the entire picture.

faces that are true to the basic letterforms are more

Studies distinguishing between Bouma recognition

panded, embellished, or abstracted.

how people actually recognize words when they read,

legible than typefaces that have been condensed, ex-

cial writing all have differing characteristics and

"However, even a legible typeface can become un-

typefaces are frequently chosen according to a

a less legible typeface can be made more readable

requirements. For historic material, established text

all word shape (Bouma) is very important in read-

and parallel letterwise recognition with regard to

have favored parallel letterwise recognition, which is widely accepted by cognitive psychologists.[citation

readable through poor setting and placement, just as

needed]

scheme of historical genre acquired by a long process

through good design."[2]

Legibility can also be compromised by letterspacing,

torical periods.

Studies of legibility have examined a wide range of

It can be improved when generous vertical space sep-

Contemporary books are more likely to be set with

ple, comparing serif vs. sans serif type, italic type vs.

mans" with design values echoing present-day design

the design of right-hand edge (for example, justifica-

of accretion, with considerable overlap between his-

state-of-the-art seriffed "text romans" or "book ro-

arts, which are closely based on traditional models

such as those of Nicolas Jenson, Francesco Griffo (a

punchcutter who created the model for Aldine type-

faces), and Claude Garamond. With their more specialized requirements, newspapers and magazines

factors including type size and type design. For exam-

roman type, line length, line spacing, color contrast, tion, straight right hand edge) vs. ranged left, and

word spacing, or leading that is too tight or too loose.

arates lines of text, making it easier for the eye to distinguish one line from the next, or previous line.

Poorly designed fonts and those that are too tightly or loosely fitted can also result in poor legibility.

whether text is hyphenated.

Typography is an element of all printed material. Pe-

Legibility research was published from the late nine-

azines, use typographical elements to achieve an

riodical publications, especially newspapers and mag-

teenth century on, but the overall finding has been

attractive, distinctive appearance, to aid readers in

designed for the task, which offer maximum flexibil-

that significant differences are hard to find. So com-

matic effect. By formulating a style guide, a periodi-

serif text fonts are often used for introductory para-

fied vs. unjustified type, have failed to settle the

rely on compact, tightly-fitted text romans specially ity, readability and efficient use of page space. Sans

that the reading process is remarkably robust, and

parative studies of seriffed vs. sans serif type, or justi-

graphs, incidental text and whole short articles. A

argument over which is best.[citation needed]

with a high-performance seriffed font of matching

Legibility is usually measured through speed of read-

current fashion is to pair sans serif type for headings

style for the text of an article.

The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and the interplay of text with white space of the page and

other graphic elements combine to impart a "feel" or

"resonance" to the subject matter. With printed

media typographers are also concerned with binding margins, paper selection and printing methods.

ing, with comprehension scores used to check for ef-

fectiveness (that is, not a rushed or careless read). For example, Miles Tinker, who published numerous

studies from the 1930s to the 1960s, used a speed of

reading test that required participants to spot incongruous words as an effectiveness filter.

navigating the publication, and in some cases for dracal standardizes on a relatively small collection of

typefaces, each used for specific elements within the publication, and makes consistent use of type sizes,

italic, boldface, large and small capital letters, colors, and other typographic features. Some publications,

such as The Guardian and The Economist, go so far as to commission a type designer to create bespoke (custom tailored) typefaces for their exclusive use.

Different periodical publications design their publica-

tions, including their typography, to achieve a partic-

ular tone or style. For example, USAToday uses a

These days, legibility research tends to be limited to

bold, colorful, and comparatively modern style

Typography is modulated by orthography and lin-

tions (for example, when new typefaces are devel-

type sizes vary widely, and the newspaper's name is

ogy, phonetic constructs and linguistic syntax.

(also called fonts) for people with visual impairment,

York Times use a more traditional approach, with

ventions. For example, in French it is customary to

tions where legibility may make a key difference.

columns.

semicolon (;) in a sentence, while in English it is not.

Much of the legibility research literature is somewhat

Especially on the front page of newspapers and on

Readability and legibility are often confused. “Legi-

ally or in combination (inevitably so, as the different

ability with the design of the printed page. Designers

ried out in the absence of a model of reading or visual

guistics, word structures, word frequencies, morphol-

Typography also is subject to specific cultural con-

insert a non-breaking space before a colon (:) or

.

bility is the quality of the typeface design and read-

critical issues, or the testing of specific design solu-

oped). Examples of critical issues include typefaces

and typefaces for highway signs, or for other condi-

atheoretical — various factors were tested individu-

factors are interdependent), but many tests were car-

through their use of a variety of typefaces and colors;

placed on a colored background. In contrast, the New

fewer colors, less typeface variation, and more

magazine covers, headlines are often set in larger dis-

play typefaces to attract attention, and are placed

near the masthead.


In traditional typography, text is composed to cre-

page. Designers aim to achieve excellence in both.

many tests were carried out in the absence of a

whole that works invisibly, without the awareness

"The typeface chosen should be legible, that is, it

pographers believe that the overall word shape

of distractions and anomalies are aimed at pro-

ity is simply a matter of type size; more often,

the theory of parallel letterwise recognition is ei-

Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of

letterforms are more legible than typefaces that

ally speaking, typefaces that are true to the basic

ture.

rial, educational, religious, scientific, spiritual and

abstracted.

tics and requirements. For historic material, es-

"However, even a legible typeface can become un-

read, have favored parallel letterwise recognition,

according to a scheme of historical genre acquired

as a less legible typeface can be made more read-

gists.[citation needed]

ate a readable, coherent, and visually satisfying

of the reader. Even distribution with a minimum ducing clarity and transparency.

text typography—prose fiction, non-fiction, edito-

commercial writing all have differing characteristablished text typefaces are frequently chosen

by a long process of accretion, with considerable overlap between historical periods.

Contemporary books are more likely to be set

should be read without effort. Sometimes legibil-

however, it is a matter of typeface design. Gener-

have been condensed, expanded, embellished, or

readable through poor setting and placement, just able through good design."[2]

Studies of legibility have examined a wide range

model of reading or visual perception. Some ty-

(Bouma) is very important in readability, and that

ther wrong, less important, or not the entire pic-

Studies distinguishing between Bouma recognition and parallel letterwise recognition with regard to how people actually recognize words when they which is widely accepted by cognitive psycholo-

Legibility can also be compromised by letterspac-

ing, word spacing, or leading that is too tight or

of factors including type size and type design. For

too loose. It can be improved when generous verti-

"book romans" with design values echoing pres-

type vs. roman type, line length, line spacing,

for the eye to distinguish one line from the next, or

traditional models such as those of Nicolas Jen-

example, justification, straight right hand edge)

with state-of-the-art seriffed "text romans" or

ent-day design arts, which are closely based on

son, Francesco Griffo (a punchcutter who created

the model for Aldine typefaces), and Claude Gara-

mond. With their more specialized requirements, newspapers and magazines rely on compact,

example, comparing serif vs. sans serif type, italic

color contrast, the design of right-hand edge (for

cal space separates lines of text, making it easier

previous line. Poorly designed fonts and those that

are too tightly or loosely fitted can also result in

vs. ranged left, and whether text is hyphenated.

poor legibility.

Legibility research was published from the late

Typography is an element of all printed material.

nineteenth century on, but the overall finding has

Periodical publications, especially newspapers

bust, and that significant differences are hard to

achieve an attractive, distinctive appearance, to

text fonts are often used for introductory para-

serif type, or justified vs. unjustified type, have

some cases for dramatic effect. By formulating a

current fashion is to pair sans serif type for head-

tation needed]

tightly-fitted text romans specially designed for

the task, which offer maximum flexibility, read-

ability and efficient use of page space. Sans serif graphs, incidental text and whole short articles. A

ings with a high-performance seriffed font of matching style for the text of an article.

The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and

the interplay of text with white space of the page

and other graphic elements combine to impart a

"feel" or "resonance" to the subject matter. With printed media typographers are also concerned

with binding margins, paper selection and printing methods.

Typography is modulated by orthography and linguistics, word structures, word frequencies, mor-

phology, phonetic constructs and linguistic syntax. Typography also is subject to specific cultural

been that the reading process is remarkably ro-

find. So comparative studies of seriffed vs. sans

failed to settle the argument over which is best.[ci-

Legibility is usually measured through speed of

reading, with comprehension scores used to check for effectiveness (that is, not a rushed or careless

read). For example, Miles Tinker, who published

numerous studies from the 1930s to the 1960s,

makes consistent use of type sizes, italic, boldface,

large and small capital letters, colors, and other

typographic features. Some publications, such as

The Guardian and The Economist, go so far as to

commission a type designer to create bespoke

Different periodical publications design their pub-

These days, legibility research tends to be limited

particular tone or style. For example, USAToday

lications, including their typography, to achieve a

to critical issues, or the testing of specific design

uses a bold, colorful, and comparatively modern

developed). Examples of critical issues include

and colors; type sizes vary widely, and the news-

solutions (for example, when new typefaces are

style through their use of a variety of typefaces

typefaces (also called fonts) for people with visual

paper's name is placed on a colored background.

for other conditions where legibility may make a

tional approach, with fewer colors, less typeface

key difference.

Much of the legibility research literature is some-

Readability and legibility are often confused.

what atheoretical — various factors were tested

and readability with the design of the printed

the different factors are interdependent), but

“Legibility is the quality of the typeface design

tively small collection of typefaces, each used for

specific elements within the publication, and

ness filter.

(:) or semicolon (;) in a sentence, while in English

.

style guide, a periodical standardizes on a rela-

(custom tailored) typefaces for their exclusive use.

impairment, and typefaces for highway signs, or

it is not.

aid readers in navigating the publication, and in

used a speed of reading test that required partici-

pants to spot incongruous words as an effective-

conventions. For example, in French it is custom-

ary to insert a non-breaking space before a colon

and magazines, use typographical elements to

individually or in combination (inevitably so, as

In contrast, the New York Times use a more tradivariation, and more columns.

Especially on the front page of newspapers and on

magazine covers, headlines are often set in larger

display typefaces to attract attention, and are

placed near the masthead.


In traditional typography, text is composed to

both.

ception. Some typographers believe that the

fying whole that works invisibly, without the

"The typeface chosen should be legible, that is,

in readability, and that the theory of parallel

create a readable, coherent, and visually satisawareness of the reader. Even distribution with

a minimum of distractions and anomalies are

it should be read without effort. Sometimes legibility is simply a matter of type size; more

aimed at producing clarity and transparency.

often, however, it is a matter of typeface design.

Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect

the basic letterforms are more legible than

editorial, educational, religious, scientific, spiri-

embellished, or abstracted.

of text typography—prose fiction, non-fiction,

tual and commercial writing all have differing

overall word shape (Bouma) is very important letterwise recognition is either wrong, less important, or not the entire picture.

Generally speaking, typefaces that are true to

Studies distinguishing between Bouma recogni-

typefaces that have been condensed, expanded,

gard to how people actually recognize words

tion and parallel letterwise recognition with re-

when they read, have favored parallel letter-

wise recognition, which is widely accepted by

characteristics and requirements. For historic

"However, even a legible typeface can become

cognitive psychologists.[citation needed]

quently chosen according to a scheme of histor-

ment, just as a less legible typeface can be

Legibility can also be compromised by let-

material, established text typefaces are freical genre acquired by a long process of

accretion, with considerable overlap between

unreadable through poor setting and place-

made more readable through good design."[2]

historical periods.

Studies of legibility have examined a wide

Contemporary books are more likely to be set

design. For example, comparing serif vs. sans

with state-of-the-art seriffed "text romans" or

"book romans" with design values echoing

present-day design arts, which are closely

based on traditional models such as those of

range of factors including type size and type

serif type, italic type vs. roman type, line

length, line spacing, color contrast, the design

of right-hand edge (for example, justification,

straight right hand edge) vs. ranged left, and

terspacing, word spacing, or leading that is too

tight or too loose. It can be improved when

generous vertical space separates lines of text, making it easier for the eye to distinguish one

line from the next, or previous line. Poorly designed fonts and those that are too tightly or

loosely fitted can also result in poor legibility. Typography is an element of all printed mate-

Nicolas Jenson, Francesco Griffo (a punchcut-

whether text is hyphenated.

rial. Periodical publications, especially newspa-

faces), and Claude Garamond. With their more

Legibility research was published from the late

elements to achieve an attractive, distinctive

ter who created the model for Aldine type-

specialized requirements, newspapers and

magazines rely on compact, tightly-fitted text

nineteenth century on, but the overall finding has been that the reading process is remark-

romans specially designed for the task, which

ably robust, and that significant differences are

cient use of page space. Sans serif text fonts are

vs. sans serif type, or justified vs. unjustified

offer maximum flexibility, readability and effi-

often used for introductory paragraphs, inci-

dental text and whole short articles. A current

fashion is to pair sans serif type for headings with a high-performance seriffed font of

matching style for the text of an article.

The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and

the interplay of text with white space of the

pers and magazines, use typographical

appearance, to aid readers in navigating the

publication, and in some cases for dramatic ef-

fect. By formulating a style guide, a periodical

hard to find. So comparative studies of seriffed

standardizes on a relatively small collection of

type, have failed to settle the argument over

within the publication, and makes consistent

which is best.[citation needed]

Legibility is usually measured through speed of

typefaces, each used for specific elements

use of type sizes, italic, boldface, large and

small capital letters, colors, and other typo-

graphic features. Some publications, such as

reading, with comprehension scores used to

The Guardian and The Economist, go so far as

careless read). For example, Miles Tinker, who

spoke (custom tailored) typefaces for their ex-

check for effectiveness (that is, not a rushed or

published numerous studies from the 1930s to

to commission a type designer to create beclusive use.

page and other graphic elements combine to

the 1960s, used a speed of reading test that re-

matter. With printed media typographers are

as an effectiveness filter.

publications, including their typography, to

These days, legibility research tends to be lim-

USAToday uses a bold, colorful, and compara-

impart a "feel" or "resonance" to the subject also concerned with binding margins, paper selection and printing methods.

Typography is modulated by orthography and linguistics, word structures, word frequencies,

morphology, phonetic constructs and linguistic syntax. Typography also is subject to specific

cultural conventions. For example, in French it

is customary to insert a non-breaking space before a colon (:) or semicolon (;) in a sentence,

while in English it is not.

quired participants to spot incongruous words

Different periodical publications design their

achieve a particular tone or style. For example,

ited to critical issues, or the testing of specific

tively modern style through their use of a vari-

faces are developed). Examples of critical is-

widely, and the newspaper's name is placed on

people with visual impairment, and typefaces

York Times use a more traditional approach,

design solutions (for example, when new typesues include typefaces (also called fonts) for

for highway signs, or for other conditions

where legibility may make a key difference.

Much of the legibility research literature is

ety of typefaces and colors; type sizes vary

a colored background. In contrast, the New

with fewer colors, less typeface variation, and more columns.

Especially on the front page of newspapers and

somewhat atheoretical — various factors were

on magazine covers, headlines are often set in

“Legibility is the quality of the typeface design

evitably so, as the different factors are interde-

and are placed near the masthead.

page. Designers aim to achieve excellence in

the absence of a model of reading or visual per-

.

Readability and legibility are often confused.

and readability with the design of the printed

tested individually or in combination (in-

pendent), but many tests were carried out in

larger display typefaces to attract attention,


In traditional typography, text is composed to create a readable, coherent, and visually satisfying whole that works invisibly, without the awareness of the reader. Even distribution with a minimum of distractions and anomalies are aimed at producing clarity and transparency. Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of text typography—prose fiction, nonfiction, editorial, educational, religious, scientific, spiritual and commercial writing all have differing characteristics and requirements. For historic material, established text typefaces are frequently chosen according to a scheme of historical genre acquired by a long process of accretion, with considerable overlap between historical periods. Contemporary books are more likely to be set with state-of-the-art seriffed "text romans" or "book romans" with design values echoing present-day design arts, which are closely based on traditional models such as those of Nicolas Jenson, Francesco Griffo (a punchcutter who created the model for Aldine typefaces), and Claude Garamond. With their more specialized requirements, newspapers and magazines rely on compact, tightly-fitted text romans specially designed for the task, which offer maximum flexibility, readability and efficient use of page space. Sans serif text fonts are often used for introductory paragraphs, incidental text and whole short articles. A current fashion is to pair sans serif type for headings with a highperformance seriffed font of matching style for the text of an article. The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and the interplay of text with white space of the page and other graphic elements combine to impart a "feel" or "resonance" to the subject matter. With printed media typographers are also concerned with binding margins, paper selection and printing methods. Typography is modulated by orthography and linguistics, word structures, word frequencies, morphology, phonetic constructs and linguistic syntax. Typography also is subject to specific cultural conventions. For example, in French it is customary to insert a non-breaking space before a colon (:) or semicolon (;) in a sentence, while in English it is not. . Readability and legibility are often confused. “Legibility is the quality of the typeface design and readability with the design of the

printed page. Designers aim to achieve excellence in both. "The typeface chosen should be legible, that is, it should be read without effort. Sometimes legibility is simply a matter of type size; more often, however, it is a matter of typeface design. Generally speaking, typefaces that are true to the basic letterforms are more legible than typefaces that have been condensed, expanded, embellished, or abstracted. "However, even a legible typeface can become unreadable through poor setting and placement, just as a less legible typeface can be made more readable through good design."[2] Studies of legibility have examined a wide range of factors including type size and type design. For example, comparing serif vs. sans serif type, italic type vs. roman type, line length, line spacing, color contrast, the design of right-hand edge (for example, justification, straight right hand edge) vs. ranged left, and whether text is hyphenated. Legibility research was published from the late nineteenth century on, but the overall finding has been that the reading process is remarkably robust, and that significant differences are hard to find. So comparative studies of seriffed vs. sans serif type, or justified vs. unjustified type, have failed to settle the argument over which is best.[citation needed] Legibility is usually measured through speed of reading, with comprehension scores used to check for effectiveness (that is, not a rushed or careless read). For example, Miles Tinker, who published numerous studies from the 1930s to the 1960s, used a speed of reading test that required participants to spot incongruous words as an effectiveness filter. These days, legibility research tends to be limited to critical issues, or the testing of specific design solutions (for example, when new typefaces are developed). Examples of critical issues include typefaces (also called fonts) for people with visual impairment, and typefaces for highway signs, or for other conditions where legibility may make a key difference. Much of the legibility research literature is somewhat atheoretical — various factors were tested individually or in combination (inevitably so, as the different factors are in-

terdependent), but many tests were carried out in the absence of a model of reading or visual perception. Some typographers believe that the overall word shape (Bouma) is very important in readability, and that the theory of parallel letterwise recognition is either wrong, less important, or not the entire picture. Studies distinguishing between Bouma recognition and parallel letterwise recognition with regard to how people actually recognize words when they read, have favored parallel letterwise recognition, which is widely accepted by cognitive psychologists.[citation needed] Legibility can also be compromised by letterspacing, word spacing, or leading that is too tight or too loose. It can be improved when generous vertical space separates lines of text, making it easier for the eye to distinguish one line from the next, or previous line. Poorly designed fonts and those that are too tightly or loosely fitted can also result in poor legibility. Typography is an element of all printed material. Periodical publications, especially newspapers and magazines, use typographical elements to achieve an attractive, distinctive appearance, to aid readers in navigating the publication, and in some cases for dramatic effect. By formulating a style guide, a periodical standardizes on a relatively small collection of typefaces, each used for specific elements within the publication, and makes consistent use of type sizes, italic, boldface, large and small capital letters, colors, and other typographic features. Some publications, such as The Guardian and The Economist, go so far as to commission a type designer to create bespoke (custom tailored) typefaces for their exclusive use. Different periodical publications design their publications, including their typography, to achieve a particular tone or style. For example, USAToday uses a bold, colorful, and comparatively modern style through their use of a variety of typefaces and colors; type sizes vary widely, and the newspaper's name is placed on a colored background. In contrast, the New York Times use a more traditional approach, with fewer colors, less typeface variation, and more columns. Especially on the front page of newspapers and on magazine covers, headlines are often set in larger display typefaces to attract attention, and are placed near the masthead.


In traditional typography, text is composed to create

Designers aim to achieve excellence in both.

that works invisibly, without the awareness of the

"The typeface chosen should be legible, that is, it

tions and anomalies are aimed at producing clarity

is simply a matter of type size; more often, how-

a readable, coherent, and visually satisfying whole

reader. Even distribution with a minimum of distrac-

and transparency.

should be read without effort. Sometimes legibility

tests were carried out in the absence of a model of

reading or visual perception. Some typographers

believe that the overall word shape (Bouma) is very

important in readability, and that the theory of paral-

lel letterwise recognition is either wrong, less impor-

ever, it is a matter of typeface design. Generally

tant, or not the entire picture.

forms are more legible than typefaces that have

Studies distinguishing between Bouma recognition

educational, religious, scientific, spiritual and com-

stracted.

how people actually recognize words when they

requirements. For historic material, established text

"However, even a legible typeface can become un-

which is widely accepted by cognitive psycholo-

Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of

text typography—prose fiction, non-fiction, editorial,

mercial writing all have differing characteristics and typefaces are frequently chosen according to a scheme of historical genre acquired by a long

process of accretion, with considerable overlap be-

tween historical periods.

Contemporary books are more likely to be set with

speaking, typefaces that are true to the basic letterbeen condensed, expanded, embellished, or ab-

readable through poor setting and placement, just

as a less legible typeface can be made more read-

Studies of legibility have examined a wide range of

loose. It can be improved when generous vertical

factors including type size and type design. For ex-

sign arts, which are closely based on traditional

contrast, the design of right-hand edge (for exam-

models such as those of Nicolas Jenson,

model for Aldine typefaces), and Claude Gara-

mond. With their more specialized requirements,

newspapers and magazines rely on compact,

tightly-fitted text romans specially designed for the

task, which offer maximum flexibility, readability and

gists.[citation needed]

Legibility can also be compromised by letterspac-

ample, comparing serif vs. sans serif type, italic

Francesco Griffo (a punchcutter who created the

read, have favored parallel letterwise recognition,

able through good design."[2]

state-of-the-art seriffed "text romans" or "book ro-

mans" with design values echoing present-day de-

and parallel letterwise recognition with regard to

type vs. roman type, line length, line spacing, color ple, justification, straight right hand edge) vs.

ranged left, and whether text is hyphenated.

Legibility research was published from the late

nineteenth century on, but the overall finding has

been that the reading process is remarkably robust,

and that significant differences are hard to find. So

ing, word spacing, or leading that is too tight or too

space separates lines of text, making it easier for

the eye to distinguish one line from the next, or pre-

vious line. Poorly designed fonts and those that are

too tightly or loosely fitted can also result in poor

legibility.

Typography is an element of all printed material.

Periodical publications, especially newspapers and

magazines, use typographical elements to achieve

an attractive, distinctive appearance, to aid readers

in navigating the publication, and in some cases for

efficient use of page space. Sans serif text fonts

comparative studies of seriffed vs. sans serif type,

dramatic effect. By formulating a style guide, a peri-

tal text and whole short articles. A current fashion is

the argument over which is best.[citation needed]

of typefaces, each used for specific elements within

are often used for introductory paragraphs, incidento pair sans serif type for headings with a high-performance seriffed font of matching style for the text

of an article.

The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and the

interplay of text with white space of the page and

other graphic elements combine to impart a "feel" or "resonance" to the subject matter. With printed

media typographers are also concerned with bind-

ing margins, paper selection and printing methods. Typography is modulated by orthography and lin-

guistics, word structures, word frequencies, mor-

or justified vs. unjustified type, have failed to settle

sizes, italic, boldface, large and small capital let-

for effectiveness (that is, not a rushed or careless

publications, such as The Guardian and The Econ-

read). For example, Miles Tinker, who published

numerous studies from the 1930s to the 1960s,

Different periodical publications design their publi-

pants to spot incongruous words as an effective-

particular tone or style. For example, USAToday

solutions (for example, when new typefaces are de-

style through their use of a variety of typefaces and

faces (also called fonts) for people with visual

name is placed on a colored background. In con-

to critical issues, or the testing of specific design

difference.

bility is the quality of the typeface design and read-

ability with the design of the printed page.

cations, including their typography, to achieve a

These days, legibility research tends to be limited

semicolon (;) in a sentence, while in English it is

Readability and legibility are often confused. “Legi-

to create bespoke (custom tailored) typefaces for

ness filter.

impairment, and typefaces for highway signs, or for

.

omist, go so far as to commission a type designer their exclusive use.

ventions. For example, in French it is customary to

not.

ters, colors, and other typographic features. Some

used a speed of reading test that required partici-

veloped). Examples of critical issues include type-

insert a non-breaking space before a colon (:) or

the publication, and makes consistent use of type

Legibility is usually measured through speed of

reading, with comprehension scores used to check

phology, phonetic constructs and linguistic syntax.

Typography also is subject to specific cultural con-

odical standardizes on a relatively small collection

uses a bold, colorful, and comparatively modern

colors; type sizes vary widely, and the newspaper's trast, the New York Times use a more traditional

other conditions where legibility may make a key

approach, with fewer colors, less typeface variation,

Much of the legibility research literature is some-

Especially on the front page of newspapers and on

what atheoretical — various factors were tested in-

dividually or in combination (inevitably so, as the different factors are interdependent), but many

and more columns.

magazine covers, headlines are often set in larger

display typefaces to attract attention, and are

placed near the masthead.


In traditional typography, text is composed to

create a readable, coherent, and visually satisfy-

ing whole that works invisibly, without the aware-

ness of the reader. Even distribution with a

minimum of distractions and anomalies are

aimed at producing clarity and transparency.

page. Designers aim to achieve excellence in

many tests were carried out in the absence of a

both.

model of reading or visual perception. Some ty-

"The typeface chosen should be legible, that is,

(Bouma) is very important in readability, and that

bility is simply a matter of type size; more often,

ther wrong, less important, or not the entire pic-

it should be read without effort. Sometimes legi-

pographers believe that the overall word shape

the theory of parallel letterwise recognition is ei-

however, it is a matter of typeface design. Gen-

ture.

of text typography—prose fiction, non-fiction,

basic letterforms are more legible than type-

Studies distinguishing between Bouma recogni-

tual and commercial writing all have differing

embellished, or abstracted.

gard to how people actually recognize words

material, established text typefaces are fre-

"However, even a legible typeface can become

recognition, which is widely accepted by cogni-

Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect editorial, educational, religious, scientific, spiricharacteristics and requirements. For historic

erally speaking, typefaces that are true to the

faces that have been condensed, expanded,

quently chosen according to a scheme of histori-

unreadable through poor setting and placement,

accretion, with considerable overlap between

more readable through good design."[2]

Contemporary books are more likely to be set

of factors including type size and type design.

"book romans" with design values echoing pres-

type, italic type vs. roman type, line length, line

cal genre acquired by a long process of

historical periods.

with state-of-the-art seriffed "text romans" or

ent-day design arts, which are closely based on

just as a less legible typeface can be made

Studies of legibility have examined a wide range For example, comparing serif vs. sans serif

spacing, color contrast, the design of right-hand

traditional models such as those of Nicolas Jen-

edge (for example, justification, straight right

ated the model for Aldine typefaces), and

hyphenated.

requirements, newspapers and magazines rely

Legibility research was published from the late

designed for the task, which offer maximum flex-

has been that the reading process is remarkably

space. Sans serif text fonts are often used for

to find. So comparative studies of seriffed vs.

whole short articles. A current fashion is to pair

have failed to settle the argument over which is

son, Francesco Griffo (a punchcutter who cre-

Claude Garamond. With their more specialized on compact, tightly-fitted text romans specially

ibility, readability and efficient use of page

introductory paragraphs, incidental text and

sans serif type for headings with a high-perfor-

mance seriffed font of matching style for the text

hand edge) vs. ranged left, and whether text is

nineteenth century on, but the overall finding

robust, and that significant differences are hard

reading, with comprehension scores used to

careless read). For example, Miles Tinker, who published numerous studies from the 1930s to

"feel" or "resonance" to the subject matter. With

the 1960s, used a speed of reading test that re-

with binding margins, paper selection and print-

an effectiveness filter.

Typography is modulated by orthography and

linguistics, word structures, word frequencies,

morphology, phonetic constructs and linguistic syntax. Typography also is subject to specific

tight or too loose. It can be improved when generous vertical space separates lines of text,

making it easier for the eye to distinguish one

line from the next, or previous line. Poorly de-

signed fonts and those that are too tightly or

loosely fitted can also result in poor legibility. Typography is an element of all printed material.

Periodical publications, especially newspapers

and magazines, use typographical elements to

achieve an attractive, distinctive appearance, to

aid readers in navigating the publication, and in

some cases for dramatic effect. By formulating a

style guide, a periodical standardizes on a rela-

makes consistent use of type sizes, italic, bold-

check for effectiveness (that is, not a rushed or

ing methods.

Legibility can also be compromised by let-

terspacing, word spacing, or leading that is too

best.[citation needed]

The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and

printed media typographers are also concerned

tive psychologists.[citation needed]

tively small collection of typefaces, each used

Legibility is usually measured through speed of

and other graphic elements combine to impart a

when they read, have favored parallel letterwise

sans serif type, or justified vs. unjustified type,

of an article.

the interplay of text with white space of the page

tion and parallel letterwise recognition with re-

quired participants to spot incongruous words as These days, legibility research tends to be lim-

ited to critical issues, or the testing of specific

design solutions (for example, when new type-

faces are developed). Examples of critical is-

sues include typefaces (also called fonts) for

for specific elements within the publication, and face, large and small capital letters, colors, and other typographic features. Some publications, such as The Guardian and The Economist, go

so far as to commission a type designer to cre-

ate bespoke (custom tailored) typefaces for their exclusive use.

Different periodical publications design their publications, including their typography, to

achieve a particular tone or style. For example, USAToday uses a bold, colorful, and compara-

tively modern style through their use of a variety

of typefaces and colors; type sizes vary widely,

and the newspaper's name is placed on a col-

ored background. In contrast, the New York

cultural conventions. For example, in French it is

people with visual impairment, and typefaces for

a colon (:) or semicolon (;) in a sentence, while

ibility may make a key difference.

columns.

.

Much of the legibility research literature is some-

Especially on the front page of newspapers and

“Legibility is the quality of the typeface design

individually or in combination (inevitably so, as

larger display typefaces to attract attention, and

customary to insert a non-breaking space before in English it is not.

Readability and legibility are often confused.

and readability with the design of the printed

highway signs, or for other conditions where leg-

what atheoretical — various factors were tested

the different factors are interdependent), but

Times use a more traditional approach, with

fewer colors, less typeface variation, and more

on magazine covers, headlines are often set in are placed near the masthead.


In traditional typography, text is composed to

create a readable, coherent, and visually sat-

isfying whole that works invisibly, without the awareness of the reader. Even distribution

with a minimum of distractions and anomalies

are aimed at producing clarity and trans-

parency.

Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of text typography—prose fiction, non-

fiction, editorial, educational, religious,

both. "The typeface chosen should be legible, that

is, it should be read without effort. Sometimes

legibility is simply a matter of type size; more

often, however, it is a matter of typeface de-

sign. Generally speaking, typefaces that are

true to the basic letterforms are more legible

than typefaces that have been condensed, expanded, embellished, or abstracted.

scientific, spiritual and commercial writing all

"However, even a legible typeface can be-

ments. For historic material, established text

placement, just as a less legible typeface can

have differing characteristics and require-

typefaces are frequently chosen according to a scheme of historical genre acquired by a

long process of accretion, with considerable

overlap between historical periods.

come unreadable through poor setting and be made more readable through good design."[2]

Studies of legibility have examined a wide

range of factors including type size and type

perception. Some typographers believe that the overall word shape (Bouma) is very important in readability, and that the theory of

parallel letterwise recognition is either wrong,

less important, or not the entire picture. Studies distinguishing between Bouma

recognition and parallel letterwise recognition with regard to how people actually recognize

words when they read, have favored parallel

letterwise recognition, which is widely ac-

cepted by cognitive psychologists.[citation needed]

Legibility can also be compromised by let-

terspacing, word spacing, or leading that is too tight or too loose. It can be improved

when generous vertical space separates

lines of text, making it easier for the eye to

Contemporary books are more likely to be set

design. For example, comparing serif vs.

distinguish one line from the next, or previous

"book romans" with design values echoing

length, line spacing, color contrast, the de-

too tightly or loosely fitted can also result in

with state-of-the-art seriffed "text romans" or

sans serif type, italic type vs. roman type, line

line. Poorly designed fonts and those that are

present-day design arts, which are closely

sign of right-hand edge (for example, justifi-

Nicolas Jenson, Francesco Griffo (a punch-

left, and whether text is hyphenated.

Typography is an element of all printed mate-

Legibility research was published from the

papers and magazines, use typographical

based on traditional models such as those of cutter who created the model for Aldine typefaces), and Claude Garamond. With their

cation, straight right hand edge) vs. ranged

more specialized requirements, newspapers

late nineteenth century on, but the overall

text romans specially designed for the task,

remarkably robust, and that significant differ-

and magazines rely on compact, tightly-fitted

finding has been that the reading process is

which offer maximum flexibility, readability

ences are hard to find. So comparative stud-

text fonts are often used for introductory

vs. unjustified type, have failed to settle the

and efficient use of page space. Sans serif paragraphs, incidental text and whole short

articles. A current fashion is to pair sans serif

type for headings with a high-performance

seriffed font of matching style for the text of

an article.

The text layout, tone or color of set matter,

Legibility is usually measured through speed

of reading, with comprehension scores used

tic syntax. Typography also is subject to specific cultural conventions. For example, in

French it is customary to insert a non-breaking space before a colon (:) or semicolon (;)

designer to create bespoke (custom tailored)

reading test that required participants to spot

limited to critical issues, or the testing of spe-

Different periodical publications design their

publications, including their typography, to

achieve a particular tone or style. For example, USAToday uses a bold, colorful, and

cal issues include typefaces (also called

sizes vary widely, and the newspaper's name

typefaces for highway signs, or for other con-

trast, the New York Times use a more tradi-

typefaces are developed). Examples of criti-

fonts) for people with visual impairment, and

ditions where legibility may make a key difference.

were tested individually or in combination (in-

and readability with the design of the printed

typefaces for their exclusive use.

comparatively modern style through their use

Readability and legibility are often confused.

page. Designers aim to achieve excellence in

mist, go so far as to commission a type

cific design solutions (for example, when new

Much of the legibility research literature is

“Legibility is the quality of the typeface design

large and small capital letters, colors, and

other typographic features. Some publica-

Tinker, who published numerous studies from

rushed or careless read). For example, Miles

in a sentence, while in English it is not. .

consistent use of type sizes, italic, boldface,

tions, such as The Guardian and The Econo-

These days, legibility research tends to be

morphology, phonetic constructs and linguis-

tion of typefaces, each used for specific

to check for effectiveness (that is, not a

phers are also concerned with binding mar-

Typography is modulated by orthography and

effect. By formulating a style guide, a periodi-

elements within the publication, and makes

incongruous words as an effectiveness filter.

linguistics, word structures, word frequencies,

appearance, to aid readers in navigating the

publication, and in some cases for dramatic

argument over which is best.[citation needed]

bine to impart a "feel" or "resonance" to the

gins, paper selection and printing methods.

elements to achieve an attractive, distinctive

cal standardizes on a relatively small collec-

the 1930s to the 1960s, used a speed of

subject matter. With printed media typogra-

rial. Periodical publications, especially news-

ies of seriffed vs. sans serif type, or justified

and the interplay of text with white space of

the page and other graphic elements com-

poor legibility.

somewhat atheoretical — various factors

evitably so, as the different factors are inter-

dependent), but many tests were carried out

in the absence of a model of reading or visual

of a variety of typefaces and colors; type

is placed on a colored background. In contional approach, with fewer colors, less typeface variation, and more columns.

Especially on the front page of newspapers

and on magazine covers, headlines are often

set in larger display typefaces to attract atten-

tion, and are placed near the masthead.


In traditional typography, text is composed to create a readable, coherent, and visually satisfying whole that works invisibly, without the awareness of the reader. Even distribution with a minimum of distractions and anomalies are aimed at producing clarity and transparency. Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of text typography—prose fiction, non-fiction, editorial, educational, religious, scientific, spiritual and commercial writing all have differing characteristics and requirements. For historic material, established text typefaces are frequently chosen according to a scheme of historical genre acquired by a long process of accretion, with considerable overlap between historical periods. Contemporary books are more likely to be set with state-of-the-art seriffed "text romans" or "book romans" with design values echoing present-day design arts, which are closely based on traditional models such as those of Nicolas Jenson, Francesco Griffo (a punchcutter who created the model for Aldine typefaces), and Claude Garamond. With their more specialized requirements, newspapers and magazines rely on compact, tightly-fitted text romans specially designed for the task, which offer maximum flexibility, readability and efficient use of page space. Sans serif text fonts are often used for introductory paragraphs, incidental text and whole short articles. A current fashion is to pair sans serif type for headings with a high-performance seriffed font of matching style for the text of an article. The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and the interplay of text with white space of the page and other graphic elements combine to impart a "feel" or "resonance" to the subject matter. With printed media typographers are also concerned with binding margins, paper selection and printing methods. Typography is modulated by orthography and linguistics, word structures, word frequencies, morphology, phonetic constructs and linguistic syntax. Typography also is subject to specific cultural conventions. For example, in French it is customary to insert a non-breaking space before a colon (:) or semicolon (;) in a sentence, while in English it is not. . Readability and legibility are often confused. “Legibility is the quality of the typeface design and readability with the design of the printed page. Designers aim to

achieve excellence in both. "The typeface chosen should be legible, that is, it should be read without effort. Sometimes legibility is simply a matter of type size; more often, however, it is a matter of typeface design. Generally speaking, typefaces that are true to the basic letterforms are more legible than typefaces that have been condensed, expanded, embellished, or abstracted. "However, even a legible typeface can become unreadable through poor setting and placement, just as a less legible typeface can be made more readable through good design."[2] Studies of legibility have examined a wide range of factors including type size and type design. For example, comparing serif vs. sans serif type, italic type vs. roman type, line length, line spacing, color contrast, the design of right-hand edge (for example, justification, straight right hand edge) vs. ranged left, and whether text is hyphenated. Legibility research was published from the late nineteenth century on, but the overall finding has been that the reading process is remarkably robust, and that significant differences are hard to find. So comparative studies of seriffed vs. sans serif type, or justified vs. unjustified type, have failed to settle the argument over which is best.[citation needed] Legibility is usually measured through speed of reading, with comprehension scores used to check for effectiveness (that is, not a rushed or careless read). For example, Miles Tinker, who published numerous studies from the 1930s to the 1960s, used a speed of reading test that required participants to spot incongruous words as an effectiveness filter. These days, legibility research tends to be limited to critical issues, or the testing of specific design solutions (for example, when new typefaces are developed). Examples of critical issues include typefaces (also called fonts) for people with visual impairment, and typefaces for highway signs, or for other conditions where legibility may make a key difference. Much of the legibility research literature is somewhat atheoretical — various factors were tested individually or in combination (inevitably so, as the different factors are interdependent), but many tests were carried out in the absence of a model of read-

ing or visual perception. Some typographers believe that the overall word shape (Bouma) is very important in readability, and that the theory of parallel letterwise recognition is either wrong, less important, or not the entire picture. Studies distinguishing between Bouma recognition and parallel letterwise recognition with regard to how people actually recognize words when they read, have favored parallel letterwise recognition, which is widely accepted by cognitive psychologists.[citation needed] Legibility can also be compromised by letterspacing, word spacing, or leading that is too tight or too loose. It can be improved when generous vertical space separates lines of text, making it easier for the eye to distinguish one line from the next, or previous line. Poorly designed fonts and those that are too tightly or loosely fitted can also result in poor legibility. Typography is an element of all printed material. Periodical publications, especially newspapers and magazines, use typographical elements to achieve an attractive, distinctive appearance, to aid readers in navigating the publication, and in some cases for dramatic effect. By formulating a style guide, a periodical standardizes on a relatively small collection of typefaces, each used for specific elements within the publication, and makes consistent use of type sizes, italic, boldface, large and small capital letters, colors, and other typographic features. Some publications, such as The Guardian and The Economist, go so far as to commission a type designer to create bespoke (custom tailored) typefaces for their exclusive use. Different periodical publications design their publications, including their typography, to achieve a particular tone or style. For example, USAToday uses a bold, colorful, and comparatively modern style through their use of a variety of typefaces and colors; type sizes vary widely, and the newspaper's name is placed on a colored background. In contrast, the New York Times use a more traditional approach, with fewer colors, less typeface variation, and more columns. Especially on the front page of newspapers and on magazine covers, headlines are often set in larger display typefaces to attract attention, and are placed near the masthead.


In traditional typography, text is composed to

create a readable, coherent, and visually satisfying whole that works invisibly, without the

both.

Some typographers believe that the overall

"The typeface chosen should be legible, that is,

ability, and that the theory of parallel letterwise

bility is simply a matter of type size; more often,

not the entire picture.

awareness of the reader. Even distribution with

it should be read without effort. Sometimes legi-

aimed at producing clarity and transparency.

however, it is a matter of typeface design. Gen-

a minimum of distractions and anomalies are

Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of text typography—prose fiction, non-fiction,

word shape (Bouma) is very important in readrecognition is either wrong, less important, or

erally speaking, typefaces that are true to the

Studies distinguishing between Bouma recogni-

faces that have been condensed, expanded,

gard to how people actually recognize words

basic letterforms are more legible than type-

tion and parallel letterwise recognition with re-

when they read, have favored parallel letterwise

editorial, educational, religious, scientific, spiri-

embellished, or abstracted.

characteristics and requirements. For historic

"However, even a legible typeface can become

tive psychologists.[citation needed]

ment, just as a less legible typeface can be

Legibility can also be compromised by let-

tual and commercial writing all have differing material, established text typefaces are fre-

unreadable through poor setting and place-

torical genre acquired by a long process of

made more readable through good design."[2]

quently chosen according to a scheme of his-

accretion, with considerable overlap between

recognition, which is widely accepted by cogni-

terspacing, word spacing, or leading that is too

tight or too loose. It can be improved when generous vertical space separates lines of text,

historical periods.

Studies of legibility have examined a wide

Contemporary books are more likely to be set

design. For example, comparing serif vs. sans

line from the next, or previous line. Poorly de-

line spacing, color contrast, the design of right-

loosely fitted can also result in poor legibility.

with state-of-the-art seriffed "text romans" or "book romans" with design values echoing

present-day design arts, which are closely

based on traditional models such as those of

range of factors including type size and type

serif type, italic type vs. roman type, line length,

hand edge (for example, justification, straight right hand edge) vs. ranged left, and whether

making it easier for the eye to distinguish one signed fonts and those that are too tightly or

Typography is an element of all printed mate-

Nicolas Jenson, Francesco Griffo (a punchcut-

text is hyphenated.

rial. Periodical publications, especially newspa-

and Claude Garamond. With their more special-

Legibility research was published from the late

elements to achieve an attractive, distinctive

ter who created the model for Aldine typefaces), ized requirements, newspapers and magazines

rely on compact, tightly-fitted text romans spe-

cially designed for the task, which offer maxi-

nineteenth century on, but the overall finding

has been that the reading process is remark-

ably robust, and that significant differences are

pers and magazines, use typographical

appearance, to aid readers in navigating the

publication, and in some cases for dramatic effect. By formulating a style guide, a periodical

mum flexibility, readability and efficient use of

hard to find. So comparative studies of seriffed

standardizes on a relatively small collection of

for introductory paragraphs, incidental text and

type, have failed to settle the argument over

within the publication, and makes consistent

page space. Sans serif text fonts are often used whole short articles. A current fashion is to pair sans serif type for headings with a high-perfor-

mance seriffed font of matching style for the

text of an article.

The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and

the interplay of text with white space of the

page and other graphic elements combine to

impart a "feel" or "resonance" to the subject

vs. sans serif type, or justified vs. unjustified which is best.[citation needed]

Legibility is usually measured through speed of reading, with comprehension scores used to

typefaces, each used for specific elements

use of type sizes, italic, boldface, large and

small capital letters, colors, and other typo-

graphic features. Some publications, such as

The Guardian and The Economist, go so far as

check for effectiveness (that is, not a rushed or

to commission a type designer to create be-

published numerous studies from the 1930s to

clusive use.

careless read). For example, Miles Tinker, who

the 1960s, used a speed of reading test that re-

quired participants to spot incongruous words

spoke (custom tailored) typefaces for their ex-

Different periodical publications design their

matter. With printed media typographers are

as an effectiveness filter.

publications, including their typography, to

lection and printing methods.

These days, legibility research tends to be lim-

USAToday uses a bold, colorful, and compara-

also concerned with binding margins, paper se-

ited to critical issues, or the testing of specific

achieve a particular tone or style. For example,

tively modern style through their use of a vari-

Typography is modulated by orthography and

design solutions (for example, when new type-

ety of typefaces and colors; type sizes vary

morphology, phonetic constructs and linguistic

sues include typefaces (also called fonts) for

a colored background. In contrast, the New York

linguistics, word structures, word frequencies, syntax. Typography also is subject to specific

cultural conventions. For example, in French it

faces are developed). Examples of critical is-

people with visual impairment, and typefaces for highway signs, or for other conditions

widely, and the newspaper's name is placed on Times use a more traditional approach, with

fewer colors, less typeface variation, and more

where legibility may make a key difference.

columns.

Much of the legibility research literature is

Especially on the front page of newspapers and

Readability and legibility are often confused.

tested individually or in combination (inevitably

larger display typefaces to attract attention, and

and readability with the design of the printed

but many tests were carried out in the absence

is customary to insert a non-breaking space before a colon (:) or semicolon (;) in a sentence, while in English it is not.

.

“Legibility is the quality of the typeface design page. Designers aim to achieve excellence in

somewhat atheoretical — various factors were

so, as the different factors are interdependent),

of a model of reading or visual perception.

on magazine covers, headlines are often set in

are placed near the masthead.


In traditional typography, text is composed

cellence in both.

satisfying whole that works invisibly, without

"The typeface chosen should be legible, that

visual perception. Some typographers be-

tion with a minimum of distractions and

times legibility is simply a matter of type

very important in readability, and that the

transparency.

typeface design. Generally speaking, type-

ther wrong, less important, or not the entire

Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary as-

are more legible than typefaces that have

to create a readable, coherent, and visually the awareness of the reader. Even distribu-

anomalies are aimed at producing clarity and

pect of text typography—prose fiction, non-

fiction, editorial, educational, religious,

is, it should be read without effort. Some-

size; more often, however, it is a matter of

faces that are true to the basic letterforms

been condensed, expanded, embellished, or

terdependent), but many tests were carried

out in the absence of a model of reading or

lieve that the overall word shape (Bouma) is theory of parallel letterwise recognition is eipicture.

Studies distinguishing between Bouma

abstracted.

recognition and parallel letterwise recogni-

all have differing characteristics and require-

"However, even a legible typeface can be-

ognize words when they read, have favored

typefaces are frequently chosen according

placement, just as a less legible typeface

scientific, spiritual and commercial writing

ments. For historic material, established text

to a scheme of historical genre acquired by a long process of accretion, with considerable

overlap between historical periods.

come unreadable through poor setting and

can be made more readable through good

design."[2]

Studies of legibility have examined a wide

Contemporary books are more likely to be

range of factors including type size and type

mans" or "book romans" with design values

sans serif type, italic type vs. roman type,

set with state-of-the-art seriffed "text ro-

echoing present-day design arts, which are

closely based on traditional models such as

design. For example, comparing serif vs.

line length, line spacing, color contrast, the

tion with regard to how people actually recparallel letterwise recognition, which is

widely accepted by cognitive psychologists.[citation needed]

Legibility can also be compromised by let-

terspacing, word spacing, or leading that is too tight or too loose. It can be improved when generous vertical space separates

lines of text, making it easier for the eye to

distinguish one line from the next, or previ-

design of right-hand edge (for example, justi-

ous line. Poorly designed fonts and those

punchcutter who created the model for Al-

left, and whether text is hyphenated.

result in poor legibility.

their more specialized requirements, news-

Legibility research was published from the

Typography is an element of all printed mate-

finding has been that the reading process is

papers and magazines, use typographical

those of Nicolas Jenson, Francesco Griffo (a dine typefaces), and Claude Garamond. With

papers and magazines rely on compact,

tightly-fitted text romans specially designed

for the task, which offer maximum flexibility,

fication, straight right hand edge) vs. ranged

late nineteenth century on, but the overall

remarkably robust, and that significant dif-

readability and efficient use of page space.

ferences are hard to find. So comparative

ductory paragraphs, incidental text and

tified vs. unjustified type, have failed to set-

Sans serif text fonts are often used for intro-

whole short articles. A current fashion is to

pair sans serif type for headings with a highperformance seriffed font of matching style for the text of an article.

The text layout, tone or color of set matter,

and the interplay of text with white space of the page and other graphic elements com-

bine to impart a "feel" or "resonance" to the subject matter. With printed media typogra-

phers are also concerned with binding margins, paper selection and printing methods.

that are too tightly or loosely fitted can also

rial. Periodical publications, especially newselements to achieve an attractive, distinctive appearance, to aid readers in navigating the

studies of seriffed vs. sans serif type, or jus-

publication, and in some cases for dramatic

tle the argument over which is best.[citation

ical standardizes on a relatively small collec-

needed]

Legibility is usually measured through speed

of reading, with comprehension scores used to check for effectiveness (that is, not a

rushed or careless read). For example, Miles

Tinker, who published numerous studies

from the 1930s to the 1960s, used a speed of

reading test that required participants to

spot incongruous words as an effectiveness filter.

effect. By formulating a style guide, a period-

tion of typefaces, each used for specific

elements within the publication, and makes

consistent use of type sizes, italic, boldface, large and small capital letters, colors, and

other typographic features. Some publica-

tions, such as The Guardian and The Econo-

mist, go so far as to commission a type

designer to create bespoke (custom tailored) typefaces for their exclusive use.

Different periodical publications design their

publications, including their typography, to

Typography is modulated by orthography

These days, legibility research tends to be

quencies, morphology, phonetic constructs

specific design solutions (for example, when

subject to specific cultural conventions. For

critical issues include typefaces (also called

sizes vary widely, and the newspaper's name

typefaces for highway signs, or for other

trast, the New York Times use a more tradi-

and linguistics, word structures, word freand linguistic syntax. Typography also is

example, in French it is customary to insert a non-breaking space before a colon (:) or

semicolon (;) in a sentence, while in English

it is not. .

Readability and legibility are often confused. “Legibility is the quality of the typeface de-

sign and readability with the design of the

printed page. Designers aim to achieve ex-

achieve a particular tone or style. For exam-

limited to critical issues, or the testing of

ple, USAToday uses a bold, colorful, and

new typefaces are developed). Examples of

use of a variety of typefaces and colors; type

fonts) for people with visual impairment, and

conditions where legibility may make a key difference.

comparatively modern style through their

is placed on a colored background. In contional approach, with fewer colors, less typeface variation, and more columns.

Much of the legibility research literature is

Especially on the front page of newspapers

were tested individually or in combination

set in larger display typefaces to attract at-

somewhat atheoretical — various factors

(inevitably so, as the different factors are in-

and on magazine covers, headlines are often tention, and are placed near the masthead.


In traditional typography, text is composed to create a readable, coherent, and visually satisfying whole that works invisibly, without the awareness of the reader. Even distribution with a minimum of distractions and anomalies are aimed at producing clarity and transparency. Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of text typography—prose fiction, non-fiction, editorial, educational, religious, scientific, spiritual and commercial writing all have differing characteristics and requirements. For historic material, established text typefaces are frequently chosen according to a scheme of historical genre acquired by a long process of accretion, with considerable overlap between historical periods. Contemporary books are more likely to be set with state-of-the-art seriffed "text romans" or "book romans" with design values echoing present-day design arts, which are closely based on traditional models such as those of Nicolas Jenson, Francesco Griffo (a punchcutter who created the model for Aldine typefaces), and Claude Garamond. With their more specialized requirements, newspapers and magazines rely on compact, tightly-fitted text romans specially designed for the task, which offer maximum flexibility, readability and efficient use of page space. Sans serif text fonts are often used for introductory paragraphs, incidental text and whole short articles. A current fashion is to pair sans serif type for headings with a high-performance seriffed font of matching style for the text of an article. The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and the interplay of text with white space of the page and other graphic elements combine to impart a "feel" or "resonance" to the subject matter. With printed media typographers are also concerned with binding margins, paper selection and printing methods. Typography is modulated by orthography and linguistics, word structures, word frequencies, morphology, phonetic constructs and linguistic syntax. Typography also is subject to specific cultural conventions. For example, in French it is customary to insert a non-breaking space before a colon (:) or semicolon (;) in a sentence, while in English it is not. . Readability and legibility are often confused. “Legibility is the quality of the typeface design and readability with the design of the printed page. Designers aim

to achieve excellence in both. "The typeface chosen should be legible, that is, it should be read without effort. Sometimes legibility is simply a matter of type size; more often, however, it is a matter of typeface design. Generally speaking, typefaces that are true to the basic letterforms are more legible than typefaces that have been condensed, expanded, embellished, or abstracted. "However, even a legible typeface can become unreadable through poor setting and placement, just as a less legible typeface can be made more readable through good design."[2] Studies of legibility have examined a wide range of factors including type size and type design. For example, comparing serif vs. sans serif type, italic type vs. roman type, line length, line spacing, color contrast, the design of right-hand edge (for example, justification, straight right hand edge) vs. ranged left, and whether text is hyphenated. Legibility research was published from the late nineteenth century on, but the overall finding has been that the reading process is remarkably robust, and that significant differences are hard to find. So comparative studies of seriffed vs. sans serif type, or justified vs. unjustified type, have failed to settle the argument over which is best.[citation needed] Legibility is usually measured through speed of reading, with comprehension scores used to check for effectiveness (that is, not a rushed or careless read). For example, Miles Tinker, who published numerous studies from the 1930s to the 1960s, used a speed of reading test that required participants to spot incongruous words as an effectiveness filter. These days, legibility research tends to be limited to critical issues, or the testing of specific design solutions (for example, when new typefaces are developed). Examples of critical issues include typefaces (also called fonts) for people with visual impairment, and typefaces for highway signs, or for other conditions where legibility may make a key difference. Much of the legibility research literature is somewhat atheoretical — various factors were tested individually or in combination (inevitably so, as the different factors are interdependent), but many tests were carried out in the absence of a model of read-

ing or visual perception. Some typographers believe that the overall word shape (Bouma) is very important in readability, and that the theory of parallel letterwise recognition is either wrong, less important, or not the entire picture. Studies distinguishing between Bouma recognition and parallel letterwise recognition with regard to how people actually recognize words when they read, have favored parallel letterwise recognition, which is widely accepted by cognitive psychologists.[citation needed] Legibility can also be compromised by letterspacing, word spacing, or leading that is too tight or too loose. It can be improved when generous vertical space separates lines of text, making it easier for the eye to distinguish one line from the next, or previous line. Poorly designed fonts and those that are too tightly or loosely fitted can also result in poor legibility. Typography is an element of all printed material. Periodical publications, especially newspapers and magazines, use typographical elements to achieve an attractive, distinctive appearance, to aid readers in navigating the publication, and in some cases for dramatic effect. By formulating a style guide, a periodical standardizes on a relatively small collection of typefaces, each used for specific elements within the publication, and makes consistent use of type sizes, italic, boldface, large and small capital letters, colors, and other typographic features. Some publications, such as The Guardian and The Economist, go so far as to commission a type designer to create bespoke (custom tailored) typefaces for their exclusive use. Different periodical publications design their publications, including their typography, to achieve a particular tone or style. For example, USAToday uses a bold, colorful, and comparatively modern style through their use of a variety of typefaces and colors; type sizes vary widely, and the newspaper's name is placed on a colored background. In contrast, the New York Times use a more traditional approach, with fewer colors, less typeface variation, and more columns. Especially on the front page of newspapers and on magazine covers, headlines are often set in larger display typefaces to attract attention, and are placed near the masthead.


In traditional typography, text is composed to create a readable, coherent, and visually satisfying whole that works invisibly, without the awareness of the reader. Even distribution with a minimum of distractions and anomalies are aimed at producing clarity and transparency.

Choice of font(s) is perhaps the primary aspect of text typography—prose fiction, non-fiction, editorial, educational, religious, scientific, spiritual and commercial writing all have differing characteristics and requirements. For historic material, established text typefaces are frequently chosen according to a scheme of historical genre acquired by a long process of accretion, with considerable overlap between historical periods.

Contemporary books are more likely to be set with state-of-the-art seriffed "text romans" or "book romans" with design values echoing present-day design arts, which are closely based on traditional models such as those of Nicolas Jenson, Francesco Griffo (a punchcutter who created the model for Aldine typefaces), and Claude Garamond. With their more specialized requirements, newspapers and magazines rely on compact, tightly-fitted text romans specially designed for the task, which offer maximum flexibility, readability and efficient use of page space. Sans serif text fonts are often used for introductory paragraphs, incidental text and whole short articles. A current fashion is to pair sans serif type for headings with a high-performance seriffed font of matching style for the text of an article.

The text layout, tone or color of set matter, and the interplay of text with white space of the page and other graphic elements combine to impart a "feel" or "resonance" to the subject matter. With printed media typographers are also concerned with binding margins, paper selection and printing methods. Typography is modulated by orthography and linguistics, word structures, word frequencies, morphology, phonetic constructs and linguistic syntax. Typography also is subject to specific cultural conventions. For example, in French it is customary to insert a nonbreaking space before a colon (:) or semicolon (;) in a sentence, while in English it is not. . Readability and legibility are often confused. “Legibility is the quality of the typeface design and readability with the design of the printed page. Designers

aim to achieve excellence in both.

"The typeface chosen should be legible, that is, it should be read without effort. Sometimes legibility is simply a matter of type size; more often, however, it is a matter of typeface design. Generally speaking, typefaces that are true to the basic letterforms are more legible than typefaces that have been condensed, expanded, embellished, or abstracted. "However, even a legible typeface can become unreadable through poor setting and placement, just as a less legible typeface can be made more readable through good design."[2]

Studies of legibility have examined a wide range of factors including type size and type design. For example, comparing serif vs. sans serif type, italic type vs. roman type, line length, line spacing, color contrast, the design of right-hand edge (for example, justification, straight right hand edge) vs. ranged left, and whether text is hyphenated. Legibility research was published from the late nineteenth century on, but the overall finding has been that the reading process is remarkably robust, and that significant differences are hard to find. So comparative studies of seriffed vs. sans serif type, or justified vs. unjustified type, have failed to settle the argument over which is best.[citation needed] Legibility is usually measured through speed of reading, with comprehension scores used to check for effectiveness (that is, not a rushed or careless read). For example, Miles Tinker, who published numerous studies from the 1930s to the 1960s, used a speed of reading test that required participants to spot incongruous words as an effectiveness filter.

These days, legibility research tends to be limited to critical issues, or the testing of specific design solutions (for example, when new typefaces are developed). Examples of critical issues include typefaces (also called fonts) for people with visual impairment, and typefaces for highway signs, or for other conditions where legibility may make a key difference.

Much of the legibility research literature is somewhat atheoretical — various factors were tested individually or in combination (inevitably so, as the different factors are interdependent), but many tests were carried out in the absence of

a model of reading or visual perception. Some typographers believe that the overall word shape (Bouma) is very important in readability, and that the theory of parallel letterwise recognition is either wrong, less important, or not the entire picture. Studies distinguishing between Bouma recognition and parallel letterwise recognition with regard to how people actually recognize words when they read, have favored parallel letterwise recognition, which is widely accepted by cognitive psychologists.[citation needed]

Legibility can also be compromised by letterspacing, word spacing, or leading that is too tight or too loose. It can be improved when generous vertical space separates lines of text, making it easier for the eye to distinguish one line from the next, or previous line. Poorly designed fonts and those that are too tightly or loosely fitted can also result in poor legibility.

Typography is an element of all printed material. Periodical publications, especially newspapers and magazines, use typographical elements to achieve an attractive, distinctive appearance, to aid readers in navigating the publication, and in some cases for dramatic effect. By formulating a style guide, a periodical standardizes on a relatively small collection of typefaces, each used for specific elements within the publication, and makes consistent use of type sizes, italic, boldface, large and small capital letters, colors, and other typographic features. Some publications, such as The Guardian and The Economist, go so far as to commission a type designer to create bespoke (custom tailored) typefaces for their exclusive use. Different periodical publications design their publications, including their typography, to achieve a particular tone or style. For example, USAToday uses a bold, colorful, and comparatively modern style through their use of a variety of typefaces and colors; type sizes vary widely, and the newspaper's name is placed on a colored background. In contrast, the New York Times use a more traditional approach, with fewer colors, less typeface variation, and more columns. Especially on the front page of newspapers and on magazine covers, headlines are often set in larger display typefaces to attract attention, and are placed near the masthead.

32 Page Leading  

Leading Exercise Week 06 Type Module

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